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2007

517.53 (075.8)
22.161.5
77
: - .-. , . .. (. . .
- . .. ); . .-. , .
.. (.-. . -)
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77

: .
/ .., .. .: ,
2007. 103 .
ISBN 5-98340-063-0
, , - .
,
.
, . ,
.
, .
,
. , . , ,
- .
. 7 . . 23.


.

,

ISBN 5-98340-063-0

.. , .. , 2007

1.

XVIXVII . a + b 1 , b 6= 0, ,
.
-, , . (1545), , . ( ., .)

.
i = 1 (1794). .
1831 .
(1799).

1. i = 1
1. ,

1 = i.
, x2 2x + 5 = 0, , x = 12i,
.
1.
1.1.
( )
z z = x +
iy , x y
, i , i = 1 .
z = x + iy , x z
Re z (Re realis
), y z Im z (Im imaginarius
).
, Re (12i) = 1 , Im (12i) = 2 . y = Im z = 0 ,
z = x , Re z = x = 0

y 6= 0 , z = iy . ,
R C , R C .
1.2. z1 z2
, Re z1 = Re z2 Im z1 = Im z2 .
1.3.
z = x+iy xiy ,
z = x iy .
1.4. x iy = z z = x + iy .

x + iy + (x iy) = 0 + i0. z ,
Re z = Im z = 0 .
, , .
) ( ) :

+ = + ;

= .
) ( ) :

+ + = + ( + ) = ( + ) + = + ( + );

= () = () = ().
) ( ) :
( + ) = + .

, = a + bi, = c + di,
:
= (a + bi) (c + di) = (a c) + (b d)i,
(, i2 = 1 )
= (a + bi)(c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i,
,
= a2 + b2 R , i3 = i, i4 = 1 , , ,

(a + bi)(c di)
ac + bci adi bdi2
= =
=
=

c2 + d2
c2 + d2

ac + bd bc ad
ac + bd + (bc ad)i
= 2
+ 2
i.
2
2
c +d
c + d2
c + d2

2.
1799
(x, y). ,
.
, z = x + iy M x, y (. 1.1).
M z = x + iy .
- y

M (x, y)
, - iy
z = x + iy
,

, . XOY , x
x
0
, . 1.1.
(
5

) z . z z .
z = x + iy
x y , , , - z . .
2.1. ,
, ,
, .. , - .
, M (r, ). : ( )
z = x + iy
p

r = |z| = x2 + y 2 = z z,
(
OX OM )
z = Arg z . .
z1 z2 : |z1 | = |z2 | : Arg z1 = Arg z2 .

= Arg z z = x + iy .
, OX , 2 , . , , 2 .

(
x = r cos ,
(1.1)
y = r sin
2k :
Arg z = arg z + 2k,
6

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .


arg z , < arg z .

arctg ,
x > 0,

y
arctg + , x < 0, y 0,
arg z =
(1.2)
x

arctg y , x < 0, y < 0.


x
2.2. z = 0 + i0
.
3.
z = x + iy
. (1.1),
z = r cos + ir sin z = r(cos + i sin ),

. ei = cos + i sin ,

z = rei
.
,

p
z = x + iy x2 + y 2 = z z ,
r = |z| =
z = Arg z = arg z + 2k ,
(k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ). arg z ( OX z = x + iy ),
< arg z ,
(1.2)
3.1.
z = 1 sin + i cos ,
.
7

0<<

. :

z = |z| cos(arg z) + i sin(arg z) .

|z| =

p
p
(1 sin )2 + cos2 = 2(1 sin ),

cos + sin
cos
2
2
arg z = arctg
= arctg

=
1 sin
cos sin
2
2

+ tg
4
2 = + .
= arctg

4
2
1 tg tg
4
2

  
 
p
+
+ i sin
+
: z = 2(1 sin ) cos
.
4
2
4
2
: .
tg

4. ,
,
z1 = r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 ),
z2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ).
:
z1 z2 = r1 r2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 + i(sin 1 cos 2 +


+ cos 1 sin 2 ) = r1 r2 cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 ) .
(z2 6= 0) :
z1
r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 )
r1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 )(cos 2 i sin 2 )
=
=
=
z2
r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 )
r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 )(cos 2 i sin 2 )
8


r1
cos 1 cos 2 + sin 1 sin 2 + i(sin 1 cos 2 cos 1 sin 2 ) =
r2

r1
cos(1 2 ) + i sin(1 2 ) .
=
r2
,
. z1 = r1 ei1 , z2 = r2 ei2 , ( z2 6= 0):
=

z1 z2 = r1 r2 ei(1 +2 ) ,

z1
r1 i(1 2 )
=
e
.
z2
r2

5.

n :
z n = z z . . . z.

:
n
n
z n = (x + iy)n = r(cos + i sin ) = rei =
= rn ein = rn (cos n + i sin n).
(16671754):
(cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n.

(1.3)

5.1. Arg z ,
arg z ,
ei Arg z = eiarg z+2ki = eiarg z e2ki = eiarg z ,
e2ki = 1.
5.1. (1.3)
cos 3 sin 3 cos sin .
:

cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos ,


sin 3 = 4 sin3 + 3 sin .
9

5.1. w
z 6= 0,
wn = z.
w =
y
i

4
13
-1

z , n = 2 w = z .

n z .
z = r(cos + i sin ),
w = %(cos + i sin ).

4
11

(1.4)

12

(1.4),

wn = %n (cos n + i sin n) =
= r(cos + i sin ).

14

,
. 1.2.
%n = r , n =
= + 2m = arg z + 2k .

% = n r,

1
1
= Arg z =
arg z + 2k .
n
n
n - n
k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1:


p

arg z + 2k
arg z + 2k
n
n
wk = r(cos + i sin ) = r cos
+ i sin
.
n
n
y
.
x
n 
n - n r,

1
(arg z + 2k) .
n

5.2. 4 1 = {1, i, 1, i} .
. 1.2.
arg z arctg

10

6. .
, z .
. (x, y), ( ) , ..
z = x + i, z = + iy z = + i. z =
( ), .
, ;
, (,
0).
z = , || = +.
, , z = a:
a
= 0,

= ,
a

a
= .
0

,
,

0 ,

0
,
0

.
6.1. .
(18261866).
, . ( ) r , z z = 0 N , O .

11

0
Z
x
. 1.3.

N (0, 0, 2r)

Z(x, y, 0) (x, y)
S
(. 1.3).
S(, , ) z .


(x, y)
, , -

.
N SO
OZ (x, y), (x, y). N .
N . , N , z
, , ..
z . ,
N z = .
, z = + i ( z = x + i,
z = + iy )
N (0, 0, 2r) . (, , )

2 + 2 + ( r)2 = r2

2 + 2 = (2r ).

(1.5)

N Z N S
N SZ
0
2r
0
=
=
.
x0
y0
0 2r
:
x=

2r
,
2r

y=
12

2r
.
2r

(1.6)


x2 + y 2 =

4r2 ( 2 + 2 )
(2r )2

, (1.5),
x2 + y 2 =

4r2
.
2r

2r(x2 + y 2 )
,
x2 + y 2 + 4r2

(1.6)
=

4r2 x
,
x2 + y 2 + 4r2

4r2 y
.
x2 + y 2 + 4r2

x , y ( ),
0, 0, 2r , N .
7.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .

13

2.

1. .

: z = x + iy w = u + iv .
D ( z = ), G
(. 2.1). .
1.1. z D

w G , , D w = f (z) , D G .
y
w = f (z)

v
w

D
0

. 2.1.
D f (z).
G f (z), , G

D f (z) G = f (D) .
, f (z) D G .
f (z)
f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y),

(2.1)

u(x, y) = Re f (z), v(x, y) = Im f (z)


x, y , (x, y) D .

