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1998

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.........................................................................................................................................................1
.............................................................................................................................................................5
I. . ........................................................................................10
1: ....................................................................10
....................................................................................................................11
, ................................................................12
, ?..............................................................................................13
?...................................14
, ......................................................15
to be............................................................................................................................................................................ 15
to have........................................................................................................................................................................ 15
FUTURE ( )........................................................................................................................................15
.................................17
.............................................................................................................17
.............................................................................................................................19
1. INDEFINITE.......................................................................................................................................................... 19
2. CONTINUOUS...................................................................................................................................................... 20
3. PERFECT...............................................................................................................................................................21
Perfect Present............................................................................................................................................................21
Perfect Past.................................................................................................................................................................22
Perfect Future.............................................................................................................................................................22
Perfect continuous ( Passive)...........................................................................................................23
Perfect Continuous Present.........................................................................................................................................23
Perfect Continuous Past..............................................................................................................................................23
Perfect Continuous Future..........................................................................................................................................24
.................................24

1: , ....................27
1: ...............................................................................30
2: ...........................................................................30
3: .............................................................................................34
4: ........................................................................................36
5: ......................................................................................................................................37
2. .............................................................................................................................................41
2: ..................................................................................................................47
6: .......................................................................50
7: .............................................................................51
3. .......................................................................................53
..................................................................................................................................................53
...........................................................................................................................54

3: shall / will / need / dare ..............55


8: ..................................................................................................57
............................................................................................................................................58
........................................................59

9: .....................................................................60
10: ..................................................................................................62
11: every / some / any /now. .............................................................62
12: ....................................................65
13: - / ..........................................66
14: there + to be................................................................................67
there+to be.............................................................................................67

15: ..........................................................................69
4. ......................................................................................................71
.........................................................................................................................................................71
..............................................................................................................................................74
.........................................................................................................................................77
..........................................................................................................................................77

II. . ........79

5: ............................................................................................................82
WHAT THAT?.....................................................................................................................................................85

6: .........................................................................................................90
1- ................................................................................91
2- ................................................................................93
.........................................................................................................................93

6: ......................................................................93
7: / INFINITIVE.....................................................................................................................96
..........................................................................97
..........................................................................................................................98
.......................................................................................................................100
for................................................................................................................101
....................................................................................................................101

8: / PARTICIPLE...................................................................................................................103
.............................................................................................................................105
............................................................................................................................106
.........................................................................................................................106

9: / GERUND..........................................................................................................................108
10: / PUNCTUATION MARKS..................................................................................118
(. Full Stop / . Period)............................................................................................................118
(Comma).....................................................................................................................................................118
(Apostrophe)...........................................................................................................................................121

III..........................................................................................................................................................123
I. , -s....................................................................................................................123
II. to be (was/were; been)..............................................................................................................................123
III. to do (did / done).....................................................................................................................................125
IV. to have (had)...........................................................................................................................................126
V. shall............................................................................................................................128
VI. will...........................................................................................................................128
VII. Should ( shall)...........................................................................................................................129
VIII. Would ( will)............................................................................................................................130
IX. , -ed............................................................................................................................131
X. , -ing............................................................................................................................132
XI. one........................................................................................................................................................... 135
XII. for...........................................................................................................................................................135
XIII. it...........................................................................................................................................................136
XIV. that........................................................................................................................................................136

IV...........................................................................................................................................................137
1. ..............................................................................................................................................................137
2. / / ..............................................................................................................................................137
3. () / ) / / ..................................................................................138
4. / / .....................................................................................................................139
5. / / ....................................................................................................................................140
6. / ..........................................................................................................................141
7. To call...................................................................................................................................................................141
8. To get....................................................................................................................................................................142
9. To take..................................................................................................................................................................144
10. / / / / ...................................................................................145
11. / ............................................................................................................................................147
12. ................................................................................................................................................................. 147
13. / / ..............................................................................................................................148
14. / / .........................................................................................................148
15. / / / / / / / / (
).....................................................................................................................................................................149
16. ................................................................................................................................................................ 150
17. / ()..................................................................................................................................150
18. / / / / ( / ).......................................................................151
19. .............................................................................................................................................................152
20. ..........................................................................................................................................................152
21. / ................................................................................................................................................153
22. / .......................................................................................................................................153

23. / / another / other / the others.....................................................................................................153


24. Right................................................................................................................................................................... 154
25. () / () / ().........................................................................................155
26. / / / ...................................................................................155
27. / ........................................................................................................................................................... 155
28. Time.................................................................................................................................................................... 156
29. First..................................................................................................................................................................... 157
30. / / ............................................................................................................................................158
31. / .......................................................................................................................................158
32. / .............................................................................................................................159
33. / ( - / - / -)...........159
34. / ........................................................................................................................................160
35. ................................................................................................................................................................... 160
36. .....................................................................................................................................................................161
37. - / ..........................................................................161
38. ................................................................................................................................................................. 161
39. / / ......................................................................................................................162
40. / .....................................................................................................................................163
41. / .............................................................................................................................................................163
42. / / / ... ........................................................................164
43. / ...................................................................................................................................164
44. ............................................................................................................................................................... 164
45. / .............................................................................................................................................165
46. ..................................................................................................................................................165
47. () / ()........................................................................................................................166
48. Used to / to be used to smth................................................................................................................................167
49. / .......................................................................................................................................................167
50. -...........................................................................................................................167
51. ...................................................................................................................................................................168
52. () / ()....................................................................................................................168
53. / / / .................................................................................................169

V.............................................................................................................................................................171
1. () ....................................................................................................................171
2. Will shall..................................................................................................................................................171
3. ...................................................................................171
4. ....................................................................................................................171
5. .....................................................................................................172
6. Don't doesn't.............................................................................................................................................172
7. . / ............................................................................................................................172
8. .............................................................................................................................173
9. ...................................................................................................................................................174
10. ...............................................................................................................................................174
11. ..............................................................................................................................................................174
12. ............................................................................................................................................................ 174
13. ....................................................................................................................................................... 175
14. () . / () ....................................................................................................................................175
15. .......................................................................................................................................175
16. ?........................................................................................................................................................... 176
17. / - ( - )................................................................................176
18. ( - )................................................................................................176
19. , ... / ,... / ,... / , ... ..................................................................................................................177
20. , ... / ,... / ,... / , ... ...........................................................................177
21. ? / ?..........................................................................................................................177
22. ?........................................................................................................................................177
23. . / , , .............................................................................................177
24. ?..................................................................................................................................................177
25. ?.............................................................................................................................................178
26. (,) / . / , ...................................................178
27. ? / ?..................................................................................................178
28. ...?....................................................................................................................................................178
29. ......................................................................................................................179
30. ( , )................................................................179

31. ............................................................................................179
32. ...........................................................................................179
33. / , .................................................................180
34. / , ............................183
35. / / ,
( / /
) .................................................................................................................................185
36. ,
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 188
37. / ,
..........................................................................................................................192
:........................................................................................194

VI. .............194
................................................................................................................................................................195
.................................................................................................................................196
....................................................................................................................................196
.................................................................................................................................................197
.................................................................................................................................................197
................................................................................................................................................................197

...................................................................................................................................................199


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3. to have + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3- )
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2. to be being + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3- )
3. to have been + ~ ~ ~ ~ ed (3- )
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Past
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(Active), (Passive)?

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Mother ( ).
2. . ,
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to be + ~ ~ ~ ing
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to be sleeping
Infinitive, .
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) Present. , .


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14

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I ()

We ()

You ( / )

()
She ()
It ()

They ()

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2- , ;
he () she () ( ),
it:
:
/
:
table if / lamp it

