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1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Problem Statement
Analyse and design an economical and stable RCC framed building for the usage in Residential
purpose using CSI-ETABS and manual calculations.

1.2. Scope
The main scope of this project is to apply standards of Nepal National building codes and IS- 456,
IS-13920, IS-1893 in designing a building. These building require great extent consideration of
earthquake effects on building. This building is located in seismic zone V therefore the lateral
loading of earthquake considered is predominant to the effects of wind loads. Hence wind loads are
not considered. Almost materials and their sizes are so chooses that these are easily available in the
market.

1.3 General
This report summarizes the structural analysis and design of building of .. at
. Municipality/VDC ward no..It has planned to utilize the building as
educational aspect. The aim of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that
structures being designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life.
1. The building will be used dwellings or hotels so that there are Partition walls inside the building.
External walls 230 mm thick and internal walls 115mm thick with 12 mm plaster on both sides are
considered. For simplicity in analysis, no sloping shades are used in the building analysis even though
balconies and terraces are intentionally included.
2. At ground floor, slabs are not provided and the floor will directly rest on ground. Therefore,
only ground beams passing through columns are provided as tie beams. The floor beams are
thus absent in the ground floor.
3. The main beams rest centrally on columns to avoid local eccentricity.
4. For all structural elements except slabs, M25 grade concrete will be used. However, higher M30
grade
concrete is used for central columns up to plinth, in ground floor and in the first floor.

5. Column size are kept in similar group to ascertain simplicity in construction.


6. The floor diaphragms are assumed to be rigid
7. Preliminary sizes of structural components are assumed by experience.
8. Tie Beams are provided in connecting the footings. This is optional in zones II and III; however, it is
mandatory in zones IV and V.
9. Seismic loads will be considered acting in the horizontal direction (along the two principal
directions) and not along the vertical direction, since it is not considered to be significant.
10. The analysis and design has been based on the prevailing codes that are in practice in India
and Nepal, the Indian Standard code IS 1893(Part 1):2002 and the NBC (105:1994) code at places
if required. This report consists of the design procedures adopted, the assumptions made, the
inputs made in the design and the design output.
Page 1 of 34

11. As per IS 1893(Part 1):2002, the seismic zoning of Nepal can be taken as ZONE IV and ZONE
V , most severe zone of India. For our case, we take the site lies on Zone V. Hence the building is
designed with great consideration towards earthquake resistant practices.
12. All dimensions are in mm, unless specified otherwise

1.4 Building Configuration and Features


The arrangements of Beams, Columns, Balcony slabs, T/B slabs, Room floors are done according as
the figures shown below. Storey height for all floors is taken as 3200mm. The numbering of beams and
columns are presented in Annex I
Building Type
: Residential Building of ..
Located at .
Structural system
: RCC Space frame, ductile moment resisting frame with infill wall
Plinth area covered
: .
Column
: Square size 300x300mm
Rectangular size (Main beams) :230 x 355 mm
Slab
: 125 mm thick two way slab
Type of foundation
: Isolated footing with STRAP BEAM for footing
No. of Storey
: Three story including stair cover
Total Height
: 9.6 with stair case cover
Wall
: 250 mm & 125mm thick brick masonry (1:5 C/S ratio)
Probable Partition
: (Actual Partition walls are not considered but 1KN/m2 equivalent
Dead Load is assumed for possible partition)
Type of Sub-Soil
: II (Medium type as per NBC 105)
Bearing Capacity of soil adopted = 200 KN/m2 as per site condition.

1.5 Loads on Buildings


1.5.1 Dead Load: A constant load in a building structure that is due to the weight of the members, the
supported structure, and permanent attachments or accessories. This analysis deals with dead loads to

be assumed in the design of buildings and same is given in the-form of unit weight of
materials. The unit weight of other materials that are likely to be stored in a building should be
also included for the purpose of load calculations due to stored materials. These loads are
calculated as specified in IS875-1987(part I)
1.5.2 Live Load : The load assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of a building,
including the weight of movable partitions, distributed, concentrated loads, load due to impact and
vibration, and dust load but excluding wind, seismic, snow and other loads due to temperature changes,
creep, shrinkage, differential settlement, etc. This analysis covers imposed loads*(live loads) to be
assumed in the design of buildings. The imposed loads, used in this building analysis, are minimum
loads which should be taken into consideration for the purpose of structural safety of buildings. These

loads are calculated as specified in IS875-1987 (part II)

Page 2 of 34

1.5.3 Seismic Load: The force on a structure caused by acceleration induced on its mass by an
earthquake. This load is included in design to determine the extent of seismic reinforcing. The
seismic loads on the structure during an earthquake result from inertia forces which were created by
ground accelerations. The magnitude of these loads is a function of the following factors: mass of
the building, the dynamic properties of the building, the intensity, duration, and frequency content
of the ground motion, and soil-structure interaction. The analysis method and earthquake loads

are calculated as specified in IS1893-2002.


1.5.4 Wind Load: Wind is air in motion relative to the surface of the earth. The primary cause of wind
is traced to earths rotation and differences in terrestrial radiation. The radiation effects are primarily
responsible for convection either upwards or downwards. The wind generally blows horizontal to the
ground at high wind speeds. Since vertical components of atmospheric motion are relatively small, the
term wind denotes almost exclusively the horizontal wind, vertical winds are always identified as
such. Wind load on the building would be usually uplift force perpendicular to the roof due to suction
effect of the wind blowing over the roof. The positive or negative force of the wind acting on the
structure; wind applies a positive pressure on the windward side of the building and a negative suction
to the leeward side.. This analysis ignored the wind loads as the building is located in seismic zone V
and hence the earthquake loads predominant it and the height of the building is less.

