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..

MATHCAD

-
2010

66.02
912

.. MathCad :
. / .. . .: (), 2010. -40 .
MathCad.
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- 25.02.2010.

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1
2
2.1
2.2
2.3 -
2.4
2.5
3
3.1

3.2
3.3
4





Re<1000

4
5
7
7
7
8
9
10
12
12
13
16
17
22
23
24
27
30
34
37



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1
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3
3.1

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Q G1 C1
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:

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[8]:

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,
K ( t1 t 2 )

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3.2
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D:\tfs.xmcd.

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t1
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t1
G1 C1

t 1
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t 2 t 2
2
2

(7)

t 1
t 1 t 1 K F t
2

(8)

1
1

(9)

1, 2 , r - . , , Re>10000 :

Nu
d

Pr

Nu 0.021 Re0.8 Pr0.43


Pr

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14

G1 C1( t1 ) ( t1 t1 )
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K ( t1 ,t 2 ) ( t1 t 2 )

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1
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(11)

( t1 t 2 ) 2 ( t 2 t 2 ) r

(12)

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:

t 1 t 1
t 2 t 2
G1 C 1
t 1 t 1 G 2 C 2
t 2 t 2
2
2

t 1 t 1
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t 1 t 1 K F t
2

t 2 t 2
t 1 t 1
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t 1 t 2 t
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(13) 6 : t1, t2, t1, t2, t1, t2.



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16

KK( t1 t1k) t2 root G1 C_C6H6

t1 t1k
2

t2 t2n ( t2 t2n) t2 t2n t1


( t1 t1k) G2 C_H2O

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tsR t1
for i 1 10
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dt0
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18

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f=F1.
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f=0.
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t 2 (t 2 t 2 ) 0.5
t1 t 2 t
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21


1 . .. MathCad 11. .: -, 2003. -560 .:
.
2 .., .. - . . . .: , 1988. . 416.
3 ..., .., .., ..
: . . -.: - , 2001. - 23 .
4 .. (). . 2- ., . . ., , 1972. 720 .
5 ( ): . / .. , .. , ..
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6 : / . . . . .: , 1983. 272 .
7 .., .. . .-., , 1959.414 .
8 .. " ".
.:, 2003. 608 ., .
9 ., , .
. . .: , 1981. 384 ., .
10 . . ., , 1969 368 ., .

22


()

Reference:D:\DIMENSION.xmcd

_H2O( t) 0.59849 43.252

1.5423

Pa s

t
t J
C_H2O( t) 4223.6 1.075 ln

K 100 K kg K

t
t W
_H2O( t) 0.5545 0.00246 0.00001184

K
2 m K
K

t
t kg

_H2O( t) 1000 0.062 0.00355

K
2 3
K

m
t

t
0.062 0.00710
K

_H2O( t)

1000 0.062

t
K

0.00355

1
K

K
T

Tabt ( 0 20 40 60 80 100 120) K

T kcal

TabC ( 0.375 0.395 0.425 0.440 0.455 0.480 0.500)

a_C slope(Tabt TabC)

kg K

b_C intercept (Tabt TabC)

C_C6H6t
( ) a_Ct b_C

T kg

Tab ( 900 879 858 836 815 793 769)

m
_C6H6( t ) linterp Tabt Tab t

Tab ( 0.91 0.65 0.492 0.39 0.316 0.261 0.219)


v pspline Tabt Tab
_C6H6( t ) interp v Tabt Tab t

t
W
_C6H6( t) 0.153066 0.00033094

K m K

23


()


,
.
.

d, t.
Nu 0 ,56 Re

0 ,5

Nu 0 ,40 Re

0 ,6

0 ,25

Pr

0 ,36

0 ,25

Pr

0 ,36

Pr
Pr

0.6.

