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Pedigrees R Us

Staff Training Manual

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Section

Content

Agency

Practice Problems #1 (1-22)

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3-4

Practice Problems #2 (1-23)

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5-8

Practice Problems #3 (1-21)

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Reviewing Vocabulary (1-11)

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Understanding Main Ideas (12-23)

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10-11
12

Thinking Critically (1-5)

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Class Period

Punnett Square Practice Problems #1


Monohybrid Crosses
Identify the following as either heterozygous or homozygous:
1. RR _________________________

6. Ss _________________________

2. Tt _________________________

7. Pp _________________________

3. TT _________________________

8. bb _________________________

4. tt _________________________

9. BB _________________________

5. Aa _________________________

10. aa _________________________

Write the genotypes for the following parents knowing that brown eyes are dominant over blue
eyes and the tall allele is dominant over the short allele.
11. Homozygous tall ________

14. blue eyes ________

12. heterozygous brown eyes ________

15. heterozygous tall ________

13. short ________

16. homozygous brown eyes ________

Complete the Punnett square for the following crosses:


17. Rr x Rr
!

(Round seeds are dominant


to wrinkled seeds)

20. Heterozygous tall x Homozygous short

18. Genotype ratio =

21. Genotype ratio =

19. Phenotype ratio =

22. Phenotype ratio =


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Punnett Square Practice Problems #2


Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses
Fill in the blanks below using the following terminology: homozygous dominant,
homozygous recessive, and heterozygous.
1) AA ____________________

5) ee ____________________

2) bb ____________________

6) Ff ____________________

3) Cc ____________________

7) GG ____________________

4) DD ____________________

8) hh ____________________

Write the correct genotype for the following phenotypes. Assume that tall is dominant to short
and brown eyes are dominant to blue eyes.
9) Heterozygous brown eyes _____

10) Homozygous tall _____

11) Short _____

12) Homozygous blue eyes _____

13) Father who is short with blue eyes __________


14) Mother who is heterozygous for height and has blue eyes __________
15) Homozygous tall and heterozygous brown eyes __________
16) Heterozygous tall and homozygous brown eyes __________
Answer the following questions. You MUST show all of your work (including all Punnett squares
to get credit!)
17) In chimpanzees, straight fingers are dominant to bent fingers. Complete a Punnett
square that represents the crossing of a chimp that has heterozygous straight fingers and
a chimp that has bent fingers. Next to the Punnett square, write the genotypic and
phenotypic ratios to the F1 generation.

In humans, the gene for brown eyes (B) is dominant to the gene for blue eyes (b) and the
gene for right handedness (R) is dominant to the gene for left handedness (r). Two
individuals that are heterozygous for both traits get married.
18) What are the genotypes for both parents?

19) Complete a Punnett square that shows the expected genotypes of the
offspring in the F1 generation.

20) What are the phenotypic ratios of the F1 generation?

In hamsters, the gene for black fur (B) is dominant to the gene for tan fur (b) and the gene
for red eyes (R) is dominant to the gene for black eyes (r). A tan hamster with
heterozygous red eyes is crossed with a homozygous black hamster with black eyes.
21) What are the genotypes for both parents?

22) Complete a Punnett square that shows the expected genotypes of the
offspring in the F1 generation.

23) What are the phenotypic ratios of the F1 generation?

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Punnett Square Practice Problems #3


Putting It All Together
For each genotype below, indicate whether it is heterozygous (He) or homozygous (Ho)
1

AA _____

Ee ____

Ii _____

Mm _____

Bb _____

ff ____

Jj _____

nn _____

Cc _____

Gg ____

kk _____

oo _____

DD _____

HH ____

LL _____

Pp _____

For each of the genotypes below determine what phenotypes would be possible.
5

Purple flowers are dominant to white


flowers.

Brown eyes are dominant to blue eyes.

PP ________________________

BB ________________________

Pp ________________________

Bb ________________________

pp ________________________

bb ________________________

Round seeds are dominant to wrinkled


seeds
.
RR ________________________

Bobtails in cats are recessive (straight tails


are dominant)
TT ________________________

Rr ________________________

Tt ________________________

rr _________________________

tt ________________________

For each phenotype below, list all possible genotypes (remember to use the letter of the
dominant trait!)
9

Straight hair is dominant to curly.

10

Pointed heads are dominant to round heads.

_______ straight

_______ pointed

_______ straight

_______ pointed

_______ curly

_______ round

www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/basicgenetics.htm

Set up the Punnett squares for each of the crosses listed below. Round seeds are dominant to
wrinkled seeds.

11. What percentage of the offspring will be round?


Rr x rr
_____________________

12. What percentage of the offspring will be round?


RR x rr
_____________________

13. What percentage of the offspring will be round?


RR x Rr
_____________________

14. What percentage of the offspring will be round?


Rr x Rr
_____________________

www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/basicgenetics.htm

Practice with crosses.

Show all work!