2.

METHODOLOGY
The project provided to us is completed performing each section works mentioned in the contents
before The following stages are involved in the analysis and design of three and half storey
building.

2.1 Load Calculation


Load calculation is done using the IS 1893:2002 and NBC105: 1994 as code of standards. The
exact value of unit weights of the materials from the code is used in the calculation. The thickness
of materials is taken as per design requirements.

2.2 Preliminary Design


The tentative size of structural elements are determined through the preliminary design so
that after analysis the pre assumed dimensions might not deviated considerably , thus
making the final design both safe and economical . Tentative sizes of various elements
have been determined as follows:
2.2.1 Slab
For slab, preliminary design is done according to deflection criteria span /effective depth =
26*modification factor.( IS456-2000 Art 23.2.1)
2.2.2 Beam
Thumb rule of d=L/12 to L/15 basis is adopted to consider the preliminary design of the
beam section .
b/D=1/2
2.2.3 Column
Preliminary design of column is done consideration and interior column. For the load acting in the
column, live load is decreased according to IS456-2000 & SP 16. Cross-sections of the columns
Page 3 of 34

are adopted considering the economy. Square column section is adopted in this building project as
per the internal aesthetic requirements.
2.2.4 Staircase
Stairs is designed as per drawing. Coolum for stairs boxes is not included in the grid
system but they are assumed to be simply tied with main frame with beam.

2.3 Loading Patterns


Loading pattern from slab to beam is obtained by drawing 45 0 offset lines from each corners then
obtained trapezoidal as well as the triangular loading and is converted into the equivalent UDL as
described in the respective sections .The loading from cantilever slab part is converted to UDL
acting in beam by dividing the total load by beam. Load from all cantilever part is converted to
UDL acting in beam by dividing total load (wall UDL*total wall length) by length of the beam.
Self-weight of the projected beam

2.4. Gravity Load Calculation


There are three types of loads for which the provided proposed project is designed:
Dead load
Live load
Seismic load
Dead load consists of the load from each element of building i.e. weight of column, beam, slab and
wall. Dimensions of column, beam, and slab are taken from preliminary design and Corresponding
density from code. For wall load thickness of wall is taken from plan. Live load is taken from
relevant code. In case of different live loads in one panel of slab, highest value of load is taken for
the panel. For seismic load whole mass lump of building is calculated from which base shear is
obtained according to code.

2.5 Tools for Analysis


For analysis, different softwares are available during these days. Concerning to the project CSIETABS V-15 integrated building software is used for analysis of frames. Manual analysis and
design using IS456:2000 carried out for the slabs and foundations with the help of me created
excel-templates made accordingly.

2.6 Design Method


Limit State Method
It uses the concept of probability and based on the application of method of statistics to the
variation that occurs in practice in the loads acting on the structures or in the strength of material.
The structures may reach a condition at which it becomes unfit for use for one of many reasons e.g.
collapse, excessive deflection, cracking, etc. and each of this condition is referred to a limit state
condition. The aim of limit state design is to achieve an acceptable probability that a structure will
not become unserviceable in its lifetime for the use for which it has been intended i. e it will not
reach a limit state. It means structures should be able to withstand safely all loads that are liable to
act on it throughout its life and it would satisfy the limitations of deflection and cracking. We
adopt limit state method for design.
Page 4 of 34

3.

FRAME DESIGN
3.1 ETABS Analysis

3.1.1

Assignments

Materials
Table 1 - Material Properties Concrete
Concrete
Grade
M20

1/C
5.50E-06

MPa
9316.95

MPa
20

0.2

Unit
Weight
kN/m
25

Fc
MPa
20

Lightweight?
No

Table 2 - Material Properties - Rebar


Name
HYSD415

MPa
200000

1/C
1.17E-05

Unit
Weight
kN/m
76.9729

Table 3 - Reinforcing Bar Sizes


Diameter
Name
mm
8
8
12
12
16
16

Unit Mass

Fy

Fu

kN-s/m
7.849

MPa
415

MPa
485

Area
mm
50
113
201

Loads
The following considerations are made for the assignment of loads on the structural model:
The loads distributed over the area are imposed on area element and that distributed over length are
imposed on line element whenever possible.

Where such loading is not applicable, equivalent conversion to different loading distribution is carried
to load the model near the real case as far as possible.

The imposed loading of infill walls are considered(as per architectural drwg.) as equivalent UDL with
25% to 30% deductions for openings, but the actual modelling of infill walls as equivalent Struts are
not performed. Hence the stiffness of infill walls are not considered.
Page 5 of 34

The Plinth Tie Beams are designed as purely tie members for lateral loads only, not designed as
flexural members as floor beams.

For simplicity of Structural analysis, Modelling of stair case is not performed & no landing beam is
considered. The DL & LL load of stair case is transferred to the floor beam as equivalent UDL.