Pr
Pr

Re 1000
Re 1000,

d, t.
Nu 0 ,56 Re

0 ,5

Nu 0 ,22 Re

0 ,65

0.6

Pr

0 ,36

Pr

Pr
Pr

0 ,36

0 ,25

Pr
Pr

Re 1000

0 ,25

Re 1000,


(Re10000)

d, t

24

Nu 0 ,021 l Re

0 ,8

Pr

0 ,43

l 1

Pr
Pr

0 ,25

Re10000
(Gr*Pr < 8105).

d, (t + t)/2
2
0 ,25
1
2

3
d

Nu 0 ,116 Re 3 125 Pr 3 1
L

0 ,14

d 3

Nu 1,55 Pe
L

0 ,0668 Pe

d
L

2300 Re 104 ;

Re 2300;
0 ,14

Nu 3,66
2
d 3

1 0 ,04 Pe
L

Re 2300;

d
Pe 20;
L
d
Pe 20;
L

Re<10000
(Gr*Pr 8105).

d, (t + t)/2
:
Nu 0 ,5 Pe

d
L

Re 3500 , Pe

Nu 0 ,8 Pe
L

Nu 0 ,022 Re

0 ,4

0 ,8

Gr Pr 0 ,1

Pr

0 ,4

d
20;
L

0 ,14

Re 3500 , 20 Pe

n
Re 3500 ,

25

d
120
L

0 ,11
n
0 ,25

(250 < Re <10000).


Nu 0 ,037 Re 0 ,75 Pr 0 ,4

0 ,11
n
0 ,25

,
.
.

3 2
2 ,04 t 4 r ;

Lt

3 2 r
4
;
1,28 t

dt

t
t

1
a
0 ,5

0 ,125
;

0 ,84
,
an p 0 ,07

t t - t

q<q ( ).

2
3

t 2
b
273 t

b 0 ,075 1 10 1 3 ,

t t t

26


()


(
15120-79) 600 25*2 30 / .
3 . 50 / 20.
.
1. , .
Reference:D:\DIMENSION.xmcd
Reference:D:\tfs.xmcd

2. .
G1 30
G2 50

t1n 80 K

t2n 20 K


St 0.089

Smt 0.053

L 3 m

dn 25

dv dn 2

F 81

dv 21

t 46.5

2
1 K

r1 5800

2
1 K

r2 1860
rst

r1 r2

27


3. .
. .
, ..
.
Re1( t) G1

dv

Pr1( t)

Smt _C6H6( t)

C_C6H6( t) _C6H6( t)
_C6H6( t)


..
dv
C_H2O( t) _H2O( t)
Re2( t ) G2
Pr2( t)
St _H2O( t )
_H2O( t)
4

Re2(t2n) 1.182 10

.. Re > 10000,
. , .. .

4.
Re>10000 :
2( t2 t2st)

_H2O( t2)
dv

0.021 Re2( t2)

0.8

Pr2( t2)

0.43 Pr2( t2)

Pr2
(
t2st
)

0.25

( ) Re:
4

Re1(t1n) 3.762 10

Re>1000
:
1( t1 t1st)

_C6H6( t1)
dn

0.24 Re1( t1)

0.6

Pr1( t1)

0.36 Pr1( t1)

Pr1( t1st)

0.25

5. :
1

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st )

1
1( t1 t1st )

t( t1k t2k)

1
2( t2 t2st )

rst

( t1n t2k) ( t1k t2n)


ln

t1n t2k

t1k t2n

6. (
)
t1 60 C

t2 30 C

t1k 50 C

t2k 40 C

t1st 60 C

t2st 40 C

28


7. :
Given
G2 C_H2O

t2n t2k

t1n t1k (t1n t1k)


(t2k t2n) G1 C_C6H6

G2 C_H2O( t2) ( t2k t2n)

G2 C_H2O

t1 t2

1
rst

1
rst

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st ) F t ( t1k t2k)

t2 t2k

t1n t1 (t1n t1)


(t2k t2) G1 C_C6H6

t ( t1k t2k)

( t1st t2st)

1( t1 t1st) ( t1 t1st)

( t1st t2st)

2( t2 t2st) ( t2st t2)

t1k
t2k

t1 Find( t1k t2k t1 t2 t1st t2st)


t2
t1st

t2st

t1k 50.731
t2k 27.799

t1 63.989 C
t2 23.466
t1st 46.06

t2st 30.881

8. :

t1k 50.731C

t2k 27.799C

t1 63.989C

t2 23.466C

Q G2 C_H2O

t2n t2k

Q 1.633 10

9. :
Re1(t1) 31831

Re1 1000

Re2(t2) 12831

Re2 10000

29

(t2k t2n)