to be
1 I am

We are

2
You are
He is
3 She is They are
It is

I was

You were
He was
She was They were
It was

We were

to have
1 I have

We have

2
You have
He has
3 She has They have
It has

I had

You had
He had
She had They had
It had

We had

FUTURE ( ).
, ,
shall ( 1- ) will ( 2- 3- ).
; to ,
:
15

I shall ---

2
3

We shall --You will ---

He will --She will --It will ---

They will ---

~~~ , ( ) .
:
will be ~~~ ing.
We shall have ~~~ ed (3).

Passive Continuous to be being ~ ~ ~ ed (3) Future;


, : +
( / / ...); Infinitive
to ( will smoke); to be .
. ,
. .
Mother (She), to be
(Present) is. ,
Infinitive Present, to be is. is sleeping.
- Active Continuous Present, :
Ac-five ( -);
Continuous - ( -);
Present ( -), ..
.

,
;
:
. Mother is sleeping.

, . ,
, , .
: now (). :
. Mother is sleeping now.
, , , , ..
Continuous. .
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Indefinite. :
Active;
Indefinite.
Active 1 (Indefinite): to ~~~.
Present ( ).
16

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1.

( , ;
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A man is smoking now. .
A big man is smoking now. .
A good big man is smoking now. .

:
( );
smoke () -; -ing -ed
- , smoking (smoked).
2.

3.

:
Active Passive;
(1, 2, 3, 4) ;
(Past / Present / Future);
( , Active Indefinite),
; .
.

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: " , ?".
. , ,
.
. Father reads (Active Indefinite Present) papers every day.
. Father is smoking (Active Continuous Present) now.
. Mother wax sleeping (Active Continuous Past) several
minutes ago.

minutes:
-s
( minute );
, ;
17

( ) -s ,
.
. Big boys were reading (Active Continuous Past) new
books.
. I shall see (Active Indefinite Future) small girls
together tomorrow.
.

:
, .. ? / ?;
, ;

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( / ), ;
, ;
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Passive;
, ( ) ;
, , ..
, , , ,
:
\ \ several /
\ \ boys ( -s )
\ \ small
, ,
, ; Passive.
:

. Several small boys were seen (Passive


Indefinite Past) together yesterday. (: Yesterday ......... together.)
.

:
, , ,
, ; ,
(them), ; (!!!)
; - ( ) ; ,
, they:
. They were seen (Passive Indefinite Past) yesterday.
. will be seen (Passive Indefinite Future) tomorrow.
. The () book is being read (Passive Continuous Present) now.
. The books are being read (Passive Continuous Present) now.
.

:
, ;
: to be;

to be , ;
(Active Indefinite), ..
, - ; , : was / were, been;
/ ;
18

:
to be , : was Past
Indefinite , a were Past Indefinite ;
to be , to be , ..
:
. We are (Active Indefinite Present) students.
. We were (Active Indefinite Past) students.
. I am (Active Indefinite Present) a student.
. I was (Active Indefinite Past) a student.
. I shall be (Active Indefinite Future) a student.
. We shall be (Active Indefinite Future) students.
. He is (Active Indefinite Present) a student.

/ - -, - / -
-.; to have;
, ; to be, to
have , (Active Indefinite); ,
; to have (had).
. I have (Active Indefinite Present) a house.
. I had (Active Indefinite Past) a house.
. We had (Active Indefinite Past) a house.
. She has (Active Indefinite Present) a house.
. They will have (Active Indefinite Future) a house.
, :
. The house has two windows.( ...)
. The room has one window.( ...)
. The car had three doors.( ...)
. The car will have one door.( ...)
to do . , to be to have
(Active Indefinite), ,
; to do (did; done); , ;
:
. I do (Active Indefinite Present) it everyday.
. We did (Active Indefinite Past) it yesterday.
. does (Active Indefinite Present) it every day.
. I shall do (Active Indefinite Future) it tomorrow.
. They will do (Active Indefinite Future) it tomorrow.
, , ,
Perfect Perfect Continuous. ,
.
, - ,
Indefinite Continuous. ,
, .

.
1. INDEFINITE.
,
, .., Continuous 7 Perfect / Perfect Continuous,
19

- ( / /
).

;
,
:
. :
- , .
- . (, - ) Active Continuous Present I am smoking.
:
- - , ?
- . ( , ; ) Active Indefinite
Present I smoke.
- .
,
, , "". ,
, . Indefinite ,
- ;
(). (). ().
(). 100 ().
Indefinite (Active Passive) (Past / Present / Future):
/ / .
/ / .
/ / .
, Indefinite
Continuous. , : .
() / . ( ).

2. CONTINUOUS.
/ / / / / / .
, , - Past / Present / Future
, Continuous:
(). Continuous
(). Indefinite
. Continuous
. Indefinite
Future Continuous Indefinite , Past Present.
.
,
. Continuous:
. , , (
, , ,
).
, Indefinite:
. , -
.
, Continuous
, .. :
20

. .
Continuous ,
- , :
. .

, , Continuous:
to want
to like
to love
to know
to see .

.

:
, /
/ , Indefinite Future Continuous Present;
:
. / . / .

( / /), Continuous Present:
We are working in the evening. They are going to the sea in summer. Mother is coming in a few days.
to be going to do something,
-:
We are going to work in the evening. They are going to go to the sea in summer. Mother is going to
come in a few days.

3. PERFECT.
,
. , .
.

Perfect Present.
- : /
/ .. Past.
Indefinite Past : I bought /
came / saw; Perfect Present : I have bought / have
come / have seen. ? .
Perfect :
a) ;
b) , ;
c) ,
, .
, - ( ) -
( , ). ( ) :
.
, (),
(b) - Past Indefinite.
:
21

. : / / /
/ ...
Perfect ,
, (c). (b),
, ().
. I saw the boys yesterday.


( , )
Indefinite Past.
. I have seen the boys today.

( ,
) Perfect Present.
. She saw the boys five minutes ago.
() . . . . ()
(
) Indefinite Past.
. She has seen the boys this week.



( )
( ,
) Perfect Present.

,
,
.
:
.

, . ,
- , Perfect Present;
( ) Indefinite Past.
1: . , , ,
. - , ,
: . Perfect Present I have bought a house.
Perfect Present /
( : ... .).
2: - , : "
. . , ..."
,
, Indefinite Past I bought a house...
Perfect Present
( / .),
. .
22

Perfect Past.
:
4.

5.

- ( - by):
. The house had been built (Passive Perfect Past) by
the end of the last year. ( )
, ,
; , , Perfect Past,
, ( ) Indefinite Past:
, . The house had been built (Passive Perfect
Past) before we came here (Active Indefinite Past).

Perfect Future.
:
by - :
. The house will have been built (Passive Perfect
Future) by the end of the next year.
b) , ,
; , , Perfect Future,
Indefinite Present:
, , . By the time you receive (Active
Indefinite Present) this message I shall have left (Active Perfect Future).
, . The house will have been built (Passive
Perfect Future) before we come (Active Indefinite Present) there.
, ,
. If I take the pill now, it will have started (Active Perfect Future) to work by the time we get
(Active Indefinite Present) home.
a)

:

; ,
/
(. V); ,
Perfect Future, Indefinite Future:
. :
The house will have been built (Passive Perfect Future) by the next month. The house will be built
(Passive Indefinite Future) by the next month.
-
; ( / ..)
.

Perfect continuous ( Passive).


. ,
, , ,
(Indefinite Continuous).
.

Perfect Continuous Present.


, , -
. , :
1.

/

23

2.

.
,
.
:
(1) ( for )
( ). We have been building the house for a
month.
(2) ( since , )
. We have been building the house since last year.
We have been thinking about buying (, ) a new car.
, .
:
We build (Indefinite Present) the house for a month. :
We are building (Continuous Present) the house for a month.

Perfect Continuous Past.


, ,
( ).
" (1) (2), Perfect Continuous Present.
Indefinite Past:
(1) , . We had been building the house for a
month, when the war began.
(2) , . We had been building the house
since last year, when the war began.

Perfect Continuous Future.


, -
. (1) (2),
Indefinite Present;
(1) , . We shall have been building the
house for two months by the end of the year.
(2) , . We shall have been sleeping
since ten o'clock when you call.

. , .


.
1.
2.

, (
); .
( ).

:
, , ,
(Active Indefinite Present / Past) (Active Perfect Continuous
Future / Passive Perfect Future); ;
, ( Active Indefinite Present / Past,)
: shall / will / to be / to have , a ,
: ~~~ing; ~~~ed ( ); 3- (
); should / would ( shall
/will) - , Infinitive
24

,
; , ..
.
3.

Infinitive ( shall / will / should / would /


, - to be to have
Infinitive) .
4. , . -
!
, "",
.
5. , ..
- :
(~~~~~~);
Active Passive , ,
;
(1, 2, 3, 4)
;
shall /will, to be / to have
;
.
6.

.
,
, .
. , ,
.

a)
b)
c)
d)

a)
b)
c)
d)

a)

:
is smoking a big cigar now.
(I)
.
(II)
is smoking (is Present to be; smoking
).
(III)
to be ~~~ ing.
(IV)
Active 2. Continuous.
smoke ;
( Active);
( Continuous);
( is to be Present)
: () / () / ().
(V)
: .
Father smokes big cigars.
(I)
Father .
(II)
smokes 3.,4. ,
, .. Active Indefinite.
;
(Active);
(Indefinite);
(~~~s) : .
(III)
.
Father has smoked a big cigar today.
(I)
Father .
(II)
has smoked (has Present to have; smoked ).
(III)
to have ~~~ed.
(IV)
Active Perfect.
;
25

b) (Active);
c) (Perfect);
d) (has Present) => : .
(V)
.
They have been seen today.
(I)
They => .
(II)
:
1) have been been ( been 3- to be);
2) ( been Active
Perfect Continuous / Passive Perfect); : 3-
, 2); - 1) : seen 3- to see
() : have been seen
(III)
: to have been seen.
(IV)
Passive Perfect.
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) .
(V)
.
We shall see father tomorrow.
(I)
We .
(II)
shall see.
(III)
to ~~~ Active Indefinite.
(IV)
.
(V)
.
We shall be seen together.
(I)
We .
(II)
shall be seen.
(III)
to be + 3- .
(IV)
Passive Indefinite.
(V)
.
(VI)
.
:
:
1.

. , , .. ,
(
- , .. ).
,
() . ...

,
"" , , ,
-, .. ,
, "" "" .
, ,
. , -
, .
.
2.

, -.

26

. ,
(, ). ,
- , - ..
: , , -
. .
.
, , .
:
I want to sleep. (1) . = (2)
wanted to smoke every day. (1) . / ' . =
(2)
3. They will buy a new car. (1) . = (2)
4. I am Leon. (1) . (2) . / .
5. My name is Leon. (1) . (2) . / .
6. She had a table. (1) . (2) .
7. The house has several rooms. (1) . (2) .
8. Every room will have several tables and one window. (1)
. (2) .
9. She is twenty (years old). (1) ( ). (2) .
10. will be twenty next year. (1) . (2)
.
1.
2.

:
, ,
(: (to be) - ., (to have)
- .; years old, )
-:
. She was twenty (years old) last year.
:
Yolanda Smith is twenty two years old. Cindy Fox is twenty. They are friends. Yolanda is a medical student.
Cindy is a cleaner. Sometimes Yolanda helps Cindy to clean rooms. They are cleaning a room now. Cindy has
come earlier today. The girls feel well. They are using a new cleaning liquid. The liquid is very strong. It is good.
It was brought yesterday. The girls are happy. They are talking loudly. It is getting dark. They will go home soon.

:
-r, , (, ) ,
(to clean / cleaner ; to work / worker ; to drive
/ driver ..);
-r , (.
9); early, , -, -i
- (earli+er earli early);
-1, ; loud loudly
;
, , -t / - / -g,
, -ing -ed (stop / stopped; log /
logging ..), , , ; get (getting get+t
get).
:
. . . -
(: ). .
27

. . .
. .
. . . . .
.
1 ,
.
(), () .
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, .

1: ,
.
.
, ,
, , ,
. , :
:
(soon ; yet );
( -l : badly ;
simply ; loudly );
( : sometimes ; anyway -;
however );
(at last ; at least ; at first ; in vain
).
:
(today ; tomorrow ; now ; then );
(outside ; here ; nowhere );
(loudly ; quickly ; slowly ; well );
(very ; little ; much ; quite ).
,
.
IV.
,
, , .
Indefinite (Active / Passive) ( ),
. ,
( ), / ; ,
( ) -:
(Active Indefinite) to be (Passive Indefinite),
/ .
:
yesterday ;
the day before yesterday ;
the day after tomorrow ;
28

X (- ) days / minutes / years / weeks / ... ago X / / /


/ ... () ;
last morning / evening / week / month / year / ... ( ) / (
) / / / / ...
:
usually ;
often ;
seldom ;
rarely ;
every day / minute / week / month / year / ... / / / / / ...
:
. They came yesterday.
. The day before yesterday they were seen together.
. The letter was sent three days ago.
. seldom comes here.
. They are often invited there.
. They are invited there every week.
Sometimes ; / ,
Active Indefinite, to be Passive Indefinite:
. Sometimes she comes here. She comes here sometimes. She
sometimes comes here.
. Sometimes she is invited here. She is invited here sometimes. She
is sometimes invited here.
Always ; Indefinite ,
( )
Active Indefinite to be Passive Indefinite:
. They always come here.
. They were always invited here.
Always ; Active Perfect Present
( - , ..
); to have:
. I have always been a fool.
Already ; :
a) Perfect (Active / Passive);
to have:
. They have already come.
. She has already been invited.
b) Indefinite
(Active / Passive); (Active
Indefinite), to be (Passive Indefinite):
. already smokes. / smokes already.
. She already feels well. / She feels well already.
. We are already known.
c) Continuous (Active / Passive);
to be :
. We are already cleaning our room. / We are cleaning our room
already.
. The lamp is already being used. / The lamp is being used already.
Yet ,
already.
29

Yet => ,
already:
. They have already come.
? Have they come yet?
. They have not come yet. / They have not yet come.
Yet , ()
not ().

already ( )

yet ( ) yet ( ).
Still / / -;
:
a)

Continuous (Active / Passive);


to be,
( ):
. She is Still sleeping.
? Is she still sleeping? :
. She is not sleeping yet.
b) Indefinite (Active / Passive);
;
to be, :
. She still wants to buy a new house.
. They still come here.
. My father is still in Moscow.
c) still :
. Sit still.
. She is sitting still. :
. She is still sitting.
Ever - / - ;
;
, Perfect Present (Active / Passive);
, Indefinite Present (Active / Passive):
- ? Have you ever seen dollars?
- ? Have you ever been invited there?
- ? Do you ever go to the cinema?
- ? Are they ever invited there?
- ? Does she ever feel well?
Never ;
( ) ;
, Perfect Present (Active / Passive);
, Indefinite Present
(Active / Passive):
. I have never seen dollars.
. We have never been invited there.
. They are never invited there.
. She never feels well.
Just / ,
; Perfect Present (Active / Passive);
30

indefinite Past;
to have (Perfect Present) (Indefinite Past):
. She has just come. (. / . ) / She just came. (.)
. They have just been seen here. (. / .) / They were just seen
here. (.)
Just ,
. . .

1: .
,
. .
:
1
2
3
4


/
.
,
:

- .
there+to be.
,
( . / ? .).
.
( ) .

2: .
, , , ,
: (1), (2), (3), (4):
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
?
.
!
, :

1.
2.
3.
4.

1) . / .
?
.
!
.
,
, .., .

.
:
. (4 )
" ":
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.
.
31

, - ( ) ,
. ,
" ", .
:
1.
2.

not;
n / none / neither / nobody / never / nothing .

1
. ,
- .

not
, .. , (will / shall / to be /to have / to
do .), , .. .
:
1. . Active Indefinite Present
to do do (Present / 1-
/. ) => I do not want to go home.

:
not
() , do not don't (I don t want to go home.); ,
, ;
,
.
2. . Active Indefinite Future Future shall ( to do
) I shall not go home. ( : I shan't go home.)
3. . Active Continuous Present Mother is not (isn't) sleeping now.
4. . Passive Indefinite Past They were not (weren't) seen yesterday.
5. . Active Indefinite Past

:
2- to
come, Active Indefinite Past (She came last week.);
to do, (Past did);
, Infinitive
to:

She did not (didn't) come last week.


6. . Passive Perfect Present The big room has not
(hasn't) been cleaned today.
7. . Active Indefinite Future Father will not (won't) come early
today.
8. .

:
, ,
at all u :

I do not (don't) smoke at all.


9. ( ). I am not smoking now. ( am not
, : I'm not smoking now.)
10. . She does not (doesn't) know you at all.
11. . ( .) (Active Indefinite Present)

:
32

to be (Active Indefinite)
to do :
I am not a student.
12. . This house is not (isn't) being built now.
13. . ( .)

:
to have (Active Indefinite)
to do:

I have not (haven't) a car.


to do to have got:
I do not (don't) have a car. I have not got (haven't got) a car.
14. . They did not (didn't) want to buy a
new car a month ago.
15. .

:
( ) ,
:

Even father does not (doesn't) know it.


, not
even, :
Not even father knows it.
16. . Not even they will help you. / Even they (will not) won't help
you.
2
, not,
, .. - .
, ,
( / ; ). ,
, , not, ,
, .. . at all not
, no .

. never (Active Indefinite)
( ).

:
,
( I):
1. . / . I have no money :
. I have not money.
2. . Nobody is sleeping now.
3. . I saw nobody here last month.
4. . knows nothing.
5. . I shall clean nothing next time.
6. . (
.) Next time he will bring no friends.
7. . She never comes here.
8. . She will never come here.
9. .

:
33


Perfect Present,
( ):

She has never seen a war.


10. . . None / Neither of them can help me.
11. , , . I have told none but you about it.
12. . I see no boys and girls here.

1:
() : not + any;
any -, (. 11);
not , , .. ; ,

:
not ( ), any (
); any, , , ,
not:

I do not see any boys and girls here.


:
1. I have no money. I have not any money.
( not any , )
2. I saw nobody here last month. I didn't see anybody here last month.
3. He knows nothing. He does not (doesn't) know anything.
4. I shall clean nothing next time. I shall not clean anything next time.
5. Next time he will bring no friends. Next time he will not bring any friends.
6. I see no boys and girls here. I do not see any boys and girls here.

2:
,
, ;
:
is a very dishonest man. .
These seats are for non-smokers only. .

3:
not a
+ :
Not a head turned to see us. .
.
Not a car has been sold. ( , )
.
is in great physical shape not a pound overweight.
.

4:
not ( /
.); ,
, .. not :
Father will not come soon. . .
She does not know much. . .

5:
not
:
34

I knew her but not as a friend. , . , .


Not that he did not know that. He , .
Not that she works much. He , .

6:
Infinitive not :
be or not to be? ?
They asked us not to tell you about this. .

7:
/ - (too) (either)
;
:
I like it. I like it, too. , ( )
I like it too. . ( )
I don't like it. I don't like it, either. .
I don't like it either. .
neither:
I don't like it, neither. .

8:
... ... neither... nor.. :
They will neither eat nor drink. , .
She is neither beautiful nor intelligent. , .
neither (not+either) , ,
:
took neither side in the argument. ,
.
Neither of the two came. , .
I do not like either of the two. , .

.
:
;
, , ;

. . .
. , .
. . .
. , . .
. . . .
You do not (don't) know these girls. Becky and Mary are not (aren't) cleaners. They are not friends at all. They
have never been seen together. Becky is a medical student, but she will never be a good doctor. She does not
(doesn't) like to work. Mary does not like to work, either. The girls have no / have not any money. They have no
cars either. They do not sleep well. They do not feel well. The girls don't smoke cigars. They do not smoke at all.
Neither of them wants to smoke. They never come here. They do not want to.

:
, -
Infinitive, , to ;
... come.

35

3: .
. ,
.
, .
.
- - ? / ? /
? / ...?
: (1) (2).
(1)
1.

:
I my

We our

He his
She her
It its

They their

2.
3.


.
. My house is big.
. Their car was old.
,
.
. My big house is new.
. has never seen their small old car.

1:
, ; ..
, , ,
:
. ( )
. ( ) took his hand out of his pocket.

2:
,
:
. . She took her bag.
. . They came into their house.
1.

I mine

We ours

He his
She hers
It its

They theirs

2.
3.

:
,
;
, ,
:
? . . -Whose house is it / this? It /This / That is my
house. It / This / That is mine.
? . . -Whose car is it / this? It / This /That is
their car. It / This / That is theirs.
36

? . . -Whose cigars are these? They /


These / Those are our cigars. They / These / Those are ours.

:
this / that / these / those (. 10);
, it / they
, , .
- ,
:
Your car is new. Mine is old. . .
:
-
, ;
.

4: .
: .
, : , ,
, , .


, , ..
(: / / / ).
:
1. I me
2.

We us
You you

He him
3. She her
It it

They them

1:
, - ,
, : (?) - (?) ..;
() : her;

:
?;
, : ? /?; ? / ?; ? / ?; ?/?; ?/
?

2:
(Passive), ,
, - (: ... /
.../...); , , ..
, ;
( ) (Them... / Us ... / ...)
!

:
37

(
,
); ,
(: ... Them They ... / Us We
... / ...).
:
1. . They have not been seen here since last year.
2. . Their house is not big.
3. . Our house has several rooms.
4. . They did not want to clean their
small old car.
5. . His mother will be happy.
6. . We shall not see them soon.
7. . Her father doesn't smoke.
8. , .

:
,
(Passive); (Active);
( ) ( , )
, :

I like my name. I don't like yours.


9. . Our mother will not be sleeping at two o'clock.
10. , . My friends are good, but sometimes
they don't understand us.
11. . . .
. We have bought a new house. We don't like its windows. They
are very small. We shall be brought big windows next week.

5: .
( ,
).
, . ,
, ,
.
. , -,
. , ,
, , , .
, .
:
,
.
.
(),
, ():
a table a big table a new big table
,
. , ,
:
Your wife is a young woman. .
My wife is not young, ( ) .

38

, (my house / this house)


no (no house).
: .
( ) ,
( - ) .
, , ,
(
). , ,
.

:
: an;
, (a table / a big room / a house);
an , (an apple / an arm / an old house);
;
,
:
, - :
- . ; ,
, .. - / a window.
: . , ;
a book.
, : - /
- / :
? - . A gentleman.

:
the;
, ;
(), () , ..
/ , ()
:
, - , ,
the window;:
, . ?
. I bought the book ( ) and a magazine (
, ).
, : /
/ :
. ? , . I saw the
woman...

:
, ,
,
.
:
(a) . (The) . (the)
. (The) . () . (The) . (the) ()
() . (The) .
.
:

:
I am a worker. She is a student.
39

half () :
half a bottle / half an hour / ...
there + to be (. 14) :
There was a lamp on the table. (-) .
what :
What a happy man! !
, - ,
( ):
What strong liquid! !
such , -
, :
I haven't seen such a woman.
:
I haven't used such liquid before. .
/ :
A Mr. Fox called you. .
/ -:
a Cadillac ( ) / a Kodak ( )
:
to be in a hurry ;
to be on a diet ;
a lot of ;
a great deal of .
:

:
the Regent Hotel.
:
the first (. 8).
:
the best (. 9).
, ,, :
the sun / the moon ..
:
The New York Times.
:
The Titanic.
/ / :
The Pacific Ocean.
The Black Sea.
The Dvina.
, :
The United States of America ( ).
, language:
the English language (: English)
the Russian language (: Russian).
, ( ):
the Browns /
:
in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening (: at night) / / ().
(the ... the ... .... ...):
The more you learn something the better you know it. -,
.
40

, ( ):
in the street;
(?) to the cinema;
(?) at the cinema;
at the institute;
on the job (: at work) .
: the West / the East / the North / the South. :
:
I am English. .
My wife is Jewish. .
We are Russian. .
:
love / life / time / ...
:
liquid / water/ ...
, :
I like beer. . () :
Give me a beer, please. ( , .. ), .
The beer is good. ( , ) .
:
Abbey Road / Gorky Street.
:
I like Cindy. .
:
in winter / in spring / in summer / in autumn (: (. ) in the fall) / /
/ .
:
It is December now. .
:
It was on Monday. .
:
breakfast / lunch / dinner / supper / / / .
:
Heathrow Airport / Kennedy Airport.
.
, ( ).
.
:
at work ;
at night / ;
to go / come / arrive home / / ;
at home ;
to go to bed ;
to be on holiday ;
to go on foot / ;
to go to school / :
/ . Our sister goes to school. :
. (
) Mother went to the school...
, ,
.
41

2. .
, , , ,
.
( ) ( ,
, ).
,
.
, , , .
.
, .
.
,
( / / / .).
:
1.
2.

;
.

, ;
;
,
, ;
;

, .
( ):
on
, ;
?:
on the table ;:
.
.
on.
upon.
in
, ;
?:
in the pocket ;:
.
.
in.
at / /
:
. was standing at the window.
:
. Father works at the plant.
. I study at the institute.

:
42


:
, ( ) ... at the institute.:
- , () ... in the institute.
"", ( ) ... at the Minsk
Hotel.:
, () ... in the hotel.
to => /
(? / ? / ?):
. Mother went to the cinema.
. We shall not go to the institute.
. She gave one dollar to me.

:
to ,
- ;
: , ,
, , :
1 to 2:
She gave one dollar to me
1 2 :
She gave me one dollar.
They didn't bring a new lamp to us. They didn't bring us a new lamp.
.
She will send strong cigars to him. She will send him strong cigars.
.
towards ;
to, :
went to the car. , ( )
went towards the car. , (
)
of ;
.. , (? / ?),
of:
the door of my room / the car of my wife
of / :
. I know nothing of him.
. I often think of that.
to be,
- / -:
to be tired of afraid of proud of .:
I'm tired of you. . / .
She is proud of her body. .
They are not afraid of us. .
I'm not sure of that. .
with / by ;
, ' (? / ?):
by ;
with (
); Passive:
. The car was bought by my friend.
43

. The plan was being fulfilled by the whole country.


. Sometimes the windows are washed with water.
with / :
with me ;
together with boys and girls
by / :
by the window ;
by the door ;
for :
for me ;
for him ;
from / / / () -:
. She came from Moscow.
. I know it from her.
- . took a book from the desk.
. I took this book from him.
about / :
. I know nothing about him.
about ;
/ / / ;
around / round:
. walked about the town. He walked around the town.
. I have about ten dollars. I have around ten
dollars.
. didn't want to go around that house.
after / :
. She came after me.
above ;
under ;
behind / ;
without (- / -);
in front of ( - / -):
. My car is in front of the house.
into ;
, -:
(?) . She came into the room.
onto ;
, -:
(?) . put the money onto the table.
out of ;
, :
. took a cigar out of the box.
. She came out of the room.:
. She came from Moscow.
44

through / :
through the window / through the wall
over ():
over the window / over the roof
between ( / ):
between two cars / between two women
among ( / ):
among students / among trees
across ( /):
across the room / the street / the table / ...
near / / :
near the house / near the car
( ):
on
:
on Sunday / on Monday;
( ):
on the first of May;
in
:
in the first century;
:
in 1992;
:
in winter / in spring;
:
in May / in December;
, :
in the morning ;
in the afternoon ;
in the evening ;:
at night
- () ;
Future (. after ):
I'll be back in five minutes. .
will finish school in two years. .
at ;
:
at that moment ;
at five minutes past ten ;
at a quarter to nine
to ;
, ,
; ,
:
It is five (minutes) to ten. .
, past ,
, :
It was ten (minutes) past five. . (: )
45

b - () :
will come by ten o'clock. .
They will marry by the next year. .
She will finish / will have finished her work by his coming back.
.
for ;
; , ,
:
She has been sleeping for six hours. .
.

:
o'clock , :
. It is five o'clock.
. It was ten o'clock.
u ; hour o'clock,
:
It is ten o'clock. It is ten hours.
They will be here in ten hours, (o'clock ) .
from ;
:
from the first of May,
; from ... till ( from ...
to) ... ;
:
from 1917 till 1992.
about / :
They will call us about seven (o'clock / hours). /
/ .
after - () :
They will not be working after three o'clock. .
will come here after the meeting. .
after - ;
Past ( in ):
After a few weeks she got married. .

after later :
A few weeks later she got married. .
before => / - () :
They had not been working before three o'clock. , (
)
John had called my sister before he went to the airport. ,
, .
through :
can speak through hours. .
can do it Monday through Friday.
.
over / :
46

has been waiting here over an hour. .


between :
will come between three (o'clock) and four (o'clock).
.
near :
She will come near eight (o'clpck). .
till / until :
She will wait till / until ten (o'clock). .
since / , ;
Perfect:
She has not been here since last year. .
during :
They clean offices during summer. / .
during ( - ):
I don't want to call you during her sleep. , .
:
according to :
We are going there tomorrow according to our plan. ,
.
as for / as to :
As for her, she will be happy to have such a husband. ,
.
because of - ( , ):
I am here because of the war. - , .
by means of :
We shall do it by means of water. () .
due to / - ( , ):
I am here due to his help. .
in case of :
I don't want to be here in case of his coming. ( ), .
instead of :
I shall buy a house instead of a car. .
in spite of :
I don't like him in spite of his money. , .
owing to :
Owing to his help I feel well now. , .
thanks to :
I bought my house thanks to your help. ..

:

smb somebody -;
smth. something -;
47

,
(
); / , :
to listen to smb. / smth. - /-:
Listen to me, please. , . :
Listen, please. , .
to wait for smb. / smth. - / -:
I shall wait for father here. . :
I shall wait here. .
to smile at smb. :
She smiled at him. . :
She was smiling. .
to ask smb. for smth. - -:
She asked me for help. / .
Don't ask them for money. He .
to ask smb. smth. / to ask smb. to do smth. () - -/
-:
They didn't ask me my name. , .
She asked me to come next time. .
to look for smb. /smth. - / -:
is looking for his wife. .
