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..

(V X .)

2012

... . ..

..

(V X .) .:
,
, 2012, 202 .

ISBN 978-5-98196-027-7

,
V .
, .
- .
: .
- . -
VIII .
; - ; courtesy Gunkarta Gunawan
Kartapranata, - http://www.wikipedia.org/

ISBN 978-5-98196-027-7

.., 2012
, 2012
, 2012


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I.
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

3. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20
20
22
24
27
29
31
35
38
43
45

II. V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

III.
VIIVIII .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

1. . . .

72
3

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

.
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
IV.
VIIIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

1. 732 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

101

93

2. () 760 . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VIIIIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119
120
142
148

4. -
VIII X . . . . . . . .

154

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

167

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

169

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

201

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
. . VIIIIX . .
,
[Bellwood, 1997].
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[Cds, 1968; Munoz, 2006; Van
Naerssen, 1977; Wolters, 1967; Jordaan, Colless, 2009; Barrett Jones,
1984; 1984; , 1992].

,
V . , .
.

: . - . - VIII .
, [, 2006]. ,
, 1.

1
,
,
: , , , , , , Barbara Watson Andaya, Robert Cribb, Maria Kekki, Hermann Kulke, Waruno
Mahdi, Pierre-Yves Manguin, Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz, Adrian Vickers, and Jan Wisseman Christie. ..

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

Courtesy Robert Cribb [Cribb, 2010].


7

VX .

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2011(1), . 149].
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103; , 2000, . 270; , 2011(1), . 149].
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.: Earle, 2003, p. 7589]. , .
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1955, p. 106]. .. ,

14

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(manpower), ,
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[Van Leur, 1955, p. 106]. , , ,
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[1968, . 516545]. 3 : -,
4; .
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- ( / ) () [, 1982(1), . 2535;
1982(2), . 187226].

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(hinterland),
[Van Naerssen,
1977, p. 30; Hall, 1976, p. 61105].
3

, ; ,
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4
Nagara ; .

15

VX .

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1970- .
- . . [Tambiah, 1976].
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1972, p. 28; , 2001, . 43].
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34]. .
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132].
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[Moertono, 1968, p. 71, n. 207].
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(officials)
[Wolters, 1982, p. 1617].
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1986, p. 21, n. 75]. , ( II) 20- sakalamaal kadtuanku
17

VX .

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,
[De Casparis, 1956, p. 35; . III]. XIV .
[Pigeaud, 1960, vol. 1, p. 110; vol. 3, p. 158].
,
. ..

, [., : Hagesteijn, 1989; The
Cham of Vietnam, 2011, p. 120, 169, 178].
- / - ... . [Claessen, Skalnk (eds.),
1978, p. 640; Kathirithamby-Wells, 1990, p. 3, 4; Wisseman Christie,
1990, p. 3960; 1995, p. 237; Manguin, 2000, p. 409416; 2002, p.
7399; 2004, 282313]. . . ,
, , ,
,

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,
(reciprocity) [Claessen, Skalnk (eds.), 1978, p. 640].
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, , , ,
[Claessen, 1995, p. 444445; , 2000, .
18]. . . [Service, 1975, p.
XIII]. . - : , , ,
18

..

_____________________________________________________________________________


[Claessen, 2004, p. 74]. (kingship)
(king):
, [Claessen, 1986,
p. 113127].
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[Kulke, 1993, p. 1011; 1993, p. 176].
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III) , , . , .. .
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327; Feinman, Marcus, 1998]. ,
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1999, p. 167184; 1989, p. 329; 1991, p. 86144]. - .
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19

VX .

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[Majumdar, 1927; 1937; Chatterji, 1967[1927];
Nilakanta Sastri, 1949; , 1983, . 256269].
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, 1966, . 176; , 1966, . 374; , 1967, . 14
15; , , , 1966, . 522; , 1967, . 44;
, 1973, . 1112, 1415].
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1964(2), p. 114; 1968]. , ,
/ , [Supomo,
1995, p. 309332].
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21

VX .

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[Maspero, 18951908; , 1911; , 2008(2), .


1124].

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7.
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[Van Leur, 1955, p. 103]. , .

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[Legge, 1992, p. 2343].

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[Krom, 1926]. .. ,
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Leur, 1955, p. 103, 107]8. . , ,
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[Mabbett, 1977(2), p. 156].
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22

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VX .

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, 1960- . ..
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[Wolters, 1982, p. 55; 1999, p. 5557].
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1993(2), p. 265; . Reynolds, 1995, p. 432433]. : ,
, .
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),
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: [Sawer, 1977; Dunn, 1982; Foursov, 1997,
p. 345420].

24

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1977(1), p. 114; 1977(2), p. 143161]. . ,



[Cds, 1968, p. 14f., 46f.].
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VX .

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[Smith, 1999, p. 1
26].
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( ), [Brown, 1996, p. 198; Bellina,
Glover, 2004, p. 6888; Miksic, 2007; Munoz, 2006; OReilly, 2007].
.. 1977 ., ,
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[, 1977, . 4263]. , , , .
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26

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p. 6971]. [Hall, 1985, p. 70]. . ,
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III ., ..
. [Hall, 1985, p. 48; Pelliot, 1903, p. 254]. -,
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[Wolters, 1982;
1986, p. 15; Jacques, 1979, p. 371379; Vickery, 1998; 2003, p. 101143].

27

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Bellina,
Glover, 2004], [Smith, 1999]. ,

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1970-
1980- . , , , ,
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11.
[Wolters, 1982]. . ,
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1980- . . , .. ..
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[Kulke, 1986(12); 1990; 1993(2); , 1984; ,
1988, . 333339; 1992, . 124127]. ..
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[Wolters, 1979, p. 15]. . . .. , .:
[Reynolds, 2008, p. 25, 3238].
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), 19801990- .

29

VX .

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(nearness) [Kulke, 1990, p. 28].


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varman
[Vickery, 1998, p. 56]13. ,
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[Ray, 1991, p. 357365; Stargardt, 1990]. .
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30

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
, [Vickery, 1998, p. 54].

1980- 1990- . .
I .
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, )
[Glover, 1980, p. 1630; 1989; 1990,
p. 139184; 1992; 1996, p. 5794]. IV . ..,
,
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(Ban Don Ta Phet), [Glover, 1990; 1996].
IV . ..
(C14).
, , :
, ,
[Glover, 1989;
1996].
.
: , , .
, V . , VII .
[Bellwood, 1997].

31

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

.. 1994 .

[Ray, 1994]. .

, .. , IVIII .
.. IIIIV . ..
,
[Ray, 1994,
p. 87120, 161; . : Higham, 1989]. IV . .. ( )
,
[Ray, 1994, p. 136]14.
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[Brown, 1996, p. 185, 191].

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- [Brown, 1996, p. 187]. ,
[Brown, 1986, p. 194].
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III . ..
(Suvarabhmi)
. [Le May, 1954, p. 42].

32

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
(statements of power),
,
[Brown, 1996, p. 195].
, ,
15. , .
.
,
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, . ,
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. .-. ,
(Viu mitrs)
(reseau
marchande viuiste), [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 87123].

, ,
III . [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 104105].
- [Dalsheimer,
Manguin, 1998, p. 107; Manguin, 2000, p. 409416; 2002, p. 7399].
, : , (
) ,
( .. ) [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 109;
, 1966, . 414; 1977, . 56; . , 1995, . 9396].
15


[, 1965, . 178184; , 1965, . 185198].
16
[, 2004, . 4667].