14

z D w , w = f (z) .
, , .
1.2. , f (z)
z0 , A = a + ib ,
lim

|zz0 |0

|f (z) A| = 0.

(2.2)

lim f (z) = A.
zz0

f (z) (2.1) (2.2)


p
lim
(u(x, y) a)2 + (v(x, y) b)2 = 0, z0 = x0 + iy0 ,
(x,y)(x0 ,y0 )

, ,
lim

u(x, y) = a,

lim

(x,y)(x0 ,y0 )

v(x, y) = b.

(x,y)(x0 ,y0 )

,
.
1.3. w = f (z) z0 ,
lim f (z) = f (z0 ).

zz0

(2.3)

, z0
,
(2.3), f (z) (2.1) :
lim
(x,y)(x0 ,y0 )

u(x, y) = u(x0 , y0 ),

lim
(x,y)(x0 ,y0 )

v(x, y) = v(x0 , y0 ).

, f (z) z0 u(x, y) v(x, y) (x0 , y0 ).


15

1.1. f (z) = z 2 .
.

z 2 = (x + iy)2 = x2 y 2 + i2xy = u + iv.


, u(x, y) = x2 y 2 ,
v(x, y) = 2xy .
z 2 z = x + iy .
.
:
ez = ex+iy = ex (cos y + i sin y).
:


1 iz
1 iz
e + eiz , sin z =
e eiz ,
2
2i
sin z
cos z
tg z =
,
ctg z =
.
cos z
sin z

cos z =

:
Ln z = ln |z| + i(arg z + 2k),

k Z.

k = 0 ln z = ln |z| + iarg z .
Ln z = ln z + 2ki.
.
, 6= 0,
:
= e Ln = e(ln +2ki) ,

k Z.

,
, e2ki = 1.
p/q , (q > 1 ), q
.
.
16

2.
w = f (z) z0 = x0 + iy0 .
z0 + z w
f (z) z0 z0 + z , ..
w = f (z0 + z) f (z0 ).
2.1.
lim

z0

f (z0 + z) f (z0 )
w
= lim
,
z0 z
z

(2.4)

f (z) z0 f 0 (z0 ).
f (z), z0 , z0 .
, (2.4) f (z) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y) z = x + iy 0 u(x, y)
v(x, y) x 0 y 0.
.
2.1. f (z) z0 ,
, u(x, y) v(x, y)
(x0 , y0 ),
- (
-) :
v
u
=
,
x
y

u
v
= .
y
x

(2.5)

. .
w = f (z) z0 D ,

w = f 0 (z0 )z + z,
17

(2.6)


z = z z0 = (x x0 ) + i(y y0 ) = x + iy,

w = f (z) f (z0 ) = u(x, y) u(x0 , y0 ) +

+ i v(x, y) v(x0 , y0 ) = u + iv.
f 0 (z0 ) = a+ib , = 1 +i2 , 1 2 , x 0 y 0 . (2.6)

u + iv = (a + ib)(x + iy) + (1 + i2 )(x + iy).

,
u = ax by + 1 x 2 y,

(2.7)

v = bx + ay + 2 x + 1 y.
, 1 2 ,
x 0, y 0 , , u(x, y)
v(x, y) x y (x0 , y0 ), .

du =

u
u
dx +
dy,
x
y

dv =

v
v
dx +
dy.
x
y

(2.8)

(2.7)
(2.8), :
u
= a,
x

u
= b,
y

v
= b,
x

v
= a.
y

u
v
u
v
=
,
= .
x
y
y
x
-.
. (2.5). , f (z)
.
18

u(x, y) v(x, y) (x0 , y0 ), (


-), , ,

,
p
(x)2 + (y)2 = |x + iy| = |z|.

u = u(x0 + x, y0 + y) u(x0 , y0 ) =

u
u
x +
y + |z|,
x
y

v
v
x +
y + |z|.
x
y
x 0 , y 0.
-
v = v(x0 + x, y0 + y) v(x0 , y0 ) =

u
v
=
= a,
x
y

u
v
=
=b
y
x

(2.9)


w = u + iv = a(x + iy) + bi(x + iy) + ( + i)|z| =
= (a + bi)z + ( + i)|z|.



|z|
w
= lim a + bi + ( + i)
f (z0 ) = lim
z0 z
z0
z
0

+ i z 0 ,
f 0 (z0 ) = a + bi
, f (z) z0 a + bi.
, f 0 (z0 ) (2.9) :
f 0 (z0 ) =

v
v
u
u
u
v
v
u
+i
=
i
=
i
=
+i .
x
x
y
y
x
y
y
x

19

(2.10)

w = f (z), (2.5)
:
df (z)
w0 =
.
dz

, .
2.1.
f (z) = (x3 3xy 2 ) + i(3x2 y y 3 ).
. -
. , ,
(2.10) , ux = 3x2 3y 2 , vx = 6xy ,
, ,
f 0 (z) = 3x2 3y 2 + i6xy = 3(x2 + 2ixy y 2 ) = 3(x + yi)2 = 3z 2 .
: f 0 (z) = 3z 2 .
3. 1
. , .
3.1. f (z)
( , ) z0 ,
z0 .
3.2. f (z) D
( ) .
1 . . . . . //
. . 1. , , 2005, . 1924.

20

,
, ,
( 3.2). ,
,
.
.
3.3. z , z0 :
|z z0 | < , - z0 .
3.4. z0 D
D , z0 D
z0 .
3.5. D , z D D .
3.6. D , , .. z1 , z2 D L, D .
3.1. )
Pn (z) = a0 z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an1 z + an ,

a0 , a1 , . . . , an C,

z .
)
R(z) =

P (z)
,
Q(z)

P (z) Q(z) , ,
Q(z) 6= 0. R(z) , z () , Q(z) = 0 .

21

3.7. z , f (z) ,
f (z). , f (z) ,
.
3.2.
w = z|z|.

p
u(x, y) = Re w = x x2 + y 2 ,

v(x, y) = Im w = y

x2 + y 2 .

z 6= 0.
u p 2
x2
xy
u
= x + y2 + p
=p
,
,
2
2
x
y
x +y
x2 + y 2
v
xy
y2
v p 2
=p
= x + y2 + p
,
.
x
y
x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2
, - (2.5)
z 6= 0.
z = 0.
z = 0
z|z| 0
w(z) w(0)
= lim
= lim |z| = 0.
z0
z0
z0
z
z
lim

,
z = 0 , ( ), .
4.
f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y),
D . D u(x, y) v(x, y) - (2.5).

22

, x y
.
- (2.5) x,
y
2u 2u
+ 2 = 0.
x2
y

(2.11)

(2.5) y ,
x,
2v
2v
+
= 0.
x2
y 2

(2.12)

, u(x, y) v(x, y)
, .
4.1. ,
, .
, u(x, y) v(x, y) - (2.5).
4.2. ,
- (2.5) .
,

.
. , , , ,
, , ..
x y , .. , .
, , ,
.
23

5.
, , , .
, u(x, y) v(x, y) , .. (2.11), (2.12).
5.1. , u = x2 y 2 + 2x
.
, u(x, y) ,
.. (2.11). .
- (2.5)
v
u
=
= 2y
x
y

v
u
=
= 2x + 2.
y
x

x,
Z
v = 2y dx = 2xy + (y),
(y) y .
(y)
y - (2.5):
v
= 2x + 0 (y) = 2x + 2,
y

0 (y) = 2

(y) = 2y + C,

C .
, , u(x, y)
v = 2xy + 2y + C .
w = u + iv = x2 y 2 + 2x + i(2xy + 2y + C) = (x2 + 2xyi y 2 )+
+(2x + 2yi) + Ci = (x + yi)2 + 2(x + yi) + Ci = z 2 + 2z + Ci.

