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# Student A: Mia

Grade: 2
Date Interviewed: 27/03/2013
1.

## Growth Point Table

Domain
Counting
Place Value
Addition and Subtraction
Multiplication and Division

3
1
2
2

## Who checked your growth point judgements?

Students name: Chiara Louise

Signature:

## Students name: Shannen May

Signature:

2.

Nutshell Statement

Mia can confidently skip count by 2, 5 and 10s from 0; but she doesnt
transfer this strategy when asked what is 5 more than a number in the
counting by 5s sequence. She uses her knowledge of skip counting and
grouping for multiplication and division when the problem is represented in
visual models, but runs into difficulty when only partially modelled.
Mia is able to use known fact for simple addition and uses the strategy of
counting back in her head for subtraction problems, but at times loses
track.
Mia can read numbers up to 4 digits, but has difficulty representing 4 digit
numbers on a calculator. She has an understanding of bundling to represent
groups of 10s, but must recount these groups to manipulate it into a new
number. Mia doesnt appear to understand how use a number line to
represent a number between 0 100.
(word count : 148)

3.

Lesson Plan

## Lesson Title: Number lines

Learning intention/s:
The student will;
1. develop strategies for estimating numbers on a number line.
2. recognise that number lines can be different scales.

## e5: ENGAGE, EXPLORE

Lesson introduction
Before the session there will be a line marked on the floor, with increments to represent
10s, ask the student to stand at one end of the line. Explain that the line on the floor is a
number line and any number can be found on this line between 0 and 100 and each
increment equals a 10. The student will be given a number between 0 and 100 and they
will hop or jump to where they believe the number is on the line. Then change to marking a
point on the line and ask the student to estimate the number. Discuss the meaning of
estimating with the student.

## e5: EXPLORE, EXPLAIN, ELABORATE

Development/investigation
Activity one:
On the smart board display an empty number line with increments of 10s. Describe a
number to the student and get them to fill in the number line using the information you are
providing, leave a pause after each piece of information to allow time for the student to
think about the number properties described. Examples of descriptions are; the number is
between 0 and 100, the number is less than half way on the line, the number contains 3
tens, etc. The student can mark the line to assist in figuring out the number being
described, until the student thinks they have worked it out and are ready to make
estimation. If their estimation is not on the right track, continue describing until the
student is able to figure it out. This activity should be repeated several times to allow the
student to cultivate some strategies. Have a discussion with the student about what
strategies they discovered. Ask what they know about properties of numbers that helped
them. Repeat this activity using a number line without increments to challenge the
student.
Next repeat the activity however the range of numbers will be altered by using numbers up
to 150, then 200 through to 1000, start with a number line marked with increments. If the
student is struggling, then review with them the strategies that were previously discussed.
Discuss how the scale is different and how the increments may help estimate the number.
If the student is confident, challenge them by removing the increments on the number line.

Activity two:
The student will be given a work sheet of number lines with different scales and numbers
they need to estimate. The sheets include from 1 digit numbers and go up to 4 digit
numbers. The student will work with the teacher, as they progress through the problems.
The student should discuss what strategies they used and justify how they reached the
solutions.

## e5: EXPLAIN, ELABORATE, EVALUATE

Making connections

Student will;
1. demonstrate 2 different strategies for estimating a number on a number line
2. complete the work sheet up to at least 2 digit numbers with 80% accuracy.
3. attempt the 3 and 4 digit number problems on the worksheet with 60% accuracy.
At the end of the session the student needs to write down 3 to 5 important points to
remember in their work book.

Materials:
Masking tape, markers, smart board, number line, work book, pencils, masking tape,
number line activity sheet - http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/maths/files/estimationnumberlines.pdf

## (word count: 542)

4. Lesson Rationale
These tasks were chosen for Mia because she seemed unsure of number
lines, based on her response to question 12 where she stated the answer
must be 90 because 100 is right there (pointing). Mia demonstrated her
ability to order numbers correctly providing a useful foundation towards
number lines. The teaching model adapted from Pirie and Kierens theory
suggests that learning is non-linear and where the need ensues, it is
appropriate to move between these phases (Ministry of Education New
Zealand, 2010). The activities that are included in the lesson are designed
to allow the student to utilise all of these phases and if necessary move
between them. An example of encouraging movement between phases is
having a marked number line with increments, and then removing them.
Also describing the numbers using their properties helps to image them.
Providing Mia the opportunity to learn about number lines, may encourage
her to create relationships with Landmark numbers which will support her in
the future to connect place value to addition and subtraction (J. Van de
Walle, K Karp & J. Bay-Williams, 2013). As demonstrated in tutorials, the use
of number lines to work through problems in invaluable as it visually allows
seeing the thought process. Mia would benefit from this strategy because of
her tendency to lose track of her calculations.
(word count: 218)

Student B: Saaketh
Grade: 2
Date Interviewed: 27/03/2013
5.

## Growth Point Table

Domain
Counting
Place Value
Addition and Subtraction
Multiplication and Division

3
2
4
1

## Who checked your growth point judgements?

Students name: Chiara Louise

Signature:

## Students name: Shannen May

Signature:

6.