,
, :
to hint at smth. => -:
hinted at my money. => ( , ).

:
,
.
to hope for smb. / smth. - / :
She hopes for your help. ( , ).
to depend on / upon smb. / smth. - / -:
Everything depends on them. ( , ).
to leave for :
She is leaving for Moscow next week. .
,
, :
to leave :
She left Minsk yesterday. .
(. ), :
left his car near the house. .
to play (-- / -):
:
;

to play football ;
48

to play the piano


to need
( , to like:
They need your help. ( .) . /
.
to answer :
They didn't answer my letter. .
I shall answer your question. .
to follow :
followed them. .
to join / ():
Their sister didn't want to join us. .
joined the party in 1917. 1917 .
to doubt :
I don't doubt your feelings. .

2: .
, .
. ? : -,
.. / / ,
-, , .
: , ;
.
:
. , ,
knock () + down () out ( / -).
:
knock down , ( );
knock out , ( /
)
(in / on / over / ...); .
(away / off / up .) .
( ,
), (upstairs / downstairs / uptown / downtown /
outside / knockdown .):
They are waiting for us downstairs. .
looked ridiculous in that get-up. , .
, , .
:
Come in. .
Go out. .
,
.
,
(~~~ out / ~~~ in / ~~~ up/ ...).

:
49

,
, ;
; ,
;
,
.

. , to get
, .
:
to get up ;
to get out / /
( )
, ,
/ :
The table was taken out in May. ( ) .
The table was taken in in October. ( ) .
,
- :
The car was moving on up the slope. () .
' ,
:
will take the table in after lunch. .
looked at his tongue in the mirror and then put it back in.
, .

:
Her room was about ten minutes' walk from the main entrance, up a lot of stairs and along a lot of
corridors.
, ( )
.
. (.. ,
) , "" .
:
1.

, :
Where do you come from? ()?
I don't know where he comes from. , ().
2. Passive, ,
(. 95):
She was not being looked for yesterday. .
is not being listened to. .
.
:

:
( ) .
.
Come on! ! ( ):
Come on, help me. , .
Come on, let's go. , .
50

to be in / to be out / - (
/ / ...):
Is your husband in? ?
No, he is out. (= No, he is not in.) , .
will be in in a few minutes. () .
to be back :
They are not back yet. .
to come back :
She will not come back. ().
to get back :
We got back (home) at ten o'clock. () .
to check in ( / /
):
Passengers should check in for flight LH232 to Paris. , LH232
, .
to check out :
She will have to check out by noon. .
to come in :
Come on, come in. , .
to get up / :
I get up at seven o'clock. .
to hold on :
Hold on to the handle. .
to hold on ( ):
Hold on, I'll get him for you. , .
Hold on, please. He , , . / , .
to be on :
Look in the TV guide to see what is on. , .
What is on at the cinema tonight? ?
to go on (+ ) ( -):
They went on talking. /.
Go on, please. , .
on to put / to switch / to turn ( /
);
off ( / ):
switched on the light. .
She turned the radio off. .
He put on the brakes suddenly. .
to be on / off / (,
on/off):
The radio is on. .
Someone has left the tap on. - ( ).
The TV is always on in their house. .
to put smth. on / / :
51

She put on a new dress. .


Put a new record on. .
didn't put his gloves on. .
to take smth. off :
She took off her dress. She took her dress off. .

:
,
, ( ):
Switch on the light. Switch the light on. .
,
:
Switch it on. .
I rang her up. .
to see smb. off - ( / / ...):
I was seen off by my friends. .
to try smth. on :
She tried on a new dress. .
Can I try these shoes on? ?
.

6: .
:
(mother she; father he; table it; window it; boys
they; tables / windows they / ...).
( ),
( / / ...)
. , ,
, ( mother, mother, mother,
mother), ..
.
( , )
.

?,
.
,
:
That is my brother's car. .
, (year / month /
week / day / ...) (mile / kilometre / ...):
Have you heard today's news? ?
It was a 15 miles' journey. 15 / 15- .

/ / :
the butcher's ;
the baker's ;
the greengrocer's
52

:
1.

2.

; s :
father's car ;
my mother's room ;
a woman's dress (-) ;
a week's rest
-s ;
; :
girls' room ;
my friends' car ;
ten days' rest ;

:
-s ,
( . ), 1:
woman women's dresses ;
man men's cars ;
child children's bedroom
/
f, :
Are you a friend of John's? Are you John's friend? ( ) ?
I've got a book of yours. I've got your book. ( ) .

7: .
,
. :
? s .
,
? (
).

,
, , ,
?; .
:
table window (?) , /
;
window table (?) , /
;
single (.) / one way (.) ticket (?)
;
return ticket , / ;
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band ( : Sgt. () Sergeant
; Pepper's ; Lonely (
,
); Hearts ; Club ; Band
) Band, ,
(?) ( ?) (?) . :
.
53


. :
, ( ). (?);
(?) The bank manager did not know where the bank's money was. ( money
, was).

( of):

The manager of the bank didn't know where the bank's money was.
:
Jack and Fred are workers. They work at the NAKA Automobile Spare Parts Company (
/ , , ). They work from eight
in the morning till four in the afternoon. Sometimes, they have a coffee break with their friends. We don't know
their friends' names. During the break Jack has time to smoke his big cigar.
The men are not working at the moment. They are drinking their coffee and talking. Fred doesn't feel very
well. The friends want to call their shop doctor but the doctor is out. He will not be back very soon. The men
want to help Fred with something. One of the Fred's friends calls his wife at home to ask, her for advice. His
wife is in and she gives an advice. Jack gives Fred the medicine and helps him to get up. Fred will feel well in a
few minutes. The friends will start their work again.
. .
. / .
, . , .
.
. . .
, . .
- . . , (- / ) .
. .
.

54

3. .
.
. - (
/ / / ..).
Infinitive, .. / ?
to.
3- , . -s :
can. .
She must. .
Future, .. shall / will.
Infinitive to ( ought to ~ ~ ~).

:
~ ~ ~ .
, :
, not ..
:
1.

(can / could / may /might):


could (Past) / can (Present) ~~~ :
can help you. .
They could be seen here yesterday. .
You cannot (can't) help him. .
might (Past) / may (Present) ~~~ , ,
:
You may help him. ( ) .
They might do it. ( ) .
She might not come here. ( ) .
may / might ~~~ :
may come in a minute. .
She may not come at all. .

:
, ..
( can may):
You can help him. ( ) .
(must /should / ought):
Present, ..
.
2.

:
must ~~~ ( / );
should ~~~ ( / , );
ought to ~~~ ( must,
/ ):
You must help her. / .
You should help them. ( ,
).
You ought to help me. ( ).

:
55

;
must / may / might Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive),
, - :
must have come. , / , .
She may / might have called. / , .
Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive) could might,
, - :
You could have come earlier. . ?
Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive) should ought,
, - (. ):
They should have used a stronger liquid.
. ?

.
, -
, ..
, -:
. Future
. Past
.
to be to
have. , .. (Past / Present /
Future) .
,
; .. ,
.
Infinitive, to.
1.

:
can ~~~ to be able to ~~~ ( able ):
can help you. He is able to help you.
They could be seen here yesterday. They were able to be seen here yesterday.
You can't help him. You are not able to help him.
He will be able to help you tomorrow. .

:

(: . .);
, .. Present
Future:
I shall be able to help you tomorrow. row.
I can help you tomorrow
to be allowed to ~~~
( to allow )
may ~~~
to be permitted to ~~~
( to permit )
, Passive Indefinite;
:
You may help him. You are allowed / permitted to help him.
56

They might do it. They were permitted / allowed to do it.


She might not come here. She was not allowed / permitted to come here.
:
.
2.

:
to be to ~ ~ ~ (
must ~ ~ ~
/ Future)
should ~ ~ ~
to have to ~ ~ ~ (
ought to ~ ~ ~
; must)
:
You must help her. (). You are to help her.
( ).
You must help her. You have to help her.
He had to go out. / .
You will have to come tomorrow. / .

:
to have
to do:
Do I have to help them? ?
You don't have to help them. .
Does she have to stay here? ?
She does not have to stay here.. .
to have to
have got:
You've got to be there by ten. .
:
to be to have / to have got Infinitive to, ,
, .

:
, :
. .

one (, .. / ):
One must not smoke here. .
One can see a lot of different goods in our shops.
.
One must pay one's debts. .

3: shall / will / need / dare


.
,
:
shall (" 100%") / / ;
2- 3- :
shall do it. ( ).
I don't want to give him my car.He shall break it. ,
() .
57

You must wait here. Or they shall not see you. ,


( / ) .
shall ,
.
will / ;
:
Okay, I will help you. , .
We don't like that house but we will go there. , ( /
) . .
will .

:
, shall, will
.
to need () Active Indefinite
-s -ed ; Future (shall will );
to do; Infinitive
to; : / -:
She needs your help. ( ).
They needed your car yesterday. .
I don't need you. .
Father will need your car tomorrow. .
doesn't need () to be given any money. , (
) :
need not () be given any money. , (
)
need () ;
- ; must:
Need you go yet? ?
Need I write to him? ?
She needn't help you. . ( , )
You needn't take their car tomorrow. He .
I need hardly take his help. .
If she wants anything, she need only ask. -,
.

:
need () :
Do you need to go now? ?
I don't need to meet him. .
She needs to be careful. .
needn't Active Perfect ,
:
You needn't have come. . ( )
Need you have paid so much? ?
:
must not (mustn't) ;
need not (needn't) :
You must not come here. () .
You needn't come here. ( ) .
to dare / dare , ;
58

/ /
;

:
to dare () ( Infinitive to,
);
: / () / () /
-:
She didn't dare (to) smoke there. .
will dare any danger. .
They want to dare us. .
dare () ,
to do;
- :
How dare you come here! !
She dare not (doesn't dare) come here. ( )
.
:
. . .
(to work hard), .
, .
. . .
.
, .
. . .
.
Jack and Fred are workers. They work at a plant in the USA. They can be seen here every day. They have to
work hard because they want to live well. Now the men are having a coffee break with their friends. They may
(are allowed/permitted to) have the break every two hours. Fred doesn't feel well. He needn't have come today.
The friends must help Fred. They call their shop doctor but the doctor is not in / is out. He had to go out. He is to
come back in an hour. The men cannot help Fred without the doctor's advice. They have to go on working. Fred
has to wait.

8: .
.
,
.
-th ( , ).
zero / nought / cipher / nil ( ) / oh
( , ..);
, , zero.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

O
n
T
e
Tw
ho
F
or
F
iu
S
iv
x
E

F
i
S
er
T
hc
F
oi
F
iu
S
if
x
E
59

9
10
T
T
11
E
E
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
101
102
200
234
1,000
1,001
2,345
10,000
100,000
1,000,000 a
o

: 1,000 / 10,000 / 100,000
/ / ( ,
) and:
123,456,789 one hundred and twenty-three million, four hundred and fifty-six thousand, seven
hundred and eighty-nine (: ...eighty-ninth )
100 / 1,000 / 1,000,000 / ... one,
.
1,000 10,000, , (
):
2,500 twenty five hundred;
3,700 thirty seven hundred
hundred / thousand / million ;
-s :
three hundred boys ;
thousands of girls
(
).
60

.
to be / to make / to equal;
to be is / are; to make make(s); to equal equals:
One and / plus two is / are three. .
Six minus two make(s) four. .
Five times two equals ten. () .

.

:
1/ = / one third;
2/3 = two thirds.
:
, .
1/2 /one half ;
half , ( one),
half:
half a mile ;
half an hour ;
half the distance
one and a half,
:
one and a half hours ;
one and a half miles
1/4 / one quarter :
a quarter to nine ;
a quarter of bottle
, , :
0.1 : nought / zero / oh point one .1 : point one;
1.23 : one point two, three / one point twenty-three

, , :
0.23 centimetre;
1.23 centimetres


.
/ / / ...
, :
I live in room 13.
My room is (number) thirteen. My room number is thirteenth. .
,
:
1992 nineteen ninety-two.
in (the) late twenties / eighties / ... / / ... ;
in (the) early twenties / eighties /... / / ... ,
61

( / / )
, , year :
on January 17,1992 on the seventeenth of Junuary, nineteen ninety-two
/ .. , :
123-45-67 one-two-three-four-five-six-seven
,
double / :
122-34-55 one double two (two-two) three-four-double five (five-five)
single / / ():
single room
double / / :
double room ;
double bed
triple / / ;
treble :
has treble my money. , .
once one time / ;
twice two times / ;
thrice () three times ;
four, ... times ;
/one dozen ( dozen ):
two / three dozen / :
dozens of bottles
a half dozen half a dozen ;
baker's dozen .

9: .
, , , :
/ / .
.
1.

( ) :

Small
Smaller
()
()
Large
Larger
()
()

(the) smallest
( /)
(the) largest
( /)

:
;
:
a)

:
big bigger (the) biggest
62

b) - , - -i:
easy easier (the) easiest;
early earlier (the) earliest
c) -er u -est - : (. large).
.
2.

( ) :
,
:
beautiful more beautiful (the) most beautiful
;
easily more easily (the) most easily
/ less
least:
beautiful less beautiful (the) least beautiful

:
more / less most / least,
, , , , - / -est ;
- , :
crisp more crisp (the) most crisp , crisp crisper (the) crispest.
.

:

Good
()
Well ()
Bad ()
Badly ()
Many ()
Much ()
Little ()
Far ()
Far ()
Old ()


Better
()
Worse
()
More
( / )
Less
( / )
Farther / Further
( / )
Elder()


(the) best
( / )
(the) worst
( / )
(the) most
( / )
(the) least
( / )
(the) farthest ( )
(the) furthest ( )
(the) eldest( )

:
little , ;
; ,
small (. ).

:
elder / eldest , :
My father is elder than my mother. .
This is my eldest son. .
1:
old older (the) oldest.
most (a most) ,
:
a most beautiful girl
most (
of) / :
Most people like this. .
63

Most of them will not be able to come. .


,
:
is the best. .
than ; ,
, one
:
My car is bigger than their one / theirs. , .
These cigars are stronger than those ones. , .

( ), ( ,
):
She reads more than him / he does. , .
You are taller than me / I am. , .
came earlier than them / they did. , :
I know him better than her. ( ) , .
I know him better than she does. , .
as ... as () ... () /
() ... ():
She is as beautiful as my mother. , .
not so ... as
... :
I am not so beautiful as her / she is. , .
as ... as ; as
, :
My sister is twice as beautiful (as yours). ().
His car is about three times as big (as my car). ().
half :
This liquid is half as strong (as that one). ().
I have half as much money (as you have). ( }.
,
much ():
much more / less beautiful / ;
..., ... the + ... the +
...:
The sooner you do it the better. , .
The faster you come the more you will get. , .

10: .
:

,
this / / :
this table ;
this Sunday
these :
these windows ;
these days /
64

,
that / / :
that table ;
that Sunday

those :
those windows ;
those days
that those () / / ,
.. this these. ,
:
This table is yours.That (table) is mine. . () .
That table is ours. .
(this that / these those) .
, that , this, a those these.
:
This is your table. That is my table. Those are our tables.
that / these / those
, ;
, of:
The climate here is like that of France. , .
My father's cigars are very strong. Those of your father are half as strong.
( , ) . .

11: every / some / any /now. .


:
every / ;
some - / / / ;
any - / - / ;
/ .
:
1.
2.
3.
4.

body / / - ; ;
thing / / - ; ;
n / - ; ; .. 3) 1);
where / ; .
:
everybody / everyone ( );
;
3- :
Everybody / Everyone is sleeping. .
Everyone / Everybody knows that. .
everything ():
Everything is clear to me. / .
I know everything. .
everywhere ( ) / ( ):
You are welcome everywhere. .
65

You can go everywhere in this country. /


.
somebody / someone - (- );
/ :
That must be someone from my sister. , , - .
I want to become a somebody in our city. .
something - / -:
Something has happened here. - .
I know something about you. -.
... or something (, ) ... - :
is a businessman or something. , - .
something of ... - / :
I'm something of a businessman. .
somewhere - / -:
must be somewhere near here. - .
She went somewhere. - .
anybody / anyone - / -:
Did anybody see him? - ?
anything - / -:
Has anything unusual happened here? - ?
anywhere - / -:
Are they anywhere in the town? - ?
Do you want to go anywhere? -?
nobody / no one :
No one / Nobody knows his address. .
Nobody / No one could help me. .
nobody /
():
That man is a nobody. . / .
They are nobodies for me. . /
.
nothing / / :
I can see nothing here. .
They had nothing to eat. .
nothing (. )
, :
to have nothing to do with smb. / smth. - / -;
- / -:
I hope you have nothing to do with that man. ,
.
This has nothing to do with me. .
I have nothing to do with this. .
... for nothing / :
You may have it for nothing. .
All my efforts were for nothing. .
nowhere / / / :
66

I have nowhere to go. .


I can find that book nowhere. ,

:
1.

,
,
:
- (- )? ,
- ( ). / , .
:
Have you any books in your room? Yes, I have some books in my room. / No, I have no books in
my room.
, any ; some ; n (
); ,
; any
- :
You may take any pen. .
Anyone can help you. ( ).
will be allowed to say anything. / , .
I'll find you anywhere. ( ).
any not:
I cannot see anyone here. .
You will not be able to show it anywhere. .
some /
; ,
any:
Can you give me some money? ? ( ,
)
Can you give me any money? - ? (
)
some any :
2.

3.

I need money. Have you got any / some? . -?


, ,
:
I can show you every room. .
She wants to see some magazines. - .
Have you seen any costume like this before? - (-)
, ?
has no property of his own. ( ) .
, ,
some any ,
:
Give me some water. .
Have you any potatoes? ?

:
/ (
):

4.

carrots ; a carrot () ;
peas ; () ;
strawberries a strawberry () ;
( where) ,
:
Somebody has lost his car keys. - .
67

Nothing can save her now. .


( , every) else
( , some / any ,
no), :
She wants to ask somebody else to help you. -
.
Did you see anything else? - ?
Nobody else could come. .
You should try this thing somewhere else. -
.
6. elsewhere, somewhere else:
You should try this thing elsewhere. You should try this thing somewhere else.
7. body one ; ,
else, :
This is someone's bag. - .
This is someone else's bag. - ( ) .
8. where lac:
You go everyplace in this country. .
She went someplace. - .
,
. .
5.

12: .
/ / /
/ .
, .
Infinitive to.
you , :
(You) Help me! !
(You) Go home! ! '

:
:
You, go home. , .
to do
not. to do to be:
Don't help him. He .
Don't go home. He .
Don't be sleeping. He .
Don't be a fool. He .

you, Don't :
Don't you worry about that. He .
..., please. / ...,
will you? / ..., won't you?:
Help me, please. , .
Go home, will you? , ?
Come tomorrow, won't you? , ?
/ to let
,
Infinitive to:
68

Let me ~~~ /
Let him/her/it ~~~ / /
Let us / Let's ~~~ / ()
Let you ~~~ ,
Let them ~~~ /
Let me help you. , .
Let us / Lets tak more loudly. .
Let it be. .

to let, ,
, :
to let smb. know / -;
to let smb. alone - / ;
to let smb. down / -;
to let smb. in/out / -;
to let smth. in / ();
to let smth. out / ();
to let go of smth. / -;
to let smb. go / -:
Let me know when ... , ...
Let her alone. . / .
Don't let my friends down. He .
Don't let that girl in. He .
Your dress needs to be let out. .
Don't let go of the handle. He .
Don't let them go. He . / He .

13: - / .
, ,
. .
, .
- ( ,
/ ).
one (
) they:
. One must not smoke here.
, . They say that he will not come back soon.
. One can say anything nowadays.
- . They don't say that in Russian.
(
, ).
it:
. It is six o'clock.
. It was very dark.
. It will be late tomorrow.

69

14: there + to be.


, ( there ; to be
):
There (to) be
Is
Infinitive
Are
Was
Indefinite
Were
will be
have been
has been
Perfect
had been
will have been
to be ( , .
) .

there+to be.
, there+to be, :
a)

, - - ,
, :
, ( , -) There
are many boys and girls in the room.
, ( , )
The boys and girls are in the room.

:
there+to be ?
, :
? Where is my key? It is in your pocket. .:
- . There is a key in his pocket.
b) - ,
- :
. .
. .
. () - ( ).
,
to be, ..
. ,
, ,
.
( ), Indefinite to be )
Indefinite, Perfect, (
) :
There has been a telephone call for you today. .
.
There was no rain last week. .
.
There is someone to see you (now). . - ().
There has been no / There has not been any rain this week.
.
There was not any / There was no rain last week. .
70

there+to be:

1
2
3
There
to be

(
(
)
)

:
there , ,
;
, there (
) :
. There are many different rooms there.
to be :
There must be some money in his pocket. - .
There can be no going back. .
There could have been a big scandal because of that. -
.
There should have been more than ten people there.
.
to be to seem / to appear ; to
turn out .; to be :
There seem / appear (to be) many windows in that house. - / -,
.
( ) , a to be
Infinitive;
There seems / appears (to be) only one window in that house. / -,
.
There turned out (to be) only one window there. / ,
.
there + to be ,
() :
() . There are different cars.
to be :
to exist ;
to happen ;
to remain ;
to come / ;
to appear
There exist different cars. .
There happened strange things in my house. .
There comes our bus. .
(. 4) to be
, there:
Are there tables in the room? ?
there :
Are there tables in the room? Yes, there are.
any,
some, not any none:
71

Are there any tables in the room? Yes, there are some. / No, there are not any. No, there are
none.
n not any:
There are no tables in the room. There are not any tables in the room.
/ .
:
1. . There will be
very many happy people in our country in several years.

:
:
1.

2.

( ) (),
very, / :
has a very big house. b.
gets up very early. .
very much
, :
Thank you very much. ( ).
I want to help you very much. .
2. . There is some beer in that bottle.
3. . There was a letter from mother last week.
4. . There has been no snow this month. There has not been
any snow this month.
5. . There will not be new boys there tomorrow.
6. - . There must be a way out.
7. . There have been many visitors here since the
morning, ( , )
8. / . There were many visitors here in the
morning, ( , )
9. . There can be a letter from him this week.
10. . There is no one behind the door. There is not anyone behind the
door.
11. () . There exist no ghosts. There don't exist any ghosts.
12. . There remains no time to meet them. There
doesn't remain any time to meet them.

15: .
, ,
.
,
:
Myself
Ourselves
Yourself
Yourselves
Himself
Themselves
Herself
Itself
,
;
:
. I don't like myself.
. Look at yourself.
72

- ( )
( / / / ...):
( ) . They found themselves in a big room.
() . Help yourself.
. I've hurt myself. ,
(to wash / to shave / to dress .),
:
. She washed (herself).
. Bob and I are preparing (ourselves) for the examination.
( :
-, ; )
, . Father and I were dressing (ourselves) when mother
came.
,
, , .
; ,
; / / /:
. can do it himself. / He himself can do it.
. They took the tables out themselves. / They themselves took out the
tables.
. The book itself is very interesting.
. I spoke to the President himself.
:
. The gifts are for your sister and yourself (= and you).
. No one knows it better than ourselves (= than us / than
we do).
oneself, -
; Infinitive:
. It is difficult to wash (oneself) with a very hot water.
. One should not live for oneself alone.
by.
, - ( ), -
( ). by
all :
( ). My boss is (all) by himself now.
. She was left (all) by herself.
/ . built the house (all) by himself.

73

4. .
4 :
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.
.

, .. , -
.
,
.
:
a)
b)
c)
d)

;
;
, .. ;
.

.
(Yes) (No),
:
? , . / , .
:
? , . .
. :
1.
2.

, to be to have
Present Past (Future 2));
, .
1. : to be / to have ( Present Past)
:
1
2
3
To be

...
to have
(
(
( )

Are you a worker? ?


Have you a car? ?
:
1
:

...

...?

3
to be

Yes,

to have (
)

No,

To be --- +not
to have (
)

? Are you a worker? Yes, I am. / No, I am not.


74

? Have you a car? Yes, I have. / No, I haven't.


? Is your mother here? Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.
? Has he any friends? No, he has not. / Yes, he has.
? Were they here yesterday? Yes, they were. / No, they were not.
- ? Had their friends any books? Yes, they had. / No, they
hadn't.

:
to have got (to have got)
to do; 2);
there + to be there
, 2:
- ? Is there a book on the table? Yes, there is. / No, there is
not (isn't).
2. : , 1)
:
1

...

...?

/
:
1
:

Yes,
1

No,

2
,

2
,

3

( ,
)
3

( ,
) + not

:
, ,
:
Do you like her? Yes, I sometimes do. ? , .
Will he call us tonight? Yes, he probably will. ? ,
, .
Does your father meet you after lessons? No, he never does.
? , .

:

:
Do you like my room? ?
Can your father help me? ?
:
And will your vary beautiful sister come tomorrow?
?
Were any new facts found there? - ?
Has the film about new materials been shown yet?
?
75


:
Has this child been sleeping here long? ?
Have they been shown our office yet? ?
not
( ...? / ...?):
Did you not call him? / ?
,
;
( ) not
:
Didn't you call him? Haven't they been shown our office yet?
,
...? / ...?, :
? (. ) ? .
Did you read this book?
,
:
? , . / , .
Yes,
No:
? Don't you like my house?
Yes, I do. , .
No, I don't. , .
there + to be Future
:
1

4
5
(
/
Will There Be
/

)
Will there be a new film next week? ?
Will there be many people at the concert? ?
Active Indefinite to
do (Present / Past) will (Future), a Infinitive to
( ):
Did you go there alone? ?
Does she ever call you? -?
Will they take us with them? ?
aaa to have
to do:
Did you have to help them yesterday? ?
Does she have to wait here? ?
to have
to do:
Do you have any money? - ?
Did you have a good rest? ?
to have got to have , a got
:
Have you got some money? ?
76

Has she got anything against me? - ?


. 1.

.
:
1. - ? Have you ever seen the rain? Yes, I have. / No, I haven't. /
No, I never have.
2. ? Is your mother sleeping? Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.
3. ? Did their friends come here last time? Yes, they
did. / No, they didn't.
4. ? Has the post come yet? Yes, it has. / No, it hasn't.
5. ? Will that house be built next month? Yes, it
certainly will. / No, it won't. (won't (.) will not)
6. ? Can't you help her? Yes, I can. , . / No, I
can't. , .
7. ? Do you feel well? Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
8. ? Is your house being built? Yes, it is. / No, it isn't.
9. ? Was there any water in that bottle? Yes, there was. / No, there
wasn't.
10. ? Do you have to help your father? Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
11. ? Have you got any money? Yes, I have. / No, I have not.
Have you any money? Yes, I have. / No, I have not. Do you have any money? Yes, I do. / No, I
don't.
12. ? Don't you speak English? Yes, I do. , . /
No, I don't. , .

.
, ,
.
:
1.
2.

( / );
.

1. .

, .. ,
; .
: who? ? what?
?
:
1
2
3
4
who

... ?
what
? Who helps you to do this work?
( ):
? . Who likes to play? Children.
:
whose? ?
what? ?
77

which? ?
how much / how many? ?
:
1

...

...?

? Whose children came?

:
what ?;
which ? / ?:
() ? What books are interesting?
( , ) ? Which books are interesting?
how much ? (, : //...):
() ? How much liquid was used?
how many ? (, : / / /...):
() ? How many cigars
have been smoked?
, , there + to be:
() ? . What is there on the table? Books.
, , there
, :
There are books on the table. .
(
) + /
, :
Who likes to play? Children (do). ? .
What helps you in your work? My good sense of humour (does).
?. .
What books are interesting? These books (are). ? .
Which books are interesting? Those new books (are). ? ,
.
Whose children came? Our friends' children (did). ? .
How much liquid was used? One / A bottle. ?
.
How many cigars have been smoked? About twenty. ?
.
Who can cook? I can. ? ().
- one
:
? Which car is yours? That one. .
? What man can help you? A strong one.
().
2. .
,
, :
what? ? / ?
who? ?
whom? ? / ? ( ,
who?)
whose? ?
78

which? ? / ?
when? ?
where? ? / ?
why? ? / ?
how? ? / ?
how many? ? ()
how much? ? ()
how long? ? ( )
:
1
2
3
4

:
, ,
;
:
When will your very beautiful sister come? -?

:
How long has this child been sleeping here? / ?
Active Indefinite
to do (Present / Past) will (Future), Infinitive to:
Why did you go there alone? ?
to have
to do:
Why does she have to wait here? ?
to have got to have , a got
:
Why has she got something against me? - ?

(? / ? .);
, (
) ( ):
? Where are you from?
what? / which? ? ,
:
What drinks do they prefer? ?
Which book do you want? ( , -) ?
:
1. ? / ? What do you do?
2. ()? What are you doing?
3. ? Why couldn't you help us?
4. ? Where do you live?
5. ? How old are you? ( ;
to be)
6. ? How old is your son?
7. ? How old was your father?
8. ()? Who will you go to the cinema with (tomorrow)? / With
whom will you go to the cinema (tomorrow)?
79

9. ( )? What are you?