24

6.
1. . .
2. .
3.
.
4. .
5. .
.
6. . .
7. .

25

3.

1.
f (z), z0 ,
f 0 (z0 ) 6= 0. arg f 0 (z0 )
, z0
w = f (z) w . |f 0 (z0 )| z0 w . |f 0 (z0 )| > 1 ,
, z0 . |f 0 (z0 )| < 1 ,
, |f 0 (z0 )| = 1 z0 .
2.
w = f (z) z0 ( D ) z w0 = f (z0 ) ( G ) w .
z w .
w = f (z) , z0 XOY w0 U OV . w0
z0 , z0 w0 .
z w = f (z) w . ,
.
z w .
2.1.
z , , ,
().
,
. , , , ,
.
26

: z w . , z0 w0 .
z w .

. 3.1.
|f (z0 )|
|f 0 (z0 )| > 1 (
|f 0 (z0 )| < 1) w = f (z).
Arg f 0 (z0 ) , w = f (z)
l () z0 , w = f (z)
L () w0 .
() .

w = f 0 (z0 )z + o(|z|),
0

o(|z|)
|z|.

|w|
= |f 0 (z0 )|,
lim
z0 |z|
,
|w|
( )
|z|

27

|f 0 (z0 )|. . 3.1 .


Arg f 0 (z0 ) = lim Arg
z0

w
= lim Arg w lim Arg z.
z0
z0
z

, w0 z0 . z0
()
w = f (z). ( . 3.1
).
f 0 (z0 ) 6= 0 ( 0 + i0 ).
2.2. z0
w0 ,
w = f (z) z0
, (.. ) I (
, II ).
, .
( ) .
(18261866 .)
(1851 .)
.
2.1. D
z , ,

|w| < 1 w .
w = f (z) , .
.
2.2. w = f (z), D (
)
|w| < 1 ,
:
w0 = f (z0 ) arg f 0 (z0 ) = ,
28

z0 D , w0 , .

:
) f (z) D ;
) f (z), D G .
f (z) . , w .
, w .
. () , .
, :
f (z) = az + b ;
- f (z) =
f (z) =

az + b
;
cz + d

1
;
z

f (z) = z n ;
f (z) = ez ;
f (z) =

z;

f (z) =

1
2


z+


1
;
z

f (z) = Ln z ;
f (z) = cos z ..

29

.
.
:
, ( ) ,
. G , f (z) D ,
, D .

: D
G , .
D .
3.
,
w = az + b,
a b (a 6= 0), .
( ) .
4. -
-
w=

az + b
,
cz + d

a, b, c, d (c 6= 0 ),
.
( ). , .
30

4.1. ,




z 1 + i 2

2 2
2

iz 2
.
z+i
. :
w=

1
x
2

2

1
+ y+
2

2
=

1
2

x2 + y 2 x + y = 0.


x=

1
(z + z),
2

y=

i
(z z),
2

x2 + y 2 = z z,

: 2z z (z + z) i(z z) = 0 .

. 3.2.
z z w :
z = i

1
,
wi

z = i

1
.
w
+i

v = u + 2. 1
1
zA = i wA0 = 1 + 2i,
2
2
v = u + 2 .
: v u+2 (. 3.2).

31

4.1. a = d = 0 , b = c = 1
1
- w(z) = , z
.
4.2. 1 x 1 , y 0
1
w = .
z
1
x iy
. w = u+iv = 2
.
z
x + y2
x
y
u= 2
, v= 2
.
x + y2
x + y2

. 3.3.

:

u = 1 + y 2 < 0,
x = 1,

y
y0

v=
0.
1 + y2
v
, y = .
u



v2
u 1 + 2 = 1 u2 + u + v 2 = 0.
u


u+

1
2

2

+ v2 =

1
4

u < 0, v < 0.

32

y = 0,
1 x 1

u = 1,
x
v = 0.

v = 0 u : u 1 0 < x 1
u 1 1 x < 0.

u=
> 0,

x = 1,
1 + y2

y
y0

v=
0.
1 + y2
v
, y = . u



v2
u 1 + 2 = 1 u2 u + v 2 = 0.
u
:

u

1
2

2

+ v2 =

1
4

u > 0, v < 0.

z = i w = i.
: v 0 (. 3.3):

u+

1
2

2

+ v2 =

1
4

1
2

2

+ v2 =

1
.
4

5.

w = zn
z
w c n
33

. , w 2 . ,
w = z 2 z w .
5.1.
0 x 1,

0y1

w = z 2 + z + 1 .
. :
u = x2 y 2 + x 1,
v = 2xy + y.

. 3.4.
:
(
OA :

y = 0,
0x1

u = x2 + x 1,
v = 0.

1 u 1.

(
v2

x = 1,
u=1 ,

AB :
9

0y1
0v3

(3.1)

(3.2)

.
BC CO :

1 2
v 9 ,
4

BC :

u=

CO :

u = 1 v 2 ,
34

1 v 3,

(3.3)

0 v 1.

(3.4)

1
1
z = (1 + i) w = i , 2
2
.
:
(3.1) (3.4) (. 3.4).
6.

w=

z,

(3.5)

z = wn , , w =
z = . z ,
z = 0 z = ( w = 0
w = ), n - n
z = rei ( 0 )
:
w=

r ei

arg z+2k
n

r ei

arg z
n

ei

2k
n

k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

wk w ,

k . n wk ,
k = 0, 2, . . . , n 1 , (3.5).
,
wk+1 = wk ei

2k
n .

. 3.5.
- wk (3.5) z - l (. 3.5).
z = 0 ( . 3.5),
z
z . wk
35

(..
). , l z = 0 ( . 3.5).
l z
2k ( ,
), wk

2
wk ei n = wk+1 ,

2
wk ei n = wk1 .
,
wk . , n

.
, , , . ,
z = 0 (3.5).
, n wk (3.5) D ,
,
z = 0.

. 3.6.
z z = 0
z = , , ( . 3.6)
, z = 0 .

36

n wk , k =
0, 1, . . . , n 1, ,
n z .
z

k

2
2
< arg w (k + 1) ,
n
n

k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,

w ( . 3.6, n = 6 ).
w = z n
. - wk , ,
w .

wk w = n z
z z = 0
z = , ,
0

n
z =

1
1
1
=
=
.
n
n
0
n1
(w )
nw
n z n1

, z = 0 z = ,
w = n z z
z = 0 z = .
z = 0 n .
7.

w = ez ,

z = x + iy.

w = ex (cos y + i sin y) = r(cos + i sin ),

r = ex ,
37

= y.

x = const r = const (y
), y = const = const ( x r ).
w = ez ,
z1 z2 ,
z1 z2 = 2ki, k N . 2 , ,
2k < Im z 2(k + 1).
0 < Im z < z w = ez w ,
0 Im z < 2 w
. y = 0 y = 2
= 0 = 2 , .. ,
.
< Re z < 0 , 0 < Im z < |w| < 1 , Im w > 0 , 0 < Re z < ,
0 < Im z < Im w > 0 ,
.
8.
, ,
w = Ln z = ln |z|+i Arg z = ln |z|+i(arg z +2k),

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

, w = z = 0 z = . wk w , k , , w = Ln z . Arg z .
,
Arg z 2 .
:
0 < r1 r r2 ,

< 1 2 < .


ln z = ln |z| + iarg z.
38

, (2.5). , z D . ,
, w = ln z D w .
8.1.
5
, z0 = i w0 = i.
2
. D ,
z ,
z = |z|(cos + i sin ),

|z| > 0, 0 < < 2,


w = ln |z| + i.
D 0 < v < 2 (
w = u + iv ).
w(i) =
w0 =

1
i.
2

5
5
i, w(i) + 2i = i.
2
2
w = ln |z| + i( + 2)

5
D 2 < v < 4 , w0 = i.
2
: 2 < v < 4 .
9.

w=

1
2


z+

39

1
z


.