()

Re<10000
(
15120-79) 800 25*2 37 / .
3 . 40 / 5.
.
1. , .
Reference:D:\DIMENSION.xmcd
Reference:D:\tfs.xmcd

2. .
G1 37
G2 40

t1n 80 K

t2n 5 K


St 0.161

Smt 0.079

L 3 m

dn 25

F 109

t 46.5

dv 21

dv dn 2
2

2
1 K

r1 5800

2
1 K

r2 1860

rst

0 0

5 K s

rst 4.301 10

kg

30


3. .
. .
, ..
.
Re1( t) G1

dv

Pr1( t)

Smt _C6H6( t)

C_C6H6( t) _C6H6( t)
_C6H6( t)


..
dv
C_H2O( t) _H2O( t)
Re2( t ) G2
Pr2( t)
St _H2O( t )
_H2O( t)
3

Re2(t2n) 3.443 10

.. Re < 10000, 0.5*(t+tst) , .. .


Re2( t ts ) G2

C_H2O

dv
St _H2O

g dv _H2O
3

t ts

t ts
_H2O

2
2
t ts
_H2O

Pr2( t ts )

t ts

t ts

2 _H2O t ts ( ts t)

2
2
t ts

_H2O

Gr( t ts )

Gr_Pr(t ts) Gr(t ts)Pr2(t ts)

4.
( ) Re:
4

Re1(t1n) 3.112 10

Re>1000
:
1( t1 t1st)

_C6H6( t1)
dn

0.24 Re1( t1)

0.6

Pr1( t1)

0.36 Pr1( t1)

Pr1
(
t1st
)

0.25

Re<10000
GR*Pr. .. , GR*Pr , 5 .
Gr_Prt2n t2n 5 C 2.74 10

Re<10000 Gr*Pr <8*10^5 :

t2 t2st
0.66 _H2O

dv
2
0.66
0.33

Nu2( t2 t2st ) 0.116 Re2( t2 t2st )


125 Pr2( t2 t2st )
1


L _H2O( t2st)

31

0.25


_H2O

t2 t2st

2( t2 t2st)

Nu2( t2 t2st)

2
dv

5. :
1

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st )

1
1( t1 t1st )

t( t1k t2k)

1
2( t2 t2st )

rst

( t1n t2k) ( t1k t2n)


ln

t1n t2k

t1k t2n

6. (
)

t1 60 C
t2 12 C
t1k 50 C

t2k 20 C

t1st 60 C

t2st 40 C

7. :
Given
G2 C_H2O

t2n t2k

t1n t1k (t1n t1k)


(t2k t2n) G1 C_C6H6

G2 C_H2O( t2) ( t2k t2n)

G2 C_H2O

t1 t2

1
rst
1
rst

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st ) F t ( t1k t2k)

t2 t2k

t1n t1 (t1n t1)


(t2k t2) G1 C_C6H6

t ( t1k t2k)

( t1st t2st)

1( t1 t1st) ( t1 t1st)

( t1st t2st)

2( t2 t2st) ( t2st t2)

t1k
t2k

t1 Find( t1k t2k t1 t2 t1st t2st)


t2
t1st

t2st

t1k 41.146
t2k 20.752

t1 58.669 C
t2 11.92
t1st 33.878

t2st 32.834

8. :
4

Re1(t1) 2.485 10

Re1 1000
3

Re2 10000

Re2( t2 t2st) 5.532 10

Gr_Pr(t2 t2st) 3.076 10

Gr Pr 8 10

32


Re<10000 Gr*Pr >8*10^5 :
_H2O

t2 t2st

2( t2 t2st )

_H2O t2 t2st

2
0.022 Re2( t2 t2st) 0.8 Pr2( t2 t2st) 0.4

_H2O( t2st)

2
dv

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st )

1
1( t1 t1st )

1
2( t2 t2st )

rst

9. :
Given
G2 C_H2O

t2n t2k

t1n t1k (t1n t1k)


(t2k t2n) G1 C_C6H6

G2 C_H2O( t2) ( t2k t2n)

t2

(t2n t2k)0.5

t1 t2

1
rst
1
rst

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st ) F t ( t1k t2k)

t ( t1k t2k)

