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Patterns of Intermediate Inheritance

Mendelian Classical Dominance:

When one allele is completely dominant over another -This is what Mendel figured out

Example: A homozygous dominant black chicken is crossed with a homozygous recessive white chicken.

-What percent of the offspring will be white?

0%

-What percent of the offspring will be black?

100%

 

B

B

b

B b

B b

b

B b

B b

Non-Mendelian Forms of Genetics

Non-Mendelian Forms of Genetics There are several types of intermediate inheritance patterns: Co-dominance Multiple Alleles Incomplete

There are several types of intermediate inheritance patterns:

Co-dominance Multiple Alleles Incomplete Dominance Polygenic Traits Multifactorial Inheritance

Co-dominance

Co-dominance A trait for which both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype. Example: Coat color in

A trait for which both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype.

Example: Coat color in cows and horses

When a homozygous red cow is crossed with a homozygous white cow they produce a heterozygous cow that is red and white (roan).

Genotype: RR

Genotype: RR

Genotype: WW

Genotype: WW

Genotype: RW

Genotype: RW

Show the cross between two roan cow (use R and W).

What is the probability that two roan cows will have at least one roan offspring?

50%

Show the cross between two roan cow (use R and W). What is the probability that

What is the probability that two roan cows will have a white offspring?

R

W

R

W

RR

RW

RW

WW

Incomplete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance Results in a heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes.

Results in a heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes.

Examples: snapdragon plants, coat color in horses

When a homozygous red snapdragon is crossed with a homozygous white snapdragon, they produce a heterozygous pink snapdragon.

Genotype: RR (Red)

Genotype: RR (Red)

Genotype: WW (white)

Genotype: WW (white)

Genotype: RW (pink)

Genotype: RW (pink)

In humans…

Hair Texture is incomplete.

In humans… Hair Texture is incomplete.
In humans… Hair Texture is incomplete.

Practice Cross – Incomplete Dominance

  • In Four O’Clocks, the gene for red flowers (R) is incompletely dominant to the gene for white flowers (W).

  • The heterozygous condition results in pink flowers.

Show the results of a cross between a red Four O’Clock and a white Four O’Clock.

Are the F 1 flowers purebred or hybrid?

Show the results of a cross between a red Four O’Clock and a white Four O’Clock.

W

hybrid

Show the results of a cross between a red Four O’Clock and a white Four O’Clock.

What is the phenotype of the F 1 flowers?

W

pink

R

R

RW

RW

RW

RW

Snapdragons
Snapdragons

Mirabilis plants

WW

RR

White

Red

RW RW RW RW RW WW
RW
RW
RW
RW
RW
WW
WW RW RR RW
WW
RW
RR
RW

WW

Multiple Alleles

  • When a gene has more than two possible alleles.

  • ONLY TWO alleles are inherited.

Example: Rabbit Coat Color is controlled by 4 alleles - C, c ch , c h , and c

wild type color

wild type color CC, Cc , Cc , Cc

CC, Cc ch , Cc h , Cc

chinchilla color

chinchilla color ch h ch

c ch c h , c ch c

Himalayan color

Himalayan color

albino

albino

Practice cross: Multiple Alleles

  • Practice cross: In rabbits there are four different color alleles:

    • C is dominant over all

C = wild type color

  • c ch is dominant to c h & cc ch = chinchilla color

  • c h is dominant to c

  • c is recessive to all

c h = Himalayan color c = albino

  • Each rabbit can inherit only two alleles.

A wild

colored rabbit is crossed with an albino and in the offspring there is a Himalayan rabbit.

Show the cross between a wild type and albino rabbit that has a Himalayan baby.

What are the genotypes of the parents?

Parent one : cc Parent two : Cc h

What is the probability that they will have an offspring that is Himalayan?

50%

What is the probability that they will have an offspring that is albino?

0%

c

c

What is the probability that they will have an offspring that is wild colored?

C

  • c h

Cc

  • c h c

Cc

  • c h c

Show the cross between a wild type and albino rabbit that has a Himalayan baby. What

Mult. Alleles & Co-dominance

Polygenic

Eye Color Calculator

Polygenic Eye Color Calculator A trait that is controlled by the interaction between 2 or more

A trait that is controlled by the interaction between 2 or more genes.

Examples: skin color, eye color, height, hair color

Results in a continuum of expressed phenotypes.

Vitamin D & Skin Color Evolution

Polygenic Traits & Epistasis
Polygenic
Traits &
Epistasis

Polygenic trait: Hair Color

The more dominant alleles that appear in the genotype, the darker the hair!

Polygenic trait: Hair Color The more dominant alleles that appear in the genotype, the darker the

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-e5ODsf_TEk

Multifactorial Inheritance

  • The phenotype is a result of an interaction between your genotype and certain environmental factors.

  • The expression of most all genes is influenced by environmental conditions.

  • Examples:

Diabetes Height Heart Disease

  • Can inherit a predisposition to all of these diseases/characteristics.

  • Their development (phenotype) is influenced by environmental factors such as proper nutrition, exercise, quality medical care, etc.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wd5Y3-F79LY

Examples in plants:

In many plants, the presence of light triggers the production of chloroplasts.

Chemicals that stimulate germination are only produced in the presence of certain temperatures.

http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/874/30020399.JPG

Review of Terms
Review
of Terms