(3.6)




1
1
w =
1 2
2
z
z ,
z = 0, +1, 1, (3.6) z , .
. z1 6= z2 ,
w1 = w2 , ..




1
1
1
1
z1 +
=
z2 +
.
2
z1
2
z2
0





1
=0
z1 z2 1
z1 z2
, z1 z2 = 1. ,
, ,
z1 z2 = 1 . ,
, |z| < 1 |z| > 1.

,
z = rei ,

w = u + iv

(3.6)
, ,




1
1
1
1
u=
r+
cos , v =
r
sin .
2
r
2
r
|z| < 1 |z| > 1.
|z| < 1 |z| = r < 1 . . ,

u2
v2
+
=1
a2
b2
40






1
1
1
1
a=
r+
, b=
r
2
r
2
r

p
c = a2 b2 = 1,
r |z| = r . ,
|z| = r , 0 < r < 1 ,
a b ,
(1, 0) (. 3.7).

. 3.7.
1
r < 0 r < 1, r
,
|z| = r
. r 0 a b .
, r 0 , , w . r 1 0
a 1 b 0 ,
[1, 1] w .
r ,

v2
u2

=1
2
cos sin2

p
c = a2 + b2 = 1.
41

, arg z =
(1, 0), ( ).
, (3.6)
|z| < 1 w
w = 1 w = 1 . , .
|z| < 1, Im z > 0 (3.6)
Im w < 0, |z| < 1 , Im z < 0
Im w > 0.
|z| > 1 |z| = r ,
1 < r < +. ,
, , (3.6) , , . r 1+0
[1, 1] u , r +
, ,
w . , (3.6) |z| > 1 w
w = 1 w = 1.
,
.

p
w = z + z2 + 1
, .
z w1 w2 , w1 w2 = 1. , z = 1 z = 1
. , , ,
, . , ,
z [1, 1] .
z
|w| < 1, |w| > 1
.
42

9.1.
z AB ,
a ( AB ),
W ,
a (. . 3.8).
.
.

. 3.8.
. -
w=

za
z+a

AB z AB
w , AB
w = 0 w = . AB ( . 3.8 ).
2a
dw
=
dz
(z + a)2
z = a , h
w = 2 arctg ( ,
a
w . 3.8 ).
.
w C W . -
W a
.
=
W +a
43

C , -
,
d
2a
=
dw
(W + a)2
W = a ,

h
= arctg . C
2
a
, ( . 3.8
).

2
W a
2
w= =
W +a
, h
2 = 2 arctg = . ,
a
w .
w ,

2
W a
za
=
.
W +a
z+a

1
z=
2

a2
W+
W

W =z+

p
z 2 a2 .

z(W ) C 0 , C W = a,
, AB B (z = a)
.
.
W (z) = z+ z 2 a2 ,
C 0 .
a, h d , , ( ). , a
, h , d = OO1 , . C 0 ,
44

,
, .
10.
10.1. ,
y = 2, x = 0, y = x,
w=

1 2
z z
2

w .

. 3.9.
. z = x + iy ,
w=

1 2
(x + 2ixy y 2 ) x iy.
2

1
u = (x2 y 2 ) x, v = xy y . ,
2
.

y = 2, 0 x 2 :

u=

x2
x 2, v = 2x 2.
2

1
(v + 2) 2 v 2 ,
2
1
v
u = (v 2 + 4v + 4) 2 1
8
2
1 2 5
u = v . y = 2.
8
2

x =

45

x = 0, 0 y 2 :

u=

y2
, v = y.
2

1
, u = v 2 2 v 0 . x = 0
2
.

y = x, 0 x 2 :

u = x, v = x2 x v = u2 + u.

Ov .
, .
3
13
z = 1+ i, w = , .
2
8
: 3.9.
10.2. z1 = 0
z2 = i (. 3.10 ) Im w > 0
( ).

. 3.10.
. = z 2
, [z1 , z2 ]
[1 , 2 ]

1 = z12 = 0 2 = z22 = 1, arg z = (
) arg = 2 .
46

2 = 1
= (. 3.10 ). = +1

2 = 0
= (. 3.10 ).
W = w ,
Im w > 0 (. 3.10 ).
,
p

W = w = + 1 = z 2 + 1.
, , , [z1 , z2 ].
: W = z 2 + 1.
10.3. 1 < Re z < 2 (. 3.11 )
Im w > 0 .

. 3.11.

47

. = z 1
(. 3.11 ).
1

= e 2 i
(. 3.11 ). =
0 < Im < 1 (. 3.11 ). , w = e 0 < Im < (. 3.11 ).
,
w = e = e = ei = ei(z1) .
: w = ei(z1) .
10.4.
0 < Im z < < Re z 0 , Im z =
2
(. 3.12 ) 0 < Im w < ( ).

. 3.12.
. = ez
Im > 0,

0 || 1 , arg =
2
48


1 (. 3.12 ).
=
2 + 1 Im > 0 (. 3.12 ), (. 10.2).

0 < Im w < (. 3.12 ).
,
w = ln = ln
: w =

p
p
1
2 + 1 = ln e2z + 1 = ln(e2z + 1).
2

1
ln(e2z + 1).
2

11.
1.
.
2. : .
3. - .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .

49

4.

1.

D z
w = f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
l - z0 zn , D .
l , .. . l ,
( zn = z0 ). l n z0 zn
z1 , . . . , zn1 , zk = xk + iyk ( 4.1).
zk zk1 =
= zk = xk + iyk ,
xk = xk xk1 , yk =
= yk yk1 k = 1, . . . , n
(zk ,
zk1
zk , |zk |
, .. , k -
).

. 4.1.
(zk1 , zk ) k = k + ik

n
X

f (k )zk =

k=1

n
X


u(k , k )xk v(k , k )yk +

k=1

+i

n
X


v(k , k )xk + u(k , k )yk .

k=1

50

max |zk | |zk |.


, max |zk | 0 ( n ) u(x, y) v(x, y)
f (z)
- l , l ,
k .

Z
Z
u(x, y) dx v(x, y) dy
v(x, y) dx + u(x, y) dy.
l

, max |zk | 0 , zk , k .
f (z)
l
Z
Z
Z
f (z) dz = u dx v dy + i v dx + u dy,
l

.. .
l : z(t) = x(t) + iy(t),
t1 < t < t2
Zt2

Z
f (z) dz =
l


f z(t) z 0 (t) dt.

t1

, ,
.
2. 1
, .
1 . . . . // . . 1.
, , 2005, . 2527.

51

2.1. ( )
D f (z) ,
l , D , f (z) l :
I
f (z) dz = 0.
(4.1)
l

, :

Z
ZZ 
Q P
P (x, y) dx + Q(x, y) dy =

dxdy,
(4.2)
x
y
G

G ( ) l .
f (z) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y)
-:
Z
Z
I
f (z) dz = (u dx v dy) + i (v dx + u dy) =
l

ZZ 
=

v
u

x y

ZZ 
dxdy + i

u v

x y


dxdy.