33

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________


, bhgavata
bhakti K.5 [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p.
108; Cds, 1931, p. 18].
, , . , IV .,
,
V . .. [, 2011, . 165176;
Vogel, 1918, p. 167232]
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VVI .
[Tingley, 2009; Art &
Archaeology, 2003].
. . (
, ): IV . .. II
. .. , /
- ,
IIIV . , [Bellina, Glover, 2004, p. 7283].
. , .
(stamped
and moulded ceramics) [Bellina, Glover, 2004, p. 8081].
,
, - .
. . , ,
34

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

I . .. I . ..,
[Bellina, 2001; 2003, p.
286297].
[Bellina, Glover, 2001, p. 191215].
. . . [Stark,
2006, p. 407432]. ,
- IV . .. II . .. .
. II
IV . ..,
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,
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VIIVIII ., . VIII
[Stark, 2006, p. 411]. ,
II .,
V . ,
, [Stark, 2006, p. 413].
.
. 1997 . , ,
, [Mabbett, 1997, p. 342355, p.
343].
1977 ., .
,
, , , ,
, ,
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.
35

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
, : , , , .
(environmental circumscription) [Carneiro, 1970. p. 733738; , 2006(2), . 55
70]. , ,
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: 1)
I . .. ( ); 2)
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..; 3) -
I . .. [Mabbett,
1997, p. 347]. , I . ..II .
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[Bronson, 1977, p. 3952; , 2006, . 7375].
, /
, . .
,
:
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,
[Mabbett, 1997, p. 350].
(core
36

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and periphery) - , ..
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, (stress).
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, .

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1997, p. 350]. ,
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37

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, .
.
1999 . , IV, V .
,
[Smith, 1999, p. 126].
IV . , , .
. . -,
, ( .-. [Manguin, 1996, p. 181198]).
,
, [Smith, 1999, p. 6]. , [. : Ray, 1994, p.
2147]18.
-,
(
) ,
[Smith, 1999, p. 45]. .
-, ,
, , 18

..
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(Suvaabhmi, ) [ , 1989, . 326, 339343]. , , , (II, 28).

38

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_____________________________________________________________________________

. : ,
III . , (Chansen),
[Smith, 1999, p. 7].
: , I .,
( ,
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. ..).
(rouletted ware) , :
, (),
[Smith, 1999, p. 7]19.
, : , -2
[Manguin, Indrajaya, 2006, p. 255256,
fig. 23.12]. . ,

.
-, ,
, ,
, , V ., [Smith, 1999, p. 78]. .
, . ,
II . ..,
[Smith, 1999, p. 89]. .
, , [Smith, 1999, p. 9].
19

,
: [Earthenware in Southeast Asia, 2003].

39

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
, ,
IV . . :
[Smith, 1999, p. 1011]?20
.
. . , , [Smith,
1999, p. 11]. ,
,
, (integration) , [Smith, 1999, p. 1214]. VVII . [Smith, 1999, p. 15].
.

( ..
[1984, . 38]).
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[ ]
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40

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[] [Smith, 1999, p. 17]. , , ,


,

[Smith, 1999, p. 18].
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II . .. II . .. , -
IIIII, - IIIIV . [, , 1984; , 1984, . 285286]. -,
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[Lankton,
2003, p. 61, 69], - ,
, ,
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.-. 2006 . : IIII . ..
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V . [Munoz, 2006, p. 59].
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41

VX .

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III .
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, , [Miksic,
2007, p. XLVIIXLVIII]. ,
,
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, , , , ,
, [Miksic, 2007, p. 145].
,
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21
-, ,
221 .
[, 2002].

42

..

_____________________________________________________________________________


, [Miksic, 2007, p. 146147].

, -,
, , . , 1970- ,
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VX .

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2007; 2008],
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[Ishizava, 2003, p. 221228].

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[,
2008(1), . 510].
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( . ), (
44

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), . .

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, - , [OReilly, 2007]22.
: III, IVV .

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)
[Vickery, 1998; , 1992; , 1967].

45

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
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:
,
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[, 2001, . 250256; De
Casparis, 1956, p. 146; Cds, 1930, p. 2980].
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[Schweyer, 2006, p. 122129],
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: , .
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() : , , ,
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[Manguin, 2004, p. 282313].
(. II).

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23

: [Pollock, 2006].

46

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, .
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, VII . [Gonda, 1998 (1st ed.
1952)]. . .. ,

[, 1988, . 333339].
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,
47

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, , . ,
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,

- : ,
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( [Schlumberger et al., 1958, p. 1
48; , 2007, . 30]),
, -,
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, ).

48

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

II
V .
1.
V .
. . .
.
. 7 [Vogel, 1918, p. 167232;
Chhabra, 1965, p. 8592].
(ypa). 12 ,

( ) [Chhabra, 1947,
p. 7782; 1965, p. 101108]. , , (yajabhmi),
.
.
.
V . ..
(.
[Bhler, 1896, S. 6870; , 1990, . 181]).
:
I, II, IV, V, VI VII
, III V .

49

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[, 2006,
. 3138]1. .
I. .-. ( II . ) [Vogel,
1918, p. 212213; Chhabra, 1965, pl. 8]:
(1) rmata r-narendrasya
(2) kuugasya mahtmana
(3) putro vavarmmo vikhyta
(4) vaakartt yathumn
(5) tasya putr mahtmna
(6) trayas=traya ivgnaya
(7) ten=traym=pravara
(8) tapo-bala-damnvita
(9) r-mlavarmm rjendro
(10) yav2 bahusuvarakam
(11) tasya yajasya ypo yam
(12) dvijendrais=samprakalpita ||
: , (narendra),
[] , 3 . []
, .

, (rjendra), [] [] . (
)
.
. , , .-. . [Vogel,
1918, p. 197; Coeds, 1968, p. 52].
. [Wisseman Christie, 1995, p. 162]. . , 1

.. [, 1995, . 303304] .. .
2
iv ( i).
3
, ,
[Apte, 1997, p. 1], ,
IV [Vogel, 1918, p. 213, n. 5]. [Chhabra, 1965, p. 51; . : -, , 1985, . 158].

50

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Van Naerssen, 1977, p. 21]. .. .


, [Chhabra, 1965, p. 5051; Minattur,
1964, p. 181183], .. [Majumdar,
1963, p. 24]. .. ..
,
[, , 1971, . 223233].
10 I
(Blaka, I, 94;
Uttaraka, XXV, 89) [Chhabra, 1965, p. 108], , , , , . .

[Kern, 1917, Blz. 6263]. suvara hiraya
[Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 1236, 1299],
. . , , , - .
II. .-. ( III . ) [Vogel,
1918, p. 214; Chhabra, 1965, pl. 9]:
(1) rmato npamukhyasya
(2) rja r-mlavarmmaa
(3) dna puyatame ketre
(4) yad=dattam=vaprakevare
(5) dvijtibhyo gnikalpebhya
(6) viatir=gosahasrikam
(7) tasya puyasya ypo yam
(8) kto viprair =ihgatai[] ||
:

(dvijtibhyo), ,
.
(viprair).
. . vapra , , ; ;
[Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 920; Apte, 1997, p. 491]. .
51

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Kern, 1917, Blz. 66]. .-. , puyatame ketre ( ), ,


,
[Vogel, 1918, p.
203]. bhara i r Baprakevara kamung hyang i r Baprakevara , [Vogel, 1918, p. 206; Kern, 1917, Blz. 66; Krom, 1931,
Blz. 72]. . , , / (vapra) [Kulke,
1991, p. 4; , 1995, . 37].
, : ? .-. , [Vogel, 1918, p. 205]. , ,
- [Poerbatjaraka,
1926, Chapter V, Blz. 6282, esp. 69]. .. ,
,
[Chhabra, 1965, p. 52].
: , , , , , [Majumdar, 1963, p.
25, 28; Edwards McKinnon, 2000, p. 217240]. ,
, .-. , .
III. C .-. ( I . ) [Vogel,
1918, p. 214215; Chhabra, 1965, pl. 10]:
(1) rmad-virja-krtte
(2) rja r-mlavarmmaa puyam
(3) vantu vipramukhy
(4) ye cnye sdhava puru
(5) bahudna-jvadnam
52

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

(6) sakalpavka sabhmidna=ca


(7) tem=puyaganm
(8) ypo ya sthpito viprai ||
:
:
, (jvadna), [] .
.
IV. D .-. [Vogel, 1918, p. 215]:
(1) sagarasya yath rja
(2) samutpanno bhagratha
(3)
(4) mlavarmma
: 4 /
5 .
V. .. [Chhabra, 1965, p. 89, pl. 11]:
(1) jayatu=atiba[la]
(2) rmn=r-mlavarmma-ni[pa]
(3) yasya likhitni
(4) dnny=asmin=mahati[sthale]
(5) Jaladhenu=ghtadhe[nu]
(6) kapildnan=tath=aiva ti[ladnam]
(7) vabh=aikdaam=a[pi yo]
(8) datv vipreu rjendra[] ||
: , , ! [] , [] (rjendra)
: , ,
[] /, .
VI. B .. [Chhabra, 1965, p. 90, pl. 12]:
(1) r-mlavarmma rj
(2) yad=dattam=tilaparvvatam
4
,

60000 ,
[Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 744; Apte, 1997, p. 398].
5
[, 2000, . II, . 396].