10. ( )? Who are you?
11. ? How much money have you got? / How much money have you? / How
much money do you have?
12. ? How many dollars did you pay him?
13. ? Who was your house built by? / By whom was your house
built?
14. ? What cigars do you like to smoke?
15. ? What must I do? / What should I do? / What shall I do?
16. ? What do you have to buy?
17. ? Where will they be sent?
18. ? How long will it take
you to do this work? ( ; : "
?"
)
19. -? How long does take a letter to get to New-York?
20. , ? How long did it take you to
come here?
21. ? When did she come? ( when
Perfect Present, .. , - -

)
22. ? When shall I be allowed to see you?
23. ? What time is it? / What is the time? / Have you got the right time?
( )
24. / ? What have you bought this house for? / Why did you
buy this house?
25. ? What is / What's the weather like today? (
; : " ?"
, ,
, -
)
26. ? What are the women like there?
27. ? What is the wine like in France?

.
/ / / / .
. ,
, ,
:
Do you smoke or not? I do. / I do not. ? . / .
Are you sleeping or reading? I'm reading. / I'm not sleeping. / Neither.
? . / . / , .
Is she a student or a worker? Neither. ? , .
When will you come: tomorrow or the day after tomorrow? :
?
,
, :
Do you or does your brother smoke these cigars? ?
(: Who smokes these cigars: you or your brother? (
: My brother does. / I do. / Neither (of us does).
80

,
, :
: ? Whose children did it: ours or theirs?
: ? Which books are more interesting: these ones or those
ones?

.
, ? /
?, , :
+ ?
:
1.
2.

;
.
1. .
:
1
2

3
,

,
+ not

You are a student, aren't you? / (: are you not?) , ?


She will come tomorrow, won't she? / will she not? , ?
They were sleeping, weren't they? / were they not? , ?
I am a beautiful girl, aren't I? / am I not? ! ,
? lam a good boy, am I not? / aren't I? , ?
Your friend can help us, cannot / can't he? , ?
You have come alone, haven't you? , ?
Your students have been seen together, haven't they? ,
?

2. .
:
1
2

/
,

3
,

There is not any / no water in the bottle, is there? , ?


They won't be able to help us, will they? , ?
My friends didn't have to do it, did they? , ?
You are not sleeping, are you? , ?
,
:
You are a student, aren't you? Yes, I am. / No, I am not.
She will come tomorrow, won't she? Yes, she will. / No, she won't.
I am a beautiful girl, aren't I / am I not? Yes, you are. / No, you are not.
There is not any water in the bottle, is there? Yes, there is. /
No; there isn't. , . / , .
They won't be able to help us, will they? Yes, they will. / No, they won't. , . / ,
.
, , V.

81

II. .
.
, ..
, .
, , .
:
a)

,
. ,
, ,
:
. opened the door and saw us.
, . She stopped, closed her eyes, and pushed
the door.
; ,
, .
b) , ; ..
.
, - ,
, .
,
, .
:
, . I love her, and she doesn't love me.
, () . We used a new liquid but it didn't
help.
;
, , ,
:
, . I love mother but I don't help her.
,
:
, . I love him and I don't love you.
, ( )
, :
and
a / ;
but
;
however
/ ;
nevertheless / ;
or
;
still

,
:
, . I helped him, he was very glad.
, .. -
, () , .
.

, :
c)

82

1) , , ,
. ,
, , ,
:
, . We saw a man who was smoking a big
cigar.
. ,
. , ,
, , . ,
: ;
.. ,
, ,
,
.
2) .
: , .
( Infinitive) , (Gerund) (Participle)
.
,
(Active / Passive; Indefinite / Continuous / Perfect / P.C.),
.
, , , .
, -
.
Indefinite (Passive), Continuous (Active / Passive), Perfect (Active / Passive) Perfect
Continuous I (~ ~ ~ ing ) II (~ ~ ~
ed / 3- ), ,

.
.
(
), ,
. Active Indefinite Infinitive:
I can help you. She wants to help him.
:
They can be seen. Passive Indefinite Infinitive She must be sleeping. Active Continuous
Infinitive
( Present)
1,
,
. , ,
, , ,
, - .

( )
- ,
, ; ,
.
, , . : " "
", ?"
83

.

() . ,
,
:
, ,
, , ,
,
,

.
=
.
. . .
.
.
.
.
,
. ,
, " ".
, ,
( / / ..)
. (
, -).
", ! " ", ,
?" , -.
", ..." ", ...".

84

5: .
, , , :
/ / / / .
, , : / /
/ / / / / / .
,
,
, ,
, (
- , ,
)
, .
,
:
that / ;
, :
, () . I know (that) he is a good driver.
because :
, . I like you because you are a good girl.
as / :
, . As they were busy, we went without them.
If :
, . I'll help you if you come.
if / whether :
, . I don't know if / whether he smokes.

:
if / whether
, (
):
I don't know if / whether he smokes. Does he smoke? Nobody can tell you whether / if she spoke
to him. , .
Did she speak to him? ? / ?
, , , whether
, a if :
I don't know whether to do it or not. , .
I don't know whether / if I want to do it or not. , .
when :
, . I was out when she came.
since / :
, / . I can't buy this house since
I have no money.
since , ;
,
Perfect:
, . There have been no letters from him since he
left.
85

after , ;
,.
Perfect Past; Indefinite Past:
, . She came after I had left / after I left.
before , ;
,
Perfect Past; Indefinite Past:
, . She had left / She left before I came.
till / until , ();
:
, . Wait here till / until I come back.
while / :
, . left while I was smoking.
unless ;
:
, . will leave unless you help him.
though / although :
, . I'll help you though / although I am busy.
as though / as if / :
, . You look as if you haven't slept.
, - . It smells as though someone has been smoking in here.
-, . speaks English as if / as though he
were / was an Englishman.
:
, ..
; , .. . 6.
than :
, (). I know her better than you (do).
so that :
, . didn't want to help us, so that we had
to leave.
so ... that / ..., :
, . was so tired that we had to wait.
as ... as () / (), ():
, . He doesn't love you as much as you love him.
not so ... as / ..., :
, . This book is not so interesting as I expected.
that / so that / in order (that) / , :
, . asked me for some
money in order (that) / so that he could buy a new car.
lest :
, ( ). I was afraid lest he see me.
the ... the ... ;
/ :
, . The more you smoke the less I like you.
86

provided (that) / on condition (that) , :


, . She will come provided / on condition (that)
you help her.
supposing (that) / ():
(), , ? Supposing (that) I give you some
money, what will you do?
as , / / , :
, . It happened as I was cleaning the room.
as soon as :
, . I'll call you as soon as they come back.
as / so long as / , :
, . Don't smoke in the room as / so long as I am here.
, . You may buy a car as / so
long as ou can drive.
in case (that) , :
, , . In case (that) he can't help you, call me.

( ).
, ,
:
, . I don't know who helped him.

:
, . ?
, . !

.
:
, :
I don't know who helped him. Who helped him? ( )
He doesn't tell us when they will come. When will they come? ( )
, . I was not sleeping when he came back.
? When did he come back?
, ( ). We know what he is doing there.
? What is he doing there!
, . I can say why he doesn't smoke.
? Why doesn't he smoke?

who ( ) which ( ):
, . The boy, who helps you, is my son.
, , . The cigar, which I am smoking now, is very
strong.
which that:
The cigar, that I am smoking now, is very strong.
which / that :
The cigar, I am smoking now, is very strong.

87

who , whom.
whom which, ,
:
, , . The young girl, about
whom I want to tell you, doesn't live here. The young girl, I want to tell you about, doesn't live
here. (about whom to tell,
)
, , . The house, in which we live, is new. The house, we live in,
is new.

WHAT THAT?

.

, , ,
, what;
, that:
, . ? (what) I know what you want.
, . (that) I know (that) you won't come.

:
that , :
, () .
what :
, , . She says (that) she doesn't know what he wants.
,
, if / whether:
, . I don't know, if / whether they will be able to
buy a new house here.
: Will they be able to buy a new house here?
,
, ,
:
, ? Do you know why he is sleeping now?
? Why is he sleeping now?
, whom / whose why
-ever :
whatever ;
whoever ;
whenever ;
however ;
whichever ;
wherever
:
, . Whatever you do, I'll help you.
, . Wherever he went, I followed him.
Future:
, . Wherever you go, I'll follow you.
88

Future , ( ? / ?)
( ? / ?).
(Present). :
, . As soon as you call me, I'll send you the
money.
, . We shall bring new books if your
friends invite us.
, . When my husband buys
a new car, we'll be able to visit you more often.
, . If he is sleeping, he won't be able to
meet you.

;
, if / when,
, , .. Future:
(?), . I don't know when he will come.
(?), . I don't know if he will come.
(..
).
should were / had / could:
, . Should she come, I'll help her.
, . Should they call us, I'll let you know.
, . Were they here now, they would help us.
6.
,
, (
?), that / it / whether
, ( )
.
( ), ,
(Past),
Past.
(Present) (Future) ,
.
Present:
, () . I know (that) he often comes here.
, () . I know (that) he came yesterday.
, () . I know (that) he will come tomorrow.
Past
( ):
, () .( ).
I knew (that) he came here.
, () .( )
(. ) I knew (that) he comes here.
, () . ( )
I knew (that) he came here.
, () . ( , .. ,
) I knew (that) he had come here.

89

, () . ( Past, (
) Past, (Future)
?
,
FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST .
shall should, a will would,
Infinitive ( ) to (should (would) help / should (would) be sleeping / should (would)
have helped ..):
, . I knew (that) he would come here.
, -. We were informed that they didn't speak Russian.
, -. We were informed that they
hadn't spoken Russian before.
, -. We were informed that they would speak
Russian.

, ( ),
( ):
Who(m) did she m with? ?
didn't notice whom she came with. , .
Where does she come from? ( / )?
Nobody knows where she is from. , .
,
Future,
would, Indefinite Past:
? ? ,
, . ...? ...? Perhaps they would not stop until
he did.
, ,
Past, ( )
(.. ),
.
:
/ ,
, , , Perfect Past, Indefinite
Past:
estimated that they had gone approximately fifteen miles when it happened.
( , ), (?),
, ( ; , ,
)
We were told that nobody knew when she would come. , ,
.
We were told that nobody knew when she had come. , ,
. ( , ,
)
:
/ ,
, , (,
) Perfect Past, Indefinite Past:
We were told that nobody had known when she came. , ,
, ( ,
)
90

, Past,
Future , Futurein-the-Past, Past Indefinite:
, , . felt that they wouldn't be
sleeping when he came back.
, , . hoped that they wouldn't tell her
why he went there.
, , . ( ) hoped that they
wouldn't tell her why he had gone there.
, .. - ( ),
, , ,
. : to
say ( ; , to) to tell
( ):
, . said (that) he wouldn't be able to come
tomorrow, ( to say)
(), . told us (= said to us) (that) he wouldn't go
there.
,
/ , :
, . We knew (that) smoking is bad for health.
, . didn't know what time the train usually starts.
( ? / ? / ?)
( , )
, -
:
, . We have come here to help you. / We have come here
so that we might help you. . 7.
, . The cigar was too strong to
smoke./ The cigar was so strong that no one could smoke it.

:
too
/ enough :
The cigar was too strong to smoke.
They were able to put aside enough money to buy a new house.
, .
That dress is beautiful enough to be bought. ,
.
, ,
, in order:
, . know English
well you must learn it every day. ( In order to know ...)
/ /
, .
who(m) ( )
that ( , ):
:
It is / was / will be ... that / who ... :
. It is he whom I want to help.
91

, . It was not until they bought a


new car that they came to visit us.
. It will be tomorrow that he will come back.
:
1. , 10 10.30? Were you not told
that we should be waiting for you at the station from 10 till 10.30?
2. , . We don't know yet what house we want to live
in.
3. , , . In case we are late you may start by
yourselves.
4. , . The more I read the less I understand.
5. , . I can't tell you when the doctor will come.
6. , . You won't be allowed / permitted to smoke
when the doctor comes.
7. , . If the radio is on, turn it off.
8. , , . She said that we
should turn off the radio if it was on.
9. - , . If anyone calls, let me know.
10. , , . The man, who came late, turned to us.
11. , . ordered only coffee which he didn't
touch.
12. - , . I shall be
reading a book until you call me.
13. , . You may stay here
unless you want to help us.
14. , . We have been waiting for you here since they
left.
, ,
.

92

6: .
, ,
/ / ..
, :
+ :
/ /
.

:
-
, ,
- , ;
:
- ,

; ,
, .

, .


.
:
1.
2.

;
, ..
.

.
1- .
( );
, to be , a to give :
b
(Infinitive to); , 3- ,
give
, (Present);
were /
was gave
could be
could give
might be
might give
should be
should give
should be
should give
would be
would
would give

(Indefinite Past); ~~~ed, 2- ;


were ;

1-
( shall should !);
2- 3- ;
should 1-
/ .

2- .
( , .. ,
):
93

had been
had given
could have been
could have given
might have been
might have given
should have been
should have given
ought to have been
ought to have given
should have been
should have given
would have been
would have given

Perfect Past

1- , ;

; would should
1- / .

1- .
1- /
/ .., ,
. , .
( ,
):
I should / (would like I'd like) to see your house. .
You could do it later. .
might be very helpful. .
Would you go there with us? ?
You should be more careful. .
/
:
Success attend you! !
May you be happy! !
That he were here! !
Long live the President! !
(
):
?.
to be Past / Present / Future, .. .
Infinitive to. ,
should .
that, .
. :
it is / was / will be important / / ;
it is necessary ;
it is possible ;
it is probable ;
it is desirable ;
it is likely /
It is important(that) you be / should be here tomorrow at 5. ,
.
It is likely that he should meet you at the airport. , , .
94

It was necessary that she help us. , .


It will be desirable that she should come alone. , .
/ ?.
to be Past / Present / Future, ..
. Infinitive to.
, should .
that, :
Our proposal was that all workers be given / should be given milk.
, .
Our advice is that you shouldn't smoke. , .
Their suggestion will be that we should use a stronger liquid.
, .
.
:
to recommend ;
to propose ;
to suggest ;
to insist ;
to demand ;
to order ;
to wish .
.
Infinitive to Indefinite Past. to wish
, Indefinite Past would.
, should .
that, to wish:
We insist that you call / called / should call him. ,
.
They demanded that the car should be cleaned / be cleaned / was cleaned. ,
.
What do you suggest we do / did / should do? ?
I wish (that) you could come back tomorrow. / ,
.
(I) Wish you were here now. , , (
to wish I,
, )
Wish she were / was there tomorrow. , .
I wish they gave / would give me more money. ,
.
I wish it would stop / stopped snowing. , .
I wish you wouldn't / didn't drive so fast. , . / ,
.

:
would ~ ~ ~ , , -
, - -, ..
.
a)

:
?; so that / in order
that , , might / should / would ~ ~ ~;
lest , Infinitive to should /
95

might.~ ~ ~; lest ,
:
Give me your money so that I should / would not be worried. ,
.
You have to be careful in order that you might do everything correctly.
, ( ) .
You have to be careful lest you make / might / should make a mistake.
, .
b) ?;
1- ; :
(even) though / although () ;
even if ;
whenever ;
whatever / whoever / .
Even if he were / was here, he wouldn't help you. ,
.
Whatever you might do to me, I like you. , .
She won't come though she would like to (come) very much. ,
.
can't invite her even if he like / would like to. ,
.
3. ? / ?;
Indefinite Past;
as if / as though / :
She is cleaning the room as if / as though she were / was a cleaner. ,
.
behaves as though he knew nothing about it. ,
.

2- .
2- /
/ / , - /
/ . ,
.
:
Oh God! You might have been killed! ! () !
should have helped you. () ( ).
They ought to have come earlier. () (
).

.
1.

.
to wish,
:

4.

I wish I had come earlier. , .


I wish you had not been there. , .
I wish I had invited you. , .
:
looks as if he had got married. / , , (
)
Why are you looking at me as if you had not seen me for years?
, ?
96

6: .
.

,
.
3 :
1.

,
- :
, . If he comes to take us, we'll be able to go to
the cinema, ()
Future, Present
( 5):
, . If he is sleeping, we shall wait. ()
( 5):
, . Should he be sleeping, we shall wait.
1- ,
, -
- / . :
, . ( ,
) If he came to take us, we could go to the cinema.
, Indefinite Past,
, :
5.

If he was / were here, he could do it. , , (


?)
We could buy this house if we had money. ,
, ( , , )
wouldn't lend me any money if I asked him. ,
.
:
Were he here, he could do it. , .
2- ,
( ).
:
If he had come to take us, we could have gone to the cinema. ,
. ( )
Perfect Past,
2- .
6.

:
2. 3. - (
),
:
If he had been here, he could have done it. , .
( , )
We could have bought this house if we had had money. ,
, ( ,
, - )
:
Had he been here, he could have done it. , .
:
97

1. ? Could you help me?


2. . I should do anything for him (: I would do anything for him).
3. . I'd like to see these shoes.
4. , . I wish the rain would stop /
stopped for a moment.
5. . I wish I was / were with them now.
6. - . You could have done it without anyone's
help.
7. , ? Would you call me if I
stayed in the town for one more day? ( ) ( ):
Would you have called me if I had stayed in the town for one more day?/ Had I stayed ..., would you
have called me?
8. , . She wished she had been twenty years
younger.
9. , . wouldn't have come back if you hadn't
called him.
10. , . We shall be glad if they buy a new house.
11. , . You must learn
English every day lest you forget / might / should forget it.
12. , . It is very important that they should
not forget to bring the books.
13. , . I wish you might have come earlier, (: I
wish you had been allowed / permitted to come earlier.)
14. , . If you were my
husband, you wouldn't buy me flowers every day.
( / / ), ,
/ .

, : ,
, ; ..

, .
,

.
.
- ( ):
1. - - .
2. - , - .
3. - , , - .
4. - , - .
5. , - , - .
6. - , - .
:
not
, :
not to be ~~~ing;
not to have been ~~~ed (3)

98

7: / Infinitive.
( )
/ ?.
, , :
. I went to help you.
. came here to see our new house.
.
to .
to :

, ought:
I can help you.
You must help him. .., :
You ought to help us.
(. );
let:
Let me help you. , .
to make (Active):
made me help him. .
What makes you say that? ?

:
to make (Passive) to:

I was made to help him. .


She was made to repeat the story. .
would / had rather / had better
:
She would rather help them. .
You had better help her. .
and or, to
:
I want to come and (to) see your new house. .
shall / will / should / would to.

:
,
, (Active /
Passive) (Indefinite / Continuous / Perfect / Perfect Continuous), ..
, ( Passive Continuous
):
1.
2.
3.
4.

to ~ ~ ~
to be ~ ~ ~ing
to have ~ ~ ~ed (3)
to have been ~ ~ ~ing

Active Indefinite Infinitive


Active Continuous Infinitive
Active Perfect Infinitive
Active Perfect Continuous Infinitive

1.
2.
3.
4.

to be ~ ~ ~ed(3)

To have been ~ ~ ~ed(3)

Passive Indefinite Infinitive


Passive Perfect Infinitive

99

,
, :
Active

1. I am glad to help you. .


2. I am glad to be helping you. , .
3. I am glad to have helped you. , .
4. I am glad to have been helping you. , ( -
).

Passive
1. I am glad to be helped. , .
3. I am glad to have been helped. , .
Indefinite Infinitive (Active / Passive), Active Continuous Infinitive
, , :
1. I am glad to help you. .
2. I am glad to be helping you. , .
1. I am glad to be helped. , .
Perfect Infinitive (Active / Passive) Active Perfect Continuous Infinitive ,
, , :
a)

:
I am glad to have helped you. , .
I am glad to have been helped. , .
I am glad to have been helping you. , ( -
).
b) , ( to hope) / (
to expect) / ( to intend) / ( to mean);
Indefinite Past:
I hoped to have been helped. , ( ).
She expected to have been called. , ( ).
They intended to have come earlier. / (
).
I meant to have invited them. ( -
).
c) Perfect Infinitive .
,
. , .

.
1.

,
:
(In order) To be there on time we must hurry. ,
.
was too tired to help us. , .
7. , ?.
, ,
,
/ , :
I brought you some water to drink. (?),
( ).
Have you got anything to declare? ( ) - (?),
?
100

This is a good house to be bought. , (


).

:
, ,
, :
I asked my friend to help me. . (
)
is a good friend to be invited. , (
, ).
Active Indefinite Infinitive (
):
I bought you some water to drink. .
Passive Indefinite Infinitive (
- ):
This is a good house to be bought. , .
the first / the second
/ ... / the last . -,
to be :
was the first to come. .
will be the last to leave. .
He is always the first to be invited. .
8. , .
.

.
:
1
2
3
4
5
/

... .

/ ,
(Active) (Passive), ;
;
/ / , 3 ( )
, 4 :
I want you to remember. , .
I want you to be remembered. , .
I know this big car to be very good. , .
2 (
) , ( ):
:
to see / to hear / to feel / to watch / to observe
/ to notice
to :
I saw him take a pen out of his pocket. , / .
I felt him smoke. , .
We heard our friends come back. , .

:
101

to see to hear / ,
:
I see that you read this book. (), .
We heard that you were ill last week. (),
.
to feel / ; ,
to:
felt them to come back soon. , .
/ :
to think / to know / to believe ( / ) / to declare
/ to suppose / to understand / to assume / to
consider / to find / to expect / to prove .:
They think him to be a good driver. (), . (=
.)
We know that house to have been built this year. ,
.
I believe them not to be sleeping now. , .
We found the liquid to be very strong. ,
.
You can't expect to learn a foreign language in a week. He ,
.

:
to consider / to declare / to prove /to find , to be,
:
He considers her (to be) a beautiful girl. .
They declared him (to be) the winner. .
We found him (to be) dishonest. , .
:
to want / to wish / to desire / I should / I would (I'd) like

They want us to come back on Sunday. , .


I'd like you to call me in the morning. , .

:
, / / , there+to be;
there / :
Their teacher considers there to be nothing difficult in that task. ,
.
I don't want there to be any misunderstanding. , .
/ / :
to allow / to permit / to ask for / to order / to
command / to request for
Passive Infinitive:
She allowed the car to be taken away. , .
ordered one more bottle of wine to be brought. ,
.
:
, / / , Active Infinitive;

:
102

I requested him to help. .


She asked me to buy some bread. .
Active Infinitive , ,
/ / :
I requested him to help.
She allowed us to smoke in the room. .
, / / , ,
Passive Infinitive:
She allowed the car to be taken away. ( , )
They asked for the answer to be given immediately, ( ,
) , .
We request for the money to be trasferred before the end of the month.
, .

.
:
1
2
3
4
( Passive)
... .
, ,
, :
is known to come tomorrow. , .
She was said to be ill at the moment. , .

: 2 ( )
,
; ,
; :
He is known to be a good man. is known. , () he ; to be ; a good
man , .
. . .
, ,
, Passive.
( ):

, / :
to say / to report / to suppose / to announce .
is said to have bought a new car. , .
They are supposed to come later. , .

:
to tell, to say, :

was told to help his mother. .


:
was said to help his mother. , .
-,
, Active:
to seem / to happen / to appear / to prove / to turn out
:
She seems to know this man. , .
She appeared to be beautiful. . , .
proved to be a doctor. , () .
103

turned out not to be a doctor. ( ), .


:

, , . .
Do you happen to know her name? , , ?

:
there+to be, to be
:
There seems (to be) no doubt about it. , .
There appeared to be nobody who could help them. , .
to be
there+to be:

The task proved (to be) more difficult than we had thought. ,
.
to be:
to be likely / to be unlikely , / to be sure / to
be certain ,:
They are unlikely to come very soon. , .
.
is sure to know her telephone number. , , .

for.
,
, ,
, , :
She is going to do that tomorrow. .
They told us to wait here. .
.
, , ,
, .
for.
:

... for + + ... .


. ,
/ ,
, for:
That was for him to find out. .
waited for her to speak. , .
The best thing for you to do is to leave. .
stepped aside for my mother to pass. ,
.
She would have given anything for this not to have happened. , ,
.

.
. / /
.
.
104


( , ). ,
, , ,
, / , ,
.

, ,
, / , :
The Seller undertakes to replace defective goods free of charge within the minimum possible time, the
Agent to pay the cost of transportation and insurance.
,
.
The claims should be forwarded by a registered letter, the text to be written in English.
, .
:
-

1. . I'm glad to see you.
, . I'm glad that I see you.
2. . They wanted to show us their new house.
, . They wanted that we saw their new house. They
wanted us to see their new house.
3. , . They wanted us to be shown their new house.
, - . They wanted that someone showed
us their new house.
4. , .
The women wished to be invited together with their husbands. ( )
The women wished to have been invited together with their husbands, ( ,
)
The women wished that they were invited together with . their husbands, (
)
The women wished that they had been invited together with their husbands, ( ,
)
The women wished that they would be invited together with their husbands, ( ,
)
5. . You will have to wait behind the door. It is necessary
that you should wait behind the door.
6. , . is said to be a good teacher. They say that he is a good
teacher.
7. , . is known not to smoke. It is known that he doesn't smoke.
8. , . That is a very good book for
you to read. This is a very good book that you must read.
9. . came here to help us. He came here in order he could help
us.
10. , . It so happened that I had no money with
me. ( ,) . I did not happen to have money with me.
( ,) . I happened not to have money with me.
11. , -, ? What am I supposed to do now? What do
you think I have to do now?
12. , . All his friends supposed him not to have any /
to have no money. All his friends supposed that he did not have any / had no money.
105

13. , , . Nobody seemed to know what had happened. It


seemed that nobody knew what had happened.
14. , . I want you not to call here any more. I don't
want you to call here any more. I wish that you should not call here any more.

106

8: / Participle.
,
.
, ,
? :
smoking man
, ,
, ? /
? / ? / ? / ?
:
was sitting by the window reading a book. , .
I (Participle I) II
(Participle II).
I :
(Present) / (Active) /
(.. / ).
II :
(Past); (Passive);
(.. ).
I Infinitive -ing,
, .
II :
a) , , Infinitive -ed;
b) , ( 3- ).
II , ..
.
I,
.
I ,
:
Indefinite
Active ~ ~ ~ ing
Passive being ~ ~ ~ ed(3)

Perfect
having ~ ~ ~
having been ~ ~ ~

~ ed(3)
~ ed(3)

:
Continuous; -ing .
I :
. ,
: Indefinite (Active / Passive) , ,
; Perfect (Active / Passive) , ,
:
Waiting for her answer they didn't say a word. , .
Being left alone, they didn't know what to do. (:
), , .
Having written the letter, he called us. , .
Having been written long ago, the letter looked very old. -,
.
107

:

?

:
, : to see
/ to hear / to come / to arrive / to take / to turn
., , , ,
Active Indefinite:
Hearing his voice she ran to meet him. , .
Turning slowly she wen out of the room. , .
Active Indefinite , ,
, :
The woman waiting in the car called you the day before yesterday. , ()
, .
I'll never forget her words sounding in my head like an echo. ,
() .
I / II, ?,
. ), b).
a)

I
, :
smoking man ;
reading boy
II
, :
a written letter ;
the invited people
b) I / II
, :
The man sitting at the table is a very good doctor. , ,
. , , .
The liquid used to clean the windows was very strong. ,
, . , ,
.
I don't know the girl waiting for you. , .
, .
Will you read the book brought yesterday? , ?
, ?
I / II, ,
, when / while / if / unless / though .
-:
While reading books you must be attentive. , .
, .
.
They will leave, unless stopped. , .
Any good wine if drunk by little portions is very useful for health. ,
, .
.

:
when / while being , ..
, ?:
108

My sister took part in many expeditions when / while a student.


(?), .
When / While in Stockholm, I learned much about Sweden.
(?), .
:

When / While my sister was a student... When / While I was in Stockholm...


being ( when / while) , ,
:
Being afraid of strangers, the children didn't go with them.
, (?).
Not being able to help us, she was just sitting and crying. ,
(?).
:

Because the children were afraid of strangers, they didn't go with them. / The children didn't go
with them because they were afraid of strangers. As she was not able to / could not help us, she was
...
I / II ,
:
1.
2.
3.

.
.
.
.

.

, :
1

3
4
5
/
... .

I , II
( ):
saw his father smoking. , .
:
saw his father smoke. , .
considered himself engaged to her. , () .
: to hear / to
feel / to see / to watch , / to notice / to find