( t1st t2st)

1( t1 t1st) ( t1 t1st)

( t1st t2st)

2( t2 t2st) ( t2st t2)

t1k
t2k

t1 Find( t1k t2k t1 t2 t1st t2st)


t2
t1st

t2st

t1k 39.527
t2k 21.378

t1 58.705 C
t2 13.189
t1st 32.882

t2st 31.798

10. :
4

Re1(t1) 2.486 10

Re1 1000
3

Re2 10000

Re2( t2 t2st) 5.547 10

Gr_Pr(t2 t2st) 2.754 10

Gr Pr 8 10

11. :

t1k 39.527C

t2k 21.378C

t1 58.705C

t2 13.189C

Q G2 C_H2O

t2n t2k

Q 2.748 10

33

(t2k t2n)

0.11


()


( 15120-79) 800 25*2 37 /
. 3 . 40 / 5.
.
1. , . . 1,2.
Reference:D:\DIMENSION.xmcd
Reference:D:\tfs.xmcd

2. .
G1 37

G2 40

t1n 80 K

t2n 5 K


St 0.161

Smt 0.079

L 3 m
dn 25

2
dv dn 2
2

dv 21

F 109

t 46.5

2
1 K

r1 5800

2
1 K

r2 1860
rst

0 0

3
5 s K

rst 4.301 10

kg

3. .
.
. .

34

Re1( t) G1

dv

Pr1( t)

Smt _C6H6( t)

C_C6H6( t) _C6H6( t)
_C6H6( t)

Re
4

Re1(t1n) 3.112 10

Re1(t2n) 1.179 10

Re> 1000,
Nu( t1 t1st) 0.24Re1

( t1)
1( t1 t1st ) Nu ( t1 t1st )

0.6

Pr1( t1)

0.36 Pr1( t1)

Pr1( t1st)

0.25

_C6H6( t1)
dn

4.
Re
Re2( t ) G2

dv
St _H2O( t )
4

Re2(t1n) 1.462 10

Re2(t2n) 3.443 10

.. Re<10000
, Re

Re2( t ts ) G2

C_H2O

dv
St _H2O

Pr2( t ts )

t ts

g dv _H2O
3

Gr( t ts )

t ts

t ts

t ts
_H2O

2
2
t ts
_H2O

2 _H2O t ts ( ts t)

2
2
t

ts

_H2O

Re>10000
NuT( t ts ) 0.021Re2

( t ts )

0.8

Pr2( t ts )

0.43 Pr2( t ts )

Pr2(ts ts )

0.25

Re<10000 Gr*Pr<8*10^5

t ts
0.66 _H2O

dv
0.66
0.33
2
NuM ( t ts ) 0.116 Re2( t ts )
125 Pr2( t ts )
1


L _H2O( ts )

Re<10000 Gr*Pr>8*10^5

_H2O t2 t2st

2
0.75
0.4

NuP( t2 t2st) 0.037Re2

( t2 t2st)
Pr2( t2 t2st )

_H2O( t2st)

35

0.11

0.25

2( t2 t2st ) RE Re2( t2 t2st )


GrPr Gr( t2 t2st ) Pr2( t2 t2st)
NU NuT( t2 t2st ) if RE 10000

NU NuM( t2 t2st ) if ( RE 10000) GrPr 8 10


5

NU NuP( t2 t2st ) if ( RE 10000) GrPr 8 10


_H2O

t2 t2st

NU

2
dv

5 .
t2( t1 t1k) root G1 C_C6H6

t1 t1k
2

t_2 t2n (t_2 t2n) t_2 t2n t1


(t1 t1k) G2 C_H2O

KK( t1 t1k) t_2 t2( t1 t1k)


tsL t_2
tsR t1
for i 1 10
ts1 0.5 ( tsL tsR )
q1 1( t1 ts1 ) ( t1 ts1 )
ts2 ts1 q1 rst
q2 2( t_2 ts2 ) ( ts2 t_2)
tsL ts1 if q1 q2
tsR ts1 if q1 q2
1
1

rst

2( t_2 ts2 )
1( t1 ts1)

