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- -

..

2009

: .., .., .

..

.-: - , 2006.-72 .


,
, , ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
-
550400
210405.65 , .


..
1. ...
1.1. .....
1.2. ........
1.3. .
2.

2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.2.
2.1.3. ..
2.1.4. ..
2.1.5.
2.1.6.
..
2.1.7. ..
2.1.8.

2.2. .
2.2.1. ...
2.2.2. ..
2.2.3.
...
3. ..
4. .
5.
..........
5.1. ....
5.2. ...
6.
6.1. ....
6.2. ..........
7. ...
7.1. ....
7.2. .....
7.3. .
8.
8.1. ..
8.2.
8.3.

5
6
6
7
8
9
9
10
10
13
15
16
18
20
21
23
24
25
25
27
30
33
33
35
37
37
39
42
42
43
45
49
49
51
54
3

9.
.
9.1. ..
9.2.

10. ..
11. .
11.1. .
11.2. -
...
11.3. .
11.4. .
.......

.. ..
.

56
56
59
63
64
64
65
66
67
69
70
71




,
.


- .
, ,
.


.

, ,

. ,
,

. ,

( , 50 75 ),
,
,
.

1.
1.1
,
,
(),

. ()
K u ,

, R ,
U , ;
..


,

.


MicroCap, Orcad, Microwave Office .

, ,
,
.
.
,
, .

1.2.
(.1.1)

.1.1

Ku =

U
U

= Ki

(1.1)

i =1

K u - , ;
Ki - i- , , i=1,...,n ;
n - .

:
R + R U
(1.2)
K =

R
E
- . . . ;

R - ;
R - .
, 50 75 ,
, (1.1) Ki =15-25 , ..
K ,
(1.4)
n = Int ( u
) +1
20 25

1.3.
n-
()
:
n +1

M , = i ,

(1.5)

i =1

-
; i - i - .
(1.5) n+1 -
, R , R
C (. . 1.1). ,

M ,
M i , =
(1.6)
n +1
50 %
, 50% ,
.

() :
n

M , = i ,

(1.7)

i =1

-
; i - , i- ; n -
, .
(
)
,

. (1.7) ,
,
:
M ,
M i , =
(1.8)
n
, ,
,
.
,
1,2 - 1,5 .

2.

2.1.

c () . 2.1,
- , R1 , R 2 -
, R - , -
, R - , R .
,
,
(15-25 )
(15-20 ).
(
- ),
( - ).

.
,
,
,
.

,

f (0,1...0,15) f , ( f f )
, ( f f )
,
,
.

.2.1.

2.1.1.


:
1.
f (10 15) f
(2.1)
2. -
U max ( 2, 5 3)U
(2.2)
3.
(2, 5 3)U
(2.3)
I max
R
.
U = (1-5) R = 50, 75

.
2.1.2.
,


.

,
() ,

10

.

( ),
(.2.1), .
-
:
U = U + U
(2.4)
U -
, U  1 2 .

2

I 0 =

ms + ms + 4( r 0 ) ((1,1U K0 ) 0, 026)

(2.5)

2( r 0 )

r =

r - ;

- ;

- ;
0 - ;
0 -
;
ms = 0, 095 - ;
ms = 0,126 - .


- U 0 , r C
[1]

(U 0 ) = (U ) U U 0 ,

(2.6)

U - -,
C .

:
- I 0 I max ,

I 0

(2.7)

11

I max - ;

- 0 (

0, 026
I 0

ms
I0

) 0, 8 R

- P P ,

P = I 0 U 0 ,

(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)

P - , ,
P - , .
I 0 , (2.5),

. (2.7-2.9)
0 = 5...18 I 0
(2.7-2.9). ,

I max P .

:
T = T + P R ,
(2.11)

T - ,

R - -.

:
T < T ,
(2.12)

T - ,
.

R R
(2.13)
R =
R R

12

R =1,1U I 0

(2.14)

2.1.3.

UR  1 5 .
E
:
E = I 0 R + U 0 +U R
(2.15)

:
E =(5;6;9;10;12;15;20;24;27;30;36) B
E
, UR
(2.15) E
.

U R
,
I 0
I 0 I 0
R =

(2.16)

R= = R + R
(2.17)

(.2.1). .
, R2 R1 :
I = (3-10)I0
I0 - , I 0 = I 0 0

:
U =U R + U 0
(2.18)
U 0 - - ;
U 0 = 0, 6 1, 5 .