/ to consider , / to like / to dislike .
to have to get II
, , - / - :
I have a new house built. . ( ,
, - ). :
I have built a new house. ( Active Perfect Present) . ( /
)
She had her hair cut. , ( , )
She has cut her hair. , ()
I have my car repaired. , ( )
I have repaired my car. , ()
109

I can't get my watch repaired. . (


)
I can't repair my watch. ( ) .

:
to have
to do:
Did you have your hair cut? ?
Where did you have your car repaired? ?
I didn't have the house built. .
Why don't you have your hair waved? ?
II to wish
/ to want :
We want / wish it done as fast as possible. , .

.

, I ( II
):
1
2
3
4
I ( Passive) ... .
I (
):
They were seen smoking. , .
They were seen to smoke. , .
: to see /
to hear / to feel / to watch / to find , /
to observe .:
was found sleeping. .
They were watched playing cards. , .

.
/ /
.
.

( , ). ,
, , ,
, / , ,
.
,
( ).

:
The party being over, they went home. , .
The work having been done, they went home. ,
.
110

:
It being pretty late, she switched on the light. , .
She was alone in the house, and there being no one to help her, she called me.
, , . (
to be there + to be)
We went back home, there being too many people inside the restaurant.
, .
:
, to permit /
to fail ,
Time permitting, we shall see you off. , .
Your attempt failing, no one will help us. ,
.
Money permitting, he will buy that house. ,
.
:
with
,
/ .
was sitting still, with his eyes closed. , / /
.
She was reading a book, her hands being on the table. .
.

:
I, to be, , :
Lunch (being) over, we went on reading. , .
I found him waiting, with his wife (being) upstairs, ( : with
being ) , , .
frankly speaking / generally
speaking / strictly speaking ,
, :
Frankly speaking, I don't like your wife very much. ,
.
:
-
:
1. He went out and he was seen walking in the park. , ,
. went out, and they saw that he was walking in the park.
2. I noticed her smoking in the garden. , . I noticed that she was
smoking in the garden.
3. They sat down on a fallen tree. . They sat down on a tree,
which had fallen.
4. She loved all these singing boys and girls.
. She loved all these boys and girls who were singing.
5. Shocked by her beauty, I couldn't sleep that night. ,
. I couldn't sleep that night, because her beauty was a shock for me. I couldn't sleep
that night, because I was shocked by her beauty.
6. Reading this newspaper you will be laughing. , . You
will be laughing when you are reading this newspaper.

111

7. Having smoked one more cigar, I decided to leave. ,


. After I had smoked one more cigar I decided to leave.
8. Having been asked a lot of questions, she was shown to the doctor. ,
. After she had been asked a lot of questions they showed her to the doctor.
9. He is a man loved by everyone. , . is such a man that
everyone loves him. He is a man who is loved by everyone.
10. Though being written in pencil, the letter is easy to make out.
, . The letter is easy to make out though it is written in pencil.
11.1 saw my wife coming out of the house. , . I saw my
wife who was coming out of the house.

112

9: / Gerund.
.
,
( ,
I).

(? / ? / ? / ? / ? / ...).
-ing Infinitive ,
I:
Active
Passive

Indefinite
~ ~ ~ ing
being ~ ~ ~ ed(3)

Perfect
having ~ ~ ~ ed(3)
having been ~ ~ ~ ed(3)

:
Continuous; -ing .
:
. ,
: Indefinite (Active / Passive) , ,
( , ),
, ; Perfect (Active / Passive)
, , :
Smoking is bad for health. () .
She doesn't like being looked at. , .
I called them to say about my having arrived. , ,
.
Without having been seen we entered the house. , .
insists on our coming back. , .
,
(smoking / singing . ..),
- .
?
, , " ",
. , :
(smiling / eating
..), , , . ,
,
- .
.
:
His loving women was known to the whole town.
:
1. (. III, , -ing),
, loving , - ;
2. loving love () "";
3. ( ): (? /?) , (
, , ,
(of) );
4. :
/ . /
. / , .
113

(Active Indefinite Gerund) ,


:
Reading has not begun yet. . / .
called me before leaving. . / ,
.
She likes swimming. . / .
Walking is good for health. ' . /
.
,
, :
regretted now having written this letter. (having written (Perfect) "",
) , () .
We entered the house without being seen. (being seen (Passive) "",
; without being seen " " . ) ,
. (
) / .
liked neither inviting people nor being invited. ,
. / ,
.
(to want / to need / to require / to
deserve , to be worth ) Active
Indefinite Gerund, , :
Our children want washing. , .
The car needed painting. ( ).
They were not worth helping. .
after / on / upon ,
, , Indefinite Gerund:
After his coming back she locked the door. .
On / Upon seeing me he took his hand off the table. , .
(
), , ,
/ .
, , /, ..:
Do you mind my smoking here? , ? / ...,
?
I didn't know anything about mother's coming back on Sunday. ,
.
We heard of the house being sold. , .
, ( ?)
, :
dining-room ( ?);
writing-paper / ;
fishing-boat .
,
,
, ,
,
.
:

114

, ,
:
to begin / ;
to cease / ;
to continue / ;
can / cannot afford / ();
to fear ;
to forget / ;
to hate ;
to intend ;
to like ;
to dislike ;
to neglect / ;
to prefer / ;
to propose / ;
to remember ;
to start / ;
to stop / / :
They began smoking / to smoke. .
The plane started going / to go down. .
What do you intend doing / to do? ?
They hate working / to work. .
She proposed leaving / to leave in an hour. .
She likes reading / to read. .

to forget to prefer :
Don't forget locking the door. He .
I prefer staying at home. .
:
Don't forget to lock the door. He .
I preferred to stay at home. .
can / cannot afford :
I cannot afford to see him again. .
-:
We couldn't afford their seeing him again. ,
.
to remember / - :
She remembered to buy matches. () .
, - :
She remembered buying matches. , .
to fear :
I fear to go there. () .
-:
fears my going there. , .
115

to stop :
They stopped smoking. .
, :
They stopped to smoke. (,) .
to be,
( ) ( ):

to be afraid (of) / ;
to be amused (at) ;
to be annoyed (at) / ;
to be ashamed (of) ;
to be astonished (at/by) / ;
to be careful (in) / (. ).

; ( /
), :
to be afraid (of):
I am afraid to call him. / I am afraid of calling him. .
Don't be afraid of me. He .
to be amused (at):
He was amused to see them together. / He was amused at seeing them together. ,
.
was amused at / by that story. .
to be annoyed (at):
She was annoyed not to be called. / She was annoyed at not being called. -
, .
She was annoyed at / with children. () - .
to be ashamed (of):
They were ashamed to be late. / They were ashamed of being late. - ,
.
They were ashamed of themselves. .
to be astonished (at):
I was astonished to see him again. / I was astonished at seeing him again. ,
.
I was not astonished at / by the information. .
to be careful (in):
You must be careful to do this. / You must be careful in doing this. ,
.
You must be careful about / of these things. .
* to be certain (about / of)
:
, (*), ,
, / :
They are certain to help us. , , . We are certain about / of their
helping us. , .
We are certain of / about this. .
116

* to be content (with) :
She will be content to go there with us. , . She
will be content with our taking her there. , .
She will be content with our present. .
to be determined (in / on / upon) / :
I'm determined to speak to them. .
She was determined in defending herself. .
They were determined on / upon proving her innocence.
.
is not determined on the date as yet. .
to be fortunate (in) ( ):
I am fortunate to have such a good car. / I am fortunate in having such a good car. ,
.
* to be furious (about / over) / :
He was furious to see me with her. , .
was furious about / over their coming late. - ,
.
was furious with me. .
* to be happy (about) / :
She won't be happy to help us. .
She won't be happy about our leaving. , .
Is she happy with her life? ?
* to be keen (on) :
I am keen to buy a new house. , .
I am keen on their buying a new house. ,
.
I'm keen on her. .
to be proud (of) :
I am proud to help you. / I am proud of helping you. , .
I am proud of you. .
* to be right (in / about - ) / :
You were right to stay at home. / You were right in staying at
home. , .
You were right about their staying at home. .
You were right about this. .
to be scared (of) / :
She is scared to smoke. .
She is scared of coming here. . Don't be scared of me. He
.
to be selfish (in) / :
He is too selfish to think of that. , .
You are selfish in striving for power. .
Your husband is selfish in his behaviour towards his sister.
.
to be set (against / for ):
We are set to leave. / We are set for leaving. .
We are set against leaving. , .
117

We are set for you. .


We are set against him. .
to be slow (at / in) / ( ):
You are slow to react. You are slow at / in reacting. . /
.
to be quick (at) :
He is quick to understand new rules. / He is quick at understanding new rules.
/ .
is quick about it. .
is quick with his hands. .
to be sorry (for) :
I am sorry to interrupt you. , . / , . (
- / )
I am sorry to have interrupted you. , . ( )
I am sorry for being late. , .
I'm sorry about this. , .
* to be sure (of / about ) ;
/ :
is sure to come. . / , .
Are you sure of being invited? , ?
Are you sure about their being invited? , ?
Are you sure about this? ?
Are you sure of success? ?
to be surprised (at) :
She was surprised to see me. / She was surprised at seeing me. ,
.
She was surprised at the news. .
* to be touched (at /by ) /
:
I was touched to find them in the room. / I was touched at finding them in the room.
, .
I was touched by their visiting me. , .
She was touched by my tears. .
* to be wrong (in / about )
( to be right in / about):
You were wrong to stay at home. / You were wrong in staying at home. ,
.
You were wrong about their staying at home. .
What's wrong with you? Nothing is wrong with me. ()?
/ .
* to be pleased (displeased) at / about / by ():
I am pleased to meet you. .
I'm pleased at / about / by your coming. , .
Are you displeased at / about / by their not having helped us? - ,
?
I am pleased with you. .
to be good (at) ( ); ( ):
It is good to be back at home. .
118

I am not godd at driving. .


is good at / in languages. .
to be interested (in) ( ); ( ):
You will be interested to know that she is here again. ,
.
Are you interested in buying a new house? ?
She is not interested in politics. .
to be grateful (for) :
He was grateful to be invited. / He was grateful for being invited. ,
.
was grateful to me for my help. .
to be,
:
to be aware of / ;
to be busy in ();
to be capable of ();
to be fond of ;
to be guilty of ();
to be indignant at ;
to be sensible of / ;
to be severe in / ;
to be worth - :
They are aware of our living together. , .
I'm busy in looking for new ideas. .
Are you capable of stopping them? ( , ) ?
She Is fond of playing tennis. .
I am not guilty of being late. , .
will be indignant at their leaving so soon. - ,
.
She was sensible of having made an awkward mistake. / ,
.
Don't be too severe in judging his behaviour. He () .
That match was worth seeing. .
,
:
to avoid / ;
to burst out ;
to deny ;
to enjoy / ;
to excuse / ;
to fancy / ( );
to finish / ;
119

to give up / ;
to go on / ;
to keep (on) ;
to mind ( );
to postpone / ;
to put off / ;
cannot help ...:
avoided looking at us. .
They burst out laughing. .
She denied going there. , .
You will enjoy smoking this cigar. .
Excuse my being late. .
We don't fancy doing it. .
Just fancy coming there! , !
When will you finish working? ?
gave up eating in the evening. . .
Go on reading. .
She kept (on) driving. .
Do you mind my helping you? , ?
I don't mind your smoking here. , .
They postponed / put off leaving because of the weather. - .
She couldn't help smiling. .

,
:
to accuse of , ...;
to agree to , ...;
to approve of ;
to complain of , ...;
to depend on / upon , ...;
to feel like / -;
to look like - ( - );
to insist on , ...;
to object to , ...;
to persist in -;
to prevent from , ... / , ...;
to rely on / upon , ...;
to speak of , / ...;
to succeed in ( - );
to thank for , ...;
120

to think of , / ...;
to give up the idea of -;
to look forward to - ;
to miss the opportunity -of -;
(not) to like the idea of () ( - ):
They accuse me of helping you. , .
She didn't agree to coming here. , .
Father approves of my learning English. , .
She never complains of being poor. , .
Everything will depend on / upon their coming on time. ,
.
I feel like sleeping. (,) .
She looks like leaving. (, ) .
They insist on our getting married. , .
Do they object to my leaving him? , ?
persisted in asking questions. .
Don't prevent me from buying this house. , .
You may rely on / upon my coming back. , .
I can't speak of our having been seen there. , .
succeeded in learning those rules. / .
How can you suspect me of loving her? ,
?
I want to thank you for bringing this letter. ,
.
I often think of your leaving. . They gave up the idea of selling
their car. .
She looks forward to visiting Paris. ,
.
Don't you like the idea of inviting him to our house? ,
?
won't miss the opportunity of buying several new books.
.
,
:
after / on / upon (, );
against (, );
apart / aside from / (, );
by / ;
because of - / (, );
besides ;
before (, );
from / ;
for fear of - (, );
in (- );
121

instead of (, );
of ;
owing to (, ) / - (, );
for the purpose of / with the object of / with a view to / with the view of ()
(, );
for the sake of (, );
subject to () () , ;
through - / (, );
without .
They voted against / for accepting the plan. /
.
Apart / Aside from being too small, the dress doesn't suit me. ,
, .
By working hard he gained rapid promotion. ,
.
Because of / Owing to his wife's being there, I said nothing about it.
, .
drank two cups of tea before leaving. .
The play was badly acted, besides being far too long. ,
.
Wild fruit kept us from dying of starvation.
.
We spoke in whispers for fear of waking the baby. ,
.
He's behind the others in reading. .
Let's do something instead of lying here in bed. - ,
.
Let this accident be an object lesson in the dangers of drinking and driving.
, .
We have forwarded your inquiry to our plant for the purposes of / with the object of / with a view to /
with the view of finding out whether the machine can be altered according to your specification.
,
.
She argues for the sake of arguing. , .
This offer is subject to our being able to obtain an export licence.
.
We missed the plane through being held up on the way. - ,
.
You can't do this without being helped. - /
.

122

10: / Punctuation marks.


, : ,
, , , , , , ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.

(. Full Stop / . Period).


1.

:
was there. He saw everything. . .
9. , , , :
Would you please call him as soon as possible. , , .
10. ( ):
Prof. Professor;
Nov. November;
U.K. United Kingdom

:
, .. ,
:
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization;
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
, ,
:
will be here by 10 a.m. .
11. ( point):
54.5 per cent / 11.485 / 0.0001 /.45
12. :
$10.75 / 15.50
13. :
6.45 a.m. (.: 6:45 a.m.)

(Comma).
, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
:
/ / :
It is important that you should be here tomorrow. , .
Our advice is that you should not smoke. , .
We insist that you call him immediately. ,
.
, ( 4.):
123

She told him everything when he went downstairs. ,


.
I had to finish my work earlier to help mother. ,
.
The police will take your car away if you park it here. ,
.
:
1.

:
Waiter, I'd like the menu, please. , , .
But mother, there is no one here. , .
14. :
Red, pink, yellow(,) and white flowers filled the vases. ,
, .
rose, went around the desk, leaned down(,) and kissed her lightly on the cheek. ,
, .
eats, drinks(,) and talks too much. , .
:
and , .
15. ( ) , and / as /
but / . , :
You will confirm it(.) and I shall help you with the money. ,
.
They turned back to look at each other, and again she wondered if this man knew he was being
cuckolded. , ,
, .
The crowd sat stupefied (,) as the death dance whirled toward its climax.
, .
16. ,
:
When he went downstairs, she told him everybody had gone to the tennis court.
, , .
help mother, I had to finish my work earlier. ,
.
Having called Sam, she immediately went to the airport. ,
.
When in doubt, you should come to visit me. , .
If you park your car here, the police will take it away. ,
.
17. ,
:
The driver, who was very young, insisted that he knew me. , ,
, .

:
,
( ) ;
, , ,
, :
The driver who was very young, insisted that he knew me. / The driver, who was very young insisted
that he knew me. !
The driver, who helped me that morning, insisted that he knew me. ,
, , . !
,
: The driver who helped me that morning insisted that he knew me.
124

18.

19.
20.

21.

22.

23.

The strike at the carpet factory, which lasted two weeks, is now over.
,
, .
The girl with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks.
, , .
The house, which has been empty for a year, has just been sold. ,
, .
The man whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. ,
, .
,
(: ,
):
She is the woman, whose husband has been dead for three years. () ,
.
A widow is a woman whose husband is dead, , .
Yesterday I met John, who told me he was getting married. ,
, .
I don't want to go back to the town where I was born. ,
.
They would like to stay in this town, where their son was born.
.
Norman won $10,000, half of which he gave to his sister. 10000 ,
.
What was the name of the girl whose passport was stolen? ,
?
:
Fishing forms a quiet man; hunting, an eager man; gambling, a greedy man.
, - , .
, :
The fire, although it had been put out, was still very hot. , ,
.
Can't you see, Peter, how big he is? , , ?
There had, of course, been other women along the way. ,
.
:
Well, I like this. , .
By the way, I also need money. , .
However, nobody drank much. , .
,
:
As the police car pulled up, the crowd surged forward, ( ,
) ,
.
After a period of calm, college students have begun to demonstrate again, (
college calm)
.
,
:
In the summer of 1984, many trees died. 1984 .
After the coffee and three cigarettes, he dressed in what he always dressed in.
, .
At forty-two, he was a deceptive-looking man. ,
.
125

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.
31.

32.

In thirteen months, he had parted with all of them.


.
For some reason, sex and politics for him had always gone hand in hand. -
.
In search of gold, my great-grandfather landed in America.
.
:
You saw this film, didn't you? , ?
She was here yesterday, wasn't she? , ?
They haven't come today, have they? , ?
too ( ) either (
), - ( ):
:
has been to London, too. ( / / -) .
has been to London too. ( / / -) .

has not been to London, either. ( / / -) .
has not been to London either. ( / / -)
.
for, (
):
I asked her to stay, for I had something to tell her. ,
- .
I could tell much about this man, for I had met him before.
, .
:
was born June 14, 1940. 14 1940 . It happened in May, 1977.
1977 .
:
once estimated that he was living slightly more than $1,000 a year. - ,
.
The federal government's official poverty line that year was $4,680.
, , 4680 .
( )
:
Dear Mr. Johnson, I have received your letter...
(.) Dear Sir:
I have received your letter...
,
( ):
Yours faithfully, / Yours truly, ABCDCo-.Ltd. R. Johnson President
( ),
/ / / / () / (
):
Stephen P. r, 2141 Starling Avenue, Bronx, N.Y. 10462
, :
"How was he?" dark asked. "He was well", she said. "Do they still hurt?" he asked. "No", she said,
"not much." He said, "I don't know."

:
(quotation marks) ;
, .

126

(Apostrophe).
1.

s ,
, (
s):
mother's hat;
the princess's [prin'sesiz] smile;
men's gloves;
students' books

:
, -s,
:
King Charles's crown / King Charles' crown
33. :
I'm I am;
he's he is / has;
'87 1987
34. s ,
( ):
In the 1980's /the 1980s...;
VIP's / VIPs;
I can't distinguish his L's. "".
(; semicolon / : colon / ( ) parentheses /
[] square brackets / dash / - hyphen / ? question mark / ! exclamation mark )
.

127

III.
,
, , ,
.

I. , -s.
1.

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

40.

41.

42.

:
boy boys; house houses;
:
child children; tooth teeth . (. )
3- , , (Present) Active Indefinite:
wants to help you.
( mine):
hers; ours...
:
father's car; my friend's book
,
:
our children's toys
,
( -s'):
my friends' house ;
fen minutes' story
is :
He's a good boy. He is a good boy.
It's a new book. It is a new book.
Your friend's not here. Your friend is not here.
has :
He's got some money. He has got some money.
She's not come yet. She has not come yet.
, -s, :
bus / famous / mathematics .

II. to be (was/were; been).


1.

/ (: be /am / is / are / was / were).


(Active Indefinite / ), ( /
) :
Be careful.
I am a student.
He is my friend.
They were there.
She was here yesterday.
He cannot be there.
to be , ,
, - , , -
, :
is like his mother.
Like , to be ~ ~ ~.
like :
( ) .
128

to be Active Indefinite (Present / Past)


to do:
Were you there yesterday?
Did you be there yesterday?
She was not here two days ago.
She did not be here two days ago.
43. Active Continuous (to be ~ ~ ~ ing):
She is sleeping. Don't be sleeping.
Active Perfect Continuous (to have been ~ ~ ~ ing):
She has been living here for twenty years. .
44. Passive Indefinite (to be ~ ~ ~ ed(3)):
They were not invited. .
Passive Continuous (to be being ~ ~ ~ ed(3)):
We are being waited for. .
Passive Perfect (to have been ~ ~ ~ ed(3)):
You have been seen there. .
45. Active Continuous to be () + :
Her task was writing letters. ( ).
The important thing is helping people. () .
46. to be to (to be to ~ ~ ~), to be
must :
is to come by three o'clock. .
47. to be,
:
to be thristy ( );
to be hungry ( );
to be afraid (of smb. / smth.) (- / -)
I was thristy. .
You will be hungry. .
I'm not afraid of you. .
-ed
Passive Indefinite:
to be surprised ( );
to be married / ( )
They are surprised. .
is not married. .

:
II,

(interested / worried .):
Are you interested in football? ?
I am worried about his health. .
to be .
to be ,
. to get:
got hungry. . ( )
She got married. , ( )
We got surprised. , ( -)
got interested at once. .
" " to fall ( ):
129

to fall in love (with smb.) ( -)


Have you fallen in love with her? , ?
to fall ill
He fell ill. .
to fall asleep
Don't fall asleep. He .
to grow ( ):
He grew old. .
It began to grow dark. .
to become ( ):
became angry. .
This will become cheaper soon. .

, to become / to get / to fall / to


grow . to be :
to fall in love to be in love;
to fall ill to be ill;
to grow dark to be dark;
to grow old to be old;
to become angry to be angry ..
48. to would ( ), ( tobe ); ; (would-be
( / / -);
:
Nobody knows his wife to-be. . (
, )
Nobody knows his would-be wife. , , (
)

III. to do (did / done).


1.

49.
50.

51.

52.

(: do / does / did). to make ,


, , to make /
-:
does it every day. ( ) .
makes good things. / . (: Made in...
...)
Active Indefinite (Present /
Past):
Do you speak English? Did she come yesterday? You don't love him, do you?
Active Indefinite (Present /
Past):
I don't (do not) speak English. She doesn't (does not) know this man. They didn't (did not) come
yesterday. She loves him, doesn't she? / does she not? Didn't you / Did you not see that film?
..
, ,
:
Little did he realize that. .
Only rarely does she come before ten o'clock. /
.
- Active Indefinite (Present /
Past). : .
130

53.

54.

55.

56.

But he does love you! ( )!


She did come yesterday. ( ).
I do want to help you! ( )!
- Active Indefinite
(Present /Past), :
I know it better than he does. , ().
promised to help us and he did. , .
promised to help us but he didn't. , .
:
Don't open any windows. He .
Don't be late. He .
/
:
Do be careful. .
Do come in! , !
Do have some more tea. .
Do let's go to the cinema. .
, -
Active Indefinite (Present / Past)
? / - .
I need money. .
Do you? So do I. ? .
They didn't come yesterday. .
Didn't they? Neither did my sister. ? ( ).

IV. to have (had).


1.

(: have / has / had). ,


:
I have a house. She has a car. They had money.
:
have have got 've got I've got a house.
have has got 's got She's got a car.
have had got 'd got I'd got a wife.
got .

57. Active Perfect (to have ~ ~ ~ ed(3)):


He has come. .
Active Perfect Continuous (to have been ~ ~ ~ ing):
I have been sitting here for two hours. .
58. Passive Perfect (to have been ~ ~ ~ ed(3)):
They have been seen together. .
59. to have to (to have to ~ ~ ~ ),
to have must / should / ought
:
We had to help them. / .
to have got,
( ) gotta
:
You have got / You've got / You gotta call her. .
You haven't got to go there. .
She hasn't got to invite them. . /
.
131

Has she got to invite them? ?


60. Perfect Infinitive (
):
should have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) , ,
; :
You should have invited them. ( ).
could /might have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) , ,
:
could / might have helped us. ( ).
may have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) , , , ,
:
may have been here. , .
ought to / must have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) / :
They ought to / must have left. , , .
needn't have ~ ~ ~ ed(3) , :
You needn't have come. .
61. Perfect Gerund Perfect Participle , ,
:
I am sorry for having invited these people. , .
Having finished the work, they went on playing cards. ,
.
62. to have , :
I have my TV-set repaired. .
I have repaired my car. () .
You'd better have that bad tooth pulled out. (
).
63. ,
:
to have breakfast / lunch / dinner / / ;
to have a try ;
to have a look ;
to have a walk ;
to have a swim ;
to have a rest .
(: to try ; to walk
; to swim ; to rest ..):
May I have a look? ?
Let me have a try. , .
Go and have a lie down. .
64.
( ):
I've got a terrible headache. . (:
.)
He's got a cold. . :
is cold. .
65. had
:
Had I known him before, I shouldn't have invited him. ,
.
66. had better+Infinitive to
/ / :
132

You had better / You'd better be quick, or you'll miss the train. ,
.
I'd better Jock the door. . .
You'd better not wake them up. He . / .
67. had rather ( sooner) /
( would , had,
'd):
I'd rather fail the exam than cheat. , .
I had rather fail the exam ... / I would rather fail the exam...
I'd rather you came tomorrow (than today). (, ).
I'd rather you left at once. , .
What had / would you rather do? ( )?
Then we'd rather not come at all. / .
had / would sooner resign than be involved in bribery. ,
.

V. shall.
shall Infinitive to.
1.

Future 1- :
I shall help you. We shall be invited.
, 'll:
I'll help you. We'll be invited.
shan't:
We shan't be able to help you.

:
shall Future
will:
I will help you.
68. 2- 3- / /
/ / (
):
If you work well, you shall have higher wages. ,
.
You say you will not help us, but I say you shall (help us). ,
, .
The Tenant shall return the keys to the Landlord.
.
69. ( )
/ / , :
I don't think you shall ever see her again. , -
.
doubts whether he shall be in tomorrow. ,
.
70. 1- 3- ,
. :
Shall I start? () ?
Shall he wait here? ?
When shall he come? ?
What shall they do tomorrow? ?

133

VI. will.
will Infinitive to.
1.

Future 2- 3- :
They will leave tomorrow. Will you be free tomorrow?
shall 1- :
I will come back very soon.
, '11 ( shall):
He'll be back in a minute. They'll help us.
won't:

They won't be able to call you in the evening. .


71. 1- / /
/ / :
I won't do it again. .
All right, I will do it. , .
We will call on you in the evening. .
72. 2- , ,
:
Will you help me (, please)? (, ).
Pass the salt, will you? , , .
Won't you stay a little longer? He ?
Don't be late, will you? He , ?

:
will :
Will you be quiet! ()!
73. if you will
/ ( ):
Stay if you will. (, ).
Call me tomorrow it you will. , .
74. , / /
:
She will go shopping day after day. .
He'll do nothing for months and then suddenly he'll ring me. ,
.
Boys will be boys. .
75. / /
:
That will be your sister telephoning. , , .
Will we (Do you think we will / Is there any chance that we will) get there in time? (
,) / ?
This'll be the book you wanted. , , .
76. :