- (2.5) , ..
I
f (z) dz = 0.
l

f (z)
, ( ). ,
,
.. , .
, D .
52

2.2. f (z)
D ,
L,
l1 , . . . , ln
f (z) D .
I
f (z) dz = 0,
C

C = L +

n
P

lj -

j=1

D , L l1 , . . . , ln ,
C (.. ,
D ).
2.1
. f (z)
D ,
.
3.
3.1.
Zz
F (z) =

f () d
z0

f (z),
F 0 (z) = f (z).
3.1. f (z)
D , f (z) ,
z1 z2 ,
53

z2 z1 , ..
-:
Zz2
f (z) dz = F (z2 ) F (z1 ).
z1

,
.
4.
f (z) D ( ) D . , f (z) D
, f (z)
:
I
1
f ()
f (z) =
d.
2i
z

, ,
, ( ).
f (z)
D D l
D . [2],
f (z) z0 D , (z
/ l ) ,
f (z) l
I
f (z)
1
dz,
(4.3)
f (z0 ) =
2i
z z0
l

l .
(4.3)
f (z), 54

. . (4.3)
2.2 , .
%
z0
, |zz0 | %
D .
(z) =

1
f (z)

2i z z0

D% , D , D% , l
% .
2.2 (z) D% ,
D% , :
I
I
(z) dz + (z) dz = 0,
%+

%+ . ,
%+ ,
I
I
(z) dz = (z) dz.
l

(z)
% 0 :
I
I
1
f (z)
1
f (z)
dz = lim
dz.
%0 2i
2i
z z0
z z0
%

55

(4.3), f (z).
I
I
1
f (z)
f (z)
1
dz f (z0 ) =
dz
2i
z z0
2i
z z0
%

f (z0 )
2i

dz
1
=
z z0
2i

f (z) f (z0 )
dz.
z z0

I
%

dz
= 2i.
z z0

f (z) z0 = () > 0 ,
|f (z) f (z0 )| < z u (z0 ) z0 .
|z z0 | < % <




1 I f (z)

f (z) f (z0 )
1



2% < 2% = .
max
dzf (z0 )


z
2i

z z0
2
z z0
2%
%
%

I
1
f (z)
dz = f (z0 )
lim
%0 2i
z z0
%

1
2i

f (z)
dz = f (z0 ).
z z0

z0 l , f (z)

l ,
z z0
l ( z z0 l
l ). z0 l
, .
(
I
f (z0 ), z0 D,
1
f (z)
f (z0 ) =
dz =
2i
z z0
0,
z0
/ D.
l

.
56

4.1.
I
ez
dz,
z(z 3)
C

3
C
2.
2
. (4.3)
f (z) =

ez
,
z

, C . ,
I
I
f (z)
2e3 i
ez
dz =
dz = 2if (3) =
.
z(z 3)
z3
3
C

5.
(4.3) f (z).
5.1. f (z)
D , D , n -

I
f (z)
n!
f (n) (z0 ) =
dz,
(4.4)
2i
(z z0 )n+1
l

l D .
.
, f (z)
.
57


f (n) (z) =

n!
2i

f ()
d.
( z)n+1

(4.5)

I
I
f ()
f ()
2i (n)
d = 2if (z),
f (z).
d =
z
( z)n+1
n!
l

5.1.
I

ez
dz,
(z i)3

C ,
i .
. f (z) = ez , C ,
I
2i 00
ez
dz =
f (i) = sin 1 + i cos 1.
(z i)3
2!
C

6.
.
6.1. f (z), , D ,
|f (z)|
D .
[7].

58


g(z) =

1
,
f (z)

,

f (z) 6= 0 D ,
f (z) .
7.
(4.5) ( 6.1) , n - .
f (z) C R
a D , .
M |f (z)| D , C . C | z| = R , ,
n - (4.5), ,


n! I
f ()
M
n!

(n)
|f (z)| =
n+1 2R

n+1
2i

( z)
2 R
C

|f (n) (z)|

n!M
.
Rn

.
.
7.1. ( ) f (z) z ,
.
. |f (z)| M
z ,
n!M
|f (n) (z)| n
R
59

n = 1
M
.
R
R , R
, , |f 0 (z)| = 0 f 0 (z) = 0 .
f (z) = const .
|f 0 (z)|

8.
8.1. f (z)
D f (z) , D , . f (z)
, D .
, 2.1.
.
9.
f1 (z) D1 . ,
D2 , D1 D12 ,
D2 f2 (z),
D12 f1 (z).
9.1.
f2 (z)
f1 (z)
D1 D2 D12
( f1 (z) f2 (z) D2
D1 D12 ).
[7],
, , ..
f1 (z) D1 D2 D12 .
D2
D1, C . 60

f1 (z)
f2 (z) , , , ;

(
f1 (z) D1 ,
f (z) =
f2 (z) D2
D , D1 D2 :
D = D1 D2 .
, , ,
( , ), . , , ,
,
( ).
10.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .

61

5.

1.
1

. .
1.1.

cn (z z0 )n = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . . + cn (z z0 )n + . . . ,

n=0

cn ( ), .
(
, ) z0 R .
R , :


cn
R = lim p1 .
R = lim
n cn+1
n n |c |
n
z0 = 0

cn z n = c0 + c1 z + c2 z 2 + . . . + cn z n + . . . .

n=0

|z| < R , .. R .
1 . . .
. . //
. . 1. , ,
2005, . 2833.

62

1.1.

zn = 1 + z + z2 + . . . + zn + . . . .

n=0

|z| < 1. , |z| q < 1 . ,


1/(1 z).
.
1.2.

X
(z 1)n
z 1 (z 1)2
=1+
+
+ ... .
n!
1!
2!
n=0




cn
= lim (n + 1) = .

R = lim
n
n cn+1
, z .
2.

f (z) =

cn (z z0 )n ,

n=0

cn =

1 (n)
f (z0 ).
n!

|z z0 | < R .
, .
: , , ,
? .

63

2.1. ( ) f (z),
|z z0 | < R ,
f (z) =

cn (z z0 )n ,

n=0

.
. f (z),
|z z0 | < R . z
.
l z0 % < R , z
l . f (z) l
. (4.3)
I
1
f ()
f (z) =
d.
2i
z
l

1

z
1
1
=

z
z0

1
.
z z0
1
z0

(5.1)

l , z ,


z z0 |z z0 |


< 1.
z0 =
%
1
z z0
1
z0


2
1
z z0
z z0
=1+
+
+ ... .
z0
z0
z z0
1
z0

64

(5.1)
1
1
z z0
(z z0 )2
=
+
+
+ ... ,
z
z0
( z0 )2
( z0 )3

(5.2)

l z ,


z z0 |z z0 |


< 1.
z0 =
%
f ()
(
2i
) l ,
Z
Z
Z
1
1
f ()
f ()
z z0
f ()
d =
d +
d + . . . .
2i
z
2i
z0
2i
( z0 )2
(5.2)

1
cn =
2i

f (n) (z0 )
f ()
d
=
,
( z0 )n+1
n!

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

f (z) = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + + cn (z z0 )n + . . . . (5.3)
, f (z) |zz0 | < R
(5.3) cn , ..
.
z0 = 0 .

:

X
z
z2
zn
zn
=1+ +
+ ... +
+ ... ;
) e =
n!
1!
2!
n!
n=0
z

65

) sin z =

(1)n

n=0

z 2n+1
z3
z5
=z
+
...
(2n + 1)!
3!
5!
+ (1)n

) cos z =

(1)n

n=0

z 2n
z2 z4
z 2n
= 1
+
+ (1)n
+... ;
(2n)!
2!
4!
(2n)!

) (1 + z)n = 1 + nz +

) ln(1 + z) =

X
n=1

z 2n+1
+ ... ;
(2n + 1)!

n(n 1) 2
z + ...
2!
n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1) k
+
z + ... ;
k!