53

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(3) sa-dpamlay srddham


(4) ypo=ya likhitas=tayo
:
/ ( )6
. [ ] .
VII. C .. [Chhabra, 1965, p. 9092,
pl. 13]:
(1) r-mlavarmma rjendra[] sama(re) jitya7 prtthi[vn]
(2) karad npat=cakre yath rj yudhihira
(3) catvriat=sahasri sa dadau vaprakevare
(4) b triat=sahasri punar=ddadau
(5) sa punar=jvadna prithagvidha
(6) kadpa dharmmtm prtthivendra[] svake pure
(7) mahtman
(8) ypo=ya sth[pito] viprair=nnn ih=[gatai] ||
: , (prthivn) , (npatn)
(karadn, ), . . (dharmtman), (prthivendra)
[] (jvadna) (:
), / /
.
, []
[].
. ,
(rjan, prthiva, narendra), (, ),

.

- [ Majumdar, 1937; 1963]. vipra dvijti [Kern, 1917, Blz.
6
7

parvata [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 609].


jitv [Chhabra, 1965, p. 91].

54

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

6065; Majumdar, 1937, p. 139; Chatterji, 1967, p. 116, 122124].


,
[Bhtlingk, T. VI, 1886, S. 103; Bhtlingk,
Roth, T. III, 1861, S. 830; Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 973].

brahman.
,
(vipramukhy III).

.
.
. ,
. , , .
/ (dna, dhenu). : I IV
. . .. ,
, [Van
Naerssen, 1977, p. 1821; De Casparis & Mabbett, 1992, p. 305]. .
: 20000 -
, , [Wisseman Christie, 1995, p. 261
262]. , .
. : (prthiva) (kara-d).
prthiva . , . prthiva (prthiva = earthly, coming from earth). Prthiva, , ,
raka. , 55

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(d) (kara) [Kulke, 1986, p. 6]. , , prthiva ,


.
I . ..
,
prthiva .
.
[e.g., Coeds, 1968; , 1958, . 29., 4445; , 1995, . 3638;
, 1992, . 1, . 3233; , , ,
. 524; , 1995, . 216; , 1984, . 30].
, . , . , .
, [Kulke, 1986, p. 56;
1990, p. 19; Wisseman Christie, 1995, p. 260262; Edwards
McKinnon et al., 1994, p. 155].
(early kingdom) [Kulke, 1991, p. 46; De Casparis, 1996, p. 52;
Munoz, 2006, p. 9596, 104105; Miksic, 2004, p. 236237; 2007,
p. 383].
, ,
[
.: , 2006]. ..

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( , ), ;
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;
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[, 2011, . 30].
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, . 56

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
.
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.. . [, 2011, . 147148]. . , - , , , [Service, 1975, p. 16].
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(vaa-kartar). , ,
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2.
V .
. ( )
424 . - [Pelliot, 1904, p. 275; Coeds, 1968, p. 54]. ,
8

,
; rjan , (.
).

57

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Legge, 1886, p.
113; 2008, 149; , 1990, . 349].
, 7 , .
( ) XIX .: 1854 .
. ,
. , V . ..
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 2; .: Dani, 1963, p. 238239; Majumdar, 1937,
vol. II, pt. 1, p. 110]. .-. 4 [Vogel, 1925,
p. 1535; . : Kern, 1917, p. 19, 129138; Chhabra, 1965, p.
9397, pl. 1418; Sarkar, 1971]. ; ,
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 1; Majumdar, 1937, vol. II, pt. 1, p. 105, n. 2].
-,
:
( ) .
().
, 1949 . ,
[Wisseman Christie, 1995, p. 257
258; Van Naerssen, 1977, p. 23, n. 50], -
( , ).
-, , . [, 2006, . 4650].
-:
(1) vikkrntasyvanipate
(2) rmata pravarmaa
(3) trumanagarendrasya
(4) vioriva padadvayam ||
: / (vikrntasya) (avanipati) ,
/ (nagara) 9 () , [] .
9
*taRum
[, 1992, . 46; Wisseman Christie, 1995, p. 258; Krom, 1931, p. 78; .:
Wessing, 2011, p. 325337]. -,

58

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. -
, , , , . ,
,
( III.270; I.29; - II.36) [,
1975, . 1938; , . 1, . 239, 2425; , 1980, . 6162;
, 1977, . 327; , 2002, . 6784].
:
(1) rmndtktajo narapatirasamo yo pur [t]rumym
nmn rpravarmm pracuraripuarabhedyavikhytavarmmo
(2) tasyedampdavimbadvayamarinagarotsdane nityadakam
bhaktnm yandripnm10 bhavati sukhakaram alyabhtam
ripnm ||
: , , () (pur) (narapati), () , ,
, . , (nagara),
(npnm) .
:
jayavilasya trume[ndra]sya ha[st]ina
[air]vatbhasya vibhtdampadadvayam ||
: []11 / (indra) .
():
[1] pur rjdhirjena guru pnabhun
[, 1958, . 45]. , ,
666669 . [, 1958, . 45; , 1995, . 180;
Coeds, 1968, p. 5354].
10
yannpnm [Chatterji, 1967, p. 130131; Sarkar, 1971, p. 9, 12, n. 64].
11
(, III, 42, 1315; 43, 3438; 216, 17;
220, 18; 221, 110; , VI, 15, 6; VII, 29, 27) [Apte, 1997, p. 124; , . 1,
. 54].

59

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

kht khytm pur[m] prpya candrabhgravam yayau ||


pravarddhamnadvviadvatsara12 rguaujas
narendradhvajabhtena [3] rmat pravarmma ||
prrabhya phlgue msi kht kamtithau
caitrauklatrayodaym dinais siddhaikaviakai[]
[4] yat atsahasrea dhanu[m] sa atena ca
dvviena nad ramy gomat nirmalodak ||
pitmahasya rjarerbbidryya ibirvanim
[5] brhmaairggosahasre prayti ktadakia13 ||
: ,
/ ,
(?) (pur),
. 22- [] [] , (narendra) , [] [ ]
[ ] 14, 21 , ,
,
. [] ,
(ibira)15 , 16 .

. , , , ( , -) [Chatterji, 1967, p. 6]. 12

vatsare (Loc. Sg.) [Sarkar, 1971, p. 6, 11, n. 29].


dakiai (Instr. Pl.) [Sarkar, 1971, p. 6, 11, n. 29].
14
,
[, 1977, . 517518].
15
ibira / , ,
, / [Bhtlingk, T. VI, 1886, S. 233].
, .. ibira [, 2004, . 57].
16
.
, (I.18.5; X.103.8).
13

60

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

(.75.6)17. , [Sarkar, 1971, p. 11, n. 42].