Load Patterns
Table 4 - Load Patterns
Name

Type

Self-Weight Multiplier

Auto Load

Dead Load
Live Load
Seismic Load(X)
Seismic Load(Y)

Dead
Live
Seismic
Seismic

1
0
0
0

IS1893 2002
IS1893 2002

Load cases

Name

Stiffness From

Mass Source

Load Type

Load Name Scale Factor

Design Load Type

Dead

Preset P-delta

MsSrc1

Load Pattern

Dead

Program Determined

Live

Preset P-delta

MsSrc1

Load Pattern

Live

Program Determined

EQX

Preset P-delta

MsSrc1

Load Pattern

EQX

Program Determined

EQY

Preset P-delta

MsSrc1

Load Pattern

EQY

Program Determined

Dead loads (DL)

Assessment of unit Dead loads


Table 7 Assessment of unit Live Loads

Unit Weight of Concrete =


25
Unit Weight of Brickwork with
Plaster =
20
Unit Weight of Floor Finish
20
Probable Partition Equivqlent Dead
Load =
1
Beam-1 Width =
230 mm,
Beam-1 Depth =
355 mm,
Height Of wall =
3200 mm
Width Of External
Wall =
250 mm
Width Of Internal
Wall =
135 mm

KN/m3
KN/m3
KN/m3
KN/m2
Beam-2 Width =
Beam-2 Depth =

Slab Thickness =
Floor Finish Thickness =

Page 6 of 34

230 mm,
355 mm,

150 mm,
50 mm,

Percentage of
Opening on wall
=
Stair Area =

30 %
10.6 m2

Loads on Beams supporting Two- ways Slabs:


In case of Beams supporting two-way slabs, the load distribution is trapezoidal on long beams and
triangular on short beams with base angle of 45 as shown in fig. The ordinates of trapezoidal and
triangular loads=qLx/2.

Fig:1 Two-way slab Loading

Applications of loads on model


Table 6 Applications of loads on model
a)
Beams subjected to External Wall
Dead Load =
11 KN/m
b)
Line along the brick masonry partition walls
Dead Load =
6 KN/m
c)
StairCase Beam ( Beam-2)
Page 7 of 34

Length =

2743 mm

Self Weight
DL =

2 KN/m

Dead Load from Stair =


Dead Load from Wall =
Live Load from Stair =

d)

9 KN/m
11 KN/m
12 KN/m

Additional Dead Load=

20 KN/m

Additional Live Load=

12 KN/m

Self-Weight DL =
Furnishing DL =
Possible Partition DL =

3.75 KN/m2
1 KN/m2
1 KN/m2

Total Additional Dead Load=

2.00 KN/m2

(considering one-way
spanning of slab)

(other than self-wt.


load.i.e.applied on model)
(due to Live load on
stair.i.e.applied on model)

Floor Slab

(other than self-wt.


load.i.e.applied on model)

Imposed Load (LL)


The imposed loads on the structural system are taken from IS 875(part2)-1987 for
Residential/Commercial building

Assessment of unit Live Loads


Table 7 Assessment of unit Live Loads
Type of Building =

Residential

(IS875(II)-1987; Table 1)
Corridor =
Stair =
BedRoom =
Toilet/BathRoom =
Balcony =
Roof =
Terrace =

Clause 3.1
3 KN/m2
3
2
2
3
1.5

Note-1: While applying the loads on structural model rounding values are used for simplicity
Note-2: Point load consideration is ignored as the slab has sufficient rigidity to spread the
concentrated load; IS875 (II) Clause 3.1
Page 8 of 34

Lateral Load Calculation (Earthquake Load)


According to NBC105:1994 & IS 1823-2002, Chitwan lies on the zone 2, V. Hence, the effect of
the earthquake is predominant than the wind load. So, the frame is analysed for the EQ as lateral
load. Among the methods of seismic analysis Seismic Coefficient Method defined in clause 10.1
NBC 105:1994 and equivalent IS 1893-2002 clauses 6.4.2 is used to calculate seismic
coefficient. And hence lateral loads are determined

Assessment of Seismic Loading

Auto Seismic Loading

Load
Pattern

Type

Table
- Auto Seismic - IS 1893:2002 (Part 1 of 2)
Eccentri Ecc.
Directio
Period
Ct
Top
Bottom
city Overridd
Z Type
n
Method
m
Story
Story
%
en

EQX

Seismic X + Ecc. Y

No

EQX

Seismic X - Ecc. Y

No

EQY

Seismic Y + Ecc. X

No

EQY

Seismic Y - Ecc. X

No

Table
R

Program
Calculated
Program
Calculated
Program
Calculated
Program
Calculated

Soil
Type

StairCover

Base

Per Code

0.36

II

StairCover

Base

Per Code

0.36

II

StairCover

Base

Per Code

0.36

II

StairCover

Base

Per Code

0.36

II

- Auto Seismic - IS 1893:2002 (Part 2 of 2)


Period
Weight
Base
Coeff
Used
Used
Shear
Used
sec
kN
kN

0.0612

1145.9946

70.1349

0.0612

1145.9946

70.1349

0.0612

1145.9946

70.1349

0.0612

1145.9946

70.1349

Page 9 of 34

15/04/2015

IS1893 2002 Auto Seismic Load Calculation


This calculation presents the automatically generated lateral seismic loads for load pattern EQX according to
IS1893 2002, as calculated by ETABS.
Direction and Eccentricity

Direction = Multiple
Eccentricity Ratio = 5% for all diaphragms
Structural Period

Period Calculation Method = Program Calculated


Factors and Coefficients

Seismic Zone Factor, Z [IS Table 2]


Response Reduction Factor, R [IS Table 7]
Importance Factor, I [IS Table 6]
Site Type [IS Table 1] = II
Seismic Response