We shall be obliged if you will inform us about,the date of your arrival. ,
.
( ):
We shall be obliged if you inform us about the date of your arrival. ,
.
77.
; :
won't help us. ( ).
The door won't open. .
78. to will :
134

willed his money to me. .


79. will :
has a strong / weak will. / .

VII. Should ( shall).


should Infinitive to.
1.

/ / .
Indefinite Infinitive /
:
You should come here every day. .
They should call me the day after tomorrow. .
Perfect Infinitive should , :

80.

81.

82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

should have spoken to her. () . ( )


She should have warned you. ( ) .
Future-in-the-Past 1- :
I thought I should, not be late. , .
We said we should arrive early. , .
:
We should be very glad to go there with you if we had time.
, .
I should have called you if you had given me your number. ,
.
It is important that you should understand this. , .
1- / /
/ :
We should like to see this film. .
I should like ... ...
I should say ... ...
I should prefer ... ...
We should like to have a rest. .
I should like to buy those shoes. .
I should prefer white wine. .
1- 3- ,
. :
Should /Shall I write it down? () ?
Should / Shall she show them her flat? ?
1- 3- ,
:
Tom asked if he should post the letter. , .
She asked me if she should help them the next day. ,
.
(
):
Should they call you, come and get me. , .
Should I go, I should wear my black dress. ,. .
,
/ / / (should
, ):
I'm surprised that your wife should object ( objects). ,
.
It's a pity that you (should) have to leave. , .
135

87.
:
If they should call, I'll tell them about your plan. (
), .
If they should call tomorrow, I should tell them about your plan.
( ), .
:
If they call, I'll tell them about your plan. ( ),
.
88. 3- - :
I suppose, he should reach the place by now. ,
'.
should have saved enough money by then. , ( )
.
89. ,
/ ( how why):
How should I know? ?
Why should you do it? ?
How should they get the money? / ?

VIII. Would ( will).


would Infinitive to.
'd:
1.
90.

91.

92.

93.
94.

95.

He'd / would like to come, too. .


Future-in-the-Past 2- 3- :
We were told you would come later. , .
:
would be glad to see you. .
She would have paid that money if she had had it. ,
.
/ :
is the best student, he would pass the exam. ,
.
Don't worry, they would help you. He , () .
2- , ,
:
Would / Will you wait a moment (, please)? , , .
Would /Will you pass the pepper, please? , , .
Pass the salt, please, would / will you? , , .
:
We should be obliged if you would inform us about the date of your arrival.
, ( ) .

. ,
:
wouldn't listen to me. / -.
The car was very old and it wouldn't start. .
/
:
Sometimes we would visit our friends who lived nearby. () , , ,
.
She would often help my father. , , .
136

IX. , -ed.
1.
96.
97.

98.

99.

Active Indefinite Past :


asked me to help him. They invited us.
Active Perfect Passive :
They have helped us. We shall be invited. I am being helped. She has not been invited.
II, :
We couldn't open the locked door. .
We couldn't open the door locked many years ago. ,
.
is disappointed with her behaviour. .
( / / )
:
could have helped us. .
I don't approve of your having married her. , .
The work having been finished, we went home. , ,
.
, II,
. :
the unemployed ; the wounded .
We cannot help all the unemployed. .
The room was filled with the wounded. .

:
-ed Infinitive ,
:
:
-, , :
to live lived / to like liked / to shave shaved / to smile smiled / to invite invited
-, , - -i:
to carry carried / to try tried / to apply applied / to spy spied :
to stay stayed / to pray prayed / to delay delayed / to employ employed ( -
)
, ,
:
to stop stopped / to plan planned / to rob robbed / to hug hugged :
to help helped / to plant planted ( );
to book booked / to load loaded ( . )
, -1,
, -l ( -1
, ):
to level levelled (.: leveled) ( );
to compel compelled (.: compelled) ( );
to reveal revealed ( -l )
, ( -1),
, ,
( , -x, ):
to regret regretted / to permit permitted / to refer referred ( );
to trumpet trumpeted / to limit limited / to fasten fastened / to inhibit inhibited / to linger
lingered ( );
to invest invested / to remark remarked ( );
to mention mentioned / to regroup regrouped ( );
to perplex perplexed / to relax relaxed / to transfix transfixed
:
[t] , ( [t]):
137

to pass passed / to pack packed / to like liked / to finish finished;


[d] , / :
to call called / to turn turned / to enter entered / to bow bowed;
[id] , [t] / [d]
to want wanted / to permit permitted / to end ended / to wound wounded;
100., -ed, :
bed / to bleed / greed / hundred .

X. , -ing.
1.

Active Continuous Active Perfect Continuous


:
She is sleeping. ().
has been waiting for us since the morning. .
101. being , Passive Continuous
:
Your house is being built. .
* (-ing).
4* I ("ing).
5* (-ing).

:
-ing Infinitive ,
, , , :

-, , :
to live living / to smile smiling / to smoke smoking / to give giving / to take taking
(!):
to die ( ) dying;
to dye ( ) dyeing;
to lie ( ) lying;
to lie (lay / lain) ( ) lying;
to tie ( / ) tying;
, ,
:
to stop stopping / to plan planning / to rob robbing / to hug hugging :
to help helping / to plant planting ( );
to book booking / to load loading ( )
, -I,
, -l ( -I
, ):
to level levelling (.: leveling) ( );
to compel compelling (.: compelling) ( );
to reveal reveaPortishead ( -l )
, ( -l),
, ,
( , -x):
to regret regretting /to permit permitting / to refer referring (
);
to trumpet trumpeting / to limit limiting / to fasten fastening / to inhibit inhibiting / to
linger lingering ( );
to invest investing / to remark remarking ( );
to mention mentioning / to regroup regrouping ( );
to perplex perplexing / to relax relaxing / to transfix transfixing.

138

1. / 2. / 3* / 4* / 5* .
3* / 4* / 5* ,
, - .
102. :
-ing;
;
;
;
;
;
;
, ?:
This beautiful building belongs to our relatives.
.
Those beautiful buildings belong to our relatives.
.
Would you start from the beginning, please. , , .
(? /?) of:
The beginning of the text was very difficult to translate.
.
103. I:
-ing;
, ;
? / ? / ? / ? / ? /
?;
;
;
;
;
:
Turning slowly / Slowly turning he looked at us. , .
Listening to them he was still thinking about his wife. , -
.
104. :
-ing;
, ;
;
;
;
.;
;
( ? ):
I didn't know about their coming back so early. ,
.
attempted walking slowly. .
She regrets living so far from her family. ,
.
of:
She hates giving parties. . (: ... /
(?) )
Telling lies is wrong. , (: (?) )
139

John's wife doesn't approve of his loving politicians so much. ,


. (: ... (?) )

:
, -ing,
/ , ;
to prevent / to forbid ( ), to excuse / to pardon / to
forgive . :
Nobody can prevent us / our getting married. .
I cannot forbid you talking to that man. (?)
.
I cannot forbid your talking to that man. (? )
.
Excuse me (for) being late. () .
Excuse my being late. , .
Forgive / Pardon me (for) asking / Pardon my asking, but isn't that my pen you're writing with?
, ?
to appreciate () / to dread / to fancy
() / to hate / to imagine () / to mind / to miss
/ to remember / to recall / to resent / to understand
. / I (
), /
:
We appreciate them / their paying so much attention to that problem. ,
.
Everybody dreads Harry / Harry's taking over the business. ,
.
Fancy / Imagine him / his singing! !
hates anyone / anyone's disturbing him when he is working. ,
- .
Would you mind me/my offering you a cup of coffee? ,
?
She misses us / our playing cards in the evenings. ,
, .
I don't remember the Browns / the Browns' having been to this restaurant before. ,
.
Can you recall them / their meeting us at the airport? ,
?
I think your sister resents me/my staying at yours. , ,
.
Do you understand him / his taking the money? , ?
105., -ing, :
interesting / wing / to cling .

XI. one.
1.

.
How much time do you have? I just have one day. ?
.
106. . :
a row of ones
107.- . / /
. ,
( ):
140

I've got lots of books. The best of them are the ones on the left. .
() , .
I have not a pen. Can you lend me one? . ()?
108.
( ), ,
, :
, . One can find anything here.
. One must study well.
. One should not leave things in this room.
, / . One doesn't like to have one's
word doubted.
109. day ( ) :
one day / morning / afternoon / evening / night / / / /

110. / :
One (Mr.) Fox called you. / () .

XII. for.
1.

. (. ):
It is for you. .
I read books for pleasure. () .
What did you do that for? ?
111. / :
I have been waiting here for two hours. / .
She is leaving for two days. .
112. :
It is impossible for her to help us. .
113. :
For all his money, he is unhappy. , .
For all you say, I love her. , , .
114. ( ) / .
:
She asked me not to leave, for she had something to tell me. ,
- .
115. : for certain ;
for good ;
for my part , ...;
for smb.'s / smth.'s sake - / -;
for the sake of smb. / smth. - / - . (. )
I cannot say for certain where she comes from. , .
She says that she is leaving for good. , .
For my part, I'm not sure of this. / I'm not sure of this, for my part. , ()
.
Please, don't do it, for mother's sake. , , .
I can only do it for the sake of my family. .

XIII. it.
1.

. , :
It is very important. .
Explain it, please. , .
116.
, :
141

. It is five o'clock.
. It is cold here.
117. ( 5):
It was my sister who brought these tickets. .
It is here that we meet every Sunday. .
118. :
This book is really interesting but I have no time to read it.
, .
I live in a new house now. Why don't you come to see it? .
?

XIV. that.
1.

/ / . :
This book is mine, that book is yours. , .
I didn't know that. .
119. / . :
I am sure (that) he will come. , () .
It is important (that) he should come. , .
120. . :
This is the letter that came yesterday. , .
The girl (that) you met yesterday wants to see you again. ,
, .
121. / / ( all
):
I am not allowed to walk that far. .
I was that tired I couldn't help you. , .
It isn't as interesting as all that. .
It isn't all that hot. He ( ).
122. , :
It is here that we met for the first time. .
It's not that he needs the money. He , . .
123. -
( ):
Your car is better than that of my brother. , () .

142

IV.

( ) , ( )
( . ).

1. .
in the street ( street , /
, ):
There is a police car in the street. () .
I just met them in the street. .
I work in Gogol Street. / .
I live in Gorky Street. .
I live at 46 Gorky Street. 46 .
outside (/ ):
Wait here until they come outside. , ( ).
Our children often play outside. , .
Don't go outside. .
Is it cold outside? ?

2. / / .
home ( , ):
I left home at the age of 16. 16 .
at home :
Is your father at home? ?
Make yourself at home. , .
We can't feel at home here. , .
to be in / out / ( , ):
Is your father in? Yes, he is in. / No, he is not in. / He is out. ( /
) ? / .
Is your father in? ( ) / ? (
)
to go / to come / to be (back) home / / / () :
When will you come / be back home? ()?
I have to go home. ().
home , :
holiday / rest home ;
children's home ;
old people's home
house ( / ):
Is your father at home? Yes, he is in the house. ? , .
()
We live in a new two-storeyed (.: storied) house. . (
)
We live in a nine-storeyed block of flats. ()
.
143

house / , :
madhouse / henhouse
to house / :
Can you house us for a week? ?

3. () / ) / / .
to acquaint smb. / oneself with smth. () - / () -:
Will you acquaint him with the facts of the case. ,
.
Wouldn't you like to acquaint yourself with your new duties?
?
to be / to become acquainted with smth. / -:
They were not acquainted with the real reason for the divorce.
. / .
You will soon become fully acquainted with the plan. .
to be acquainted (with smb.) ( -):
We are not acquainted. . / .
I am not acquainted with him. .
I'm slightly acquainted with her. .
She was very well acquainted with them. . /
.
to get / to become acquainted (with smb.) ( -):
Let's get acquainted. .
I don't want to get acquainted with him. .
They became / got acquainted last month. .
acquaintance ():
I can't ask her about it she's only an acquaintance.
() .
has a wide circle of acquaintances. . /
.
We are old acquaintances. . / .
to have acquaintance with smth. () -:
I have some little acquaintance with medicine. .
Do you have any acquaintance with this car / model? ? /
?
a nodding acquaintance with smb./smth. / - / :
I have no more than a nodding acquaintance with them / with their work.
. / .
to make smb.'s acquaintance / the acquaintance of smb. -:
Where / When did you first make their acquaintance? / /
?
I want you to make the acquaintance of my fiancee. ,
.
on/upon further acquaintance / :

144

His attitude towards this problem seemed unclear first, but he appeared to be on our side on/upon
further acquaintance. ,
, .
to meet (smb.) ( -):
Have we met (before)? ?
We haven't met before. .
I know him by sight, but we've never met. , .
Meet my husband John. .
(I am) Pleased to meet you. .
to introduce smb. (to smb.) / - (-):
Allow me to introduce myself. .
Let me introduce my wife to you. , .
Let me introduce you to my wife. , .
I don't think we've been introduced. , , .
to introduce smb. to smth. - -:
Shall I introduce him to our plan? ? /
?
You shouldn't introduce him to alcohol. (
).
to know smb. / smth. / - / -:
I don't know him. . / .
We've known each other since we were children. / .
Do you know the plan well? ? / ?
to be familiar with smth. -:
I don't know whether he is familiar with this technology. ,
.
to be familiar (to smb.) -:
Her face is very familiar (to me) but I can't remember her name. ,
.
the familiar story / sight / voice / ... / / / ...

4. / / .
to Speak (to / with smb.) / ( -);
/ :
Do you speak English? -?
is speaking on the phone. .
I'd like to speak to / with you. .
She speaks very loudly. / .
so to speak ; strictly / generally / roughly speaking
/ / :
I want you to look beautiful every day, so to speak. ,
, .
Roughly speaking, I do not like him at all. , .
to talk (to / with smb.) / / ( -);
/ :
You are talking too loudly. / .
I'd like to talk with / to you. .
145

is talking too much. .


- :
to talk weather / business / shop / ... / / / ...:
You are talking shop too much. .
talk / :
No shop talk, please. , .
I had a serious talk with my daughter. /
.
to talk smb. into doing smth. - -;
to talk smb. out of doing smth. - -:
You won't talk me into going there. .
She talked him out of buying that car. .

:
to talk : to press
smb. into / out of doing smth. / -; to force smb. into /
out of doing smth. / -; to cheat smb. into /out of doing smth.
/ -:
She cheated me out of buying that ear.
.
to say smth. (to smb.) / - (-);
/ () ; to say ;
, to:
says nothing. .
says nothing to me. .
She said (that) I am a good boy. , .
She said to my mother that I am a good boy. , .
to tell smb. smth. / / - -;
/ () ; to tell /
, to :
tells me nothing. .
She told my mother that I am a good boy. , .
/ ; to :
likes to tell long stories. .
told (us) the truth. () .

:
to say:
said, 'Don't worry. : " ."
to tell ( ), to say ( ):
told me not to worry. .
said that I should not worry. , .
to say ; to tell :
is said not to smoke. , .
is told not to smoke. .

5. / / .
to study / ; :
- :
146

studies at the medical college. .


- / / :
She studies medicine. .
- - ( / / / ...):
They are studying the map. .
She studies the origin of light. .
study / / :
His study is upstairs. .
My studies show that he is right. , .
to learn / ; :
- () / / ( / / ...):
I team English on Sundays. . She learns to swim.
.
learns how to ride a horse. .
They learn how to drive a car. .
- :
She is learning English now. .
- / :
I haven't learnt / learned his phone number. .
They didn't learn much from him. .

:
to learn / to know
/ :
I'm afraid, she didn't know their address. , .
I'am afraid, she didn't learn their address. , .
to learn by heart / :
This poem is too difficult to learn by heart. ,
.
to teach smb. / smth. / / - / -:
is teaching English at school. .
She is teaching the guitar to children. .
That will teach you not to swim in cold water. , .

6. / .
telephone phone :
telephone booth / phone booth / phone-box / public telephone / call-box - /
;
telephone directory / phone book ( ) ;
to make a (telephone) call ( ):
I have to make a call. .
She is making a call. .
to make a long-distance (telephone) call / /
/ :
I'd like to make a long-distance call. .
to call smb. (up) at / in -
to (tele)phone smb. (up) at / in -
147

to ring smb. (up) at / in / /


to give smb. a call / ring at / in / :
I'll call you (up) tomorrow. .
I'll phone you (up) at the office. .
I'll ring you (up) in London. .
, , :
I want to call the enquiry office / the inquiries. .
to call (smb.) back / / :
I'll call (you) back. () / .
to be / to speak on the telephone / :
She is (speaking) on the (tele)phone now. .
a party line :
I don't have a party line. .
May / Can I use your (tele)phone? ?
You are wanted on the (tele)phone. .

7. To call.
to call (to smb.) / ( ):
She called and called but nobody answered. , .
called to me for help. .
to call / :
Did you hear what he called me? He called me a liar. , ?
.
Just call me Oleg. / "".
to call ( ):
Please call a doctor. , .
Shall I call you a taxi? / Shall I call a taxi for you? ?
to call for smth. / -:
She called for her camera. .
to call for smb. - ( ):
I'll call for you at half past 5. .
to call (in) at some place / at smb.'s - / -:
I'd like to call (in) at the bank. .
Do you think we should call at Richard's when we go there?
, ?
to call by (at some place) / ( ):
We called by to -thank you. .
Could you call by on your way to the office? ( ) ?
Will you call by at the shop on the way home. , , .
to call back () / :
We'll call back later. / .
to call (in / round) (on smb.) - / :
She only called to ask about her son. , .
I have to call (in) on the Russels. .
148

You were out when she called (in / round) to see you. , ( ).
to call on smb. at - -:
I have to call on John at the office. .
to call for smth. -:
calls for peace. .
to call on / upon smb. to do smth. / / -:
Call upon / on her to stop smoking. , .

8. To get.
( ,
).
; , to get.
, to get:

to have got, ( to have):


I have a car. I've got a car. .
to have got to, ( to have to
must):
She has got to leave. She has to leave. She must leave. . / .
/ / / (: - -/-):
Get a doctor! !
Can I get you anything? - / ?
Shall I get them from the airport? ?
Please get my slippers for me. , / .
():
Can I get you a drink / get a drink for you? -?
Would you get me a cup of coffee. , , .
You don't have to get breakfast for me. .
( - ):
How do / How can I get there? ?
What time will you get home? ( )?
She doesn't like to get to work early. .
- :
Why didn't you want to get a plane to London?
?
You can get a train there. . /
.
( ):
to get dressed ;
to get lost ;
to get tired .
She is getting dressed. .
He got drunk very quickly. ( ).
You'll soon get better. ( ).
I can't get used to your manners. ( )
.

:
to get -
() :
got drunk very quickly. ( )
149

You'll soon get better. ( )


I can't get used to your manners. ( , )
to come ( ) -
:
The ribbon in your hair is coming loose. ( ) .
The lock came rusty. .
My shirt has come unbuttoned. .

to go / :
I don't want you to go mad because of that. , - .
She went blind a year ago. .
This cloth doesn't wash well it goes pale.
.
They went blue with cold. .
( ):
We cannot get this window closed. ( ) .
I must get the breakfast ready. .
Why don't you get the cooker cleaned? ?
/ / / ..:
When you get to know her better, you'll like her. ,
.
I can never get to understand this. .
How did you get to know my address? ?
/ / / ..:
I got a letter from him yesterday. .
I'll come as soon as I get time. , .
you multiply 7 by 6 you get 42. 7 6, 42,
How much are you going to get for your house? /
( )?
Where did you get this car? ?
How do you get your living? ?
Get your money! !
You can get ten years for that. ' () .
We cannot get Moscow channel on our TV.
.
( ):
She got a cold. ,
Try not to get . .
to get smb. (tor smth.) () - ( - ):
I'll get you (for reporting me)! ( , "" )!
Smth. gets me! - / . ! :
Their being so slow gets me! .
Those flies really get me! () ( )!
I'll get it. ( () ) ( ):
The telephone is ringing. I'll get it. .
There's someone at the door. !'!i get it. .
Didn't you hear a noise outside? I'll get it. ( ).
to get if / smth. / -:
I don't get your meaning. . / , /
/ .
150

Get it? ?
You've got it wrong. .
I never get his jokes. .
to get smb. to ~ ~ ~ / / .. - -
:
I can't get him to stop smoking. .
You will never get her to help you. .
to get ~ ~ ~ ing :
I can't make him get sleeping. .
When will you get working? ?
Let's get going / moving. . / .
to get to ~ ~ ~ (.) / :
I never get to invite him. .
Does she ever get to come here? ?
to get . .

9. To take.
: / .
. (. ),
.
to take:

( ):
Don't take my car. He .
never takes my books. .
/ / :
Can I take a seat? ( )?
Take my advice. ( ).
How much are you going to take for your car? () /
?
( / .. ):
Can you take these letters to the post? ?
I could take you home. in my car. .
/ / :
I don't take coffee with milk. .
doesn't take sugar. . / ( / ).
( ):
to take a rest ;
to take a deep breath ;
to take a look ;
to take a bath ;
to take a holiday . .
She took a bath and looked at herself in the mirror.
.
:
Which cigarettes do you take? ?
Why don't you take apples? ?
:
The work took three hours. .
It will take you much time. .
151

( - ):
Shall I take your temperature? ?
It is not allowed to take notes here. .
Can you take a photograph of my wife? ?
/ :
Don't take me for a fool. He .
took me for someone else. - .
/ :
Don't take his words as offence. He . /
.
They took you to be an honest person. .
:
I always take the bus to work. .
to take place / / :
Where / When will their meeting take place? / / ?
to take part in smth. -:
We won't be taking part in this. .
to take smb. by surprise - :
They won't take me by suprise. .

10. / / / / .
to see ( );
Continuous; (
) can,
:
Did you see him last night? ?
I can see nobody here. .
I saw this film. .
:
See page 1. 1.
See that the door is locked. , .
to look :
You are looking very well. .
Does this dress look well on me? ?
You look tired. .
:
Look where you are going! ! / , !
to look at :
I don't like to be looked at. , .
Don't look at her. He .
to look after :
She is looking after my children / my house. /
.
to look for :
What are you looking for? ?
look / :
They had angry looks on their faces. .
152

Their house has a strange look. - .


to have a look at smth. / - ( ):
When can I have a look at your new car? /
?
to take a look at smb. / smth. / - / - (
):
I want you to take a look at my car. , ,
( - ).
You have a bad cough. Why doesn't a doctor take a look at you? .
?
not to like the look of smb. / smth. ( / - / -,
- , ):
I don't like the look of you. , (- ? /
? / ?).
Why do you say you don't like the look of your car? (,
, )?
to watch / :
likes to watch TV. . Are you. watching something?
- ?
I am being watched. .
Watch me carefully. .
watch ;
to glance / / :
glanced at his watch. .
She glanced round the room. .
glance ;
at a glance ;
to stare / / :.
Don't stare at me. He .
She stared at us. .
stare ;
to glare / :
They stood glaring at each other. , .
glare ;
to squint ( ) / ;
squint / :
She was born with a squint. .
Let me have / take a squint at it. ( ).

11. / .
to listen => ( );
to listen / , to:
Listen, please. , .
Don't listen to him. He .
153

I don't like to listen to the radio. .


to hear ( ), / :
I didn't hear their voices. ' / .
She heard some noise. - .
:
I don't want to hear what you are telling me. / ,
.

12. .
many :
many books / many houses
much :
much money / much water
a lot of ( lots of) ,
:
a lot of books / a lot of money;
lots of books / lots of money
a lot ( / / ):
You want quite a lot. .
They care about you a lot. .
She helps me a lot. / .
a lot / lots+ ...:
is feeling a lot better today. .
I eat lots less than I used to. , .
a great / a good deal of ,
:
a great deal of work ;
a good deal of cigarettes
a great deal a lot:
They see each other a great deal / a lot. .
I think of you a great deal / a lot. / .
plenty of , :
plenty of women ;
plenty of time
plenty ( ):
Five (apples / ...) will be plenty. ( / ...) .
large quantity :
We buy things in large quantities. () .

13. / / .
few ; :
few books ;
few houses
a few :
a few books ;
154

a few houses
every few (days / weeks) ( / );
little ( );
little + :
little money ;
little time ;
It is little warmer here. .
a little :
a little money ;
a little time ;
It is a little warmer here. / .
little by little - / :
Little by little we'll do it. - .
small quantity ():
I can only buy a small quantity. .
We sell these goods in small quantities. .
several :
several books ;
several houses
some / :
some books ;
some water
somewhat ( );
:
She was somewhat surprised to get a letter from them. ,
.
They are somewhat disappointed with their new house.
.
slightly ( ):
I know him slightly. (, ).
The wounded is slightly better today. .

14. / / .
to offer (-: / ./ ...):
I offer you my help. .
She has been offered a new job. .
Can I offer you a cup of coffee? ?
What did you offer him? ( / )?
offer :
Do you like their offer? , ( /
)?
to suggest () / :
suggested a visit to the doctor. .
I suggest waiting here. .
They suggested that we should learn it by heart. .
155

What did you suggest to him? ( / )?


suggestion () - :
Do you like their suggestion? , ()?
to propose
() / :
She proposed a new plan to us. .
I propose starting early / an early start / to make an early start / making an early start / that we
should start early tomorrow. .
124. :
proposed (to me). .
Haven't you proposed (to her) yet? () ?
125. ( / ):
I propose him for manager. .
1.

to propose a toast to smth. / smb. to propose smb.'s health - / / - :


I should like to propose a toast to the bride and bridegroom. /
.
I (should like to) propose your wife's health. /
.
proposal - / :
How did you like their proposal for cooperation? /
?
I can have several proposals in one week. ( )
.
proposition ( - /
- , / ):
I have a proposition to make to you. ( ) .
Tunnelling under the English Channel is a big proposition. -
/ .
sentence ( ):
Could you repeat the last sentence, please? He
?

15. / / / / / / /
/ ( ).
to bring / / ( ):
I'll bring you the books next time. () .
They brought these flowers in the morning. .
to carry / - ( ):
We carried the box (for) two miles. .
She was carrying an umbrella in her hand. . / .
to fetch / ( /-):
I want you to fetch another chair. , .
Fetch someone to help us. - .
to take / ( ):
156

I cannot take your car to the garage today, let me do it tomorrow.


, .
. to get .

16. .
work , / :
We don't like hard work. .
This work is not for me. .
work - / :
Is this all your own work? ?
Well, you must be pleased with your work you've ruined everything! , ,
, !
work / :
Mother went to (her) work. .
It is difficult to find work in the present economic situation.
. Many people are looking for work now. ()
.
, work to do:
I won't be able to come because I have some work to do in the evening. ,
- .
to work (at / in / for) ( / ):
Our sister is working now. .
has been working at this plant for ten years. .
She works in a bank. .
Her mother works for a foreign company. .
job / ;
work:
has lost his job. .
I'm looking for a new job / work. .
My job / work is not very interesting. .
job ( - / / ):
Have you got any jobs for me to do? - ?

:
to (smb's) work:
They usually go to (their) work by bus. .
at work / on the job:
Father is at work / on the job now. .
from (smb's) work:
has not come from (his) work yet. .

17. / ().
wage(s) ( ) :
His wages are 50 dollars a week. 50 .
went to get his wages. .
157

salary ( ):
His salary is 32,000 dollars a year. 32000 .
pay () ( pay wages salary):
Higher pay leads to higher prices. .
to pay :
How much do they pay you? ?
payment / ( / / ):
I want twenty dollars as payment (for the work). ( ).
I want immediate payment. , .
The telephone can be paid for in twelve monthly payments of 30 dollars.
. 30 .
pay-day :
Today is pay-day. .