. , ( ), . (). 6122 , [Noorduyn, Verstappen, 1972, p. 298].
, , .
, [Bosch, 1961, p. 166].
, , ( )
: : ( . ..) ( . ..) . , ,
. ( ) [Poerbotjaraka, 1926, p. 20].
,
() , [Bosch, 1961, p. 155170; Noorduyn, Verstappen, 1972, p. 299300]. () ( )
[,
1984, . 198, . 58]. . :
[Hall, 1985, p. 107].

, [De Casparis, Mabbett, 1992, p. 305306; Wisseman Christie,
1995, p. 261]. . , ,
,
17

.. , , ()
, [, 1999, . 211, 476].

61

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________


[Hall, 1985, p. 107, 291, n. 12]. .. ,
, , ;
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, , [De Casparis, Mabbett, 1992, p. 306].
, .

. 21 . . . , [Coeds, 1968, p. 54; , 1958, . 44
45]. , ..
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[Vogel, 1925, p. 2833]. . ,
[Bosch, 1961, p. 164167]. . ..
.-. .
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( )
[Noorduyn, Verstappen, 1972, p. 298307]. [Noorduyn, Verstappen, 1972, p. 305306].
,

.
62

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_____________________________________________________________________________

,
, ,
XIX . (
- ), () [Van Naerssen, 1977, p. 28; Ng, 1979, p. 26272].
. ,

[Hall, 1985, p.
105].
X . .. [Van Naerssen, 1977, p. 25].
,
,
( ;
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).
.

[Coeds, 1968, p. 54; , 1958, . 4445; , , , 1968, . 529; , 1992, . 29; , 1995,
. 180; , 1984, . 30, 47; , 1995, . 25; , 1995, . 3839; Kulke, 1991, p. 6; Hall, 1985, p. 105].
.
, , .

(. ).

pura, - nagara,
pur ibira. pura (pur
), , , , , [Apte,
1997, p. 341; Bhtlingk, T. IV, 1883, S. 97: Burg, eine befestige
Stadt, Stadt]. ibira , .
cantonment , pur
[.: , 2004, . 57]. . , nagara (arinagara); ,
63

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
, [Kulke,
1991, p. 67].
, .
- , , , [Service, 1975, p. 16].


.
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.
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64

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
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. [Boisselier, 1959, p. 210226].
-
,
1952 ( ), 1957 1975 . [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 88]. , .
64 , 49, 10 , 17,5
8 [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 102103,
123, figs. 1516; Edwards McKinnon et al., 1994, p. 154; Boisselier,
1959, 210226; , 1984, . 221, . 1]. ,
.
VVI . [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 103; .:
, 1984, . 48].
.
(kecamatan) (kebupaten) ; 6 3' 1" , 107 20' 48" 18. 1984 1992 . [Edwards McKinnon et
al. 1994, p. 153155]. 6 ,
.
3 (CBY III) 99,6 in situ [Edwards McKinnon et al. 1994, p. 154155, fig. 6].
36 . [Edwards McKinnon et al. 1994, p. 154].
: 3,53,5 (CBY II), 4,354,45 (CBY V); .
18

http://www.maplandia.com/indonesia/jawa-barat/karawang/cibuaya/

65

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
6001200 . ,
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.
() 1984 . , 4 .
606'15"606'17"
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al., 1994, p. 148; Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 114].
: ,
, ,
; , , [Edwards McKinnon E. et al., 1994, p.
149].
1980- .
. , . , unur. : .

( V) [Manguin, Indrajaya, 2006, p. 250,
fig. 23.6; Manguin, 2010, p. 174]. ,

. .
[Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 116].
25 [Manguin, Indrajaya, 2006, p. 247]. , .-.
. VIVII ., 400 . .., VII .
19
.-. , (
), , , , [Manguin, 2004, p. 302].

66

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 115116; Manguin,


Indrajaya, 2006, p. 249250].
( V)
[Manguin, 2010, p, 176, fig. 6; Dupont, 2006, vol.
I: D. 14].
,
- .
.

,
[Manguin, 2010, p. 172]. , .-.
, ajnc=cyate
karmma, .. . ,
.
: -, 6,5 , 5,0 1,1 , , ; -,
5,02,5 , [Manguin &
Indradjaya, 2011, p. 250;
]. . ,
- ,
[Jack-Hergoualch, 1992, p. 217226].
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, . II A [Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 121, fig. 5.6]. ,
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II, , 4800
- [Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 116129]. II A
, .
800 . IIA .
:
67

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________


.
IV VI .: 330540, 390550 340540 . ..
[Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 121122].

II
[Manguin, Indradjaya, 2011, p. 127128, figs. 5.1314].
, , ,
, . , .
.
.-. . ,
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,
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VVII .; ,
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=
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69

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

III
VIIVIII .
,
VIIXIII . -
, .
1918 . , [Cds 1918, 136; , 2006; Manguin,
2008]. VIIVIII .
, .

.
VIIVIII . [De Casparis, 1956, p. 146; Cds, 1918, 1930;
Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4192].
[Takakusu, 1896; Chavannes, 1894; Wolters, 1979, p.
132; 1986, p. 142; Ferrand, 1922, p. 52104, 161162; Tibbetts,
1979; , 1996; 1999; -, 2001].
- , 671 ., 685 689 ., 689695
. . 691692 .;
[Wolters,
1986, p. 5].
[Takakusu, 1896].
, .
,
70

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
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, . .
[Chavannes, 1894]. , , ,
Mlasarvstivda-ekaatakarman, 700
703 . [Wolters, 1986, p. 5]. ,
. [Wolters, 1979, p. 132;
1986, p. 142].
,
[Manguin, 2009, p. 434484].
[,
2006, . 5796; Jordaan, Colless, 2009]. .
- . .. , ..
- [Majumdar,
1933, p. 131; 1937, p. 212213; Quaritch Wales, 1935, p. 29; 1976;
1978, p. 512]. , , .
. , I . .. 1970- .,
,
[Bronson, 1979, p. 395405]. .-.
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, - - [Manguin, 2009, p. 434484].
, , .

.
. 71

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, VII .
[Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4852]. ,
.
1.
.
9 , VII . , . ( ) 775 . VII .
[, 2001, . 39]:
1) (siddhaytra): I [Cds, 1930, p. 3337; Cds, Damais, 1992,
p. 4548; De Casparis, 1956, p. 1115]; 2)
(rketra): [Cds, 1930, p. 3844;
Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4852]; 3) , (minum sumpa): / II ( )
[De Casparis, 1956, p. 1546]; (KK),
() [Cds, 1930, p. 4550; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 5256], () [Boechari, 1979, p. 1940], / (KA) [Boechari, 1986, p. 3334], ()
[ http://history.melayuonline.com/ ]; 4) siddhaytra, , : , [De Casparis, 1956, p. 12]; 5)

[De Casparis, 1956, p. 211].
, , . ,
, , ,
[Boechari, 1979, p. 25].
72

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, , , -, : , ,
; -, , .
.

[Kulke, 1991; 1993].
:
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, [Kulke, 1993, p. 176].
.
: kadtuan, wanua, samaryda,
maala, bhmi.
. , wanua ( ) (semi-urban)
, ( ) , [Kulke, 1991,
p. 9]. samaryda wanua ;
. .
maala [Kulke, 1991, p. 9, 10].
.
bhmi , [Kulke, 1991, p. 1011].
73

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
. .
, :
35 ( ), 512
, 1319
, 2022
, 2328 , , [Kulke, 1993, p. 170].

bhmi , : a) ya wala rwijaya kaliwat manpik ya bhmi jwa tida
bhakti ka rwijaya
, (. ..
; KK, 910) [, 2001, . 252]; b) ura di
dalaa bhmi ja kadtuanku , (. . ; , 7; ,
6) [Kulke, 1993, p. 175; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 55].
. bhmi matarm,
, [Kulke, 1993, p. 175].
. .
-,
bhmi. kadtuan rwijaya
, , ,
wanua rwijaya . -, bhmi
,
, , [Monier-Williams, 1899, p.
763], .
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[, 2001, . 41, . 11; , 2001, .
252, . 2], ,
bhmi : . , ,
, 74

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
(Sacrum
Imperium Romanum Nationis Teutonicae, Heiliges Rmisches
Reich Deutscher Nation)
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England).
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: (magala), 75

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, , , ( ).

