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2015

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811.111(075-8)
81.2-92
8032
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2015. 222. ( ).

ISBN 978-5-222-24731-0
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ISBN 978-5-222-24731-0
811.111(075-8)
81.2-92

.., .., 2013


: , 2015

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
WHAT IS A COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
THE WAY A COMPUTER STORES
INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Software (Microsoft). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
INTRODUCTION. WHAT IS WINDOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
WINDOWS DESKTOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
USING MY COMPUTER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
RECYCLE BIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
WINDOW ELEMENTS WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
THE MAIN MOUSE OPERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
EDITING AND FORMATTING A TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
VIEWING A DOCUMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
MANAGING FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
WINDOWS XP PECULIARITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Browsing the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
THE INTERNET EXPLORER SCREEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
WORLD WIDE WEB AND UNIFORM
RESOURCE LOCATOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION ON THE WEB. . . . . . . . . 89
SURFING THE WEB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
VIEWING AND SAVING FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

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E-MAIL OPERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
COMPUTER VIRUSES. TEXT A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
COMPUTER VIRUSES. TEXT B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Texts for discussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


COMPUTER IN EVERYDAY LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
THE MOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
TYPES OF COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
INPUT DEVICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
STORAGE DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
TYPES OF ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
THE INTERNET: THE WORLD WIDE WEB WEBPAGES. . . . 120
COMPUTER VIRUSES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
COMPUTING LANGUAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Texts for additional reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
COMPUTERS AND TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
COMPUTER USES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
RECORDS MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
CPU (PROCESSOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
MODEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
KEYBOARD & MOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
PRINTER & SCANNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
DISPLAY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
DRIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
OPERATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
DRIVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
VIDEO CARD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
SOFTWARE PIRACY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
WINRAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
TV TUNER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
FUTURE TRENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
SMART CARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
ROBOTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
VIRTUAL REALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
NETWORKING OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
TYPES OF LOCAL AREA NETWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
NETWORK CABLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
ACCESS METHODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
ETHERNET ISSUES AND CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
NETWORK STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
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NETWORK PROTOCOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162


NETWORK ADDRESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
CONFIGURING NETWORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
NETWORK TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
INTERNET SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
SEARCH ENGINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
VIRUSES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
From ARPANET to World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
WINDOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
USING THE PROGRAM MANAGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
USING THE FILE MANAGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
USING THE CONTROL PANEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
WORD FOR WINDOWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
FIRST DOCUMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
WORKING WITH SELECTING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
WORKING WITH PAGE FORMATTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
INTRODUCTING TO NETWORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Computer terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

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Hardware

What is a Computer

Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following words:


to respond [rispnd]
instruction [instrkn] ,
manner [mAnA] ,
to execute [eksikju:t] ,
list [list]
equipment [ikwipmEnt]
wire [waiE] ,
circuit [sE:kit] ,
hardware [ha:dwE]
data [deitE]
software [softwE]
to store [st:]
to perform [pEf:m] ,
memory [memEri]
temporarily [tempErErili]
device [divais]
permanently [pE:mEnEntli] ,
to include [inklu:d]
disk drive [draiv]
to input [input]
keyboard [ki:b:d]
mouse [maus]
to enter [entE] ,

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Hardware

to output [autput]
screen [skri:n]
to accomplish [akompli] ,
application [ Aplikein] ,

A computer is a programmable machine that responds to instructions in a set manner. It can execute a prerecorded list of
instructions (aprogram).
The actual equipment wires, transistors, and circuits is
called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.
They are stored in files and tell your computer to perform a task.
Computers have the following components:
memory to store data and programs temporarily.
a mass storage device to store data permanently. Common
mass storage devices include disk drives and CD-ROMs.
input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, so you can enter data and instructions into a computer.
output devices such as a monitor (screen), printer, or other
device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished.
central processing unit (CPU). Its the part of the computer that executes instructions (does the computing).
operating system. Its a program that lets you access the
computer's contents and that runs programs.
applications: programs that accomplish a specific purpose
to help you get your work done (such as word processing or
calculating formulas).
Exercise1.1. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word combinations:
; ;
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
; ;
; ;
input devices; output devices; runs programs; toaccess the
computer contents; aprogrammable machine; alist of instructions; to be stored in files; to store data temporarily;

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:
in a set manner; storage devices; toperform a task; toenter
data into a computer; accomplish a specific purpose; calculating formulas.
Exercise1.2. Answer the following questions:
1.What responds to instructions in a set manner?
2.What does a computer execute?
3.What is called hardware?
4.What is called software?
5.What does memory store?
6.What device stores permanently data?
7.What do common mass storage devices include?
8.What are input devices used for?
9.What are the main purposes of output devices?
10.What is CPU?
11.What lets us to access the computers contents?
Exercise1.3. Complete the sentences:
1.A computer is
2.The instructions and data are called and are stored
3.Input devices are
4.Output devices are
5. runs programs.
6.Applications are
7. executes instructions.