Nutshell Statement

Saaketh can confidently count by ones from any staring point, his preferred
strategy for working out more than and less than problems is also counting
them by ones. Saaketh is able to skip count by 2, 5 and 10s and can count
by 10s from a variable starting point. Saaketh hasnt made the link to his
knowledge of skip counting to multiplication and division; he reverts back to
again counting by ones, which hinders him seeing patterns in numbers.
Saaketh is able to read and write up to 4 digit numbers. He can use
bundling strategies to show a given number and can easily manipulate that
grouping to form another number.
Saaketh can interpret 2 digit number lines, but struggles to understand a 3
digit number line as being the same size, but representing a different scale.
Saaketh strengths appear to be within addition and subtraction as he is able
to use basic strategies, such as doubling and ten facts.
(word count: 161)

7.

Lesson Plan

## Lesson Title: Groups and arrays in multiplication

Learning intention/s:
Student will;
1. be able to use manipulatives for grouping to solve multiplication problems.
2. be able to transfer the knowledge of grouping multiplication strategy to arrays.
3. show more than one solution to a problem using arrays.

## e5: ENGAGE, EXPLORE

Lesson introduction
On the table have a large peice graph paper and two different colored counters and a pair
of dice. Playing a game of who can cover the most squares. Each person rolls the dice and
the numbers that appear on the dice are the numbers you need to multiply. Example;
rolled a 2 and a 6 = 2x6, using the counters, cover up the spaces on the chart. The spaces
can only be covered in a rectangle, so 2 rows across and 6 columns down. The person with
the most amounts of counters on the board wins.

## e5: EXPLORE, EXPLAIN, ELABORATE

Development/investigation
Activity one:
Using the egg cartons and counters that student brought, work through some problems
together. On the board write 2 x 3, the student then needs to display the problem by
placing 3 counters into 2 sections of the carton. As they place the counters they need to be
counting them. Then confirm their count by counting 3,6. Swap the problem around by
writing 3 x 2. This will show that the answer is the same, and also how a problem could be
presented in different situations. Discuss with the student what they notice about the
problems; patterns and same answers. Also ask them if they know of any other ways these
problems could be organized.
The next step is to give the student some problems in short stories, an example is; there
are 3 bears and each receives 4 cookies each, how many cookies are there in total? They
will then need to display their solution using the egg carton and then count, 4, 8, 12. Ask
them if there were 4 bears how many cookies would they each receive.
Activity two:
Using dot arrays the student will work through the same problems except they will be
transferring the problems into arrays. The students can use colored pencils to shade in a 2
x 3 rectangle to display the problem. Then color in other possible ways the problem could
be organised, 3 x 2 and 1 x 6 rectangles. The answer should be written below the array. For
the story problems the student is encouraged to draw pictures instead of dots. Example;
the student would draw 3 rows by 4 columns of cookies.
Assist students by having a display of a 10 x 10 multiplication grid the student to refer to.

## e5: EXPLAIN, ELABORATE, EVALUATE

Making connections
The student will;
1. Demonstrate through the use of manipulatives, that they can represent 6 multiplication
problems with correct solutions.
2. Demonstrate the use of arrays for 5 multiplication problems that are presented as a
story with correct solutions.
3. Show at least 2 different ways each problem/solution can be represented in an array.
At the end of the lesson the student will write down 3 key notes to help them remember for
next time.

Materials:

Egg carton, counters (beans or buttons), graph paper, pencil, colored pencils, work book, dice, 10 X
10 grid, dot arrays sheet.

## (word count: 516)

8. Lesson Rationale
The reasoning behind choosing these tasks for Saaketh is because he did
not exhibit clear links between his knowledge of addition and subtraction to
multiplication and division, as shown in questions 27 and 28 where he
chose to count or share by ones, even when asked if there was another way
of doing it. By allowing him to use materials in the lesson it will promote
different ways to approach multiplication problems. J. Young-Loveridge
(2005) suggests presenting students with multiple interpretations of a
problem will support them in becoming flexible problem solvers. She also
imparts that developing counting-based (number lines) and collectionbased (arrays) understandings are important models of multiplication.
Presenting problems in short stories will compel the student to think about
the problem in terms of how to present it in a way they understand, this
would encourage to move from the materials phase to the imaging phase of
the Pirie-Kieren teaching model (Ministry of Education New Zealand, 2010).
Allowing students to first use manipulatives and then putting it into an array
will encourage multiplicative thinking processes. Saakeths preferred
strategy of counting by ones will hopefully be shifted towards this type of
thinking and allow him to tackle more difficult tasks.
(word count: 201)

9.

References

## Hedworth, N. (2013). Teaching ideas: Estimation Number Lines. Retrieved from

http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/maths/files/estimationnumberlines.pdf
K-5 maths teaching resources. (2010). Multiplication and Division activities. Retrieved from
http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com/multiplication-and-divisionactivities.html
Learning Live. (2009). Number Line Activities [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from
http://www.learninglive.co.uk/teachers/primary/numeracy/teaching/number_line_ativities.p
df
Math Cats. (2013). Multiplication idea bank. Retrieved from
http://www.mathcats.com/grownupcats/ideabankmultiplication.html
Ministry of Education New Zealand. (2010). The main phases of the Teaching Model.
Retrieved from http://www.nzmaths.co.nz/node/1517
Van de Walle, J. A., Karp, K. S., & Bay-Williams, J. M. (2013). Elementary and middle school
mathematics: Teaching Developmentally (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Warner, M. (2013). Teaching Ideas: Guess My Number. Retrieved from
http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/maths/guessmy.htm

## Young-Loveridge, J. (2005). Fostering multiplicative thinking using array-based materials.

Australian Mathematics Teacher, 61(3), 34-40. Retrieved from
http://ezproxy.acu.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=ehh&AN=18862784&site=ehost-live