, , :
, 13: // tita hamwan wari avai kandra . kyet
nipaihumpa . an umuha ulu lawan tandrun lua makamatai tandrun
lua an hakairu mua kyet nihumpa unai tuai . umente bhakti ni
ulun haraki . unai tuai //
KK , : // tita hamwan wari avai kandra kyet ni paihumpaan namuha ulu lawan tandrun lua makamatai
tandrun lua winunu paihumpaan hakairu mua kyet haraki unai
tuai //
KA, 4: raki unai tuai //
BB: , , , .

,
.
, 35: Kmu waak=mmu rjaputra prora
bhpati senapati nyaka pratyaya hjipratyaya daanyaka
mrddhaka tuh an watak=wuru addhyk njawara1 wkaraa
kumrmtya ctabhaa adhikaraa karmma kyastha sthpaka
puhwa waiyga pratisra d kmu mars hji hulun=hji
waak=mmu ura niwunu sumpa , ,
, , , , ,
, , [4] , ,
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, , , ,
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[De Casparis, 1956, p. 3233, 3638 ]2.
1

ncavara.
.: [De Casparis, 1956, p. 1546].
prora . bhpati
. 2

76

..

_____________________________________________________________________________


, kmu waak=mmu
( , )
waak=mmu ura ( / , ).
: kita sawaakta devwata maharddhika
sannidhna maraka ya kadtuan rwijaya kita tuwi tandrun
lua waakta dewata mla ya parsumpahan parwis ,
, , , tandrun lua, , , ! [Damais, 1968, p. 546; Cds, Damais,
1992, p. 135; Boechari, 1979, p. 22; , 2001, . 252; .:
Cdes, 1930, p. 48; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 55]3.
: , , .
, . ,
. . , ,
[Hall, 1976, p. 69]. ,
. -, , , ,
, , tandrun lua,
(. ).
. -,
(wala rwijaya), , ,
, .. [De Casparis,
1956, p. 19, 37, n. 4]. , mrdhaka
, - (chief of) [De Casparis,
1956, p. 1920, 37]. , [Bhtlingk, T. V,
1884, S. 95]. amtya , , .. , ,
[, 2001, . 2324]. .. mars hji
(washermen of king),

() [Adelaar, 1992, p. 393396; .: Mahdi, 2005, p. 197].
3
tandrun lua, -, , .-. [Damais, 1968, p. 523566; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 131, 135ff.,
148] (. 3).

77

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Cds, 1930, p. 3435; 1964, p. 25; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 46;


Boechari, 1979, p. 1942; 1986, p. 3356]. .
.

, .
, 56: kadci kmu tda bhakti dy=ku niwunu
kmu sumpa tuwi mula kadci kmu drohaka waun luw ya
marwuddhi lawan atruku . athaw larya ka dtu paracaku lai
niwinu kmu sumpa .. ,
/. / , ,
, [6] dtu, , [De Casparis, 1956, p.
33, 38].
: kadci ya ura di dalaa bhmi
parwis drohaka haun samawuddhi lawan drohaka maujri drohaka niujri drohaka thu di drohaka tda ya marppda tda ya
bhakti tda ya tatwrjjawa diy ku dan di iya nigalarku sanysa
data dhawa wuata ura inan niwunu ya sumpa ..
- [] ,
(?), [, ] ,
, []
, [] , []
, [] , [] ,
,
[] [, 2001, . 250;
.: Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 5455; Boechari, 1979, p. 22; , 2003, . 269 (. .. )] 4.
: (niuj)ri droha(ka) tda ya bhakti tatwrjjawa diy ku
dan (ni)wunu ya sumpa [ ]
.
,
.
4

. , sanysa data /
(office of regent) [Mahdi, 2005, p. 193, 195].

78

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 25, 26: kadci kmu bhakti tattwrjjwa diy=ku


. tda marwuat kmu doa ini tantramla pamwalyaku nti mua
kawuatana yam sumpa niminummu ini , () , / , !
[De Casparis, 1956, p. 4546, ].
, : kadci iya bhakti tattwrjjwa diy=ku dan di ya nigalarku sanysa data nti mua
kawuatana dan gotrasantna samddha swastha niroga nirupadrava subhika mua ya wanua parwis
, ,
-, , , , , [, 2001, . 252; Cds,
1930, p. 49; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 55].
: .
: ( )5,
.
-
.
:

,
(gotrasantn), .. -. ,
,
5

684 .,
, , .. , ( )
( ) (jan marsrak dan da hya ratnatraya,
10) [Cds, 1930, p. 40; , 2003, . 268]. [Takakusu, 1896, p.
XXXIV] .

79

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

. 6- 11- (kula). 19-


: tlu mua kmu dan anakmmu winimmu santnmmu gotrammu mitrammu
, , ,
/ .
kulagotramitrasantna , / , 21- ,
: gotrammu santnammu tlu mua iya - ( ) . 5- : tlu mua ya dan
gotrasantna - (). ,
, , ,
, , , 6.
:
KK, 9: akawartta 608 di pratipada uklapaka
wulan waikhatatkla [] 608,
[,
2001, . 252; Cds, 1930, p. 49; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 56];
, 28: wulan dha (... ) [De
Casparis, 1956, p. 36]. ,
.
, ,
, . ,
,
, - ( ,
, [,
2001, . 252]).
6

, , ,
, ,
.

80

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
.
, - (. ). , : 1) , , -
(
[De Casparis, 1956; Hall K. 1976; Kulke,
1993; Wisseman Christie, 1995; , 1995]); 2) .
,
.
: , ,
.
.

: kmu
waak=mmu , waak=mmu ura /
, ;

(dtu),
(net maddsaseny) // (patibhi); ,
(yuwarja, pratiyuwarja, rjakumra), 2022
, -

81

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

7, , , ,
; VII .
[Takakusu, 1896; Chavannes, 1894; Wolters, 1986].
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
:
, ; ,
,

, , ,
[ .: Kulke, 1993, p.
161]; (rjaputra);
, ,

.
, .
, .
7

, , , , . , :
, . , , I,
, (684 . ..) ( ) [Cds, 1930, p. 3942].

82

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

?
-, kmu waak=mmu waak=mmu ura
, .
,
.
-, (
) . , , , ,
,
.
-,
( VII .)
.
: VIII IX . [Manguin, 2009, p.
458].
,
. ,
, . , , ,
, ,
( XIII .),
.
. -, , ,
, . ?
83

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, . ?

,
.
,
. , , , , ,
. ?
. , 8.
, ( )
. , ?
, ,
.
. , -, ,
[Wolters, 1967;
1970; Manguin, 2000; 2002; 2004; 2009]; -, (. ), . , .
, ,
. : ,
, , , 8


, , , sarvv (), ,
. .: [, 2006, . 18].

84

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
,
. , : ?
, ,
.
,
,
,
.
, ( )
. , (dtu)
(tuh an watak=wuru).
: ,
(senpati) (net maddsaseny) b [De Casparis, 1956, p. 67].
,
,
, ..
,
, () , .
, ,
. .
/ (, 85

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

). ,
, . .
,
. .. : , huluntuhnku, (
7, 11, 12, 14, 17 23). ,
(hulun) (tuhn), : , , ,
; [De Casparis, 1956, p. 26]. , huluntuhnku ,
.
15-
daaku daa (are fined by me with
fine) [De Casparis, 1956, p. 27, 34]. , daa
, , ,
; [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 466], .
daaku daa
.
, , .. :
682 . 20000
. . , (
..) [], [Cds, 1964, p. 25]. ..
: (?)
[. : ,
2003, . 266]. , ,
, / (dtu), orang laut [Van
Naerssen, 1977, p. 3334; Hall, 1976, p. 64].
,
86

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Takakusu,
1896, p. XXXIV].
684 .
[Cds, 1930, p. 3844; Cds, Damais, 1992, p.
4852]. ,
, I ..,
[Edwards
McKinnon, 1985, p. 136].