Exercise1.4. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:


1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7.
.
8. ,
.

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Hardware

11

The way a Computer stores information

Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following words:


rigid [ridZid] , ,
magnetic [mAgnetik]
amount [Emaunt] ,
rapidly [rApidli]
unlike [nlaik]
to insert [ins:t]
a floppy disk [flpi disk] -
to transfer [trAnsfE:] , , ,

to partition [pa:tiEn] ,
icon [aikon] ,
to identify [aidentifai] , , ,
folder [fouldE]
possibly [posibli]
to manage [mAnidZ] ,
A computer stores information on a Hard drive. The Hard disk
or the Hard drive is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material for
storing programs and relatively large amounts of data. It is used for
a rapid recording and reading of the information. It is also called
Winchester.
In the process of operating a computer the user will run a lot
of programs only from the Hard drive and stores the results of his
work on it. The recording and reading of the information from
Winchester, unlike the diskette, takes place rapidly.
If the user inserts a floppy disk that is called drive A. The
drive A is used to store and transfer the information from a
computer to another one. If the user has more than one hard
drive or his hard drive is partitioned, it gives a possibility to
store some more information or data. But the floppy disk is an
old version of information storage. The most modern way to
store information is to use a USB flash memory card. When the
user inserts the flash-card that is called drive H or F. USB flash
+ memory is of high capacity, so it can store a large amount of
data up to tens Gb.
A file always has a name and a type. It has a picture icon, which
helps to identify the file type.

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A file can be a document the user created or it can be a part of


the program the user operates to create documents. A document
file can contain texts, pictures, sounds or a combination of them.
A program file can be used only as part of the program.
The user usually cant open it up and sees whats inside, because its written in programming code. Everything on computers
is stored in files.
Most program files are already organized for the user when
he installs the program. Its up to the user to organize his document files so he can find them when he needs them. For that
reason the user creates folders for files and possibly folders inside of folders.
Most versions of Windows come with a folder called My Documents where the user can put files that he creates. Besides that sub
folders can be created inside that folder or anywhere else the user
wants to organize his document files. The user must use My Computer or Windows Explorer to manage his files.
Exercise1.1. Find the English equivalents for the following word
combinations:
; ;
; -; , ; ;
; ; ; ;
;
rigid disk; large amounts of data; disk coated with magnetic
material; can contain; toinstall the program; for that reason;
tocreate a folder inside of folders; Hard disk; identify the file
type; to store and transfer information; to insert a floppydisk.
Exercise1.2. Answer the questions:
1. Where does a computer store the information?
2. What does CD-ROM serve for?
3. What is the Hard drive used for?
4. What is the Hard drive also called?
5. What disk is called drive A?
6. What is the function of the drive A?
7. What does a file serve for?

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Hardware

13

8. What has a file?


9. What does the picture icon help to?
10. What can a file be?
11. What can a document file contain?
12. What can a program file be only used?
13. Why cant the user open the program file?
14. Where is everything stored in computers?
15. What reason does the user create folders for?
16. Where can subfolders be created?
Exercise1.3. Complete the sentences:
1. A computer stores information on ...
2. The Hard drive is ... for storing programs and relatively large
amounts of data.
3. If is often called ...
4. If the user inserts a floppy disk that ...
5. ... a way to store some information or data.
6. A file can be a ...
7. ... can be used only as part of the program.
8. Everything in computers is stored ...
9. Most program files ... for the user when he installs the program.
Exercise1.4. Find the wrong statements and correct them:
1. The computer stores information on a flexible disk.
2. CD-ROM drive is called floppy disk.
3. Everything in the computer is stored on a hard disk.
4. A file is a temporary way to store some sort of data or information.
5. CD-ROM drive is of great capacity than a floppy disk.
6. It is impossible to rewrite information on a CD-R disk.
Exercise1.5. Translate sentences from Russian into English:
1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. .

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5. .
6. .
7. , .
8. .
9. .