6 ( ):

t1k 0.5(t1n t2n)
t1k 42.5K
Given

G1

t1n

C_C6H6( t1)
KK( t1 t1k) ( t1 t2( t1 t1k) )

d t1

t1k

t1k Find(t1k)
t2k t2(t1n t1k)

t1k 38.703K
t2k 21.696K

9. :


t1k 38.703C
t2k 21.696C

Q G2 C_H2O

36

t2n t2k
2

(t2k t2n)

Q 2.801 10


()


4- ( 1512079) 1200 25*2 75 / .
6 . 45 / 10. .
1. , . . 1,2.
Reference:D:\DIMENSION.xmcd
Reference:D:\tfs.xmcd

2. .
G1 75
G2 45

t1n 80 K

t2n 10 K

k 4
St 0.084

Smt 0.165

L 6 m

dn 25


dv 21

dv dn 2

F 464

F1

t 46.5

2
1 K

r1 5800

2
1 K

r2 1860
rst

r1 r2

37


3. .
. , .
, ..
.
Re1( t) G1

dv

Pr1( t)

Smt _C6H6( t)

C_C6H6( t) _C6H6( t)

_C6H6( t)

. ( ), . , .. .
Re2( t ) G2

dv

Pr2( t)

St _H2O( t )

C_H2O( t) _H2O( t)
_H2O( t)

4.
Re>10000 :
2( t2 t2st)

_H2O( t2)

0.43 Pr2( t2)

Pr2(t2st)

0.8

0.25

0.021 Re2( t2) Pr2( t2)


dv
( )
Re:
4

Re1(t1n) 3.021 10

Re>1000
:
1( t1 t1st)

_C6H6( t1)
dn

0.24 Re1( t1)

0.6

Pr1( t1)

0.36 Pr1( t1)

Pr1( t1st)

0.25

5. :
1

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st )

1
1( t1 t1st )

1
2( t2 t2st )

rst

6.

G2 C_H2O( t2n)
G1 C_C6H6t1n
( )

1.311

.. , , , ,
. ,
.
:
t1 t2

t ( t1k t2k)

38

7.
w( t1 t2)

G2 C_H2O( t2)
G1 C_C6H6t1
( )

4 w( t1 t2) w( t1 t2) w( t1 t2) w( t1 t2) w( t1 t2)

1
1
0
0
0

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st)


A ( t1 t2 t1st t2st)

1
0
1
0
0

G2 C_H2O( t2)

1
0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0
1

8. (
)

t1 60 C
t2 30 C
t1k 36 C

t2k 40 C

t1st 41 C

t2st 33 C

t 27 C

t t1 t2

t1n


t2n

T0( t t2k) t
t

t2k
C(t1 t2 t1st t2st) eigenvecs (A(t1 t2 t1st t2st))

D(t1 t2 t1st t2st) eigenvals (A(t1 t2 t1st t2st))

D(t1 t2 t1st t2st)fC(t1 t2 t1st t2st) 1T0(t t2k)

T(f t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) C(t1 t2 t1st t2st) diag e

8. :
Given
t2 (t2n t2k) 0.5 0
t

t1 t2

G2 C_H2O( t2) ( t2k t2n)

KK( t1 t2 t1st t2st) F

( t1st t2st ) 1( t1 t1st ) ( t1 t1st ) rst

( t1st t2st ) 2( t2 t2st ) ( t2st t2) rst

T( F1 t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) T( F1 t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k)


1

T( F1 t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) T( F1 t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k)


3

t1k T( F1 t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k)

39

2
4

0
0

t1k
t2k

t1
t2

Find t1k t2k t1 t2 t1st t2st t t


t1st
t2st
t

t1k 38.347
t2k 39.82

t1 51.179
t2 24.91


K
t1st 38.666
t2st 29.549
t 29.032

t 26.268

80
T ( f t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) 0
60
T ( f t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) 1
T ( f t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) 2
40
T ( f t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) 3
T ( f t t1 t2 t1st t2st t2k) 420

50

100
f

9. :

t1k 38.347C

t2k 39.82C

t1 51.179C

t2 24.91C

Q G2 C_H2O

t2n t2k

Q 5.618 10

10. :
4

Re1(t1) 2.217 10

Re2(t2) 1.265 10

40

(t2k t2n)