= , , ( ),
670673 . [Wolters, 1967, p. 214, 231].
( ) 702,
716, 728 742 ., ( ) 695 .
,
[Wolters, 1967, p. 231]. 683 ., ,
[Wolters, 1967, p. 231; Chavannes, 1894, p. 176].
,
.. :
, ,
; , ( , ,
, [Cds, 1930, p.
3940; , 2003, . 268]),
( ).
.
(hulun), : , ( , [Takakusu, 1896, p.
184]), , ,
,
.

87

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

2.
, , .
686 ., [, 2001, . 250256]. , , , .
Kota Kapur ; , [Koestoro et al., 1998, p. 63].
, 3
, ,
( ).
1994 1996 .
- .
jayasiddha
( siddhaytra) [Koestoro et al., 1998,
p. 6162].
. 27 .
5,605,60 . 0,6 [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 97; .: Koestoro et al.,
1998, p. 6972]. 13 . 5 , .
1
.
, . 16
[Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 98, 119, fig. 7]. 2 1720 [Koestoro et al.,
1998, p. 76, fig. 13; Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 98, 120, figs. 8
9]. -, .
3 [Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 99,
121, figs. 1011; Koestoro et al., 1998, p. 76, fig. 14; Manguin, 2004,
p. 305, fig. 12.16]. ,
80 .
- ,
88

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. .-.
[Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 87123].
(, , ) [. : Dupont, 1941, p. 233254; Dupont, 2006, Vol. II, p. 87, pl. 320
322; OConnor, 1972].

, 1930- . ; .
.-. ,

(Tin Thun) [Dalsheimer, Manguin,
1998, p. 99, 122, figs. 1213]9. : , ;
[Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p.
99100, 122, fig. 14].
- 2,8 , [Manguin, 2009, p. 439441, fig. 19-2].
, VI .
,
IIIV .
[Manguin, 2009, p. 439].
. .-. ,
,
[Dalsheimer, Manguin, 1998, p. 101]. IX .
. ,
9

, : [Dalsheimer, Manguin,
1998, p. 111].

89

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
[Manguin, 2004, 304307].
, IVV . :

(
) [Manguin, 2009, p. 438445, fig. 19-3].
;
30 .
220440 . ,
(boat timber) ,
[Manguin, 2009, p. 439]. ,
, , ( ); , -
.
/ ( ).

/
- .
, , (581618 .) [Manguin, 2009, p. 441, 443]. , . ,
,
.


VVII ., . , , ,
.
, ,
800 . .. [Manguin, 2009, p. 448].
90

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ,
,
230
,
[Cds, 1930, p. 45, pl. V; Manguin, 2009, p. 448]. ;
VIIVIII . [Manguin, 2009,
p. 449452, figs. 19.419.6].
, ,
.



.

[Manguin, 2009, 453454]. 1980
. [Manguin, 2009, p. 454, 456,
fig. 19.8]. 1998
1999 . 7,6 2, , , , [Manguin, 2009, p. 454, 457, fig. 19.9].

, .
[Manguin, 2009, p.
454]. .-. 1993 .
. 1997 .
. , , ,
.
XIXIV .
,
.
IX .
, , 91

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Manguin, 2009, p. 458459]. 80


, . 15
.
, .
.
, , .-. ,
[Manguin, 2009, p. 461]. , ,
.
- IXX .,
- XI . [Manguin, 2009, p. 461]. IX .
. . .-.
,
VII . IXX . [Manguin, 2009, p. 462].
:

, .
:
V .,
() , VII . , . 10 ,
10

-
(III .) (VVI .) [Wolters, 1967, p. 5557, 211212; Miksic,
2004, p. 238], [Jordaan,
Colless, 2009, p. 221; Colless, 1977, p. 185196]. (
) , 502 .
. . -

92

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

V VI . . ,
,
[, 2010, . 192193]. .
3. 11
. ,
, () .
, , . ,
,
-

441, 455, 502, 518, 520, 560, 563 . [Wolters, 1967, p. 164
165]. , 455 . (Che-po-lona-lien-to),
[Ferrand, 1919, p. 238]. , , ,
r shili,
.
(Tchou Lieu-to) . 502 .
(Kiu-tan-sieou-pa-to-lo),
,
(Pi-ye-pa-mo) ?
-varman, -. (Pi-yuan-pa-mo)
[Ferrand, 1919, p. 239]. , ,
VI . .
. , ,
: -
- (, , , .).
11

[, 2010, . 190199].

93

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

/,
.
, , .
(minum sumpa),
(punta hyiang),
(tandrun lua) / (tantramla), .
.
(minum sumpa)
(. ). 21- : /,
(sumpa niminummu ini) [De Casparis, 1956, p. 35].
, , , . 12-
(ptra daan dara) [De Casparis, 1956 p. 34].
. , (niwunu kmu sumpa).
,
, ,
. , .

: ([pra]j ini muara ya
umagap) [De Casparis, 1956 p. 45]. , , , .
(punta hiyang) 682 . 684 . :
, / (dapunta hiyang nyik di samwau maalap siddhaytra) [Cds 1930, p. 34, pl.
II; Cds, 1964, p. 25]. siddhaytra :

[Cds 1930, p. 79; Hall, 1976, p. 84; Chhabra,
94

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

1965, p. 2425]. . ! ! 606- ,


, ,
( ) ( ) (?) .
(Swasti r akawartta 606 ding dwitya uklapaka wulan caitra
sna tatkla parlak rketra ini niparwuat (2) parwa punta
hiyang r jayanaa ini pranidhna punta hiyang) [Cds 1930, p.
3940, pl. III; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4950, pl. VI]. . : Punta Hiyang [Mahdi, 2005, p. 190].
*pu, ,
, empu
Pu [, 1992, . 78].
,
, [Sarkar, 1971, p.
172173, 178179]. , dapunta selendra [Boehari,
1966, 241245]. hiyang , ..
[, 1992, . 78]. .
, [Cds 1930, p.
80; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 84].
yang hiyang.
.


[Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4950].
tandrun lua
, , - ,
. ,
: tita hamwan wari awai kandra . kyet nipaihumpa . an umuha ulu lawan tandrun lua makamatai tandrun lua an hakairu mua kyet nihumpa
unai tuai . umente bhakti ni ulun haraki . unai tuai [De Casparis,
95

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

1956, p. 32]. , : tita hamwan wari awai kandra kyet ni paihumpaan namuha ulu lawan tandrun lua makamatai tandrun lua winunu paihumpaan hakairu mua kyet haraki unai tuai [Boechari,
1979, p. 38]. , , tandrun lua .
, , ()
: , , , , tandrun lua, , , ! (. ).
, tandrun lua
,
. , ()
. Lua, -, , luah/lwah [Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 131].
lwar/lwa [Cds, Damais, 1992, p.
131]. I
taang lwa [Sarkar, 1972, p. 69, 77 (B,18
19)]. tandrun . , tandrun lua
[Damais 1968, p. 523566; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 131, 135ff.,
148]. , tandrun lua
VII . .
(tantramla)
25-26- : , () , /
(. ).
tantra , .
.
(.
96

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

1).
.