Spectral Acceleration Coefficient, Sa /g [IS


6.4.5]

Equivalent Lateral Forces

Seismic Coefficient, Ah [IS 6.4.2]

Calculated Base Shear

Direction

Period
Used
(sec)

W
(kN)

Vb
(kN)

X + Ecc. Y

1145.9946

70.1349

X - Ecc. Y

1145.9946

70.1349

Applied Story Forces

Page 10 of 34

15/04/2015

Story

Elevation

X-Dir

Y-Dir

kN

kN

StairCover
Second
Floor
First Floor

9.144

14.9102

6.096

43.542

3.048

11.6826

Base

Page 11 of 34

15/04/2015

IS1893 2002 Auto Seismic Load Calculation


This calculation presents the automatically generated lateral seismic loads for load pattern EQY according to
IS1893 2002, as calculated by ETABS.
Direction and Eccentricity

Direction = Multiple
Eccentricity Ratio = 5% for all diaphragms
Structural Period

Period Calculation Method = Program Calculated


Factors and Coefficients

Seismic Zone Factor, Z [IS Table 2]


Response Reduction Factor, R [IS Table 7]
Importance Factor, I [IS Table 6]
Site Type [IS Table 1] = II
Seismic Response

Spectral Acceleration Coefficient, Sa /g [IS


6.4.5]
Equivalent Lateral Forces

Seismic Coefficient, Ah [IS 6.4.2]

Calculated Base Shear

Direction

Period
Used
(sec)

W
(kN)

Vb
(kN)

Y + Ecc. X

1145.9946

70.1349

Y - Ecc. X

1145.9946

70.1349

Applied Story Forces

Page 12 of 34

15/04/2015

Story

Elevation

X-Dir

Y-Dir

kN

kN

StairCover
Second
Floor
First Floor

9.144

14.9102

6.096

43.542

3.048

11.6826

Base

Page 13 of 34

Load Combinations
The load combinations are based on NBC105:1994, clause 4.4 for Limit state design method.
The following load combinations are used during analysis.

Table 9- Load Combinations


S.N
.
1

Name
1.Combo1.5(DL+LL)

5.Combo (DL+1.3 LL-1.25EQY)

6.Combo (0.9DL+1.25EQX)

7.Combo (0.9DL-1.25EQX)

8.Combo (0.9DL+1.25EQY)

9.Combo (0.9DL-1.25EQY)

4.Combo (DL+1.3 LL+1.25EQY)

3.Combo (DL+1.3 LL+1.25EQX)

2.Combo (DL+1.3 LL-1.25EQX)

Load
Case/Combo
Dead
Live
Dead
Live
EQY
Dead
EQX
Dead
EQX
Dead
EQY
Dead
EQY
Dead
Live
EQY
Dead
Live
EQX
Dead
Live
EQX

Page 14 of 34

Scale Factor
1.5
1.5
1
1.3
-1.25
0.9
1.25
0.9
-1.25
0.9
1.25
0.9
-1.25
1
1.3
1.25
1
1.3
1.25
1
1.3
-1.25

Type
Linear Add
Linear Add

Linear Add
Linear Add
Linear Add
Linear Add
Linear Add

Linear Add

Linear Add

Auto
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No

Geometry Assignments
Table 10 Geometry Assignments
S.
N.
1

Design
Type

Story

Section Type

Analysis Section

Column

All*

Concrete
Rectangular

COL300*300 (4-16,4-12)

Beam

All Tie Beams

Concrete
Rectangular

BM 230*300

Beam

All***

Concrete
Rectangular

BM 230*355

Design
Procedure
Concrete
Frame
Design
Concrete
Frame
Design
Concrete
Frame
Design

Story
All
Story

Diaphragms
Rigid
Mesh Option

Slab thickness
125 mm
Beams/Lines

Wall Edges

Further Subdivide

All

Auto Cookie Cut

Yes

Yes

Yes

Design Section
COL300*300 (4-16,4-12)

BM 230*300

BM 230*400

Max Element Size


mm

Other Assignments
1) 100mm2 steel sections is overridden to beam section at top for ductile reinforcement
consideration.
2) Minimum rebar sizes and numbers are overridden
for beam 12mm dia and 4 numbers of bars
for column 16mm dia and 8 number of bars
3) In every floor slabs are interconnected to act as a diaphragm.
3.1.2 Analysis Preparation
Selection of Analysis Sections
Preliminary design is carried out to estimate approximate size of the structural members.
Grid diagram is the basic guiding parameter for analysis (both approximate and exact)
and is presented below.
Slab
For limit state of serviceability (deflection) criteria,
Span / depth ratio <
Where
, , ,, are modification factors given by IS 456: 2000
= 26, for continuous slab [IS 456: 2000, CL: 23.2.1(a)]
= 1, for span < 10m, [IS 456: 2000, CL: 23.2.1(b)]
= 1.24, for pt = 0.5% (assumed) [IS 456: 2000, CL: 23.2.1(c)]
Page 15 of 34

300

= 1, for pt = 0% [IS 456: 2000, CL: 23.2.1(d)]


= 1, for rectangular section [IS 456: 2000, CL: 23.2.1(e)]

Take Overall depth (D) = 150 mm


Beam
For main beam
Depth of beam = (1 / 13) * Longest span [IS 456: 2000 CL 22.2]
The section of main beam = 230 * 355 mm, 230*400 mm
Column
For main column
d = H/8 to H/10
D= 3200/ (8 to 10)
= 400 mm to 320 mm
Adopt Size of Column
= 350* 350 mm and 400*400 mm
3.1.3Analysis Outputs
Base Reactions
Table
Base Reactions and Foundation Groups
Joint
Label

S.N.