13

, U 0

( U 5 )
I0.
R1 R2
U
(2.19)
R1 =
I

R 2 =

E U

(2.20)
I + I0


0

T , = T T .
U ,
I . ,

I = S 1 U + S 2 I

(2.21)

S 1 S 2
:
S 1 = S0 (1 + S 0 R )
(2.22)

R1 R 2

) 0
( R1 + R 2 ) R

-

U = T ,

S 2 = (1 +

(2.23)

(2.24)

0
0
2, 2 / 3 /

I ,
-
I 0
:

14

I = I + 0 I 0

(2.25)



I 0 ,

0 = 0 T ,

(2.26)

0,005 1 / .


I
(2.27)
Q
I0
Q , ,
Q = 0, 05 0,15 .
2.1.4.

,
E
I = = E R= . ,
(.) (.2.2).

.2.2

15



mu
(2.28)
= arctg (
)
R mi
mu mi -
.

U
.
2.1.5.
[1, 2, 3],

, . 2.3,
,
. 2.4.

. 2.3.

. 2.4.

16



[1]:
r = ;

g = 1 r ;
r [] = 1 g = 26 I 0 [ ] +

I 0 [ ] ;

g = 1 r (1 + 0 ) ;
= 1 2 f 0 r ;

f 0 =

0 ;

f = f ;
0
= 1, 2 - ;
= 1, 4 1, 9 - ;

G = 0 r ;

0 = 0 (1 + 0 ) ,

- ;

- ;
0 -
;
f -
;
f 0 -
;
f -
0
;
I 0 [ ] - ;
=3 - ;
a =4 - .

17

g g i
,
.
, . 2.4,
[3, 4, 5]:
L = L + L ;
R = r ;
= ;
R = U .max I .max ,

L , L - ;

U .max -
-;
I .max - .
. 2.4,
E G12 -
[2],
:
2

G12 = ( ) ,

(2.29)

= 2 f - ,


;
- .
(2.29) (. 2.4)
, f = f 0 [5].
2.1.6.

.2.5
.

18

. 2.5. .


.
[1]
:

0
U
Ku =
=
,

1 + p
U

(2.30)

p = j ;
- ;

0 = S0 R ;

(2.31)

S0 = 0 g g ( g + g ) ;

(2.32)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(2.33)

= + 1 + 2 ;

(2.34)

= ( + ) ( g + g ) ;

(2.35)

1 = R S0 r ;

(2.36)

2 = R .

(2.37)

Y = 1 = u 0 ,
f :
f = 1 Y 2 (2 Y ) .
(2.38)

,
:
I = I / I = 0  1
(2.39)

RC
[1]:
= g + 0 ;
(2.40)
R = 1 ( g + g 12 )

(2.41)

19

g = 1 R = g g ( g + g ) .

g 12 =

(2.42)

1
1
+
R1 R 2

(2.43)


RC
[3]:

R =

r R

r + R

(2.44)

= S0 r

(2.45)

2.1. f , R , R , ,
. 2.1, 610 [6]
( r = 5 , r = 1 , g = 0,0083 , = 4 , C =160 , f = 1
, 0 =120, S0 =0,95 /, 0 = 0,99, I 0 = 55 ), : R = 50
5

; Y = 0,9; g 12 =10 , 0 = 10.


. 0 S0 , (2.31), :
R = 10,5 . R , : R = 13,3 . (2.34)

= 1,0310-9.

(2.38) : f = 74,9 . (2.40)

(2.41) = 196 , R = 126 .


2.1.7.

[3]. , ,
K.

2

K = K 2 + K3

(2.46)

2 3
(
).
2 3
:

20

2 , % =

2 (1 + )

100

(2.47)

3 , % =

U (1 + 2 B )

6 (1 + )

100

(2.48)

U - ; - ,
25,6 ; -
( ) :
R + r
B=
r (1 + 0 )

(2.49)

2.1.8.


()
.2.6.

.2.6.


( R ),
,
, ,
. ,
,

21

F , F -
:
(2.50)
F = 1 + S 0 R .

:
(2.51)
F = 2 10 ,

:
F 1
.
(2.52)
R =
S0


[1]:

0
U
,
K u =
=

1 + p
U

(2.53)

0 =

;
F
0 = S0 R ;

(2.55)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(2.56)

= F + 1 F + 2 .

(2.57)

Y = 1 = u 0 ,
:

(2.54)

f = 1 Y 2 (2 Y ) .
(2.58)


:
R = 1 ( g + g 12 )
(2.59)
g
= F + 0 ;

g = 1 ( r + (1 + 0 )( r + R ) .

(2.60)
(2.61)

22

g 12 =

1
1
+
R1 R 2

(2.62)



:
U
2 , % =
100
(2.63)
2
2 (1 + )
2

3 , % =

U (1 + 2 B )
6 (1 + )

100

(2.64)

B =

R + r + (1 + 0 ) R
r (1 + 0 )

(2.65)

2.2. 0 , R , f , R ,
, . 2.6,
610 ( 2.1) : R =
5

50 ; Y = 0,9; g 12 =10 , 0 = 10, F = 2 .