(1)n

zn
z z2 z3
zn
=
+
+ (1)n
+... .
n
1
2
3
n

R = , ..
z , R = 1, . |z| < 1,
, 1 0 z = 0.
3.

f1 (z)

X
f1 (z) =
zn.
n=0

|z| < 1
f1 (z) =

1
.
1z

|z| < 1 : , f1 (z)


|z| < 1 .
z0 |z| < 1

P
f1 (z)
cn (z z0 )n
n=0

66

. cn
cn =

f (n) (z0 )
1
=
.
n!
(1 z0 )n+1

, |1z0 |.
,
f2 (z) =

X
(z z0 )n
(1 z0 )n+1
n=0

f1 (z)
|z z0 | < |1 z0 |.
, , f2 (z),
1
.
, f2 (z) =
1z
,
z1
|z z0 | < |1 z0 |,

X
(z z1 )n
,
(1 z1 )n+1
n=0

|z z1 | <
1
< |1 z1 | f3 (z) =
,
1z
f2 (z) f1 (z) |z z1 | < |1 z1 |
. 5.1.
. f3 (z) f1 (z) . , z1
z = 1 (. 5.1).
, f1 (z) ,
z = 1. f1 (z), ,

1
,
F (z) =
1z
67

, z = 1 .
, F (z) |z| < 1 ,
f1 (z), . , ,

, F (z)
z z = 1. F (z) . z = 1,
F (z),
. ,
.
4. . 1
, , z z0 ,
z z0 ,

an (z z0 )n = . . . +

n=

an
a1
+ ... +
+
(z z0 )n
z z0

+ a0 + a1 (z z0 ) + . . . + an (z z0 )n + . . . .

R1 < |z z0 | < R2 (
: 0 < |z z0 | < R2
z = : R1 < |z z0 | < ,
: 0 < |z z0 | < ).
an ,
an .
4.1. ( ) r < |z z0 | < R , 0 r < R < , f (z)
1

(18131854 .)

68


f (z) =

cn (z z0 )n =

n=

1
cn =
2i

cn (z z0 )n +

n=0

f ()
d,
( z0 )n+1

cn
.
(z z0 )n
n=1

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

(5.4)

(5.5)

| z0 | = %, r < % < R ,
.
.
l L r0 R0 z0 ,
r < r0 < R0 < R . 4.1 f (z) l L . (4.3)
I
I
1
f ()
1
f ()
f (z) =
d +
d
2i
z
2i
z
l

1
f (z) =
2i

f ()
1
d
z
2i

f ()
d,
z

(5.6)

z l L.
(5.6) L,


z z0 |z z0 |


< 1.
z0 = R 0

1
1
=

z
z0

X
1
(z z0 )n
=
,
( z0 )n+1
z z0
n=0
1
z0

(5.7)

L ( z ).
69

(5.6) l ,


z0
r0


z z0 = |z z0 | < 1.

1
1
=

z
z z0

X
( z0 )n
1
=
(z z0 )n+1
z0
n=0
1
z z0

(5.8)

l ( z ).
(5.7) (5.8) (5.6) ,
I

X
X
f ()
n 1
d
+
(z z0 )n1
(z z0 )
f (z) =
n+1
2i
(

z
)
0
n=0
n=0
L

1
2i

I
l

X
f ()
f ()
n 1
(z

z
)
d
=
d+
0
( z0 )n
2i
(

z0 )n+1
n=0

(5.9)

X
n=1

(z z0 )n

1
2i

f ()
d.
( z0 )n+1

f ()
n ,
( z0 )n+1
2.1 (5.5) , l L.
(5.9) (5.4), cn
(5.5).

(5.4) |z z0 | < R
f1 (z), ..
f1 (z) =

cn (z z0 )n .

n=0

. (5.4) |z z0 | > r . 70


f2 (z) =

cn
,
(z z0 )n
n=1

.
,
f (z) = f1 (z) + f2 (z)
r < |z z0 | < R .
(5.5).
4.1. (5.4)
f (z) z z0 f (z)
r < |z z0 | < R . , (5.4)) ,
, z z0 .
4.1.
f (z) =

1
(z 2)(z 3)

z , z = 2 z = 3 . |z| = 2 , |z| = 3 .
|z| < 2 , 2 < |z| < 3 |z| > 3
. 2 < |z| < 3 :
f (z) =

ck z k ,

ck =

1
2i

f ()
d,
k+1

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

|| = %, 2 < % < 3,
.
71

ck
. ,

z z0 .

f (z) =

1
1
1
=

(z 2)(z 3)
z3 z2

z :

X
1
zk
1

=
=
,
z
z3
3k+1
3 1 3
k=0

1
1
1
=
z2
z 1

2
z

1
=
z

2
1+ +
z

!
 2

X
2k1
2
+ ... =
.
z
zk
k=1

.

f (z) =

X
2k1
k=1

zk

X
zk
.
3k+1

k=0

.
4.2.
f (z) =

1
.
(z 1)(z 2)

z = 1 z = 2 , ,
1 < |z| < 2 .
, :
1
1
1
=

.
(z 1)(z 2)
z2 z1

72

1/(z 2) |z| < 2


:



1
1
1
z
z2
zn
1 X  z n

.
=
1 + + 2 + ... + n + ... =
2
2
2 2
2
2 n=0 2
z
1
2
1/(z 1) |z| > 1 1/z :



X
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
! =
=
1 + + 2 + ... + n + ... =
.
n
z1
z
z
z
z
z
1
n=1
z 1
z

f (z) =

1 X  z n X 1
1 X zn
1
=

.
2 n=0 2
zn
2 n=1 2n
zn
n=1

. , , |z| < 1
:
1
1
1
1
1
=
+
=

(z 1)(z 2)
z1 z2
1z
2

= 1 + z + z2 + . . . + zn + . . .


X
n=0

1
2

1+
1
2n+1

1
1

z
2


z
z2
zn
+ 2 + ... + n + ... =
2 2
2


zn.

0 < |z 1| < 1 (
z0 = 1) z 1 :
f (z) =

1
1
1
1
+
=

=
z1 z2
z 1 1 (z 1)
73

X
X
1

(z 1)n =
(z 1)n .
z 1 n=0
n=1

,
. , .
5. ,

.
5.1. , f (z) , f (z).
5.2. z0 f (z)
, f (z)
0 < |z z0 | < R (,
z0 ), ..
z0 .
:
;
;
.
5.3. z0
f (z) ( ),
lim f (z)
zz0

( f (z0 )).
5.1.
z0 f (z) , , (5.4) f (z)

74

z0 , ..
:

cn (z z0 )n = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + . . . + cn (z z0 )n + . . . . (5.10)

n=0

f (z) (5.10),
z 6= z0 . f (z) z0 , f (z0 ) = c0 , .
5.4. z0
f (z) ,
lim f (z) = .

zz0

5.2.
z0 f (z) , , (5.4) f (z)
z0 :

f (z) =

X
cm+1
c1
cm
+
+ ... +
+
cn (z z0 )n .
m
m1
(z z0 )
(z z0 )
z z0 n=0

m > 0 , cm 6= 0, m ,
m = 1 , .
f (z) z0 m , 1

z0 m .
f (z)
5.5. z0 m
f (z),
f (z)
f (z) =

ck (z z0 )k ,

cm 6= 0, k 1.

k=m

5.6. z0
f (z) , lim f (z) .
zz0

75

, z = 0 f (z) = e1/z ,
1

lim e z = 0,

z0

lim e z = .

z0+

5.3.
z0 f (z) ,
, (5.4)
f (z) z0
:

X
cn (z z0 )n .
f (z) =
n=

,
.

f (z) =

lim f (z) =

c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . .

zz0

. . . + cn (z z0 ) + . . .

m-

cm
c1
+ c0 +
+ ... +
(z z0 )m
z z0

+ c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . .

c0

... +

cm
c1
+ c0 +
+ ... +
m
(z z0 )
z z0

+ c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . .

6.

6.1. z = ,
.
76

6.2. z =
f (z), (5.4)

X
cn z n
(5.11)
f (z) =
n=0


lim f (z) = c0 ,

.. .
6.3. (5.11)
c0 = c1 = = cm1 = 0 , cm 6= 0 . ,
z = m f (z).
6.4. z = m f (z), (5.4)
f (z) =

cn z n ,

cm 6= 0.

n=m

,
lim f (z) = .

6.5.
f (z),
(5.4)
f (z) =

cn z n ,

n=

77

7.
1. : .
2.
.
3. z .
4. .
5. ,
. .
6. .
7.
.

78

6.

1.
.
1.1. f (z) z0 c1 (z z0 )1 (5.4) f (z) z0 . c1 6= 0 , z0 . Res f (z0 ) Res f (z).
z=z0

f (z), , , . z = z0 f (z)
Res f (z0 ) = lim f (z)(z z0 ).
zz0

1.2. f (z) z0
I
1
Res f (z) =
f (z) dz,
z=z0
2i
L

L 0 < |z z0 | < R , (L
z0 ).
f (z) (5.4) z0 :

X
f (z) =
ck (z z0 )k
k=

0 < |z z0 | < R , ck (5.5), , k = 1:


I
1
c1 =
f (z) dz,
2i
L

.. Res f (z) = c1 . ,
z=z0

79

(5.4) z z0 , z0
1

.
z z0

.
2.
2.1. 0.
2.2. z0 m 1

Res f (z) =

z=z0


1
dm1 
lim
f (z)(z z0 )m .
m1
(m 1)! zz0 dz

(6.1)

f (z)
f (z) =

g(z)
,
(z)

g(z) (z) z0
g(z0 ) 6= 0, (z) z0 (
f (z) z0 ), (6.1)
:
g(z)
g(z0 )
Res
= 0
.
z=z0 (z)
(z0 )
z0 ,
(5.4) c1 .

z = .
r 0 . f (z) z
|z| r , |z| r ,
,
f (z) =

ck z k = F1 (z) + F2 (z) =

X
k=1

80

ck z k +

X
ck
k=0

zk

F1 (z) , F2 (z) . f (z) z = :


) z = , ck = 0,
k = 1, 2, . . . , .. f (z) = F2 (z) |z| > r .
lim f (z) = c0 .

,
1
2i

I
f (z) dz = c1 ,
L

L ,
, |z| = r .
, z =
L . L
, z = . ,
, z = ,
;
) ck m, f (z) =

m
P

ck z k + F2 (z)

k=1

cm 6= 0. , ,
lim f (z) = .

I
f (z) dz =

I
ck

k=0

Z
= c1

dz X
+
ck
zk
k=1

z k dz =

dz
= 2ic1 ,
z

I
,
L

z k dz =

z k dz = 0, k 6= 1;

81

) z = ,

P
f (z) =
ck z k + F2 (z) ck ,
k=1

. - z .

I
f (z) dz =

k=

z k dz = 2ic1 .

ck
L

2.1. f (z)
I
1
f (z) dz,
Res f (z) =
z=
2i
L

L ,
, |z| > r (

P
f (z) ). , f (z) =
ck z k k=

|z| = r ,
Res f (z) = c1 .

z=

2.1. ( )
f (z) z ,
z1 , z2 , . . . , zN .
N
X
k=1

Res f (z) + Res f (z) = 0.

z=zk

z=

2.2. (
) f (z)
D , z1 , z2 , . . . , zN ,
D .
I
N
X
f () d = 2i
Res f (z),
k=1

82

z=zk

L D ,
.
.
2.1.
I
z7
I=
dz.
z 2 (z 1)(z 5i)
|zi|=2

|z i| = 2.
z1 = 0, z2 = 1
z3 = 5i. 5i .
z1 = 0 2- , z2 = 1 1- .
2.2

I = 2i Res f (z) + Res f (z) .
z=0

z=1

2-

0 !
(z 7)z 2
1
lim
=
Res f (z) =
z=0
1! z0
z 2 (z 1)(z 5i)
(z 1)(z 5i) (z 7)(2z 1 5i)
7 + 30i
=
.
(z 1)2 (z 5i)2
25

= lim

z0

Res f (z) = lim


z=1

z1

(z 7)(z 1)
6
=
.
z 2 (z 1)(z 5i)
1i

,




7 + 30i
6
24 106
I = 2i

i .
25
1i
5
25
3.

,

2.2.
83

, .

Z2
I=

F (cos , sin ) d.

(6.2)

z = ei

1
z+
,
z


 i
1 i
1
sin =
e ei =
z
,
2i
2
z
 1
1 i
cos =
e + ei =
2
2

d =

dz
iz

(6.2) . 0 2 |z| = 1 .
(6.2)


I
1
1
1 dz
I=
F z + ,z
.
i
z
z z
|z|=1

3.1.
Z2

dx
,
a + cos x

a > 1.

. eix = z . x 0
2 z |z| = 1
.
cos x =

 z2 + 1
1 ix
e + eix =
,
2
2z

dz = ieix dx = izdx,
84

dx =

dz
.
iz

dz

I=

z2 + 1
+a
2z

iz

|z|=1

!=

2
i

dz
.
z 2 + 2az + 1

|z|=1

z1 = a + a2 1, z2 = a a2 1
, |z1 | < 1 z1 |z| = 1 :
Res f (z1 ) =

:

1
1
=
.

z z2 z=z1
2 a2 1
2i
2
2

=
.
i 2 a2 1
a2 1

2
.
a2 1
Z

3.2.

tg( + i) d .
0

. z = e2i .
0 z |z| = 1 .
2i = ln z,

d =

1 dz
,
2i z

tg( + i) =

ei e1 ei e
ei(+i) ei(+i)
=
=
i(+i)
i(+i)
i (ei e1 + ei e)
i e
+e

=
i

e
z

z e2
e
z
!=
.

i (z + e2 )
e
z
+
e
z

z = 0 z = e2 .
|z| = 1 z = 0 Res f (0) = 1.

85


I
1
1
z e2 dz

= 2i 2 (1) = i.
2i2
z + e2 z
2i
|z|=1

: i.
4.
[a, b] f (x). [a, b] C ,
D . , .
f (z) 2.1. C [a, b],
.
, ,
,
.
C
4.1, 4.2. f (z) z1 , . . . , zn , .
I

f (z) dz CR

CR , [R, R] .
4.1. M (R) f (z) R M (R) 0 R ,
I
f (z) dz 0 R .
CR

86

4.2. M (R) 0 R ,
I
f (z)eimz dz 0 R , m > 0.
CR

m < 0 4.2
. .
Z
dx
4.1. I =
.
x4 + 1

.
,
1
,
z4 + 1
, , 1- 4.1.
f (z) =

zk = e

i
4 (2k+1) ,

k = 0, 1,

1- .

1
X
2
I = 2i
Res f (zk ) =
.
2
k=0

4.2.
Z
I=

cos x
dx,
x2 + a2

a > 0, > 0.

. 2-
4.2, ,
Z
I = Re I1 = Re

87

eix
dx.
x2 + a2

eiz
I1 2
, z + a2
z1 = ia, .
2.2
 iz

e


I1 = 2i Res
= ea I = ea .