FX

FY

kN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

FZ

kN
11
11
6
3
2
7
7
2
5
2
5
2
10
12
11

MX

kN
9
2
1
2
8
10
5
5
6
6
10
8
8
7
5

Storey Drifts
Table: 12 Storey drift

Page 16 of 34

kN-m
359
240
420
210
337
610
559
305
665
343
391
196
221
385
326

Foundation
Group

MY
kN-m
9
14
15
12
9
9
13
11
11
10
8
7
8
11
13

15
15
11
8
7
11
11
7
10
6
10
7
14
17
15

F2
F1
F2
F1
F2
F3
F3
F2
F3
F2
F2
F1
F1
F2
F2

Storey
Maximum Drift
Stair Cover
0.000789
Second Floor
0.000605
First Floor
0.000521
Storey Drift ratio for all storied are checked as defined in clause 7.11.2, IS 1893-2002.It is found that
storey drift ratio for all stories are within permissible limit 0.004. OK. All the reaction forces, drifts and
deflections are shown in
ANNEX-I
Base Reactions are used to Design Foundation

Sections Forces
Typical analysis forces of beam/column and slab are presented below. All the beam/column
forces are presented in ANNEX-II

Fig:5 Direction of forces in Beam

Fig:6 Direction of Forces in Column

Page 17 of 34

Fig:7 Axial Force Diagram in Columns of Elevation B

Fig:8 SFD of First floor Beams in (2-2) of First Floor Beams


Page 18 of 34

Fig:9 Bending Moment Diagram (3-3) of Elevation A and B

Page 19 of 34

Page 20 of 34

Fig:10 Resultant Bending Moment (1-1 and 2-2 ) contour in First Floor Slab

3.2 Design Outputs


Preliminary designed sections are provided and the structure is checked for different load
combinations. The detail check and pass of all the message is shown in ANNEX-III
3.2.1 Typical Output of Critical Sections
ETABS 2015 Concrete Frame Design
IS 456:2000 Column Section Design(Envelope)

Column Element Details


Level

Element

Section ID

Length (mm)

LLRF

First Floor

C7

COL300*300 (4-16,4-12)

3048

0.701

Section Properties
b (mm)

h (mm)

dc (mm)

Page 21 of 34

Cover (Torsion) (mm)

b (mm)

h (mm)

dc (mm)

Cover (Torsion) (mm)

300

300

56

30

Material Properties
Ec (MPa)

fck (MPa)

Lt.Wt Factor (Unitless)

fy (MPa)

fys (MPa)

22360.68

20

415

415

Design Code Parameters


C

1.5

1.15

Longitudinal Check for Pu - Mu2 - Mu3 Interaction


Column End

Rebar Area
mm

Rebar
%

D/C Ratio

Top

1257

1.4

0.603

Bottom

1257

1.4

0.606

Design Axial Force & Biaxial Moment for Pu - Mu2 - Mu3 Interaction
Column End

Design Pu
kN

Design Mu2
kN-m

Design Mu3
kN-m

Station Loc
mm

kN

kN-m

kN-m

mm

Top

600.9743

7.929

-12.0195

2693

1.5 (DL+LL)

Bottom

610.0605

-4.8085

12.2012

1.5 (DL+LL)

Controlling Combo

Shear Reinforcement for Major Shear, Vu2


Column End

Rebar Asv /s
mm/m

Design Vu2
kN

Station Loc
mm

Controlling Combo

Top

332.53

0.2183

2693

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Bottom

332.53

0.2183

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Shear Reinforcement for Minor Shear, Vu3


Column End

Rebar Asv /s
mm/m

Design Vu3
kN

Station Loc
mm

Controlling Combo

Top

332.53

21.706

2693

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Bottom

332.53

21.706

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Joint Shear Check/Design


Joint Shear
Ratio

Shear
Vu,Tot
kN

Shear
Vc
kN

Joint
Area
mm

Controlling
Combo

Major(Vu2)

0.507

DL+1.3LL+1.25EQX

Minor(Vu3)

0.507

DL+1.3LL+1.25EQX

Beam/Column Capacity Ratios


1.1(B/C)
Ratio

Column/Beam
Ratio

SumBeamCap
Moments
kN-m

Page 22 of 34

SumColCap
Moments
kN-m

Controlling
Combo

1.1(B/C)
Ratio

Column/Beam
Ratio

SumBeamCap
Moments
kN-m

SumColCap
Moments
kN-m

Controlling
Combo

Major33

0.653

1.685

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Minor22

0.432

2.547

0.9DL-1.25EQY

ETABS 2015 Concrete Frame Design


IS 456:2000 Beam Section Design (Envelope)

Beam Element Details


Level

Element

Section ID

Length (mm)

LLRF

First Floor

B10

BM230*355

2743.2

Section Properties
b (mm)

h (mm)

bf (mm)

ds (mm)

dct (mm)

dcb (mm)

230

355

230

60

60

Material Properties
Ec (MPa)

fck (MPa)

Lt.Wt Factor (Unitless)

fy (MPa)

fys (MPa)