. 0 F (2.54) : 0 = 5 .
(2.52) : R 1 . (2.57) :
= 535 . Y , (2.58)

f = 144 . (2.59) (2.60) R =

253 , = 98,7 .

2.2.
,
, . 2.7.

23

.2.7.
.

2.2.1.


0 i ( U i

U i +1

0i

), ,

, U max I max ,
(2.1-2.3),

, .


f .

,
(
U 0 = (3...10) I 0 = (3...10) mA ).
R

24

2.2.2.

, 2.1.3.
,
(2.15), , .
,

R,

.


Eo E
(2.66)
R =
I o + I + I 0

10 20
2 f R

(2.67)


,
(2.19-2.27).

R R
(2.13).
2.2.3.

.2.8
.

. 2.8.

25

[1]
:

0
U
,
Ku =
=

1 + p
U

0 = S0 R ;

(2.68)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(2.69)

= + 1 + 2 ;

(2.70)

= ( + ) ( g + g )

(2.71)

1 = R S0 r

(2.72)

2 = R ( + )

(2.73)

R ,
.
,
,
(2.38), (2.40), (2.41), (2.44), (2.45).

(2.51) - (2.65).
2.3. f , R , R , ,
. 2.7, 610
( 2.1) : Y = 0,9; 0 =
5

10; g 12 =10 , R , - 2.1.


. 0 S0 (2.68) : R = 10.5
. R (2.13) : R = 11,5 . (2.70)
: = 310-9 . Y ,

(2.38) f = 25,5 . (2.40) (2.41)


R = 126 , = 196 .

26

3.


()
.3.1, , .3.1.
, ,
,
,
.

( - ) (
- ),

.
: -, -, -, -.

.
, ,
15-25 .

( f ( 0,15 0, 2) f ),

.
.

27

)
.3.1.


[1]:

0
U
Ku =
=
,

1 + p
U

0 = S0 R ;

(3.1)

= + ( + ) R ;

(3.2)

S0 = 0 r ( 0 +1) + r ;

(3.3)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(3.4)

28

= ( r S 0 ) (2 f

);

(3.5)

R
.
Y = 1 = u 0 ,
f :

(3.6)
f = 1 Y 2 (2 Y ) .
" ",

:

(3.7)
I = I / I = 0 +1  1
0


R L [5, 6]:

R =

1
1
S0 +
R

r +

0 +1

L = r .

(3.8)
(3.9)



R C [5. 6]:

R =

R ( r + r )
;
R + r + r

(3.10)

.
1+ r r

(3.11)

3.1. f , R , R , L c ,
. 3.1, 610 [6]
( r = 5 , r = 1 , f 0 = 1400 , = 4 , C =160 , 0 =120,

S0 =0,95 /, 0 = 0,99,

I 0 = 55 ), :

R ,

- 2.1; Y = 0,9; 0 = 10.


. 0 S0 , (3.1), :

R = 10,5 . R , (3.4) : R = 11,5 .

29

(3.2) : = 2,6410-9. Y
(3.6) : f = 29,2 . (3.8) (3.9)
R 1 . L = 13,2 .
4.


()
.4.1, ,
.4.1. .
100%


.
" ",
.

,
, ,
.
,
.
( f ( 0, 3 0, 4) f ),
.

30

)
.4.1


[1]:

0
0
U
Ku =
=
=
,

(1 + 0 )(1 + p ) 1 + p
U

0 =

0 +1 =

F 1

(4.1)

0 = S0 R ;

(4.2)

F = 1 + S 0 R

(4.3)

= ( + R ) / F

(4.4)

31

S0 = 0 r ( 0 +1) + r ;

(4.5)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(4.6)

= ( r S 0 ) (2 f ) ;

(4.7)

R
.

Y = 1 = u 0 ,
f

:
(4.8)
f = 1 Y 2 (2 Y ) .


R [5, 6]:
R = 1 ( g + g 12 ) ;
(4.9)

= + /( 0 + 1) ;

(4.10)

g =

1
1
;
=
R
r + (1 + ) ( r + R )

(4.11)

g 12 =

1
1
.
+
R1 R 2

(4.12)



R L [5, 6]:
r
)
1+ 0
=
;
r
R + r +
1+ 0
R ( r +

L = r / 2 f .
0

(4.13)
(4.14)


:
K I = 0 + 1  1
(4.15)
4.1. K 0 , R , f , R , , R , L
, . 4.1,

32

610 [6] ( r = 5 , r = 1 , = 4 , C =160 , f = 1 ,

f =1,4 , 0 =120, S0 =0,95 /, 0 = 0,99, I 0 = 55 ), :


0
5

R , - 2.1; g 12 =10 ; Y =
0,9; F = 10.
. F , (4.1), :
K 0 = 0,9. S0 , (4.3), : R = 9,45 .
R , (4.6) : R = 10,2 . (4.4) :

= 2,8210-10. Y (4.8)
: f = 273,7 . (4.9) (4.10) R =

1,25 , = 5,6 . (4.13) (4.14)

R 0.9 , L = 0,57 .
5.

