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REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY(PARTI)SSCEXAMFORUMStaffSelectionCommission(SSC)ExamsDoubtsandSolutions

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StaffSelectionCommission(SSC)ExamsDoubtsandSolutionsMAINFORUMSMATHS(SSCCGL)REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY
REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY(PARTI)

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REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY(PARTI)

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06192014,03:25PM(Thispostwaslastmodified:0915201412:36PMbyMahaGupta.)

MahaGupta
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REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY(PARTI)

QUERY1
Findingoutsmallestnumberwhichleavessameremainderwithdifferentdivisors.Type#1.
FindSmallestnumberotherthan4,thatleavesremainder4whendividedby6,7,8or9
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Tosolvesuchquestions,takeLCMofthedivisorsandaddtheremaindertoit.
Now,LCMof6,7,8,9=504
Thereforetherequirednumber=504+4=508

QUERY2
Findingoutsmallestnumberwhenthedifferencebetweenthedivisorsandtheirremaindersissame.Type#2
Findsmallestnumberthatleavesremainder3,5,7whendividedby4,6,8respectively.
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
UnlikethecasementionedatTYPE#1,thistimetheremainderisnotthesamebutifuseecarefullythedifferencebetweenthedivisorandremainderishavinga
certaintrend.i.e.
43=65=87=1
Insuchquestions,takeLCMofdivisorsandsubtractthecommondifferencefromit.
NowtheLCMof4,6,8=24
Thereforetherequirednumberhere=241=23

QUERY3
Findingoutsmallestnumberwhenthedifferencebetweenthedivisorsandtheirremaindersissameandleavesdifferentremainderwhendividedbyanother
number.Type#3
Findsmallestnumberthatleavesremainder3,4,5whendividedby5,6,7respectivelyandleavesremainder1whendividedby11
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
WehavejustseenaboveinTYPE2howtotacklethefirstpartofthequestionThusthenumberforthefirstpartwouldbethe[(LCMof5,6,7)(Common
differenceofdivisorsandtheirremainders)]i.e.2102=208
Herenow,wehaveonemoreconditiontosatisfyi.e.remainder1whendividedby11
HereweshouldrememberthatifLCMofthedivisorsisaddedtoanumberthecorrespondingremaindersdonotchangei.eifwekeepadding210to208...the
first3conditionsforremainderswillcontinuetobefulfilled.
Thereforenow,let208+210kbethenumberthatwillsatisfythe4thconditioni.e.remainder1when(208+210k)/11
Nowlet'sseehow
Theexpression(208+210k)/11=208/11+210k/11
Nowtheremainderwhen208isdividedby11=10
Andremainderwhen210kisdividedby11=1*k=k
Thereforethesumofboththeremaindersi.e.10+kshouldleaveremainder1ondivisionofthenumberby11

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REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY(PARTI)SSCEXAMFORUMStaffSelectionCommission(SSC)ExamsDoubtsandSolutions

Obviouslyk=2
Hencethenumber=208+210*2=628

QUERY4
Findingoutsmallestnumberwhichleavessameremainderwithdifferentdivisorsandleavesdifferentremainderwhendividedbyanothernumber.Type#
3............continued
Findsmallestnumberthatleavesremainder2whendividedby3,4,5andisfullydivisibleby7(meanszeroasremainder).
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
HerethefirstpartofthequestionislikeTYPE#1
Hencethedesirednumberforthat=LCMof3,4,5+theremainder=60+2=62
Nowwehaveonemoreconditiontosatisfyi.e.thenumberisfullydivisibleby7(meanszeroasremainder)obviouslywe'llneedtofollowthesamethingashas
beendescribedinTYPE3above
Thereforenow,let62+60kbethenumberthatwillsatisfythe4thconditioni.e.remainderzerowhen(62+60k)/7
Theexpression(62+60k)/7=62/7+60k/7
Nowtheremainderwhen62isdividedby7=6
Andremainderwhen60kisdividedby7=4*k=4k
Therefore6+4kshouldleaveremainderzeroondivisionofthenumberby7(thenumberisdivisibleby7)
Sokmustbe2Hencethenumber=62+60*2=182