2
2
z + a z=ia
a
a

5.


, ,
, , .
:
5.1. f (z)
D D z1 , z2 , . . . , zn , f (z) D ( )
2i f (z)
:
I
n
X
f (z) dz = 2i
Res f (zk ).
k=1

.
.
5.2. f (z)
z1 , z2 , . . . , zn z , ,
, :
n
X

Res f (zk ) + Res f () = 0.

k=1

88

, ,
,
I
f (z) dz = 2i Res f ().

m
, n m
,
I
f (z) dz = 2i

m
X

Res f (zk ),

k=1


I
f (z) dz = 2i

n
X

!
Res f (zk ) + Res f () .

k=m+1

.
I
5.1.

z 2 dz
.
(z 2 + 1)(z 2)

|z|=3

. i, i, 2 .
:
1
,
Res f (i) = lim (z i)f (z) =
zi
2i(2 i)
1
Res f (i) =
,
2i(2 + i)
4
Res f (2) = .
5



1
1
4
10 + 5i 10 + 5i + 40i
2i

+
= 2i
= 2i.
2i(2 i) 2i(2 + i) 5
2i(4 + 1)5

89


.
z2
!
!=
1
2
1+ 2
1
z
z

f (z) =
z3

1
z


1



2
1
1
+
.
.
.
1
+
+
.
.
.
= + ... .
2
z
z
z

Res f () = 1 2i.
: 2i.
5.2.
I

z 20 dz
.
(2z 3 + 1)2 (z 4 1)3

|z|=2


. zk = 4 1, 3 0, 5
|z| = 2. ,
I = 2i

Res f (zk ) = 2i Res f ().

k=1

4z 6

z2
4


1

1
1+ 3
2z

1
1
+ 6 ...
3
2z
4z

z 20
!2
z 12

1
1 4
z

1+

1
1
+ 8
4
z
z

2 

!3 =

3
=

z2
1

+ ... .
4
4z

1
i
Res f () = 2i Res f () = .
4
2
i
: .
2
90

6.
1. . .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .

91

. .
1. z = x + iy
p
) |z| = x2 + y 2 ,

) |z| = x + y ,
p
) |z| = x2 y 2 .
2. 1 + i
) 2, 90 ,

) 3, 45 ,

) 2, 135 .
3. z = a2 b2 + 2abi
) |z| = (a + b)2 ,
) |z| = a4 b4 4a2 b2 ,
) |z| = a2 + b2 .
4. i101 i100 i99
) i,
) i,
) 1.
5. z1 =

2 i 3 z2 = 2 + i 3

) z1 z2 = 1 ,
) z1 z2 = 5 ,
) z1 z2 = 5.

92

6. z1 = 2 + 3i z2 = 2i

) z 2 (6 4i)z + 2 + 5i = 0,
) z 2 + 2iz + 2 + 3i = 0,
) z 2 (2 + 5i)z 6 + 4i = 0 .
7. ei
) cos i sin ,
) cos i + sin i,
) cos + i sin .
8. (cos + i sin )n
) cosn + i sinn ,
) n cos + in sin ,
) cos n + i sin n .
9. |z 1| = 2 (x, y)
) (x 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 4,
) x2 + y 2 = 2,
) (x 1)2 + y 2 = 4.
10. z = x + iy Re (z 2 z)
) x2 y 2 xy ,
) x2 + y 2 x + y ,
) x2 y 2 x.
11. sin z
ez ez
) sin z =
,
2i
eiz + eiz
) sin z =
,
2
eiz eiz
) sin z =
.
2i

93

12. y = kx f (z) = iz
) k y ,
) ,
) 90 .
13.
u + iv
u
v u
v
)
=
,
= ,
x
x y
y
u
v u
v
)
= ,
=
,
x
y y
x
u
v u
v
)
=
,
= .
x
y y
x
14. |f 0 (z)|
) f (z),
) f (z),
) f (z).
15. ln z
) arg z + 2k ,
) iarg z ,
) arg z .
16. tg z
) tg z =

eiz eiz
,
(eiz + eiz )i

) tg z =

eiz + eiz
,
(eiz eiz )i

) tg z =

eiz eiz
.
(eiz + eiz )

94

17. w
w =

2iz 3

z + 4i

2i
z3
,
z 4i
2iz + 3
) w
=
,
z 4i
2iz 3
.
) w
=
z 4i
) w
=

18. - ,
w(0) = 0, w(i 1) = , w(1) = i
z
) w =
,
z+1i
z
) w =
,
z+1i
2z
) w =
.
z+1i
19. x + y = 1 w = z 2
w
1
) v = (u2 1),
2
1
) v = (u2 + 1),
2
) v = u2 1 .
20. 1 + 2i, i i
) w = (2 + i)z + 1 3i,
) w = (2 i)z + 1 3i,
) w = (2 + i)z + 1 + 3i.

95

Zi
|z| dz |z| = 1, Re z 0

21.
i

) 2i,
) 3i,
) 4i.
22.

Z1+i
z dz
0

) 2i,
) i,
) i.
23. , f (z) f (z)
L ,
I
f () d
,
) f (z) = 2i
z
L
I
n!
f () d
) f (z) =
,
2i
z
L
I
1
f () d
) f (z) =
.
2i
z
L

24.
)
)
)

X
n=1

X
n=1

1

1z

z n (1)n ,
z n ,
zn .

n=0

96

25.

X
n=0

cn

) R = lim

,
cn+1


cn+1
,

) R = lim
n
cn


cn

.
) R = lim
n cn+1
n

X
nz n
26.

2n
n=1

) 2n ,
) 2n ,
) 2.
27.

X
(z + i)n
1 + in
n=0

) |z + i| < 1,
) |z + i| < 2,
) |z + i| < 3.
Zz
28.
0

2n+1

(1)n

n=0

z
,
(2n + 1)!(2n + 1)

z 2n
,
(2n + 1)!(2n + 1)
n=0

X
n=0

(1)n

z 2n
.
(2n + 1)!(2n + 1)

97

sin z
dz
z

cn z n

29. f (z) =

sin z
(z )2

) z = ,
) z = 0 ,
) z = .
z+2

z(z 1)3
) z = 0 , z = 1 3 ,

30.

) z = 0 , z = 1 ,
) z = 0 1 , z = 1 3 .
31. ez cos

1

z

) z = ,
) z = ,
) z = .
32.
) z ,
) a1 ,
, .. a1 ,
) a1 .
1
z = 0
1 cos z
) z = 0 2 , Res f (0) = 0,

33.

) z = 0 2 , Res f (0) = 1,
) z = 0 1 , Res f (0) = 0.

98

I
34.

z5 + z3
dz
z4 + 1

|z|=1.1

) 2i,
) 3i,
) 2i.
I
35.
|z|=1.5


) 2i,
) 2i,
) 1 .

99

z3
dz z4 + 2

1. .3. . .: - .-. -, 1999. . 196.


2. .3., .. . .: - .
-, 1986. . 248.
3. .. . .: , 1984. C. 320.
4. .. . .: , 1965.
. 424.
5. .., .. . .: , 1977. . 320.
6. .. . .: , 1957. . 335.
7. .., ..
. .: , 1967. . 304.

100

1. . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. ,
. . . . . . . .
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . .
1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
101

3
3
5
7
8
9
11
13
14
14
17
20
22
24
25
26
26
26
30
30
33
35
37

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. . .
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . .
2. . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

102

38
39
45
49
50
50
51
53
54
57
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
66
68
74
76
78
79
79

2. . . . . . . . . . 80
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4. . 86
5. . . . . . . . 88
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

103