15. A TT (tall) plant is crossed with a tt (short)


plant).
What percentage of the offspring will be
tall? __________

16. A Tt plant is crossed with a Tt plant.


What percentage of the offspring will be
short? ___________

17. A heterozygous round seeded plant is


crossed with a homozygous round seeded
plant.
What percentage of the offspring will be
homozygous? __________

18. A homozygous round seeded plant is crossed


with a homozygous wrinkled seeded plant.
What are the genotypes of the parents?
__________ x ___________

19. In pea plants purple flowers are dominant to


white flowers.
If two white flowered plants are crossed,
What percentage of their offspring will be
White flowered? __________

20. A white flowered plant is crossed with a


plant that is heterozygous for the trait.
What percentage of the offspring will have
purple flowers? __________
www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/basicgenetics.htm

21. In humans, the gene for brown eyes (B) is dominant to the gene for blue eyes (b) and the
gene for right handedness (R) is dominant to the gene for left handedness (r). Complete
a Punnett square that shows the expected genotypes of the offspring for the following
parents: BBrr x BbRr

www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/basicgenetics.htm

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Reviewing Vocabulary
Directions: In the space at the left, write the term that best fits
the definition. Use these choices:
Incomplete dominance
Completely dominant
alleles
Pedigree

Carrier
Simple Recessive
Heredity
Autosomes

Codominant Alleles
Polygenic
Inheritance
Sex-linked traits

_______________________ 1. Phenotypes of both homozygotes are produced in the


heterozygote.
_______________________ 2. Phenotypes of both heterozygous and homozygous dominant
individuals have the same phenotype.
_______________________ 3. The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between
those phenotypes expressed by the homozygotes.
_______________________ 4. Another name for a heterozygous individual
_______________________ 5. Inheritance pattern of phenylketonuria and Tay-Sachs disease
_______________________ 6. Inheritance pattern of a trait controlled by two or more genes
_______________________ 7. A graphic representation of an individuals family tree
_______________________ 8. Humans have 22 pairs of these types of chromosomes.
_______________________ 9. Traits controlled by genes located on the X or Y chromosome
Directions: In the space at the left, write the letter of the word
or phrase that best completes the statement.
_____ 10. The 23rd pair of chromosomes that differ in males and females are called
a. autosomes.
c. multiple alleles.

b. sex chromosomes.
d. polygenes.

_____ 11. A trait controlled by four alleles is said to have


a. homologous alleles.
c. hybridization.

b. autosomes.
d. multiple alleles.
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Understanding Main Ideas


Directions: In the space at the left, write the letter of the word
or phrase that best completes the statement or answers the
question.
_____ 12. When roan cattle are matted, 25% of the offspring are red, 50% are roan, and
25% are white. Upon examination, it can be seen that the coat of a roan cow
consists of both red and white hairs. This trait is one controlled by
a. multiple alleles.
c. sex-linked genes.

b. codominant alleles.
d. polygenic inheritance.

_____ 13. If a female fruit fly heterozygous for red eyes (XRXr) crossed with a white-eyed
male (XrY), what percent of their offspring will have white eyes?
a. 0%

b. 25%

c. 50%

d. 75%

Base your answers to questions 14 17 on the pedigree


shown at the right, which shows the incidence of
hemophilia over three generations of a family.

_____ 14. What is the relationship between individual I-1 and individual III-2?
a. grandfather granddaughter
c. great aunt nephew

b. grandmother grandson
d. mother son

_____ 15. For the trait being followed in the pedigree, individuals II-1 and II-4 can be
classified as
a. homozygous dominant.
c. homozygous recessive.

b. mutants.
d. carriers.

_____ 16. What type of inheritance pattern does the trait represented by the shaded
symbols illustrate?
a. incomplete dominance
c. codominance

b. multiple alleles
d. sex-linked

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_____ 17. If individual III-2 marries a person with the same genotype as individual I-1,
what is the chance that one of their children will be afflicted with hemophilia?
a. 0%

b. 25%

c. 50%

d. 75%

_____ 18. Which of the bar graphs represents what the phenotypic frequencies might be
for polygenic inheritance?

_____ 19. Because the gene for red-green colorblindness is located on the X chromosome,
it is normally not possible for a
a. carrier mother to pass the gene on to her daughter.
b. carrier mother to pass the gene on to her son.
c. colorblind father to pass the gene on to his daughter.
d. colorblind father to pass the gene on to his son.
_____ 20. A cross between a white rooster and a black hen results in a 100% blue
Andalusian offspring. When two of these blue offspring are mated, the
probable phenotypic ratio seen in their offspring would be
a. 100% blue.
c. 75% blue, 25% white.

b. 75% black, 25% white.


d. 25% black, 50% blue, 25% white.

_____ 21. A human genetic disorder caused by a dominant gene is


a. Tay-Sachs diease.
c. cystic fibrosis

b. PKU.
d. Huntingtons disease

Answer the following questions.


22. How does polygenic inheritance differ from Mendelian inheritance?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
23. How does incomplete dominance differ from multiple alleles?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
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Thinking Critically
In the space at the left, write the term that does not belong in
the list. Then explain your choice.
________________

1. heterozygous, carrier, homozygous


Explanation: ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

_________________ 2. genotype, phenotype, heterozygous, homozygous


Explanation: ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
_________________ 3. autosomes, X and Y chromosomes, sex-linked traits, sex chromosomes
Explanation: ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Answer the following questions.
4. The gene for nearsightedness in humans is found on the X chromosome. A boy has a
nearsighted father. Will the boy be nearsighted? Explain.

5. A male is said to be hemizygous for genes on the X chromosome. Explain why you think
this term was chosen.

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