pay-packet ;
payroll / paysheet :
Are you on the payroll? ? (;
?)
pay-slip ;
remuneration / ;
tee / / ;
royalty ;
scolarship .

18. / / / / ( / ).
price ;
-:
What is the price of ...? ...?
The price is too high for me. .
The price has gone up. .
What price are you asking (for this)? / ( )?
I don't like the prices here. .
cost ( price):
cost of materials / production cost / labour cost .. /
/ . .
price:
What is the cost of ...? ...?
to cost :
How much does it cost? ?
It cost me nothing. .
charge ( / ):
What are the charges in this hotel? ?
Their charges are very reasonable. / .
All goods are delivered free of charge. .
The charge for a front-row seat is $3. 3 .
158

to charge (smb.) X money for smth. ( -) ( / ):


How much will you charge me for it? () ?
I charge 2 dollars for my apples. .
How much do you charge for your fish? () ?
They charged me 10 dollars for their help. .
fee () / :
I have to pay my fee to the doctor. .
This year you will have to pay examination fees.
.
value / , ( / / ...);
( / ):
What is the value of this painting? ?
I know the value of your promises. .
to value / :
They valued my house at $32,000. 32000 .
value-added tax (VAT) ().

19. .
shop :
I don't like to go to the shop. .
The shop is closed / open. / .
to shop / () to go shopping / :
Now, we have two hours to go shopping. , ,
.
to shop around ( ,
):
Don't buy the first thing you see: shop around a bit. He , .
.
(work) shop ( ):
Have you ever been to a paint shop at our factory? -
?
store :
I don't like to go to the store. .
store / ;
to store :
How much food have you stored away? ?
department store ;
drugstore (.) , ;
liquor store ;
supermarket (. .) , ;
the butcher's / ;
the baker's ;
the greengrocer's :
159

She goes to the greengrocer's every day. .

20. .
supervisor ( ) (.);
boss () , / ;
chief / ( - ):
chief of department ;
chief ;
chief engineer ;
chief accountant ..
head ( ) / , :
The head of a department is called the chief. .
manager , ( / / ..) -
;
director
the Board of Directors,
/ ;
126. , / / /
..
1.

21. / .
master / mistress , / - / -:
I am master / mistress in my own house. / .
We don't know the master of this dog / horse. / .
is his own master. .
She is her own mistress. .
owner / :
the owner of a car/a house /... / /...
host / hostess / (, ):
She likes to be the hostess of the party. .
I am the host and you are my guest. , .
landlord / landlady / (, ):
I am your landlady and you are my tenants. , .
housewife ( );
house-keeper / (, ).

22. / .
to lend :
I lend you some money. .
to borrow (from) ():
May I borrow your car? , ?
Can I borrow some money from you? ?
to loan ( ) :
160

Our bank can loan 50,000 dollars to you. 50000


.
loan / / :
I'm only asking for a loan I'll pay you back. , .
to have the loan of smth. / to have smth. on loan (from) - / :
May I have the loan of your car? / May I have the car on loan from you? ,
?

23. / / another / other / the others.


another ( )
( ):
Would you like another cup of tea? ?
127. ( ):
Can I have another chair? ?
1.

other ( ):
I'd like to buy a few other books. .

:
( ) some /
any others / more:
I don't like these shoes. Have you got any others / any more? .
?
I'd like to see some others / some more. .
the other / :
One of these cars is mine, the other is my sister's. ,
.
is waiting for us on the other side. .
the others :
We shall stay here, the others will go there. , .
Where are the others? ?
any other :
I don't like this car, any other will be OK. ,
.
Any other boy could do it. .
each other / one. another / :
They don't like each other / one another. .
every other + . / all the others / :
You are not ready; every other student / all the others can see that. ,
().
one after the other / one after another :
They were walking one after another / one after the other. .
the other day / :
She left the other day. .

24. Right.
right / wrong :
Am I right? No, you are wrong. / No, you are not right. ? , .
161

right / left :
Shall I turn right at the station? ?
right :
What is the right time? ?
You've made the right choice. .
All right. , ( - / ):
Would you wait for me here. All right. , , . .
to be all right :
I'm all right. Co .
That's right. / Right. , ( - ):
Well, you want to buy a new house. Right. / That's right. ,
. ( ).
That's all right. ( ,) . / . / ( ).:
I'm sorry. That's all right. . ( ).
right angle ;
right how / right away :
All right, I'm coming right now / right away. , .
It serves smb. right. - . / .:
It serves him right. ( () ).
It serves you right. .

25. () / () / ().
right ;
left :
right / left hand / side / wall /.. / / / / ...
to turn (to the) right / left / :
Why didn't you turn (to the) right? ?
They turned right. .
Let's turn left. .
on smb.'s right / left / -:
It is the second window on your left. . ( / / ...)
It will be the first door on your right. ( ).
first right, second left , :
(You will turn) First right, second left and it will be the third building on your right. ()
, , .

26. / / / .
immediately:
She will come back immediately after 10 o'clock. ().
I want to leave immediately. / .
instantly:
She sensed instantly that her son and this woman were involved in a love affair.
, (
).
162

I don't like instant coffee. .


at once:
Come to my house at once. .
right now / away:
You must do it right away / now. .
straight away:
Let's do it straight away. .
on the spot:
We can't do it on the spot. / (
).
without delay:
Come here without delay. .
as fast as you can / as quick as possible:
Come to my house as fast as you can / as quick as possible. ()
.

27. / .
o'clock (- );
:
I'll call you at five (o'clock). ().
It is nearly three (o'clock). ().
clock ( .., );
:
Our clock is very old. .
hour ( ):
I'll call you at five hours / o'clock. ().
It is nearly three hours / o'clock. ().
He'll come back in an hour. . (o'clock )
We'll be thb-re after two hours' drive. , .
(o'clock )
Office hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. () 9 () 5 ().
(wrist) watch :
My (wrist) watch is (five minutes) fast. () ( 5 ).
(pocket) watch :
Your (pocket) watch is (three minutes) slow. () (
).
What does your watch say? / What time is it by your watch? (
/ ) ?

28. Time.
time :
Time is money. .
What time is it? / What is the time? ?
Could you tell me the time, please. , ?
times :
Those were good times. To .
163

behind time :
The train is twenty minutes behind time. .
ahead of time :
Our bus is twenty minutes ahead of time.
.
on time ():
She came on time. .
in time ( ):
We are in time to catch the bus. .
at the same time / / :
They came at the same time. .
I know you are tired; at the same time you must help the others. , ;
, .
from time to time :
calls me from time to time. .
at times :
calls me at times. .
in no time / :
I'll do it in no time. .
I'll come back in no time. .
to have a good time => :
Did you have a good time? ?
to pass the time / :
What shall we do to pass the time? ( )?
time :
They came here many times. .
each time / ( ):
Each time I come here they say you are busy. (), ,
, .
every time / ( / ):
It happens to her every time she stays alone. (),
.
this time ;
last time ;
next time (-) ;
the next time ;
another time (-) ;
for the first / for the second time / ;
for the last time .

29. First.
(the) first :
164

You are the first to come. .


I remember my first lesson very well. .
They saw me first. .
first :
Where did you first see him? / Where did you see him first? ?
first / (, () -):
I want you to show me your papers first. , .
First, ... ... /-, ...:
First, I'd like to thank all my friends. .
First, I'd like to remind you of your duties. Second, ... / Third, ... -,
. -, ... / -, ...
at first /:
At first it was very difficult. .
First of all, ... (, () -) / (
, ):
First of all he just opened the door, then he started to get out. ,
- ( ).
First of all, we can't spend so much money. ( /
), .
In the first place,... / Firstly, ... - ( );
in the second place / secondly -;
lastly / () last of all () , ...:
Firstly, I want to apologize for coming late. -, .
Secondly, I have something very important to tell you. -,
.
Lastly, I'd like to thank all of you for your help. () ,
() .
for the first time / ;
at first sight / :
fell in love with her at first sight. .
At first sight it (car) was good. , () .
first-class ;
first floor 2- (1- ground floor); 1- .
first-hand ( ..):
I learned it first-hand. / .
first name ;
second / middle name ;
last / family name ;
first-rate / / :
It was a first-rate show. .
We are getting on first-rate. .
first thing (, - ) / :
promised to do it first thing tomorrow. .
165

30. / / .
food ( ):
Everybody likes good food. .
food department ;
food poisoning ;
foodstuff ;
food for thought ;
meal :
I have three meals a day. .
Did you enjoy your meal? / / ?
They had a light meal of bread and cheese. .
dish :
Her favourite dish is steak and macaroni. .
There are only three meat dishes on the menu. () .
the dishes ( / / / ...) :
Why should I wash the dishes? ?
course meal / :
What is the first course? ?
The main course here is roast beef and potatoes.
. .

31. / .
to diet (oneself) :
I am so fat that I have to diet myself. ,
.
My wife is dieting herself very strictly. .
Is she still dieting? ?
to be on a diet :
I am on a diet. .
to put smb. on a diet - :
The doctor put me on a diet. .
to be reducing / slimming :
I am reducing. .
She is slimming. .

32. / .
to fit
( / ):
Does this dress fit me? ?
These shoes don't fit me (well). .
The coat fits you perfectly. ( ).
Your key does not fit the lock. .
128. ( / ):
I want to have this new skirt fitted. , .
166
1.

fit / :
The food was not fit to eat. .
Do as you think fit. , .
to suit
./ ( ):
Does this hat suit me? / ?
This sweater doesn't suit me. .
129. ( ):
Will ten o'clock suit you? ( / ..)?
Does the food suit you / your taste? ?
1.

to be suited to / for to be fit for / :


That man is not fit for the job. That man is not suited to / for the job.
.
to match
/ ( , / ...):
These shoes don't match my frock. .
The curtains should match the carpet. .
130. ( -):
Can you match the silk? - .?
1.

33. / ( - /
- / -).
to stop
/ / :
Do the buses stop here? ?
My watch has stopped. .
The rain has stopped. .
131. , :
She stopped reading. ( ).
132. ( - ), :
They stopped to rest. (, ) .
to stay ( / / -); Continuous
Present:
I am staying at my mother's. .
Where are you staying? ?
We are staying at the hotel. .
She is staying at her relatives'. .
1.

34. / .
to stop:
Why don't you want to stop for dinner? . ?
I'm stopping (at) home tonight. / .
to stop at some place / at smb.'s ( ) - / -:
You stop at my parents' (house for a few days). (
) .
to stay / ;
to leave / / :
167

Why don't you want to stay with us? Why do you want to leave?
?
Stay here. Don't leave here. / .
I can't stay. I have to leave. .
I'm too busy to stay. I'm too busy not to leave. , .
to have smth. left / ( ):
We only have 10 dollars left. 10 .
They have 5 minutes left. / 5 .

35. .
pair
, / , :
a pair of socks ;
a pair of shoes ;
a pair of gloves ;
a pair of trousers ;
a pair of scissors ;
a pair of tights
133. ( / / /
..):
They make a very good pair. .
1.

couple
/ , :
She will be back in a couple of minutes. .
I can wait a couple of weeks. .
I need a couple of dollars. .
134. ( pair):
They make a very good couple. .
1.

match , :
She is a good match. .
They decided to make a match of it. .

36. .
yet :
has not come yet. / He has not yet come. .
still / :
She is still waiting. () .
She still comes here. .
one more / (yet) another :
He bought one more car. .
Would you like to see another pair of shoes? ()?
some more -;
/ , , ,
, :
My son would like some more potatoes. ?
Can I offer you some more coffee? , ?
168

any more -;
-- / , ,
, , :
Have you got any more water? ?
I'm not sure if he has got any more money. , .
someone / somebody else - ( ):
There was someone else in the house. -.
anyone / anybody else - ( ):
Was there anyone / anybody else in the house? -?
something ( anything) else - (-) :
There is something else under the bed. -.
Is there anything else in his pocket? -?
a few / several / some more ( ):
I want a few / several / some more postcards. .
I've got some more questions. () .
a little / some more ( ):
Will you wait a little more, please. , , .
I'd like a little more ice-cream. .
even + ...:
I'm even older now. .
Tomorrow I'll come even later. .
is even more handsome. .
She is even less interested in this. .

37. - / .
: good-looking / handsome;
: attractive / beautiful / good-looking / handsome / lovely / pretty / ravishing.

38. .
place ( ):
I like this place. ( / / / / /
/ / / ...).
to take place / ( ):
Their wedding took place last week. .
seat ():
the back / front seat of the car / ;
Our seats are in the back row. .
Is this seat vacant? ?
to take a seat / :
Take your seats, please. , .
May I take a seat? ?
Take the seat. .
to seat :
My car seats five (persons). .
Be seated. (). / ().:
169

Be seated, please. , ( ).
room ( -/-):
There is room for you in the car. .
Is there room for my books in your case? ?
Standing room only. .
to make room (for) / ():
I want to make room for my clothes. .
room ;
space ( ):
Have you enough space here to make your experiments? ,
?
space .

39. / / .
free
( ):
We want to be free. .
135. :
You are free to stay or leave. . .
136. ( ):
She is free / She is not busy now. ( ).
137. / ( / / / ...):
Is this seat free? ?
Do you have free rooms? ( ) ?
138. ( ):
I don't know if he has free time to meet with you. , ()
.
1.

vacant ( / / / ):
Do you have any vacant rooms in your hotel? ?
Is this seat vacant? ?
There are no vacant positions at this factory. (
).
empty ( ):
This room is empty. .
I can't see any empty seats here. .
Don't believe his empty promises. He .
not occupied ( / / ):
is not occupied with anything / He is not busy now. .
This seat is not occupied. .

40. / .
to fasten ( / ):
Does this dress fasten down the back? ?
You didn't fasten your safety belt. ().
Fasten your belts. .
to button / :
170

Why don't you button your coat? ?


to zip ():
She couldn't zip / unzip her dress. / .
to belt :
belted his gun on. , .
to pin / ( / ):
Shall I pin the papers? ?
The notice was pinned to the wall. .
to tie / ( / / / ...):
We have to tie up these clothes. .

41. / .
1.

/ :
everyone / everybody ( /
):
Everyone / Everybody loves her. .
I know everybody / everyone here. .
everything :
I know everything. .

all / :
You may take all. .
All are here. ().
139. / :
every ; ;
:
Every girl wants to be beautiful. .
I know every street here. .
all / ;
,
:
All girls want to be beautiful. .
I know ail streets here. .
All women love children. .
All seven boys are my friends. .
We have spent all the money. .
What did you bring all these books for? / ?
I have been dreaming about this all my life. .

:
all not;
:
Not all people here like it. He () .
:
Some people here don't like it. () .
all of / :
Not all of the participants have come yet. / Some of the participants have not come yet.
.
All of us like this town. .
171

All of them want to come. .


I don't want to take all of it. .
All . .

42. / / / ... .
.
this year / month / week / morning / afternoon / evening / night / /
/ / / / ;
last year / month / week / morning / afternoon / evening / night / /
/ / / / ;
next year / month /week / morning / afternoon / evening / night / /
/ / / / .

43. / .
to be married / :
is married. / She is married. . / .
to get married / ( / ):
I don't want to get married. / .
to marry smb. / ( / ):
married her in 1990. 1990 .
She married him in 1990. 1990 .

44. .
to be afraid (of smb. / smth.) :
There's nothing to be afraid of. He ( ).
She is afraid of you. .
Don't be afraid (of me / of the car). He ( / ).
I'm afraid ... , ...:
I'm afraid (that) I don't know his address. , .
I'm afraid he won't be able to come. , .
to fear smth. / to do smth. - / -:
They feared the worst. / .
You have always feared death. .
She fears horses. .
I fear to speak in his presence. .
to fear for smb. / smth. / / - / -:
Don't fear for me. He ( ) / .
She fears for her money. .
fear :
They couldn't move for fear. .
stood there shaking with fear. , .
She was unable to speak from fear. .
to have (a great) fear of smth. ( / ) - / ()
-:
I have a great fear of war. .
172

I fear ... , ...


I fear nobody can help you. , .
I fear we'll be late. , .
to be frightened / :
She is frightened of him. .
They are frightened at his being late. , .
Don't be frightened. .
to be scared :
was scared by the noise. .
We were scared of the dark. .
Don't be scared. He .
to be aghast / :
"Forget him!" "Never", she answered aghast at the suggestion. " !" ".",
, .
I was aghast when I found out what had happened. , ,
.

45. / .
terrible ( / / ):
It-was a terrible war. .
I'we got a terrible headache. .
The food was terrible. .
terribly ;
, ( ) :
I'm terribly sorry. / .
She is terribly boring. .
You look terribly beautiful. / .
horrible
/ :
It was a horrible crime. .
140. :
The weather is horrible. .
1.

awful ( terrible) :
It was an awful death. .
What an awful nonsense! !
The weather was awful. .
awfully ( ):
I'm awfully sorry. / .
I'm awfully hungry / thirsty. / ,
It is awfully cold here. .

46. .
to be tired (of) ( / - ):
I'm awfully tired (of working). ( ).
to be bored (of) ( / ) / :
I'm bored. .
173

Everybody was bored of this tedious conversation.


.

47. () / ().
to bother smb. (with smth.) - / - - /
() :
Stop bothering us, we are working. He , .
Don't bother her with your questions. He .
Don't bother him because he is tired. He .
not to bother to do smth. , -:
You didn't even bother to shut the door. ( ).
Why didn't you bother to invite them? ,
?
to disturb smb. to bother smb.:
Don't disturb us when we are working. He / He , .
These thoughts disturbed me. .
Don't disturb mother, let her sleep. He , .
This news disturbs me very much. .
to trouble smb. (by / with smth.) - (- -) / -
(-):
was troubled by this new problem. () -
.
Don't trouble him with this news. He (
).
to trouble smb. -;
, :
I'm sorry to trouble you, but could you tell me the time? / show me the way to the station?
, ?/ ., ?
May I trouble you to call me tomorrow? ?
I'm sorry to trouble you, but I need your help. ,
.
trouble / :
Did it give you much trouble? / ?
I am in (bad) trouble. I'm in a jam. () .
It will cause you a lot of trouble. .
not to trouble to do smth. not to bother to do smth.:
Don't trouble to change your money. ( ).
She didn't trouble to call us yesterday. .
to worry smb. / -/ , :
What is worrying you? ? / ?
Don't worry, everything will be all right. He , .
Something worries him. - .
worry / / :
We want you to tell us your worries. , ,
.
to worry / to be worried (about smb. / smth.) / ( - / -):
Don't worry / Don't be worried about us. / .
174

Why are you worried? / ?


I worry because I don't know where mother is. , , .
You look terribly / awfully worried. .

48. Used to / to be used to smth.


to be used to smth. -:
I am used to his smoking in the room. , .
Are they used to hard work / working hard? ?
You'll soon get used to this weather. .
... used to do smth. , :
used to come here every day when he was a little boy. , ,
.
... used to be :
Smith used to be a teacher. .

49. / .
too ( ( )
) / ; ( )
:
I, too, want to go to London. .
I want to go to London, too. .
I want to go to London too. .
is here, too. .
They can help us, too. .
Will you go there, too? ?
too ( ) :
is too busy to go with us. , .
Those animals are too dangerous. .
either / ( ):
I don't like him, either. .
She couldn't help us, either. .
She doesn't know where he is, either. , .
also / :
She also will come. .
also wants to stay at home. .
They will also give us some money. .
not only ... but also ..., ...:
not only knows everyone here but also works together with some.
, .
as well / ():
I want your advice as well. .
as well as :
Father likes to read newspapers as well as magazines. ,
.

175

50. -.
to be going to do smth. -;
, , :
is going to come. ( ).
I was going to meet with them, but they suddenly left. ,
.
to be about to do smth. -; ():
was about to leave. .
to be on the point / on the verge of doing smth ,
:
She was on the point / on the verge of calling him. .
to get ready ( / / / ...):
Are you getting ready? We are leaving in a few minutes. ?
.

51. .
affair (, ):
That's my affair. ( ).
is having an affair with his secretary. .
In the present state of affairs ... ...
business ( / ):
Mind your own business. He / .
That's none of your business. .
They are here on a business trip. / .
We do business with several foreign companies. /
.
I suppose he means business. , .
case ():
has never been a judge in a murder case before.
.
deed () / ( ):
is a man of deeds. / .
Their deeds do not agree with their words. . / ,
.
I have not seen their trust deed, yet. .
matter ( ):
I don't want to discuss business matters with them.
.
That's a matter of conscience / great importance / principle / time / taste. /
/ / / .
That is not a small matter. .
What's the matter? ?
The matter is (that)... , ...
That's another / a different matter. () .
thing ( ):
176

I am afraid of his mother, that's the thing. , .


The thing is she doesn't love anyone at all. () , .
That's quite another thing. .
It's a strange thing we haven't heard from him since he left. ,
, .

52. () / ().
to continue (+ to ~ ~ ~ /+ / + smth.) ( -) / :
continued to call us after my daughter's marriage. ,
.
They continued waiting for him to be heard from. .
wants you to continue your study. , .
This weather won't continue long. .
to go on (+ / + with smth.) - / :
Go on. ( ).
Go on working / with your work. .
How long will this bad weather go on? ?
to keep (on) + -;
:
It was dark and cold but he kept (on) walking. , .
Keep smiling! ( )!
kept calling us even after our daughter's marriage.
, .
I will keep going there. .
to resume smth. () ( , ):
The meeting resumed after 10 minutes' break. 10
.
They will resume this work tomorrow. .

53. / / / .
accident () /:
A road accident held up traffic for two hours.
.
There have been many railway accidents this year.
.
My getting this money was a pure accident.
.
I came here by accident. .
accidentally ( / ):
I met them accidentally at the station. .
She broke the vase accidentally. .
case ( , ):
I shall call her in any case. .
In that case nobody will be able to help you. /
.
In case of emergency call this number. .
in no case :
177

Don't tell them anything, in no case. . .


In no case you have to stay here. .
(just) in case :
It may be cold there you'd better take a sweater (just) in case (it is).
.
incident ( ) / :
She can describe that incident in detail. / ,
( / ).
There have not been so many border incidents this year. (
).
incidentally ; ,
:
Incidentally, do you know his telephone number? Do you happen to know his telephone number?
, , ?
Some people, and incidentally that includes me, cannot understand jokes. , ,
, , .
occasion / :
I'll buy a new car if the occasion arises. ,
.
I've had no occasion to visit them recently. ()
.
occurrence / / :
Bribery is now an everyday occurrence. .
It was an unfortunate occurrence. .
opportunity :
I've had no opportunity to visit him recently. /
.
Don't miss this opportunity: it may never come again. He /
/ .
on no account / by no means :
Don't tell them anything, by no means / on no account (= in no case).
.
She is by no means foolish. .
at (the) best / worst / :
We can't finish this work in two days at best. ,
, .
At worst we'll have to sell the car. , .
otherwise :
You should hurry, otherwise you'll be late. , .
Do as you're told, otherwise you'll be in trouble. , ,
.
anyhow / anyway :
It's too early, anyhow. , .
Anyway, you try. , / .

178

V.
, ,
.

1. () .
( ) ()
:
She's not here. She is not here.
I don't like this house. I do not like this house.
We'd like to stay here. We should / would like to stay here.
to have to have got 've got got:
I have everything. I have got everything. I've got everything. I got everything.
I have no money. I have got no money. I've got no money. I got no money.
shan't shall not;
won't will not;
phone telephone;
fridge refrigerator;
LA. Los Angeles .

2. Will shall.
will shall 1 :
I will be waiting for you here. .
I won't do it. .
'll:
He'll come tomorrow. .
I'll come tomorrow, too. .

3. .
(
):
(Are) You OK? ? / ?
(Do) You know him? ?
(Does) She knows (know) him? ?
(Has) He got money? ?
(Have) You got time? ?

4. .
.
:
1.

, , so:
179

2.

3.

4.

Is she afraid of me? I believe so. / I think so. / I suppose so. / I guess so.
? , (). / , ().
Are the Browns coming to dinner? I hope so. / I think so. / I believe so.
? , ().
Did she tell him everything? I'm afraid so. ? ,
().
so not:
Is she afraid of me? I think not. / I hope not. / I suppose not. ?
, ( ). / , ( ). / , ( ).
Does she know his telephone number? I'm afraid not. ?
, ( ).
:
Is she afraid of me? I don't think so. / I don't suppose so. / I don't believe so. He .
Does she know his telephone number? 1 don't think so. / I don't suppose so. / I don't believe so.
He .
, , I'm sure (of) ...
, ...:
Did she tell him everything? I'm sure of it. / I'm sure she did. ?
. / , () .
Are the Browns coming to dinner? I'm sure of it. / I'm sure they are.
? . / , () .
, , I'm not sure (of)... / I doubt ...
... / () ...:
Did she tell him everything? I'm not sure (of it). / I doubt if she did. . /
, .
Are the Browns coming to dinner? I'm not sure (of it). / I doubt if they are.
. / , .

5. .
+
/ :
Who wants to play football? I do. Me. / I don't. Not me.
? . / .
Who can cook? can. Him. / I can't. Not me. ? . /
.

6. Don't doesn't.
to do 3- , ,
(doesn't) (don't):
She don't know you. She doesn't know you. .
don't have money. He doesn't have money. .

7. . / .
Excuse me
, -, - :
Excuse me, what is the time (,please)? , ?
Excuse me, are you Mr. Smith? , ?
Excuse me. Yes? What is the time, please? . ? ,
, ?
2. - ( / / ...):
1.

:
180

, . :
Excuse me (a moment), (please).
(I'm) Sorry ( Excuse me)
/ / ( / /
/...):
I am sorry. / I'm sorry. / Sorry. .
2. , , -, , ()
/ :
I'm sorry to interrupt you, but I need your help. , / ,
.
3. , - :
I'm sorry to have interrupted you. , .
4. , - :
:
Excuse me. ; : I'm sorry.
Where were we? . ? (: ?)
1.

I'm sorry to hear that. / :


My mother is not well. . /
. I'm sorry to hear that.
Pardon? / Excuse me? / Sorry? ? ( / ); ,
:
Are you English? Pardon? Are you English?
What is your age? ? Pardon? How old are you?
?
I beg your pardon. . , Excuse me. / Sorry. /
Pardon?, .
Forgive me, (please). () . ( ).
I apologize. . I'm sorry.

8. .
How do you do? , ( );
, - -;
(Good) Morning. .
Good afternoon. .
Good evening. .
Hallo! / Hello! / Hullo! , ( )
Hi! , ( / / .., ).
( How do you do?)
/ :
How are you? ? / ?
How are you doing? ?
How are you getting on? ?
How is it getting on? ?
How is it going? ?
181

How is everything? / ?
:
I'm well, thank you. ( / ).
I'm fine, thank you. / Fine, thanks, ( ) , .
/
/ :
And what about you? ?
And you? ( ) ? / ?
:
I'm well, too. / Fine, thank you.:
Hello!
Hello!
How are you?
I'm well, thank you. And you?
Fine, thank you. But my son is not well. .
Oh, I'm sorry to hear that.

9. .
Have you met before? ? / ?
Have you met my husband / wife / ... before? / / ...?
You've met my husband before, haven't you? , ?
Let me introduce myself. / Allow me to introduce myself. .
Let me introduce you. , ( ). (This is) Mr. ... . (This is) Mr. ... :
Let me introduce you.(This is) Mr. Smith.(This is) Mr. Brown.
Let me introduce smb. to you. -.
I'm very glad to meet you. / Glad to meet you. .
(I'm) Pleased to meet you. .

10. .
Good-bye. .
Bye-bye. / Bye. . / .
See you (later / soon). .
See you tomorrow / next week / ... / / ...
Give my regards to smb. ( ) / -.
Remember me to smb. ( ) -.

11. .
Thank you (very much). () . / .
Thanks. , ( )
I owe you. . / .

182

12. .
Not at all. .
Don't mention it. ( , ).