QUERY5
Findingoutsmallestnumberwhenthereisnorelationinthetrendsofdivisorsandremainders.Type#4
Findsmallestnumberthatleavesremainder1with5,4with7,6with11and7with13.
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Wecanseethere'snorelationamongthesedivisorsremainderssets........neithertheremaindernorthedifferencebetweendivisorandremainderishavinga
trend.
Insuchcasestake1caseandtargetanothercase...e.g.Firsttakethecase7with13........andtarget6with11.
Weseethatwhenthenumberisdividedby13theremainderis7(means7isthesmallestnumberthatwegetasremainder.Soallnumbersoftheform7+13k
willgive7asremainderondivisionby13.
Nowtarget6with11............sowewillhavetodivide7+13kby11
Bydoingsotheremainder=7+2k
Obviouslyforminimumvalueofk=5
Thereforethenumber=7+13*5=72
Nowthat2conditionsarefulfilled,letstargetthethirdcondition...say4with7.
Now,ifweaddLCMof11and13i.e143to72,2conditionsalreadysatisfiedwouldcontinuebeingsatisfied...
Hencethenumberisoftheform72+143k.
Thustheremainderwhen72+143kisdividedby7=2+3k
Sotheminimumvalueofk=3
Thereforethenumbersatisfyingall3conditionconsidered=72+143*3=501
Now,ifweseecarefully.....the4thconditioni.e.'remainder1with5'considering501asthenumbersatisfiesitself.
Hence501istheappropriateanswerhere.
NOTEI:Foreaseofcalculation,startfrombiggestdivisorandgraduallymovetosmallerones...you'llalwaysseethatlast12conditionswillbesatisfiedautomatically.
NOTEII:Therearetheoremsforsolvingabovetypeofquestions...vizChinesetheoremetc...butIfindthisapproachverypracticalandeasy.AndIbelieveIcantackleany
twistinthequestiondevisedbyCatMakersthroughthismethod.
NOTEIII:Attimessuchaquestioncanbesolvedbyjustseeingtheansweroptions.

QUERY6
THIS PAGE
ISSAFE VAULT ISACCESSSITE ISINFOBAR
Findingoutsmallestnumberwhenthereisnorelationinthetrendsofdivisorsandremainders.Type#4...........Continued
IGNOREDOPENCLOSEDVAULTHIDDEN
Findsmallestnumberthatmustbesubtractedfrom1000sothattheresultantnumberleavesremainder1,3,4,8withdivisors2,6,5,13
respectively.
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
FromTYPE4wecanfindoutthesmallestnumbersatisfyingall4conditionsis99.
ObviouslyifweaddLCMof2,6,5,13i.e.390to99theremainderswillremainunchanged.
Soweneedsuchvalueof99+390ksothattheresultantnumberisjustbelow1000.
Easilywecanseethatfork=2,wegetthatsuchvaluewhichis99+390*2=879.
Hencetherequirednumber=1000879=121

QUERY7
FindingoutsmallestnumberwhichleavesspecificremainderswhenSUCCESSIVELYdividedbytwoorthreenumbers.Type#5
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FindingoutsmallestnumberwhichleavesspecificremainderswhenSUCCESSIVELYdividedbytwoorthreenumbers.Type#5
Findthesmallestnumberthatleavesremainders3,2,4whensuccessivelydividedby5,6,7respectively.
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Forsuchquestionsstartdoingfromtherearend.
So,wewant4astheremainderwith7asthedivisorofcoursethesmallestsuchnumberis4itself.
Obviouslythis4musthavecomeasthequotientwhenthenumberwasdividedby6
Thereforethenumbermusthavebeen4*6+2=26..........(see2istheremainderwith6asdivisor)
It'sclearthis26wasthequotientwhenthenumberwasdividedby5
Thereforethenumbermusthavebeen26*5+3=133..........(see3istheremainderwith5asdivisor)
Hencetherequirednumberis133