(wala ya manpik) ,
(wala ya niwawa di samaryyda) [De Casparis, 1956, p.
36]. ,
( ) 671 685 . [Wolters, 1986, p.
1920; Wolters, 1967, p. 241; Takakusu, 1896, p. XXX, XXXIV, 10;
Chavannes, 1894, p. 119].
,
, . ,
(dan tawad talga sawaka ya
wuatku )
[Cds, 1930, p. 39; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4950].
.
, .
dtu .
dtu dtu,
[Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 5456]. bhpati 775 .
, , , -, [Nilakanta Sastri, 1949,
p. 120; De Casparis, 1956, 37]. : npa,
npati indrarj, smantarja smantanpa
[Nilakanta Sastri, 1949, p. 120; Cds, Damais, p. 103111].
dtu . ,
, , : , ,
-, , , , , (kadci
iya bhakti tattwrjjwa diy=ku dan di ya nigalarku sanysa data nti mua kawuatana dan gotrasantna samddha svastha
97

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

niroga nirupadrawa subhika mua ya wanua parwis) [, 2001, . 252; Cds, 1930, p. 49; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 55].
, .
,
, .. [Wolters, 1986, p. 26; Miksic, 1989, p. 8]. , , .
.
:
() (anukla ya graha nakatra parwis diya, 7)
[Cds, 1930, p. 39; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 4950]. , ,
, :
, ,
,
:
, , [Cds,
1930, p. 34, 39, 48; De Casparis, 1956, p. 1415]. ,
, , ,
. waidika,
.. , ,
[De Casparis, 1956, p. 33 30, 40]. , , ,
vid
-ika. , . ,
, , .
(. ),
. .
, ,
,
. 98

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. VII . . , , . ,
. .

99

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

IV
VIIIX .

VIII .
732 . VIII
X . , VIII IX . [Cds, 1968; ,
1992; , 1995; , 2004].

. 928 .
,
.
. ( sawa).
wanua . (kraton), raka ratu
[ .: Barrett Jones, 1984; Wisseman Christie, 1983; 1985;
1992; 2007; , 1992].
.. .. , , ,
, VIII ., [,
, 1981, . 293]. , (),
[, , 1981, . 293].

[, , 1981, . 295].
..
:
100

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, .

, ,
,
.
,
. , ,
, ..

, , ,
, , , ..

.
, , [, 1979(1), . 2829].
. VIII . . , ; , III 908 .: .
( ) 775 .
.
1. 732 .
.
1870- . ,
.
110 78 . 101

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[, 1990, c. 181]
. 25 , 12
, ,
. [Sarkar, 1971, p. 1524, 3; Kern, 1917, Blz. 115128;
Chatterji, 1967, p. 134141; Chhabra, 1965, p. 4548; Sarkar, 1971,
p. 1718].
[, 2010, . 3445]. 1:
[1] kendre tigate rutndriyarasairagkte vatsare
vrendau dhavala trayodaitithau bhadrottare krttike
[2] lagne kumbhamaye sthiravidite prtihipatparvvate
linga lakaalakitan narapatirsajayantaye || (1)
[3] gagottuataragarajitajamaulnducmai
rbhsvatbhtivibhtidehavikasanngendrahradyuti
[4] rmatsvjalikoakomalakarairdevaistu ya styate
sa reyo bhavat bhavo bhavatamassryyo dadtvadbhutam || (2)
[5] bhaktiprahvairmunndrairabhinutamasakt svargganirvvahetorddevairlekharabhdyairavanatamakuaicumvita a[6]padbhai
agulytmrapatra nakhakiraalasatkesarrajitnta
deyt a vatamvastrinayanacara[7]ninditmbhojayugmam || (3)
aivaryytiayodbhavtsumahatmapyadhbhut(n n)idhistygaikntaratastanoti[8]satata yo vismaya yoginm
yo bhistanubhirjagatkaruay puti (na svrtha)to
bhteaaikhaabh[9]itajaassa tryamvaka ptu va || (4)
vibhraddhemavapussvadehadahanajvl ivodyajja
vedastambhasuba[10]ddhalokasamayo dharmmrthakmodbhava
devairvvanditapdapakajayugo yogvaro yoginm
mnyo loka[11]gururddadtu bhavat siddhi svayambhrvvibhu
|| (5)
ngendrotphaaratnabhittipatit dvtmavimbariyam
sabhr[12]bhagakakay kupitay nna()riy vkita
yo yogrualocanotpaladalaetembuayyta[13]le
trrthantridaai(s)stutassa bhavatndeyt riya rpati || (6)
1

,
, ( daa)
.

102

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

sddvpavara yavkhyamatulan dh(ny)[14]divjdhikam


sampannai - kanakkaraistadamarai mantrdinoprjita
rmatkujarakujadeanihi(ta ga)[15]gditrthvtam
sthnandivyatama ivya jagataambhostu yatrdbhutam || (7)
tasmindvpe yavkhye purua(pada)[16]mahlakyabhte praaste
rjogrodagrajanm prathitapthuyassmadnena samyak
st sa(rvva pra)[17]jnjanaka iva iorjanmato vatsalatvt
sannkhyassannatrirmmanuriva sucirampti dharmmea p()thv(m)
|| (8)
[18]evagate samanusati rjyalakmm
sannhvayenvayavidhau samattakle
svargge s(ukha phala)ku(lo)[19]paccitamprayte
bhindajagadbhramati okavadantham || (9)
jvalajjvalanavidravatkanakagauravara (dyuti)
(b)[20]hadbhujanitamvatugatamamrddhagannata
bhuvisthitakulcalakitidharoccpdocchraya
(prabhta)[21]guasampadodbhavati yastato meruvat || (10)
rmnyo mnanyo vudhajananikaraistraskmrtha(ved)
(r)[22]j auryydiguyo raghuriva vijjitnekas(mantaca)kra
rj rsajaykhyo raviriva ya(as di)[23]gvidikkhytalakm
ssnussannhanmnassvasura(savaiva ny)yatasti rjyam || (11)
yasmichsa(ti sga)[24]rormmiraas ailastanmmedin
ete rjapathe (jano na)cakitacorairna cnyairbhayai
krtty(hyairalama)[25] rjjitca satanandharmmrthakm narai
nna roditi roditti sa kalirnnsyaga (cihnynya) bhu() || (12)
: (1) ,
, (654), , , 13-
, [] ,
, , , , (anti)
(narapati) , 2.
2

, rutndriyarasa, ruti ( ), ndriya (


), rasa ( ), , , , [De Casparis, 1978, p. 2829; , 1972, . 8587]. , 78 . ..

103

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(2) , (.. ), [] , , [ ] 3,
, ()
4, ,
!
(3) (prabhu),
,
(lekharabha), 5 (nirva),
, - , []
(nakha) -, - (.. )6
!
(4) , , , ,
,
, []
, [] (abbhis tanubhir)7 / , !
. 654- 732 . .. krttika . bhadr 2-, 7- 12- [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 745]. .-. 6 732 . [Damais, 1955, p. 204].
3
, ,
, , , [, . II, c. 643].
4
Ajalikoa (ajali + koa) , ;
, .
5
1) . , [Bhtlingk,
T. VII, 1889, S. 239]; 2) ..
, , .
[, 2000, . II, c. 419420].
6
[, 2000, . II, . 643; , 1977, . 333].
7
, ( )
, , [Sarkar, 1971, p. 23, n. 33;
Chatterji, 1967, p. 139; .: Klidsa, 2001, p. 5, 138 (benediction)].

104

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

(5) 8
, , (dharmmrthakmodbhava)9, ,
, [] , , [] , , [] ,
[] - , /
(siddhi)!
(6) 10,
(.. 11),
-
[] 12, , - , , , !
(7)
, , /,
13. [-

. , , [Sarkar,
1971, p. 19; Kern, 1917, Blz. 121; Chatterji, 1967, p. 139]. . : svayabhu , svayabh
; ; ; ; ; [Bhtlingk, T. VII, 1889, S. 236]. .. , () [, . I, 2000, . 185]. ,
(ja) -
. . , , .
9
: , (religion, worldly prosperity and desire) [Sarkar, 1971, p. 19; Chatterji, 1967, p. 139].
10
rpati
, .. [Kern, 1917, Blz. 122 (de gemaal van r); Chatterji, 1967, p.
139 (the lord of r); Sarkar, 1971, p. 20 (id.)].
11
Tridaa , 33
[Bhtlingk, T. III, 1882, S. 50; , . I, . 536; , 1977, . 66].
12
, [, . II, 2000, . 35].
13
: . .. [Chatterji, 1933, p. 29; 1967, p. 139]. dhnya , , , li, aika, vrhi [Monier-

105

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

] [], [] , ,
(kujarakujadea)14,
, , [ ] ()15 .
(8) , , -

Williams, 1899, p. 514; Apte, 1997, p. 271].