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Software (Microsoft)

Introductions. What is Windows

Windows is a kind of program called an operating system. It


provides basic functions for your computer such as:
Controls your hardware (printer, monitor, etc.)
Runs your programs
Organizes your information
Understanding the Windows Screen
The main area of the Windows screen is called the Desktop
(Fig. 1). Some other features are:
My Computer (lets you view folders and files)
Recycle Bin (stores deleted files and allows you to retrieve
them)
Start Button (for opening programs and files)
Taskbar (access to all opened files/programs)
Windows desktop

Memorize the pronunciation of the following words:


desktop [desktop]
to load [lEud]
inscription [inskripn]
screen [skri:n]
tuning [tju:niN]

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:
password [pa:swE:d]
initial [iniEl]
to locate [lEukeit] ,
icon [aikon] , ,
cursor [kEsE]
to resemble [rizembl] ,
arrow [Arou]
to roll [rul] ,
Taskbar [ taskba:]

to reflect [riflekt]
invisible [invizEbl]

Figure 1
Word combinations for connected reading:
in dependence with
Quick Launch
operating system
is rolled across the mouse pad
at the bottom
on the top
Windows is an operating system which is loaded while a
computer is turned on. While loading the operating system a

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Software (Microsoft)

17

picture with the Microsoft Windows inscription appears and


disappears on the screen. In dependence with the tuning of the
operating system sometimes you must input your password if there
is an invitation for the password input. When the computer is
loaded you can see what is known as Desktop on the screen of the
monitor (Fig.2).
The Desktop is the initial window of the operating system in
which all other windows and icons are located. The appearance of
the Desktop is easily tuned.

Figure 2
There is the cursor of the mouse resembling an arrow present
on the screen. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the
cursor moves across the screen.
The Taskbar is a panel with the Start button (Fig.3).

Figure 3
It is located at the bottom of the screen. The panel reflects the
icons of started programs. On the left part of the Taskbar the panel
Quick Launch is located. It contains small icons of widely used

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Texts for discussion

COMPUTER IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Computers are part of our everyday lives. They have an effect


on almost everything you do. When you buy groceries at a supermarket, a computer is used with laser and barcode technology to scan the price of each item and present a total. Barcoding
items (clothes, food and books) require a computer to generate
the barcode labels and maintain the inventory. Most television
advertisements and many films use graphics produced by a computer. In hospitals, bedside terminals connected to the hospitals
main computer allow doctors to type in orders for blood tests and
to schedule operations. Banks use computers to look after their
customers money. In libraries and bookshops, computers can
help you to find the book you want as quickly as possible.
Task 1
Work in groups. Match the places in column A with the computer
uses in column B.
A
B
banks
control machines
factories
calculate the bill
homes
look after patient records and medicines
hospitals provide entertainment and information
shops
control our money

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Texts for discussion

111

Task 2
Fill in the gaps in this paragraph about computer uses.
Computers are now part of our everyday life. In shops, they ____
____________
In factories they __________________. In _____________
_____, they look after patient records and medicines. When we
have a bank account, a computer ______________ . In our homes,
computers __________________.

THE MOUSE

The computer mouse is a hand-operated device that lets you


control more easily the location of the pointer on your screen. You
can make selections and choices with the mouse button.
The mouse contains a rubber-coated ball that rests on the
surface of your working area or a mouse mat. When the mouse is
moved over that surface, the ball rolls.
The balls movements up and down, and left and right, turn
the two axles inside the mouse. As they turn, detectors register
the changing position. A small integrated circuit inside the mouse
sends signals to the operating system, which instructs it to move the
pointer on your screen.
Task 1
Work in groups. Complete each of these statements with one word.
Move the mouse to the left and the cursor moves to the _________
____________________.
The mouse contains a rolling ___________.
There are ___________ axles inside the mouse and two
interrupter wheels.
When you move the mouse, the ball ___________.
The mouse moves over a mouse __________.

TYPES OF COMPUTER

Task 1
Study these details of different types of computer. Find the
answers to these questions. Which type of computer is:

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112

1.the most common?


2. small enough for a pocket?
3. the most common portable?
4. used by many people at the same time?
5. used like mainframes?
6. also called a handheld computer?
7. the most powerful
8. not suitable for a lot of typing?

Types ofcomputer
Mainframes

Notes
Large, powerful, expensive.
Multi-user systems used by many people at the same time.
Used for processing very large amounts of data.
The most powerful mainframes are called
supercomputers.
Minicomputers
Used like mainframes.
Not as big, powerful, or expensive as
mainframes.
Less common now because microcomputers have improved.
Microcomputers
The most common type of computer.
Personal computers.
Smaller, cheaper, and less powerful than
(PCs) mainframes and minicomputers.
Types of portable
Notes
Laptop
About the size of a small typewriter.
Less common now because smaller and
lighter portables are available.
Notebook
About the size of a piece of writing paper.
The most common type of portable.
Subnotebook
Not quite as big as notebooks.
Can fit into a jacket pocket.
Handheld or
Small enough to fit into the palm of one
hand.
Palmtop
Not easy to type with because of their
size. Often used as personal organizers.

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