22360.68

20

413.69

413.69

Design Code Parameters


C

1.5

1.15

Flexural Reinforcement for Major Axis Moment, Mu3


End-I
Middle
End-J
End-I
Middle
Rebar Area
Rebar Area
Rebar Area
Rebar
Rebar
mm
mm
mm
%
%

End-J
Rebar
%

Top (+2 Axis)

227

0.28

212

0.26

262

0.32

Bot (-2 Axis)

212

0.26

212

0.26

212

0.26

End-I
Design Mu
kN-m
Top (+2 Axis)

-5.1633

Combo

1.5 (DL+LL)

Flexural Design Moment, Mu3


End-I
Middle
Middle
Station Loc
Design Mu
Station Loc
mm
kN-m
mm
150

-0.8944
0.9DL-1.25EQY

Page 23 of 34

1828.8

End-J
Design Mu
kN-m

End-J
Station Loc
mm

-25.512

2593.2

1.5 (DL+LL)

End-I
Design Mu
kN-m

End-I
Station Loc
mm

Bot (-2 Axis)

4.3834

532.2

Combo

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Middle
Design Mu
kN-m

Middle
Station Loc
mm

5.4108

1828.8

0.9DL-1.25EQY

End-J
Design Mu
kN-m

End-J
Station Loc
mm

3.2232

2211

0.9DL-1.25EQY

Shear Reinforcement for Major Shear, Vu2


End-I
Middle
End-J
Rebar Asv /s
Rebar Asv /s
Rebar Asv /s
mm/m
mm/m
mm/m
442.08

End-I
Design Vu
kN
47.2187

378.52

446.36

Design Shear Force for Major Shear, Vu2


End-I
Middle
Middle
End-J
Station Loc
Design Vu
Station Loc
Design Vu
mm
kN
mm
kN
150

0.0394

DL+1.3LL-1.25EQX

1828.8

End-J
Station Loc
mm

48.9573

DL+1.3LL-1.25EQX

2593.2

DL+1.3LL-1.25EQX

Torsion Reinforcement
Shear
Rebar Asvt /s
mm/m
505.54

Design Tu
kN-m
4.386

Design Torsion Force


Station Loc Design Tu
mm
kN-m
2593.2

1.5 (DL+LL)

3.1.2

Station Loc
mm

4.386

2593.2

1.5 (DL+LL)

Summary of Design Sections


Column
The brief description of column sections is tabulated below. The detailed column section
reinforcements are presented in Column Schedule attached in structural drawing section
of this report
Structural drawings are explained in ANNEX-IV

Table: 12 Column Sizes and Brief Rebar Schedule


Column

Sizes
mm*mm
1 300*300

Rebar Area
mm2

Rebar numbers

1257 4-16,4-12

Ties
8mm ,6legged ties @
100mm at joint
and @150mm
at middle of
column

*Spacing is illustrated in structural drawing attached with this report


Page 24 of 34

Remarks

Ties spacing explained


here is a general idea
proper spacing is
presented in column
schedule

**Column Framing Plan and Column Schedule are attached in structural drawing sheets.

Beam
All the sizes of beams and their labels and corresponding rebar are tabulated in Beam Rebar
Table attached with this report in structural drawing section (ANNEX-IV). Mainly the adopted
structurally passed sections are tabulated below
Table:13 Types of Adopted Beams and Their Sizes
Beams
Width (mm)
Main Beams
230

Depth(mm)
355

Staircase stair landing Beams

230

355

Tie Beams

230

230

Cantilever Overhanging Beams

230

230

Page 25 of 34

4.

SLAB DESIGN

4.1 General
Slabs are plate elements forming floors and roofs of buildings and carrying distributed
loads primarily by flexure. A staircase can be considered to be an inclined slab. They
may be supported on walls or beams or in the columns. The beam supporting the slabs
are considered stiff and do have deflections relative small as that compared to the slabs.
The slabs supported on the wall or beams are called edge supported slab.
4.1.1 Types of Slab
Slabs are classified according to the manner of the support
a) One-way Slab spanning in one direction
b) Two-way slab spanning in two direction
c) Circular slab
d) Flat slab
e) Ribbed slab
Two-way slabs are analysed and designed for this building
4.1.2 Methodology of slab design
Important information regarding the design of slab according to IS456:2000
1. Slab is designed for 1m wide strip
2. Temperature reinforcement (Ast min) = 0.12% bD for deformed bars along the
transverse direction to the main bars (Cl.26.5.2.1)
3. Cover minimum = 25mm
4. If Ly/Lx < 2, two way slab is designed
Design Steps for two way restrained slab

1. Effective depth (d) is taken from the preliminary design


2. Find out the loading
3. Find out the effective span
Leff = lo+ t
= lo + d whichever is less
4. Bending moment is calculated according to Annex D IS 456:2000
Mux = x * wu * (lx)2
Muy = y * wu * (lx)2
x and y are the bending moment coefficient from table 26 (IS 456: 2000)
Mux and Muy are the moments on the strips of unit width spanning lx and ly
respectively.
Lx and ly are the length of shorter span and longer span respectively.
5. Find out the area of the steel
Mu = 0.87 *fy *Ast*(d- (fy*Ast/fck * b))
6. Find out the spacing for the arrangement of steel.
Sv = 1000 * ( / 4 * 2) / Ast
7. Check for development length according to cl. 25.2.1 IS 456:2000
8. Check for deflection according to cl.23.2.1 IS 456:2000
Page 26 of 34