QUERY8
FindingoutsmallestnumberwhendividedbytheLCMoftheearlierdivisors.Type#6
Anumberleavesremainder3whendividedby5andremainder8whensuccessivelydividedby11.Whatistheremainderwhenthisnumber
isdividedby55?
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Iflookedcarefullywe'llfindthat55istheLCMofearlierdivisors11and5.
Itwouldbeeasierifwestartsolvingsuchaquestionfromtherearend
Nowtakethesmallestnumberthatleavesremainder8with11asthedivisor.Obviouslyit's8.
Thusaccordingtothequestionthis8willbethequotientwhenthemainnumberisdividedby5.Wecanseethatitalsoleavesremainder3asgiveninthe
question.
Hence,themainnumber=8*5+3=43
Nowdividing43by55weseethattheremainderis43itself.
Hencetheanswer43
So43istheanswer.

QUERY9
Findingoutthelargestnumberthatleavesthesameremainderwhenitdividestwodifferentnumbers.Type#7
Findthelargestnumberthatleavessameremainderwhenitdivides3398and6578.
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Thisconceptisverymuchsimpletounderstand.Henceitcouldeasilybeunderstoodthatthedifferencebetweentwodividendsmustbedivisiblebythedivisor.
Therefore65783398=3180shouldbedivisiblebythedivisortoleavesameremainders.
Youcanseethelargestnumberthatdivides3180is3180itself.
Hence,theansweris3180.

QUERY10
Findingoutthelargestnumberthatleavesthesameremainderwhenitdividesmorethantwodifferentnumbers.Type#7..........Continued
Findthelargestnumberthatleavessameremainderwhenitdivides16009,9009,7509and14009.
JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Theapproachissameasisintheabovetypeofquestion
Takedifferenceofthenumbersinascendingordescendingorderasbelow
1600914009=2000,
140099009=5000,
90097509=1500.
Nowtoleavesameremainder,eachoftheintervalsmustbedivisiblebythedivisor.
Obviouslywe'llneedtheHCFofthesenumbers2000,5000and1500,andthatis500
Hence,theansweris500.

QUERY11
Findingouttheremainderwhenamultipleofanumberisdividedbyadifferentnumber.Type#8
Ifanumberisdividedby15,itleavestheremainder7,ifthricethenumberisdividedby5thenwhatistheremainder?

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1. 1
2.
3.
4.
5.

2
3
4
0

JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
Suchquestionsaredifficulttoframeasonehastofindapatternbetweendivisorsnremaindersbutactuallytheyareeasyandcanbecrackedverycomfortably.
WhyI'mputtingitherebecauseIhaveaveryshort...practicalapproachforsolvingsuchquestions.
Nowchooseanumberthatleaves7astheremainderwith15asdivisor
Let'stakeit7only.
Sothriceof7=21
Now,accordingtothequestionwehavetodivideitby5andfindtheremainder.Ofcourseit's1
Hencetheansweris1
NOTE:Sincethenumbershouldbegivingsameresultforallvaluesthatgive7asremainderwith15asdivisor,thereforeitsalwaysbettertotakesomevalueandsolveit
insteadoftakinganalgebraicapproach.

QUERY12
25^25isdividedby26,theremainderis?
1.
2.
3.
4.

1
2
24
25

RONNIEBANSAL
Useremaindertheorem.Here25^25isthepolynomialandthedivisoris26.
Wecanwrite26=25+1=25(1)
Sotheremainderis(1)^25=1.Butwedonttaketheremainderanegativetermsoaddittothedivisor.
Sotheremainderis26+(1)=25(option'4')

QUERY13
When(67^67+67)isdividedby68,theremainderis?
1.
2.
3.
4.