5.1.

. 5.1,,
- . 5.1,.

33

)
. 5.1



.

, ,
.
[1]
, L :

L = R ,
:

(5.1)

0
U
Ku =
=
,

1 + p
U

0 = S0 R ;

(5.2)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(5.3)

= L ( R + R ) ;

(5.4)

= + R (1 + S 0 r ) ;

(5.5)

S0 (2.34) (2.32).
Y = 1 = u 0 ,
f :

f = 1 Y 2 (2 Y ) .

(5.6)

R , (2.40),

(2.41).

34

5.1. f , R , L , R ,
, 5.1,
610 (
5

2.1) R = 50 ; Y = 0,9; g 12 =10 ;

0 = 10.
. 0 S0 (5.2)

R = 10,5 . R (5.3) R = 13,3 .


(5.5) (5.1) L = 13,710-9 .

(5.4) (5.6) f = 350 . (2.40),


(2.41) = 196 , R = 126 .
5.2.

,
, . 5.2,,
- . 5.2,.

35

)
. 5.2.

[1]
, L :

L = R ,
:

(5.7)

0
U
Ku =
=
,

1 + p
U

0 = S0 R ;

(5.8)

R = 1 g = R R ( R + R ) ;

(5.9)

= L ( R + R ) ;

(5.10)

= R [ + g + (1 + S 0 r )] ;

(5.11)

R ,
;
S 0 (2.34) (2.32).
f , R ,
(5.6), (2.40), (2.41).
5.2. f , R , L , R ,
, . 5.2,
610 (
5

2.1) : Y = 0,9; 0 = 10; g 12 =10 ;

R , - 2.1.
36

. 0 S 0 (5.8)

R = 10,5 . R (5.9) R = 11,5 .


(5.11) (5.7) L = 34,710-9 .
(5.10) (5.6) f = 308 .

(2.40), (2.41) = 196 , R = 126 .


6.
6.1.

. 6.1,, -
6.1,, R1 , C1 - .

,
-
.

37

)
. 6.1.

[1],
R1 C1 ,
,
:

1 + p
U
Ku =
= 0
,
2

1 + p + p
U

(6.1)

= j ;
= F - ;
= m F ;
B = (1 + m )

m F ;

0 = S 0 R F ;

(6.2)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(6.3)

F = 1 + S 0 R1 - ;

(6.4)

m = ;

(6.5)

= R1C1 ;

(6.6)

= + R (1 + S 0 r ) .

(6.7)

m =

1 F + 2 F ( F 1)
2

( F 1)

F , m

(6.8)

38

F m (6.1) :

m N F

f =

+ [(

m NF

) + N ]

(6.9)

N = (1 ) / .

RC- [1]:

= [ g + 0 g ( g + g )] F ;

(6.10)

R = 1 ( g + g 12 )

(6.11)

g = 1 R = g g ( g + g ) F .

(6.12)

g 12 =

1
1
+
R1 R 2

(6.13)

6.1. f , R1 , 1 , R ,
, 6.1,
610 (
2.1) : Y = 0,9; 0 = 10; R = R = 100 .
. 0 , S 0 , R R (6.2),

(6.3) : F = 4,75. F (6.4) (6.8) R1 = 4 ;


m = 1,03. (6.7) (6.5), (6.6) :
1 = 50,5 . Y , F , m , (6.9)
: f = 407 . (6.10), (6.11) = 71
, R = 600 .
6.2.

, ,
. 6.2,, -
. 6.2,.

39

)
. 6.2.

[1],
, R1 C1
,
:

1 + p
U
Ku =
= 0
,
2

1 + p + p
U

(6.14)

= j ;

= F - ;

40

= m F ;

(6.15)

B = (1 + m + n )

m F ;

(6.16)

0 = S 0 R F ;

(6.17)

R = 1 g = R R ( R + R ) ;

(6.18)

F = 1 + S 0 R1 - ;

(6.19)

m = ;

(6.20)

= R1C1 ;

(6.21)

= R [ + g + (1 + S 0 r )] ;

(6.22)

n = S 0 R R1 ;

(6.23)

R ,
;
S 0 (2.34) (2.32).

:

F (2 + 2n + n ) 2 F ( n + 1) [ F ( n + 1)]
2

m =

F,

( F 1)

(6.24)

F m (6.14) :

m N F

f =

+ [(

m NF

) + N ]

(6.25)

N = (1 ) / .