You are. welcome. ( / , );
,
/ ( / ..)
My pleasure. ( ).
That's all right. . / .

please .

13. .
please ; ,
:
Help me, please. Please help me. Will you, please, help my father. Please go away.
..., please? , ,...?:
What is your name, please? , , ?
How old are you, please? , , ?
Here you are. . ,
, / / - ..:
I'd like the menu, please. , , .
Here you are. .
Where is my coat, please? , , ?
Here you are. . / .
-:
2) () () :
+ + is / are.:
I'd like the menu, please. Here it is.
Where is my coat, please? Here it is.
Where are my keys? Here they are.
3) :
Here+ is / are + :
I'd like the menu, please. Here is the menu.
Where are my keys? Here are your keys.

14. () . / () .
here ;
there ;
, 13.:
Here is my son. .
There it is. / / ( ).
There is my car. .
Here I am. () .
Here we are. () . / / ( ).
183

(over) here () , / , -
:
Where is my coat? It is (over) here,
Where are my keys? They are (over) here.
Your son is (over) here.
over there , / /
:
My car is over there.
The bus-stop is over there.
They are over there.
Is this your car? No, it is not.
Is that your car over there? Yes, it is.

15. .
( ).
Will you ~ ~ ~ ... (.please). Would you ~ ~ ~ ... (.please). Could you ~ ~ ~ ... (,please).
Will you help me, (please). , .
Would -you call me tomorrow, (please). , , .
Could you wait a little, (please). ?

16. ?
( - ).
1) :
1

,
I like this house. Do you?
She wants to help us. Does she?
The letter has come. Has it?
Mother is sleeping. Is she?
2) :
1

+ not

I don't like you. Don't you?


She doesn't want to go with us. Doesn't she?
The letter has not come. Hasn't it?
Mother is not sleeping. Isn't she?

17. / - ( - ).
1) :
Me too:
I like this house. Me too.
I've got a terrible headache. Me too.
:
1

So

I / smb.

I like this house. So do I. Me too. = I do, too.


I like this house. So does my mother-in-law. My mother-in-law does, too.
184

She has got a terrible headache. So have I. = Me too. = I've got, too.
2) :
Me either:
I don't speak French. Me either.
:
1

Neither / Nor

I / smb.

I don't speak French. Neither do I. / Nor do I. Me either. I don't, either.


She wasn't invited. Neither was I. / Nor was I. Me either. I wasn't, either.
He hasn't come. Neither has my mother-in-law. / Nor has my mother-in-law. My mother-in-law
hasn't, either.

18. ( - ).
Good. , ( good - ; - well,
- good):
Come tomorrow. Good. (Well. )
All right. Okay. / O.K.
Come tomorrow. Good. / All right. / Okay.

19. , ... / ,... / ,... / , ... .


Well,... ( ) , ... / , ... / ,... / ,... / ,...
Now,... ,... / ,...
So,... ,... / ,....
Now then,... ,... / ,...

20. , ... / ,... / ,... / , ... .


I think (that) ... , ...
I believe (that) ...
I suppose (that) ...
I guess (that) ...
I reckon (that) ...
I expect (that) ...
I figure (that) ...
It seems to me (that) ... ,...

21. ? / ?
What's / What is your problem?
What's / What is the matter (with smb. / smth.)?
What's / What has happened (to smb. / smth.)?
What's / What is wrong (with smb. / smth.)?
185

What is it? ( - : / / / ...) What's / What


is the trouble (with smb.)? Why? ( ):
How old are you? Twenty. Why? ? . ? /
?

22. ?
May I ask you (something)?
I've got a question.
May I put you a question? / May I put a question to you?

23. . / , , .
Just a minute, (please). Waif a minute / moment, (please). . / , ,
.

24. ?
How much (is it)? ( / / ...) ;
What is the price of ... ? ...?
How much does it cost? ?
How much do I owe you? ? / ?

25. ?
What is your job? ?
What is your occupation? ? What do you do? ?
How do you get your living? / What do you do for a living? ?
What are you? ( Who are you? ? / / ?) = What is your
occupation? ? / ?
I'm a teacher (by profession). , (profession
/ ).
I'm a carpenter (by trade). , (trade , /
).

26. (,) / . / ,
.
What did you say? ( / )?
(I'm sorry), I didn't understand you. / I don't understand you. (I'm sorry), I didn't quite catch you /
your name / your telephone number / ... (,) /
/
(I'm sorry,) I missed... (,) / ( / / / ...).
I don't get it / your meaning. .
I didn't get your name / telephone number / address / ... / /
/ ...
186

I don't follow you. , . / .


Pardon? / Excuse me? / Sorry? / I beg your pardon? ?
Come again? ( ) What did you say?

27. ? / ?
Can / May I help you? - ?
What can I do for you? ?
I be of (any) help to you? (-) ?

28. ...?
1.
5.

What about ...?


How about ...?
, 1. , 2.
:
What / How about your friend? ? ( / /
- ?)
What about his qualifications for this position?
?
( ) , :
How / What about (having) dinner tonight? ?
How about (drinking) some more wine? , ?

29. .
Speaking. . / . / .
Hold on (,please). / Hold the line (,please). He (,,) .
Could you put me through to smb.? -?
I can't get through. .
You are through. .
The line is engaged / busy. .
There is no reply at this number. .
I'll call back (later). ().
Can I take a message (for him / her)? / Is there any message? - ( / )?
Can / Could you take a message (for him / her)? - ( / )?
You have / 've got the wrong number. . / .
What number were you calling? ?
Could you speak up (,please)? He ?
(May I ask) Who is speaking? ( ,) ?

30. ( , ).
Shall I / he / she / they /we ~~~~~~ ...? Should I / he / she / they / we ~~~~~~ ...?
Should / Shall she come tomorrow? ?
187

Should / Shall I call him? () ?

31. .
Why should I / she / he /we / they ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ...?
Why should I do it? ?
Why should they help him? () ?
Why should I bust my hump? ? How should I / smb. know?
? / / / ()?

32. .
(Oh,) God! / My God! /Jesus! / Jesus Christ! /(Good) Heavens! Oh dear! / Wow! , !
( )
My word!. ! / !
Hell! / Damn! / Shit! / Bull-shit! / Fuck! () ! / ! (
/ / )
You're a pain in the ass! () !
The hell with you (it)! / Damn you (it)! / Shit on you (it)! / Fuck you (it)! () ( )
...! the hell,
:
What the hell are you doing here? , , ?
Why the hell didn't you help her? , , ?
the hell on earth ( ) the fuck (
):
What on earth are you doing here? Why the fuck didn't you help her?

33. / , .
That's all. ( ).
I'm through / finished. ( / ).
That is (about) all there is to it. , , ( )..
I see. . / .
That's none of your business. He . / He .
Shut up! ! / !
I don't mind. .
I think so. .
You'll make it. .
That's the whole point. - .
Easy! . / . / .
Calm down. .
Don't worry. / Don't be worried. / Relax. He . / . / .
Take it easy. He . / .
It makes things easier. ( / ).
188

I haven't given it much thought. / . ( )


It serves you / smb. right. / - .
I was half out of my mind. .
You'll hear from me. / .
It's going to be all right. .
It'll / That'll do. . / .
That's it. . / .
You bet! !:
Do you want me to help you? You bet! , ?
!
Sounds good to me. .
Time's up. .
Hear me out! !
I couldn't reach you. .
It's (over and) done with. .
You are out of your mind. .
Let happen whatever would happen. , .
It never crossed my mind (that)... , ...
Don't mention that. .
I don't give a damn / a shit (about smth.). () / :
Tell him whatever you want, I don't give a shit, ,
.
It makes no difference. / It doesn't make any /much difference. / It doesn't matter (at all).
() .
It makes no difference whether you go today or tomorrow. ,
.
Smb. is on the phone. - .:
Come here. Your husband is on the phone. .
I hope I'm not intruding. , .
Go to hell. / Fuck off. () .
Get out of my way. .
Get lost. . / . / .
(Come) This way (,please). () , ( / ).
You have a point there. . / .
That's the gospel truth. .
I mean it. . / .
I want to buy your house. I mean it. . -.
Let's get to the point. .
189

So far so good. .
Mark my words. .
It's not that I don't... He , ...:
It was not that he didn't love her. He , .
Don't be silly. . / .
You know better than that. ( ).
Don't worry, I can make it on my own. He , .
Not likely. Unless ... , . ...:
I wonder if my father could arrange a marriage for me with George. Not likely. Unless you insist
on that. , ?
, . .
I am at your service. .
You will get over this. ( ) . / .
No reason in particular. . / .:
Why do you ask? No reason in particular.
This time there'll be no slip up. . / , .
Suit yourself. . / . / , .:
Suit yourself, but I've got a work to do and I won't go to Paris. , -
, .
Pardon me for asking, but... , , ...
It never occurred to.me that... , ...
I meant only the best. .
Tend to your own affairs. . / .
There is no point in doing smth. -.
Think it over. .
What's done is done and cannot be undone. , .
I don't know what you mean. You know what I mean all right. ,
. ( , ).
Coffee? If it is no bother. ? .
I'll pay for any inconvenience I cause you. ,
.
I wouldn't be taking the trouble, except that ... , ...
Don't let yourself become so upset. He .
Let's hold to reason. .
I bow to the opinion (of smb.) that ... (-), ...
Don't dispute him. He .
I'm sorry to have to bother you with this, but... ,
, ...
190

I cannot see how anything you say can have any bearing on this matter. ,
, , .
You are on the right track. . / .
Come on. Let's get this over with. .
It's just there. .:
I trust you. You don't ask why. It's just there. . , .
, .
Whatever is to be will be. , .
Here's what we'll do. .
It beats me. .
Fortune has smiled up on us. / .
It was a gift of Lady Luck. .
I've got a phone call to make. .
I'll only be a few minutes. .
I'll be goddamned .
It crossed my mind. .
The time for thinking is past, now is the time for action only. ,
.
We are getting nowhere. .
I regret, but I must leave. , .
I don't know. It's just the way I feel. He . :
Today the wedding is off. Why? What happened? I don't know. I can't explain. It's just the way
I feel. . ? ? .
. .
Hold your tongue. . / . / .
I don't hold with that. . / . / .
There is no doubt about it. B .
You may leave or stay according as you decide. .
The matter admits of no delay. () .
I have no cash to spare. .
I've noticed this about him before. .
That goes for you too. . / .
I see your point. .
I would like to set the records straight. .
Don't curtsy to him. He . / .
Spare me that old chestnut (about smth. / doing smth.). => He .:
Spare me that old chestnut about your sister being a star. => He ,
.
191

Be sure to do smth. He -:
Be sure to invite them. He .
It's up to you. ( ). / , .
There is no point in doing smth. / He -:
There is no point in doing that. We can't help him. He .
.

34. / ,
.
Get it? ? / , ?
How's that? ? / ?
How come, (that) ...? , ...?
Do you think so? ?
What makes you so sure? ?
What is your thought? ?
Are you nuts? , ?
What do you do in your spare time? ?
What have I got to do? ?
What's the use of + ? / -?:
What's the use of worrying? ?
Why ~~~~~~? / -?:
Why worry him? ?
What is your position on ...? ...?
Is that it? ? / ?
What if...? , ...?:
What if I refuse? , ?
Surely you can see that. ? ( ,
surely ?):
Surely you saw them. ( , , )?
Are you crazy? / Are you mad? , ?
What is taking so long? ? / ?
What is going on (here)? () ?
Are you kidding? / / ?:
How about one thousand? Are you kidding? I could do it myself for this money.
? , ? .
What makes you think (that) ...? , ...:
What makes you think I was there? , ?
Coming along? ? / ( / )?:
192

Let's go to the bar. . Coming along, Tom? . . ,


( )?
What remains to be done? ?
Are you getting the picture? ( / )?
I'm making myseli clear, I take it? ? / , , .
So what? ? / ? ./ ?
What did you do? What line of work? ? () ?
Can you be more specific? ? / ?
Why would he do it? What could he have to gain? ? ?
What is this all about? ? / ?
Who are they to judge us? , ?
What gave you that idea? ?
No fooling? ? / ?
Does it enter your mind that...? , ...?
But supposing... what then? , ,..., ?:
But supposing she did marry him what then? , , ,
?
The question now is, ...? , ...?:
The question now is, what are you going to do about all this? ,
?
So what's the hitch? ?
Would you rather we spoke English? , -?
What is your point? ?
Can you manage it? ?:
I want to know who enters, who leaves, and where they go. Can you manage it? ,
, , . ?
Do you think I don't know what's been going on behind my back? , ,
?
What is it to you? - ? / ?
What's the hold-up? ? / ?
How long did you hold office? / How long have you held office? /
?
Why not do smth. while we are about it? - ?:
Why not ask for $100 while you are about it? 100 ?
Can you give me a little on account? ?
How do you account for doing smth.? / ?:
How do you account for being late? ?
How can you be sure? ?
193

For sure? For sure. ( )? .


What are you going to be when you grow up? , ?
Is that why / where / what / ...? / / / ...?:
Is that why they didn't invite us? .
Is that where you were? . / ?
Why is it ...? , ..,?:
Why is it you don't like me? ?
What difference does it make? It makes a good deal of difference. ?
.
Can you spare me a few minutes? . ?
Have you got a pencil to spare? ?
Are you out of your mind? ? How so? ?

35. / / ,

( / /
) .
, .
It goes without saying ... ...
It goes without saying that he is a good driver. , .
I'll bet... , ...
I'll bet you know this woman. , .
Tell you what, ... , ...
... at the most.
He's got 10 thousand at the most. 10 .
..., for smb.'s part, ... ..., , ...:
She, for her part, will help us. , , .
... if memory serves
Most likely, ... , ...
Most likely, you will go to prison. , .
For the rest, ... , ...:
For the rest, it was very good. , .
For Christ's/God's/goodness' sake ... , .../ , ...
For Christ's sake, leave me alone. , .
..., but that's not the point. .... / .:
I have already paid all the money I owed him, but that's not the point.
, .
If I understand correctly,... () ,...
... by and large ... ..., , ...:

194

has long since decided that all physical activity is by and large a waste of time.
, , ,
.
... and none other. ... . / ... .:
has finally decided to divulge his secret to her and none other.
, .
... in the long run. ... ...:
If something goes kaput, call a plumber or a carpenter or an electrician. It's cheaper in the long run.
Professional maintenance, I mean. - ,
, . , . ,
.
In either event, ... ... / ...:
In either event, there Was nothing he could do about it.
.
..., to be precise. ..., .
..., shall we say. , ...:
is of very little help, shall we say. , .
Let's say ... , ... :
Where is the money? Let's say I lost it. ?
, .
For your information,... , ...
..., if you will. ..., .:
Your recent activities are very much my concern. Our concern, if you will.
. , .
be frank,... ,
... Assuming... , ,..:
Assuming you are right, and I don't for an instant concede that you are, what makes you think they'll
tell you that? , , ,
, ?
..., if you see what I mean. ..., , .
As it turned out, ... , ...:
And as it turned out, she was very right. , .
..., to put it kindly. , ...
..., presumably. .... .:
What will she be doing there? Waiting for her husband's call, presumably. I have my doubts,
though. ? , . ,
.
All in all, ... , ... :
All in all, I could not have asked for a better place of living. => ,
6 .
... , at the outside,... ... , / , ...:
He will be here later this evening or, at the outside, early tomorrow morning.
, , .
I'll stay there five minutes maybe, ten at the outside. ,
, .
195

...at the latest. ... .:


I'll be back at the hotel by noon. One at the latest. .
, .
..., and so forth and so on. ... , .
... , so to speak. ..., .
... , of what I am certain. ..., .;
They were not even going to help us, of what I am certain.
, .
.., and I hazard the guess that ... ... / , ...
... and,~fortunately or otherwise, ... ... , , ...:
And, fortunately or otherwise, all they have a number of things in common. => ,
, .
..., for that matter,... ..., , ... :
For that matter, what has he been doing in London? ,
?
I don't want any harm to come to him, understand? Or to you, for that matter.
, ? , .
..., so there. ..., - .
..., and rightly so. .... no-.:
was a man enormously feared in criminal circles, and rightly so.. ,
, no-.
., in a manner of speaking, ... ..., , ...:
They are affiliated with the government, in a manner of speaking, but loosely. ,
, , .
By the way,... , ...:
And where is your husband, by the way? , ?
... , which is more probable. ..., .
... , so that is that. ..., - . / ..., . / ..., .
In truth,... , ...
put it bluntly,... / Frankly speaking,... ,...:
To put it bluntly, I feel lost. , .
... , and the like. ... .:
She believes in country, government. God, and the like. , ,
.
At any rate, ... , ...:
Indeed, ... / In fact ... , ... / , ...
You see,... , ...
Needless to say,... , ...
I bet... , ...
The thing is, ... , ...
For all I know,... , ...
196

It's odd, isn't it,... , , ...


Mind you,... , ... / , ...
Here, ... () , ... ( ):
Here, let me inform you on ... , ...
Shortly after ... ...
... , no matter what. ... / ,...:
I'm never going to get a divorce, no matter what. ,
.
... or something. ... - .
... , in smb.'s time. ...:
I never did well in school, either, in my time. .
After all, ... , ...
Sad as it is, ... , ...
According to smb., ... -, ...
... what is the right word to use? ... ... ? ...
On the other hand,... , ...

36. ,
.
to pick on smb. - / :
Why do you pick on me? ?
to walk out on smb. ( / ); :
walked out on her, and was having an affair with her best friend.
.
to be up :
She is up until two o'clock every day. .
to work weekends ;
to take smth. for granted ( ):
You have to take it for granted. .
to have in mind ( ):
What do you have in mind? ?
to make up one's mind to do smth. / -:
I have made up my mind to stay. .
to catch a disease / cold / virus / ... / :
He caught a fever. .
to catch the bus / train / ... :
I didn't catch the bus. / .
the last / final straw ( ):
The final straw was a telephone call from Moscow.
.
197

to put oneself into my / smb.'s place / - :


Put yourself into my place. .
to catch smb. red-handed - :
She was caught red-handed. .
to get along with smb. -:
I don't get along with my mother-in-law. / .
to pick smb. up / -:
I'll pick you up at 10. 10 .
to drop by / ( ):
Would you mind to drop by to see my house? , -
?
to drop in on smb. (at some place) / - (-):
I dropped in on him at the office. .
on sight :
She hated me on sight. .
to make a good / bad impression on smb. / -:
Did I make a good impression on him? ?
down payment ;
balloon payment :
Here is the down payment, and you'll get the balloon payment later. ,
.
to drive smb. to smth. - -:
could drive me to suicide. .
to have nothing to do with smb. / smth. - / -:
I have nothing to do with this. .
to count on smb. / smth. - / -:
You may count on me. .
to pay cash :
He always pays cash. .
to be on a winning / losing streak / :
I have been on a winning / losing streak lately. / .
to be running out of time / money / ... / :
We are running out of money. .
to see no point in doing smth. , ... :
I see no point in buying this house. , .
to make a good / excellent smth. / :
She will make an excellent wife for you. .
You could make a good driver. .
on purpose / :
Did you do it on purpose? ?
to pay smb. whatever one figures to be fair , :
198

Pay me whatever you figure is fair. , /


.
to be on a drunk :
looked like he had been on a drunk for several days. ,
.
to take the day-off ;
to take smth. at face value - :
took it at face value and here we are. ,
.
in the strict sense of the word :
She was on the verge of killing him' in the strict sense of the word. ,
.
to be all / completely at sea / :
I was all at sea when I began my job. , .
to make a guess :
I couldn't even make a guess. .
to be on smb.'s way :
They are on their way to London. .
Come here! I'm on my way. ! () .
to be in smb.'s way / :
You are in my way. .
to have a heart-to-heart talk ;
to take / to catch smb. by surprise - :
They took us by surprise. .
to be anxious to do smth. -:
I'm anxious to see them. .
to be anxious about / for / over smb. / smth. / - / -:
I'm anxious for his safety. , .
to be at one's best :
Most people are not at their best in the morning.
.
to do smth. of one's own free will - :
Nobody will do that of his own free will. .
to hate smb. / smth. to the very core of one's soul - / -
:
She had grown up with her cousin and hated him to the very core of her soul.
.
to be (completely) under smb.'s spell () - :
She is completely under his spell. .
to decide against smth. / doing smth. -:
She considered discussing it with her husband but decided against it.
, .
to point-blank refuse to do smth. -:
199

She was a little surprised when he point-blank refused to go. ,


.
not to mind in the least :
Some of them were very tired, but no one minded in the least.
, .
to put smb. in a bad light - :
She told herself, she must not create any ill will that might put the whole family in a bad light.
, ,
.
to go about one's chorus :
She worked very hard at remaining cheerful and matter-of-fact as she went about her chorus.
, ,
.
to drive a wedge between smb. - -:
I'm not driving a wedge between you. .
such a turn of events :
She could well imagine his reaction to such a turn of events.
.
to hold oneself in check :
She held herself in check, though she longed to run to him. ,
.
to have the blues :
You've got the blues that's what's wrong with you. Ha
.
to count / not to count / :
Where you live doesn't count, or how you dress. ,
.
every minute counts. .
to have the knack of smth. / for doing smth. - / -:
At first he was awkward, but soon he had the knack of it. ,
.
Are you sure your sister has the knack for baby-sitting? ,
?
to scare smb. out of smb.'s wits - :
First he scared me out of my wits then he yelled when I tried to help him.
, , .
to be in the habit of doing smth. -:
is not in the habit of waiting for me. .
to get into the habit / :
Soon he got into the habit of bathing and shaving in the morning.
.
to be a natural born smth. -:
That's because I'm just a natural born driver. , .
to be out of the question () :
200

The only man I can live with is you, and that is out of the question. ,
, .
to do smb. disservice - :
We must consider his welfare above ours or we might do him some great disservice.
, .
to have nothing to do with smb. / smth. - / -:
His belongings have nothing to do with me. . /
.
to put an entirely different light on the matter :
The remark about her father suddenly put an entirely different light on that matter.
.
to stand smb. in good stead - :
His facility with languages other than his own had stood him in good stead in the past.
.
My car has stood me in good stead this winter.
.
to feel smth. in one's bones :
It is the very truth, I feel it in my bones. .
to be a long way from smth. yet ...:
I'm a long way from poor yet. .
to be booked (up) ( ):
I'm booked (up) on Wednesday. .

37. /
, .
ain't am not / is not / are not / have not / has not
I ain't going there. .
We ain't got money. .
ain'tcha ain't you;
a'bin have been;
an' and;
anyways anyway;
'ave / 've / 'a have;
'appen happen; 'ere here; 'ome home; 'e he; 'ow how;
awys orluss always;
a o' of;
can'tcha can't you;
coulda could have;
coupla couple of;
c'mon come on;
don'tcha don't you;
201

didja did you;


fella fellow;
fost first; wok work;
g'night good night;
gimme give me;
g'by good by;
gerrup get up;
gerraway get away;
gon'ta gonna to be going to:
You gonna stay here long? ? / ?
gotta have got to;
hadda had to;
hellya hell do you;
heah here;
helluva hell of a;
. how'bout how about;
inna mto;
jes' just;
leggo let go;
lemme let me;
les's see let us see;
letcha let you;
me my:
me car / me house / ...
mek make; tek take;
'member remember;
mistah mister;
musta must have;
'n' than;
noa nope naw no;
on'y only;
oughta ought to;
outa out of;
orright all right; gerron get on;
sonuvabitch son of a bitch;
202

so's so as;
'sail right it's all right;
s'pose suppose;
shuah sure;
shurrup shut up;
speaka speak to; talka talk to;
tha' that;
they's there is;
tomorra tomorrow;
t'day today;
toucha touch; puncha punch:
You toucha my car. I puncha your nose. , .
twenny twenty;
thirdy thirty;
toleja told you;
tellya tell you;
usta used to;
wanta wanna want to;
wi' with;
wun't won't;
whenja when did you;
wudja what do you /what did you;
willya will you;
wuddaya what do you;
ya / ye you / your;
yeah / yeap yes.

:
Who the' dell are yet An' why ye brung me 'ere? Who the devil are you? And why did you bring me
here?
I want to ask you some questions and I want truthful answers. Now, tell me what happened just before the
ship sank.
Weel, I tell ye, it wam't much different from any other cross-ing, 'cepting it were a rough sea.
Well, I'll tell you. It was not much different from any other crossing, except it was a rough sea.
Was there a fire on board?
Jes' a wee one in one o' the topsails. Warn't none on deck 'til she blew. Then they 'us fire everywhere.
Just a weak one in one of the topsails. Was not any on deck until she blew. Then there was fire everywhere.
203

What was in the hold?


Gunpowder, a 'course. Helped load 'er meself. 'Ope 'e rots in 'ell who lit it. Gunpowder, of course. I
helped to load her myself. I hope he'll rot in hell who lit it.

VI.
.
,
/ :
like
like
(
), :
present
present
present
,
( , ).
:
use [ju:s] to use [ju:z]
bath to bathe
breath to breathe . .
,
.
() . .

.
,
.
, ,
.
- ,
, .
.
, :
-
/ ( 9)
small smaller
easy easier
,
to drive driver
to teach teacher
, :
to mix mixer
to cook cooker
cook
,
strange / stranger
- ( )
copper
204

teeter
never
-ant / -ent
;
to assistassistant;
to study student

to resist resistant;
to differ different
( )
relent ;
grant /
-n

wood wooden
gold golden
/
wide widen
length lengthen
-n
listen
abdomen .
-ly
/
friend friendly /
week weekly (.) / / /

bad badly
recent recently

.
-or
collect collector
-ian
Russia Russian ( / )
magic-magician
-ion (-ation / -sion)
product production
to install installation
to prolong prolongation
to divide division
-ese
Japan Japanese ( / )
China Chinese ( / )
-ist
science scientist ( )
commune communist ( / () )
-n
to resist resistance
-ence
to differ difference
205

-ment
to develop development
-ness
dark darkness
-hood
child childhood
-ism
real realism
-ure
to press pressure
-ing
to begin beginning
-ship
friend friendship
-dom
free freedom
-th
( )
strong strength
deep depth

.
-less
( / )
use useless
harm harmless
-able / -ibie
( / )
to interchange interchangeable
to flex flexible
-ful
( )
help helpful
use useful
-ous
fame famous
-ive
to create creative
-al
fraction fractional
-ic
nostalgia nostalgic
-y
luck lucky
-ish
Poland Polish ( / )
Pole => / ()
girl girlish ( )
206

white whitish

.
-fy
clear clarify
justice justify
-ize / -ise
memory memorize / memorise
legal legalize / legalise

.
-ward(s)
east eastward(s),
toward(s)
onward(s)
upward(s)
-wise
clock clockwise ( )
anticlockwise

.
( ) .
.
, .
anfi
antifreeze
antiseptic
anti-aircraft
co-author
co-operative / cooperative
contracontraception
contradict
counter- / counter-attack
counteroffer
de
to degenerate
to deform
dis
dishonest
to disagree
disagreement
207

en- / em /
to enlarge
to enrage
to embody
to embrace
in- il- ( 1) ir- ( r) im- ( m / p)

inability
illogical
irrational
immoral
impatience
in-; out
input output ( / / ...)
in-patient
out-patient
in-laws /
inter- / - / interdependent
intercontinental
international
mis
to misunderstand
to misuse
nonnon-flammable
non-violance
over- / nepeover-critical
to overestimate
postpost-war
postscript
- / pre-war
precaution
re-() /
to remarry
to relocate
subsubway
208

sub-conscious
sub-committee
under- / - / -; overto underestimate
underskirt
to underline
underpayment.

:
Oxford Student's Dictionary of Current English by A.S.Hornby, Christina Ruse, Second Edition, 1989;
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary by A.S, Hornby, Fourth Edition, 1990;
Harrap's Standard Learners' English Dictionary by P.H.Collin.1990;
A Reference Grammar for Students of English by R.A.Close.1975;
A Communicative Grammar of English by Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik, 1975;
Choosing Your English by John Haycraft and Terence Creed, 1977;
.

209

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