1
63
66
67

RONNIEBANSAL
Thegivenexpressionisintheformx^67+x..........(apolynomialinx)
Now68=67+1meansx+1
Soaccordingtotheremaindertheoremwhenapolynomialisdividedbyanotheroftheformx+1,theremainderisequaltop(1)wherepisthepolynomialitself.
Sotheremainderis1^67+(1)=1+(1)=2
Buttheremaindershouldnotbedescribednegativeofanumberinsuchasituationitisaddedtothedivisortofindtheactual.
Sotheremainderis2+68=66(option'3')

QUERY14
Whatistheremainderwhen[(9^19)+6]isdividedby8
RONNIEBANSAL
Thegivenexpressionisintheform(x^19)+cwhere'c'isaconstant..........(apolynomialinx).
Now8=91meansapolynomialintheformofx1
Soaccordingtotheremaindertheoremwhenapolynomialisdividedbyanotheroftheformx1,theremainderisequaltop(1)wherepisthepolynomial
itself.Sousingremaindertheorem,theremainderis(1^19)+6=1+6=7
Alsoseeitandcompare:
When(67^67+67)isdividedby68,theremainderis___
1.
2.
3.
4.

1
63
66
67

RONNIEBANSAL
Thegivenexpressionisintheformx^67+x..........(apolynomialinx)Now68=67+1meansapolynomialintheformofx+1
Soaccordingtotheremaindertheoremwhenapolynomialisdividedbyanotheroftheformx+1,theremainderisequaltop(1)wherepisthepolynomial
itself.Sousingtheremaindertheorem,theremainderis(1)^67+(1)=1+(1)=2
Buttheremaindershouldnotbedescribednegativeofanumberinsuchasituationitisaddedtothedivisortofindtheactual.Sotheremainder=2+68=66

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QUERY15
Findtheremaindersin:
1.2^11/5
2.7^7/2^4
RONNIEBANSAL
1.211/5
Inquestionslikethisweshouldavoidusingtheremaindertheoremasitcanreallybedifficultwhenthepowerofanumber(greaterthan1)whichisderivedfrom
theremaindertheoremissohigh.Betterconvertthebaseinpowersofsuchnumberswhichareeasilydivisiblebythedivisor,like:
211=24x24x23=16x16x8
Ondividing16by5weget1astheremainderandif8isdividedby5weget3
Sothemultiplicationofalltheremainders
=1x1x3=3whichisouranswer.
2.77/24=72x72x72x7/16
=49x49x49x7/16
Nowtheremainderondividing49by16=1
Themultiplicationofalltheremainders1x1x1x7=7whichistheanswer
Let'stakeanotherexample:
Remainderwhen2^31dividedby5?
MAHAGUPTA
2^31=[(2^4)^7]*2^3
=(16^7)*8
Ondividing16by5weget1astheremainder,sotheremainderwhen16^7isdividedby5=1^7=1andif8isdividedby5weget3astheremainder.
Sotheremainderneeded=1*3=3
NOTE:Ifthedivisoris2,5or10,oneneedstoknowonlytheunitdigitofthedividendanddivideitbythedivisortofindtheremainder.Inthiscase5isthedivisor,sojustfindtheunitdigitin2^31,
whichis8ofcourse.Sowhen8isdividedby5,theremainderis3(answer)

QUERY16
Whatisremainderwhentheproductof177,414&837dividedby12
NIRMALsingh
Insuchaquestionwedivideeachnumberbythedivisorandkeepdividingtheproductofallremaindersthusfoundbythesamedivisortillwegetanumber
smallerthanthatdivisor,thatnumberisouranswer.
Sotheremaindersof177,414&837whendividedby12are9,6&9respectively
Nowtheirproduct=9x6x9
Whendividedby12wecanwriteitas54x9/12
Againtheremaindersare6x9
Ondivisionofitby12itwillbe54/12
Weseethattheremainderis6andthisistheanswer.