(6.10) (6.11).
6.2. f , R1 , 1 , R ,
,
. 6.2, 610 (
2.1) : Y = 0,9; 0 =10; R ,

- 6.1; R = R .

41

. 0 , S0 R (6.17)
: F = 28,5. F (6.19) : R1 = 29 .
(6.23) n (6.24)
: m = 0,76. m , (6.20) (6.21) :

1 = 201 . Y , m , F , (6.25)
: f = 284 . (6.10), (6.11) : = 44
; R =3590 .
7.

7.1.

. 7.1,, - . 7.1,.

)
. 7.1.
c


RC-,

42

[1]:

0
U
=
,
Ku =

1 + p
E

0 = R ( R + R ) ;

(7.1)

= R ;

(7.2)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(7.3)

R ,

f (2.39),
.
7.1. 0 f ,
. 7.1, 610
( 2.1) : R = 50

Y = 0,9.
. 2.1 : R = 126 , = 196 .
R R (7.1) : 0 = 0,716. (7.2) : = 710-9
. Y (2.38) : f = 11 .
7.2.
,
.
[7] ,
. 7.2.

43

)
. 7.2.

R L
,
,

.

[1]:

1 + p 1
U
,
Ku =
= K0
2

1 + p ( 2 + 1 ) + p 1
E

0 = g g ;

g=

1
R

1
R

1 = L R ;

(7.4)
+

1
R

= g + g + g ;

(7.5)
(7.6)

44

2 = L ( R + R ) ;

(7.7)

= g

(7.8)

R ,

L , ,
:

L =

( 2 g ( g + g + g ) g )
2

g ( g + 2 g + 2 g )

(7.9)

Y = 1 = u 0 L
(7.9) :

fB =

N 1 +

2 2

N 1 + 4 N

2 1
2

(7.10)

N = (1 ) / .

7.2. R , L , f ,
. 7.2, 610
( 2.1) : R = 50 ,

Y = 0,9, 0
5 .
. 7.1 : R = 126 , = 196 , 0 =
0,716. (7.4) : R = 10
. R (7.9) : L = 7,54 .
(7.10), : f = 108 .
(7.8), (2.38) ,
R = 10 f 50 .
7.3.

(. 7.2),

45

().
,
, . 7.3,,
- . 7.3,.

)
. 7.3.

,
( R )
, L = 0,
.
: L = 0.
:

K =

0
1 + b1 p + b2 p

(7.11)

46

0 = R R ;

(r + R )

b1 =

R R
+

C
R

b2 =

C r
R

(7.12)

[r ( R + R ) + C R R ] +
(7.13)

r ( R + R ) + R R (1 0 ) ;

[(C + C ) Roc ( R + r ) + r R ] ;

(7.14)

R = R R ( R + R ) ;

(7.15)

R ,
.
Y = 1 = u 0 ,
f :
f =

2
b1

(b1 2b2 ) + 4 N b2 (b1 2b2 )


2

(7.16)

2b2
2

N = (1 ) / .
(7.16)

2b2 = D 0 . D < 0

Roc . , D 0

, Loc .
:

1 + 1 p
= 0
,
(7.17)
2
3
1 + b1 p + [ Loc b2 + b3 ] + b4 p

0 = R R ;

(7.18)

a1 = L R ;

(7.19)

47

(r + R )

b1 =

R R
+

b2 =

b3 =
b4 =

[ r ( R + R ) + C R R ] +

[r ( R + Roc ) + R R (1 0 )] ;

( r + R )

R R

C r
R

(7.20)

[ r + C R ] ;

(7.21)

[(C + C ) Roc ( R + r ) + r R ] ;

(7.22)

C r

(C + C )( R + r ) L .
R
:
2

L = Roc ( b2 R + b1 2b3 b2 Roc ) .

(7.23)

Y ,

1 :
6 2
4
2
2
b4 + ( Lb2 + b3 ) 2b1b4
2

NL
2

N =0,

(7.24)

N = (1 ) / .
1 ,
f :

f = 1 2 .

(7.25)

7.3. f , Roc , L
, . 7.3,
610 (
2.1) : R = 50 , Y = 0,9, 0 = 1,5, R ,
6.2 ( = 44 , R = 3590 ).
. 0 R (7.18)

R =75 . b1 b2 (7.13) (7.14) ,


48

D < 0 . 0 . 0 = 6.
(7.18) : R = 150 .

R D > 0 . (7.16) : f = 76 .
L (7.23): L =57 .

(7.24):
8
1 = 7, 668 10 , (7.25) : f = 122 .

8.

8.1.
(
. 8.1,, -
. 8.1,.

49

.8.1.



,
. R >> R
:
2

(6.1)
R = R ; R R = R

1,3 , Y 0,7.