4.2 Analysis and Design of Two-way slab

Table: 14 Two-way Slab Sizes and Bottom Main Reinforcement


Table :

Slab Dimensions and Rebars

Positive Moment Side


Reinforcements along short
span (Middle Strip)

Client

Reinforcements along Long Reinforcements along ANY


span (Middle Strip)
Span (Column Strip)

Er. Buddhi Sagar Bastola, NEC 7059 'CIVIL' A

Slab
group
S1
S2
S3
S4

Table :

DL
LL
Lx (Short Ly (Long fy
Overal thickness of clear cover
(KN/m2) (KN/m2) Span)_mm Span)_mm (N/mm2) fck Mpa slab (mm)
(mm)
5.750 2.000
4000
4700
415
20
125
5.750 2.000
3700
4700
415
20
125
5.750 2.000
3700
4000
415
20
125
5.750 2.000
3000
4000
415
20
125

Slab Dimensions and Rebars

c/c

c/c
Atx mm2 (mm) spa(mm) Aty mm2 (mm) c/c spa. Atx mm2 (mm) spa.(mm)
20
535
10
125
209
8
300
126
8
300
20
512
10
125
179
8
300
126
8
300
20
416
10
125
142
8
300
126
8
300
20
386
10
125
93
8
300
126
8
300

Negative Moment Side

Er. Buddhi Sagar Bastola, NEC 7059 'CIVIL' A


Overal
Lx (Short Ly (Long
thickness clear
DL
LL
Span)_m Span)_m fy
of slab cover
m
(N/mm2) fck Mpa (mm)
(mm)
Slab group (KN/m2) (KN/m2) m
S1
5.750
2.000
4000
4700
415
20
125
S2
5.750
2.000
3700
4700
415
20
125
S3
5.750
2.000
3700
4000
415
20
125
S4
5.750
2.000
3000
4000
415
20
125

Reinforcements along short


span (Middle Strip)

Client

Reinforcements along Long


span (Middle Strip)

c/c
Atx mm2 (mm) spa(mm) Aty mm2 (mm)
20
614
10
125
286
20
593
10
125
244
20
484
10
125
189
20
440
10
125
124

Calculations of sample slab are presented in ANNEX-V

Page 27 of 34

Reinforcements along ANY


Span (Column Strip)

c/c
spa.(m
c/c spa. Atx mm2 (mm) m)
8
300
126
8
300
8
300
126
8
300
8
300
126
8
300
8
300
126
8
300

5. FOUNDATION DESIGN
5.1 General
Foundation are the structural element that transfer the loads from the building or
individual columns to the earth. The scope of foundation design is to consider the
excessive settlement, rotation, differential settlement and safety against sliding
/overturning of foundation.

5.1.1

Types of Footings

a) Isolated Footing: used for single column and may have square rectangular or circular
shapes
b) Strip Footing: Wall footing
c) Combined footing: supports two or more columns
d) Raft/Mat foundation: Support all columns. Used when soil bearing capacity is low
and sum of individual footing area is more than 50% of plinth area.
e) Pile/Well foundations: minimum three piles are capped to support the structures.
Well foundations are used in bridge foundations.
Selection of footings is made from experience but for economical foundations following
factors governs the major.
- Bearing capacity of soil and N-values of SPT
- Permissible differential settlement
- Soil strata
- Type of structures and loadings on them
Here the type of footing adopted is an isolated footing of size .

5.1.2 Bearing Capacity of soil


The total load per unit area under the footing must be less than permissible bearing capacity of
the soil. Foundations must be designed to resist vertical loads, horizontal loads and moments.
Typical net bearing capacity of different soil types are described below.
Rock: 3300KN/m2 to 450 KN/m2
Non-cohesive soil: 450 KN/m2 to 100 KN/m2
Cohesive soil: 450 KN/m2 to 50 KN/m2.
Here the safe bearing capacity adopted is a minimum 200KN/m2 for the proposed site.

5.1.3 Depth of Foundation


Factors
-Seasonal weather change e.g. erosion and movement of upper soil
-Lateral earth pressure required to resist horizontal loads.
-safe bearing capacity
Minimum depth of foundation = p/ [(1-sin)/ (1+sin)]
=angle of repose of soil, p= gross bearing capacity, = density of soil
However minimum depth of 500mm is mandatory.
Here the depth of foundation adopted is a minimum of 1 m from the existing ground level.

5.2 Analysis and Design of Foundation


The reaction forces are obtained from ETABS analysis and the corresponding designs are
made manually with the help of EXCEL template following the criterion of IS: 456-2000.
Page 28 of 34

Here the safe bearing capacity is taken on the basis of categorization of site soil and
peripheral geographical/hydrological features. Experiences with similar soil type and location
as the determination of proper value is out of the scope of this report. The design parameters
are shown in below and corresponding drawing are also attached in structural drawing section
of the architectural report.

Table: 15 Foundation design assignment of forces and output results.


Cocrete Strength
MPA
Bearing Capacity
of Soil (KN/m2)

20

Client

200

Location

Rebar Strength
415
MPA
S.N. F-Group # Joint
FZ
Labels
kN
1

F1 2,4,12,13

.
.