QUERY17
Whatistheremainderwhen[7^(4n+3)]*6^nisdividedby10where'n'isapositiveinteger.
1.
2.
3.
4.

2
4
8
6

JAYANTCHARANCHARAN
[7^(4n+3)]*6^n
=7^4(n)(7^3)(6^n)
=[(49)^2(n)](7^3))6^n)
=Wheneachfactorisdividedby10theremaindersineachcase=(1)^2n,3,and6(6whenraisedtothepowerofanynaturalnumberisdividedby10always
givesremainderas6itself)
So,alltheremaindersthusfoundaboveare1,3and6
Sotheirmultiplication=1*3*6=18
Sotheremainderafter18hasbeendividedby10=8(answer)
HarmeetSingh
Theexpressionis[7^(4n+3)]*[6^n]
Tofindtheremainderwhenanyexpressionisdividedby10isSIMILARtojustfindingthelastdigit,i.e.unitdigitoftheexpressiononly.
Now7^(4n+3)=(7^4n)*(7^3)
ThusWhen7^4ndividedby10forall'n'willgiveunitdigit1andWhen7^3dividedby10willgiveunitsdigit3as7^3=343
6^nforall'n'givesunitsdigit6
So,theirproductis1*3*6=18

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REMAINDERS&DIVISIBILITY(PARTI)SSCEXAMFORUMStaffSelectionCommission(SSC)ExamsDoubtsandSolutions

So,theirproductis1*3*6=18
Sotheremainderafter18hasbeendividedby10=8(answer)

QUERY18
Whichtwodigitnumberwhendividedby3givesremainderof1whendividedby4givesremainderof2whendividedby5givesremainder
of3andwhendividedby6givesremainderof4?[Type#2,seequery8]
RONNIEBANSAL
Oneofthedivisorsis5givingremainderof3meanstheunitdigitofthattwodigitnumberiseither3or8
But3isnotpossiblehereasoneofthedivisoris4givingremainderof2becausetheunitdigitthenmustnotbeodd.
Sothepossiblenumbersare18,28,38,48,58,68,78,88&98
As3isafactorof6soweneednotcheckthenumberswith3.
Thereforeweneedtocheckthemconsidering4and6here.Nowitcaneasilybeseenthat58issuchnumber.
YeahJayanbhaaihasrightlysaidthatifoptionsweretheretoyechutkiyonkakheltha.
TRICK(seequery8)
Whenthedifferencebetweendivisorandremainderissamelike31=42=53=64=2
takeLCMofdivisorsandsubtractthecommondifferencefromit
NowtheLCMof3,4,5,6=60
Thereforetherequirednumberhere=602=58

QUERY19
Thenumbers11284and7655,whendividedbyacertainnumberofthreedigits,leavethesameremainder.Findthatnumberof3digitsand
theirsum.
RONNIEBANSAL
Onehastorememberthateachfactorofthedifferenceoftwonumbersgivesthesameremainderifthosenumbersaredividedbyit.
Nowthedifferencehere=112847655=3629
Factorsof3629are1,19,191and3629
Butwehavetofindthethreedigitnumberhere,so191istherequirednumberandtheirsumis1+9+1=11.

QUERY20
64329isdividedbyacertainnumber.Whiledividing,thenumbers175,114and213appearasthreesuccessiveremainders.thedivisoris:
1.
2.
3.
4.

184
224
234
6250

RONNIEBANSAL
Wehavethreeremainders,meansthenumbercomprisingofthefirstdigitsi.e.643wasdividedfirstandwegot175astheremainder.
NowaccordingtoDIVIDEND=DIVISORxQUOTIENT+REMAINDER
==>DIVISORxQUOTIENT=DIVIDENDREMAINDER
==>DIVISORxQUOTIENT=643175=468
Weseethat468isdivisibleby234onlyamongalltheansweroptionsso234(option'3')isthedivisorweneed.

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