[8].
(8.1),

[8]:

E =

= 0

1
1 + b1 p + b2 p

(8.2)

= ( Roc R ) ( R + R ) ;

(8.3)

b1 =
b2 =

1 ( Roc + 2 R + 2 R ) + 2 ( Roc + 2 R )
2( R + R )

1 2 ( Roc + 2 R )
2( R + R )

(8.4)

(8.5)

1 = r ;

(8.6)

2 = R .

(8.7)

0 , (8.1) (8.3) :

Roc =

2
R 0 + 0 + 4(1 + 0 )

(8.8)
2
Y = 1 = u 0 ,

f :

50

f =

(b1 2b2 ) + 4 N b2 (b1 2b2 )


2

(8.9)

2b2
2

N = (1 ) / .
[9] , (8.1)

R , ,
, :
U max = U max ( Roc R ) ( R + R ) ,
(8.10)

U max

- ,

.
8.1. f , R , R
. 8.1, 610
( 2.1) : R = R = 50
; =0,9; 0 =3.
. 0 R (8.8) :

Roc =200 . Roc (8.1) : R =12,5 .


b1 , b2 (8.4) (8.5) (8.9)
: f =95 . (8.10)

:
U max = 0, 75U max .
8.2.

,
, .
8.2,, - . 8.2,.

51

)
. 8.2.
.


, .

,
,
.
,
, (8.1)
1,3 [8, 9].
,
. 8.2, ,
52

E =

= 0

1
1 + b1 p + b2 p

(8.11)

= ( Roc R ) ;

(8.12)

n = 2;
r ( R + 2 R + 2 R ) + R ( Roc + 2 R )
;
b1 = oc
2( R + R )
b2 =

r R ( Roc + 2 R )
2( R + R )

(8.13)

(8.14)

Y = 1 = u 0 ,
f :
f =

(b1 2b2 ) + 4 N b2 (b1 2b2 )


2

(8.15)

2b2
2

N = (1 ) / .

, (8.10).
,
f

:
f
,
f =
[1 + 0, 05 (n 2)]

(8.16)

n - ;

f -
, (8.15).
n-
(8.12).
8.2. f , Roc , R
, . 8.2,
610 (
2.1) : R = R =50 ; =0,81; 0 =10.
53

. (8.12) 0 R :

Roc = 160 . Roc (8.1) : R =15,5 .


(8.15) : f =101 .

8.3.
[10]
. 8.3,,
. 8.3,, . 8.3,.

)
. 8.3 .

54

u = U U = 2 ,

(8.17)

, ,
.
. ,
, .

R ,
R , Y = 0,7.

.
,
(8.17), [10]:

Ku = 2

1 + b1 p + b2 p + b3 p

a1 = Roc (Coc + C );

(8.18)

a2 = C Roc (Coc r + r ) ;

(8.19)

a3 = Coc C r r Roc ;

(8.20)

b1 =
b2 =

Roc

1 + a1 p + a2 p + a3 p

2 Roc
R

{Coc [r + r (1 )] + r + R } ;

(8.21)

( r r + R r + R r ) ;

(8.22)

2 Roc
R

(8.23)
b3 = 2Coc C Roc r r .

Coc [10]:
Roc = 0 R 2 ;
Coc = C +

r 0

(8.24)
,

(8.25)

Roc

f :

55

f =

R ( + ) 1
2 [ 2 r R + r ( R + r )]

(8.26)

8.3. f , Roc , Coc


. 8.3,
610 ( 2.1) : R =

50 ; Y = 0,9.
. (8.24), (8.25) Roc = 3 ; Coc =

10,4 . (8.26) : f =478 .


9.



, .


()
[2]. ,

. 2.4,
R L ,
.
. 9.1,
, ,
.

. 9.1.

9.1.
[3],

56

,
,
.
(. . 2.4) ,
.
. 9.2.

. 9.2.

,
| S |
[3]:
R
| S | =
,
(9.1)
2 + ( R )

- .

, ,
:
max ( )
( )

= 1+

2 S

1 S

(9.2)

max ( ) -
C ;

( ) -
C .

57

[3] C

f L1 C1 ,

S max
f . 7.1
C , C1 , L1 , ,

max

= b3 R ;

1 = b1 R ;

R = R ,

L1 = b2 R ;

(9.3)

- .