Date

250

MX

MY

Size of Footings

kN-m

kN-m

Lx (mm) Ly (mm)

14

15

1250

Bar

Spacing c/c Dowels

Depth
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
1200
1000
12

Bar

200

No
..
10
0

1,3,5,8,10,
2
F2 11,14,15
500
15
15
1700
1600
1000
12
200
12
0
3
F3 6,7,9
750
13
11
2100
2000
1000
12
200
20
4
# F-Group(1) = [Fz=0 to 250 KN] ,F-Group(2) = [Fz=250 to 500 KN] ,F-Group(3) = [Fz=500 to 750 KN],F-Group(4) = [Fz=750 to
1000 KN],
F-Group(5) = [Fz=1000 to 1250 KN],F-Group(6) = [Fz=1250 to 1500 KN],
Note: 1.Foundation are grouped so as to make simplicity in construction.
2. Minimum dowels of 10 mm bar is provided in each face of column(4 numbers)
3. All footings have 75mm brick/stone soling and 75mm PCC base from where the depth of footings is so defined in this table.

Calculations of major footings are presented in ANNEX-VI

Page 29 of 34

Fig: 11 Joint Labels at footing

6.

CONCLUSION

The purpose of this building is mainly residential as well as small scale of commercial with
limited resources. Hence due to high cost of soil investigation actual borehole site
exploration and the determination of bearing capacity of soil is omitted and adopted with
the experience and visual inspection of site and local possibilities. The frame system
analysis is made with an well powered software ETABS V17.Attempts are made to
economise and simplified the construction ensuring earthquake safety and adopting
common materials, common sections, and schedules. Design process is interactive process
of selecting frames and checking for loads considered. Final safe checked and passed
model with possible minimum sizes of frame members and minimum reinforcement is
adopted. However this design is safe against earthquake no doubly, however more iteration
are avoided in selection of members which make a little costly but not more than 10%.
Page 30 of 34

Foundations and Slabs are designed manually with the help of excel- design templates
made on the basis of IS 456:2000.Client is suggested to employ supervisor in the
construction periods to ensure the quality control of works/materials within a limit. All
necessary calculations; analysis results and design outputs are presented in annexes as a
Adarsha.pdf version of soft copy file.

REFERENCES
Books and Journals
1) Jain, A.K- R.C.C Limit State Design, Nem Chand & Bros, Roorkee, 1990
2) Shah & Kale- R.C.C Design, Macmillan India Limited
3) Ashok k. Jain- Advanced Structural Analysis, Nem Chand & Bros, Roorkee, 1990
4) S.S. Bhavikati-Structural Analysis- II, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
5) V.N. Vazirani- Analysis of Structures-II, Khanna Publishers
6) S. Ramamrutham-Theory of Structures, Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company
7) www.csiamerica.com
8) Bothara,Jitendra Kumar- Protection of educational buildings against earthquake,NSET-Nepal publication
9) Shrestha, Hima -Retrofitting of common Frame structural houses, NSET-Nepal publication
Codes
1) I.S. 456-2000 -Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete
2) I S. 456-1978 -Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete ( S.P.-16 )
3) S.P.34-1987 - Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing
4) I S 1893-2003 -Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design Structure
5) I S 13920-1993 -Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to
Seismic forces
6) I S 875-1987 -Code of practice for Design Loads for Buildings and Structures
Part 1- Dead Loads
Part 2- Imposed Loads
7) NBC 105 :1994- Seismic Design of Building in Nepal
8) NBC 108 :1994- Site Consideration for Seismic Hazards
9) NBC 201 :1994 - Mandatory Rules of Thumb Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Masonry Infill
Tools
CSI-ETABS V.17: The frame analysis and design of this building is made with CSI-ETABS software
choosing the integrated IS codes of standards. The innovative and revolutionary ETABS is the ultimate
integrated software package for the structural analysis and design of buildings. Incorporating 40 years of
continuous research and development, this latest ETABS offers unmatched 3D object based modelling and
visualization tools, blazingly fast linear and nonlinear analytical power, sophisticated and comprehensive
design capabilities for a wide-range of materials, and insightful graphic displays, reports, and schematic
drawings that allow users to quickly and easily decipher and understand analysis and design results. The
entire building structure was analyzed for gravity (including P-Delta analysis), wind, and seismic loadings
utilizing ETABS version 8.4, from Computers and Structures, Inc (CSI). Major success story of software
are shortly explained below.
ETABS is used in the structural design of the Burj Dubai in the United Arab. The Burj Dubai
Tower is the worlds tallest structure, passing all previous height records. The entire building structure was
analyzed for gravity (including P-Delta analysis), wind, and seismic loadings utilizing ETABS version 8.4,
from Computers and Structures, Inc (CSI).
ETABS is used in the design of the new Museum for African Art on Fifth Avenue in New York
City

Page 31 of 34

Microsoft Office Excel Templates: The Design of Foundations and Slabs are made with Excel-Template
prepared by myself. The so prepared design templates are based on IS 456:2000 - Code of Practice for Plain
and Reinforced Concrete

ANNEXES
1. ANNEX-I-Base Reactions and Drifts/Deflection Of Structural Elements (Soft Copy)
2. ANNEX-II-Frame Section Forces (Soft Copy)
3. ANNEX-III-Design Outputs (Soft Copy)
4. ANNEX-IV-Structural Drawings (Soft as well as Hard Copy)
5. ANNEX-V- Calculations of Sample Slabs (Soft Copy)
6. ANNEX-VI-Calculations of Sample Footings (soft Copy)

Page 32 of 34

Er.Buddhi Sagar Bastola NEC CIVIL A 7059

Page 33 of 34

27/03/2015

Page 34 of 34