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Using Everyday Words Make a list of the key terms from this chapter. Describe what

Using Everyday Words

Make a list of the key terms from this chapter. Describe what each term makes you think of. Compare your descriptions with what the terms actually mean.

black hole (BLAK HOHL) an object so massive and dense that not even light can escape its gravity

Figure 8 The Crab Nebula is the remains of a supernova that was seen by Chinese observers in the year 1054.

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Some supernovas form neutron stars and black holes. The nebular remnant of a supernova is shown in Figure 8. If the core that remains after such a supernova has occurred has a mass of 1.4 to 3 solar masses, the remnant can become a neutron star. Neutron stars are only a few dozen kilometers in diameter, but they are very massive. A neutron star is as dense as matter in the nucleus of an atom, about 10 17 kg/m 3 . Just a teaspoon of matter from a neutron star would weigh more than 100 million tons on Earth. Neutron stars can be detected as pulsars, or spinning neutron stars that are sources of pulsat- ing radio waves. If the leftover core has a mass that is greater than 3 solar masses, it will collapse to form something else—a blackblack hole,hole, which consists of matter so massive and compressed that nothing, not even light, can escape its gravitational pull. Because no light can escape a black hole, black holes cannot be seen directly. Black holes can, however, be detected indi- rectly by observing the radiation of light and X rays from objects that revolve rapidly around them.

and X rays from objects that revolve rapidly around them. How can scientists detect a black

How can scientists detect a black hole even though it does not emit or reflect any light?

The H-R diagram shows how stars evolve. In 1911, Ejnar Hertzsprung, a Danish astronomer, com- pared the temperature and absolute magnitude of stars and carefully plotted his data on a graph. Absolute magnitude tells us how bright stars would be if they were all the same distance from Earth. In 1913, American astronomer Henry Norris Russell made similar graphs. Together, the two graphs form the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, or H-R diagram, shown in Figure 9. The vertical axis shows the luminosity (the total energy output at every wavelength) or the brightness of stars. The horizontal axis shows the surface temperature of the stars, with hotter temperatures on the left side of the diagram. Once a star is stable—fusing hydrogen into helium in its core—it appears on a diagonal line in the H-R diagram called the main sequence. Most stars are main-sequence stars. The position of a star on the main sequence depends on the initial mass of the star. As stars age and pass through different stages in their life cycles, their positions on the H-R diagram change. Because most stars spend most of their lives in midlife, more stars appear on the main sequence than on other parts of the H-R diagram. Red giant stars are both cool and bright, so they appear in the upper right. White dwarf stars are both faint and hot, so they appear in the lower left.