9.1 -

b1 (C1 )
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5

b2 ( L1 )
0,180
0,382
0,547
0,682
0,788
0,865
0,917
0,949
0,963
0,966
0,958
0,944
0.927
0,904
0,882

b3 (C )
0,099
0,195
0,285
0,367
0,443
0,513
0,579
0,642
0,704
0,753
0,823
0,881
0,940
0,998
1,056

S
0,000
0,002
0,006
0,013
0,024
0,037
0,053
0,071
0,091
0,111
0,131
0,153
0,174
0,195
0,215

max

1,000
1,001
1,002
1,010
1,020
1,036
1,059
1,086
1,117
1,153
1,193
1,238
1,284
1,332
1,383

58

1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9

0,858
0,833
0,808
0,783

1,115
1,173
1,233
1,292

0,235
0,255
0,273
0,292

1,437
1,490
1,548
1,605

9.1.
610 ( =4 ), R = 50 , f =600
. R

f .
. : = b3 =

R = 0,7536. 7.1 b3 0,753.


b3 : b1 = 1,0; b2 = 0,966; S

max

=0,111;

=1,153. (9.3) : L1 = 12,8


; C1 = 5,3 ; R = 43,4 . (9.1), (9.2)
,
f , , 1,57
, - 1,025 .
9.2.


. 9.3,,
. 9.3, [11, 12].

59

)
. 9.3


(. 2.4), (. 9.3) ,
. 9.4.

. 9.4.

[2,
11],

2 ,
, :

60

U
1
,
= S 210
2
3
E
1 + a1 p + a2 p + a3 p
2
= i ;

S 21 =

(9.4)

= - ;

- ;
-

S 210 = 21 R G12 (1) ;

(9.5)

G12 (1) = ( ) ;

(9.6)

1 = 1 R , R = R / R -
R 1 R .

a1 ,

a2 ,

a3 ,

, C1 , C2 , L1
[12]:

/
/
2
2 = 2 1 ( 1) / ;

/
2
L1 = L1 / L ,

C1 = 1 / ;

(9.7)

= 1 /(1 C ) ;
/

1 = a3 L1 C2 ;
/

2 = a3 D / a1 L1 ;
/

L1 = ( 4 a1 A B ) / 2a1 ;
2

A = Da1a3 R ( a1 C ) / a1 ;

B = D ( a3 D a1a2 ) ;
2

D = 1 + 2 R ( a1 C ) / a1 ;
C = R ,
L = L / R ,
61

R = R / R .

a1 ,
a2 ,
a3 ,

(9.4) [13],
9.2.
9.2

,
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0

a1

a2

1,605
1,805
1,940
2,05
2,14
2,23
2,31
2,38
2,45
2,52
2,65
2,77
2,89
3,01
3,13

1,184
1,415
1,56
1,67
1,75
1,82
1,88
1,93
1,97
2,012
2,08
2,13
2,18
2,22
2,26

a3
0,611
0,868
1,069
1,24
1,40
1,54
1,67
1,80
1,92
2,035
2,26
2,46
2,67
2,87
3,06

R1 , [11]:

R1 = 2 0 R S 210 .

(9.8)

, (9.7)
C .
C1 , C2 , L1 ,
:
1 = 1 R ;

2 = 2 R ;
L1 = L1 R

(9.9)

62

. S 210 C1 ,

C2 ,

L1 ,

R1

(. 9.3),

610 ( L = 3 , R = 5 , C = 4 , R = 86
, f = 1 ) R = 50 , Y = 0,9, f = 260 .
. 9.2 = 0,9,
1 , : a1 = 2,52; a2 = 2,012; a3 = 2,035.
= 0,56, L = 0,055, R = 0,058
(9.7), : C1 = 1,8; C2 = 0,757; L1 = 0,676.
(9.6) G12 (1) (9.5) :

S 210 = 3,2, (9.8) : R1 = 3,75 .


(9.9) : C1 = 12,8 ; C2 = 5,4 ; L1 = 35,6 .
10.


.


1
(10.1)
i =
2
(2 f ) M i 1
i - ,
, ,

1.3.

:

Cp =

R + R
R
- ,

(10.2)

63

R = R R
R = R ;

Rn - ,
;
R = R , R = R .

:
(10.3)
i S0
11. .
11.1.
, ,
,
,
. ,
, .
,
(2%),
10%. .

1 .
1 =1000 , 1=1000000 .
,
( ): 0,062;
0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2.
.
: 6, 12, 24, 96, 192.
6.

(.9.1).
n

, 10 ,
n .
11.1

6
12


1; 1,5; 2,2; 3,3; 4,7; 6,8;
1; 1,2; 1,5; 1,8; 2,2; 2,7; 3,3; 3,9; 4,7; 5,6; 6,8; 8,2;

64

24

1; 1,1; 1,2; 1,3; 1,5; 1,6; 1,8; 2; 2,2; 2,4; 2,7; 3; 3,3; 3,6;
3,9; 4,3; 4,7; 5,6; 6,2; 6,8; 7,5; 8,2; 9,1;


2%, 5%, 10%, 20%.

1 ().
6

12

1 = 10 = 10 = 10 .
.
6, 12, 24.
, ,
0 9999 , 0,01
9999 .

1 ().
1 = 10

, 1 = 10

11.2. -



,
.


(11.1)
K = K 0 . K 0 . K 0 . K 0 .
K 0 . , K 0 . , K 0 . , K 0 . -
, ,
.

:
K ,..
K ( ), .. =

M . . ( ) M . . ( ) M . ( ) M . ( )
,
(11.2)
1

M . . ( ) M . ( ) M . ( )

65

M ( ) M ( ) - (
, , )
, :

M = 1 + ( )

M = 1 + (1 / )

(11.3)
2

(11.4)

,
(11.1-11.3) .

MathCad, ,
.
f f
M.


.
11.3.
,


.

, I 0 , U 0 , I 0 , U 0 .
MicroCap

Analysis/DC Analysis [12].
-

.

,
( 10-100 ) ,
,
. MicroCap

Analysis/Transient Analysis.

66



.

,
MicroCap Analysis/AC Analysis.



.
,
, ,
.
,
.
11.4.

.

.
.
[13].
:

1.
2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
3. -
4. MicrCap

.5.034.015 3

67

.5.034.015 3


:
U, R,
,
R, f,
f,
,
,
,
f f .

.

4
, 25-30
.
, 013 13.
:
1, 2, R1, R2,
VT1, VT2.

68

1. .. .
. - .: . 1977.
2. .. . - .: .
, 1980.
3. / ..,
.., .., ..; . ..
. - .: , 1978.
4. .., .., ..

// . . -. 2000. - . 1.
5. .., .. . .
/ ....-.: , 1982.-416 .
6. ..
.-.: -XXI, 2002.-256.
7. .., ..

// .
. / . .. . - .:
, 1986. . 26.
8. .. . //
. - 1979. - 6.
9. .., ..
// .
. - : - . -, 1975.
. 4.
10. ..
// .
/ . .. . - : - . -,
1976.
11. .. . .:
, 1971.
12. .. MicroCapV. .: , 1997.
13. . () .
.-:
, 1997

69

U,

R,

R,

f,

f,

,
,0

,
,0

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

2,0
0,5
1,1
1,5
1,3
1,2
0,8
0,7
0,6
1,4
1,9
1,7
1,8
1,3
1,0
0,7
0,9
2,0
1,5
1,6
1,9
1,2
1,1
1,3
1,0
0,5
0,6
0,8
0,9
1,9
1,6
1,5
1,4
1,3
1,1
2,0
0,5
0,9
0,7
2,0

100
75
50
75
75
50
50
50
50
75
100
100
100
75
50
50
50
50
75
100
75
75
75
75
50
50
50
50
50
100
75
75
75
75
50
100
50
50
50
100

30
5
3
5
10
8
9
5
6
15
22
15
16
15
12
7
9
30
20
15
20
14
13
12
9
7
9
9
8
18
14
15
13
10
10
25
4
10
8
25

75
50
75
75
50
75
50
50
50
50
75
50
75
75
75
75
100
75
50
100
75
50
100
75
75
100
50
100
50
100
75
75
100
100
75
50
100
50
50
75

100
80
90
120
150
180
110
130
140
160
80
120
100
90
130
180
210
100
110
170
150
130
120
90
70
160
180
110
95
80
120
140
90
110
170
220
150
100
80
110

50
55
60
70
80
150
120
100
130
90
85
95
140
115
125
75
65
55
52
72
102
132
112
92
82
58
88
68
138
118
78
86
56
126
96
66
106
146
116
8

2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
1,8
1,6
4,2
2,7
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
1,8
1,6
4,2
2,7
3,5
4
4,2
3
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
1,8
2,2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
3,2
2
2,5

-20
-20
-20
-20
-20
-30
0
-10
-20
-10
-20
-25
-15
-5
-10
-10
-25
-30
-15
-10
-5
-10
-10
-25
-25
-20
-5
-5
-10
-15
-20
-5
-15
-15
-20
-25
-10
-10
-5
-25

40
30
20
25
35
35
35
40
40
30
35
40
30
30
30
40
35
35
40
35
30
30
40
35
40
35
40
30
30
35
40
30
30
40
40
35
40
35
30
35

f f

0,2
0,2
0,15
0,15
0,1
0,15
0,1
0,15
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,15
0,15
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,15
0,2
0,1

70





- -
()

.
_________..
___________200_ .



.22-2__________ ..____________________

1. :
____________ _____________________
2. :
_______ _______________________
3. :
- :
_75 __
__30 ___
-
( __-2 __): _100 -50 ______
- : ___2 __________________________
- : ___100 __________________________________
-
: ____0,3__________________________
- : -10+500__
- : __________________________________
4. :
,

71

-
,
.
5. :
,


. ..

__________________
__________________
__________________
__________________

72