. [Braddell, 1989, p. 258259].
14
kujarakuja, . [Kern, 1917, Blz. 122; Krom, 1931, Blz. 124; Chatterji,
1967, p. 135, 139140]. , ,
, , ,
, kujarakuja
[Chatterji, 1967, p. 8; Krom, 1931, Blz. 125]. . ,
kujarakuja , , ,
[Cds, 1968, p. 88; Chatterji, 1967, p. 135, n. 4]. ..
(Elephant-Enclosure Country)
[Van der Meulen, 1979, p. 17]. : Kujarakujadea
. , , , . kujarakuja, , ,
, .

,
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 23, n. 38]. .
dea: rjya, dea, [Kulke, 1991, p. 13]. ,
dea , , [Bhtlingk, T. III,
1882, S. 120]. .. , I ..
(dea,
dea , . . desa ) ( , , dea
) ( Kayu ra Hiwang, 901 .,
. 6) [, 1992, . 138]. ,
.
15
.. [,
2000, . II, . 643].

106

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

16 , ( ; sannatrir),
(smadnena)17; [] , , [ ] (dharmmea).
(9) , , []
/ / (rjyalakmm)18, , ( ), , ;
(vad). : , , ,
, , ; .19
16

. ,
(sanna sad) [Cds, 1968, p. 87].
17
sman ,
,
(VII.107), .. .. . . : ; ; / (
) [ , 1992, . 136; Bhtlingk, T. VII, 1889, S.
116].
18
, - . , , .. ..
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 20; Chatterji, 1967, p. 140].
[Kern, 1917, Blz. 122 de Fortuin der koninklijke].
19
9- . -,
.
. rjyalakmm
, sukha phalakulopaccitam. , : samanusati, prayte.
: () , () ,
, , ( ). ()
, ( ) , [Sarkar
1971, p. 20].
. -,

107

VX .

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(10) [], [ . ..], () ,


[] , , , , , .
(11)
, , ,
, ,
20, ,
(. ) , (svasura)21 22,
/ .
: (vad
) ,
/ (rjyalakmm)
. -, antham ,
. -, , -, , .
20
smanta ;
(VI.1.3; VII.7.18, 29) [, , 1984, . 152; Gopal, 1963, p. 2137]. . , , ,
. :
, ,
;
(noble), .
vijitnekasmantacakra (many circles of
feudal lords) [Sarkar 1971, p. 21]. :
(circle of many feudatories) [Chatterji, 1967, p. 140].
.
[Kulke, 1991, p. 13, n. 39].
21
: , ,
, .
, , , [Sarkar 1971, p. 21;
Chatterji, 1967, p. 140; Kern, 1917, Blz. 123 .van zijne zuster].
svas ( .. gua svasar/svasara) [,
1996, . 765].
svasura [, 1996, . 859]; , ,

108

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

(12) - -, ,
(. )
,
(dharmmrthakma); , 23
, , , .
.
. narapati rjan. (rjya)
.
, ( ) [,
1996]. ,
,
.
, . , . , . . (

) [Carneiro, 1970, p. 733738; , 2006(2), . 55
70; , 2000, . 137154; Marcus, Flannery, 1996; ,
1948].
, , , .
22
, , ,
. .
, :
, ( 717 .). I ,
[Sarkar, 1972, p. 68, 75; Poerbatjaraka, 1920, Blz.
403416].
23
kali ,
( ), /, : (kl) [, . I, 2000,
. 615; Bhtlingk, T. II, 1881, S. 34 ( , );
Chatterji, 1967, p. 141].

109

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

: , , ,
. , -

.
, (16- : smadnena
samyak st). , [,
2006(1), c. 211228].
.. ,
, 9-
[Van der Meulen, 1979, p. 18],
, .
( ), .
,
: 10-
, ( ).
.. ?
, .
, ,
, ,
, . , , , , VIIVIII [Wolters,
1967; Tibbetts, 1979]. -.
, 7- .
, ,
, . ,
( ), . ,
110

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. .
, , . ,
, ,
.
.. .
, [Sarkar,
1971, p. 48(XV); Van Naerssen, 1977, p. 46; , 1984, .
57; , 2004, . 3132].
-
I (B, 8; 907 .): , () : ,
(kamung rahyang ta rumuhun
rakai matarm sang ratu sajaya r mahrja rakai Panangkaran)
(. .. ) [, 1992, . 79; Sarkar, 1972, p. 68,
75]. I rakai matarm sang
ratu
: narapati rjan. I
, ,
. sang [, 1992,
. 95]. Ratu
[, 1992, . 79; Damais, 1949, p. 1820; Hall,
1985, p. 115, 132; .: Van Naerssen, 1977, p. 47, n. 100; De Casparis, 1956, p. 212, 218]. raka, .. , ratu ,
;
[, 1992, . 79].
,
, .
-, .
, , ,
. (788 .)
111

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Sarkar, 1971, p. 3538; . ]. -,


. ,
. , . , . .
, - ,
[Anderson, 1972, p. 2526]. .
. , ,
: [Majumdar, 1937,
p. 233].
1983 . III [Wisseman
Christie, 2001, p. 2555; Jordaan, 1999, p. 2920; Sarkar, 1971, p.
178180].
I: ,
, rahyangta ri Mang.
, Mang [Jordaan, 1999, p. 3031]. rahyangta [, 1992, . 98, 79; , 2004, . 54].
rahyangta i Mdang ( ) ( , ). (
rahyangta ri Mang III) ,
( . ) , .
.. , ,
[De Casparis, 1956, p. 292, n. 50].
, 716717 . [Damais, 1951,

112

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

p. 4263]24,
746 . [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 30]. :

. sajaya-vaa ..
(stamsticher
vaakartar) [Stutterheim, 1927, Blz. 190].
, (- , -,
), , ,
, , .. , [, 1992, . 79].
XVI . ,
, ()
[Poerbatjaraka, 1920, Blz. 403416; Majumdar, 1937, p. 230; Chatterji, 1967, p. 9]. , : [Krom, 1931,
Blz. 126; Cds, 1968, p. 88; Chatterji, 1967, p. 9; .: Van der
Meulen, 1979, p. 27; Mahdi, 2008, p. 111143].
, .
, , ,
.
.
2. () 760 .

.
1904 . , -
( ) .
24

.-.
[Sarkar, 1972, p. 123134,
138142]. . , , ( ) [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 32].

113

VX .

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, ,
1923 . - ( ). 110 .
26 . , .
, .
.,. .. [Bosch, 1916, Blz.
410444; 1924, Blz. 225291; Sarkar, 1971, p. 2627, 4].
[,
2006, . 110116; 2008, . 2443].
:
[1] (1) svasti akavartta 682
[2] st narapati dhmn devasiha pra[3] tpavn yena gupt() pur bhti ptikeva[4] rapvit || (2) limva api tanaya tasya gajayna
[5] iti smta raraka svvargate tte pra kjuruham mahn ||
[6] (3) limvasya duhit jaje pradaputrasya bhpate utteja[7] n iti mahi jananyasya dhmata || (4) nandana kalaa[8] je bhagavati agastye bhakta dvijtihitakd gajaynan(m)
[9] paurai sanyakagaai samakrayat tad ramya maha[10] ribhavana valahjiriya || (5) prvvai kt tu
suradrumay()
[11] samkya krrtipriya kalasajapratimm manasvi j[12] pya ilpinamaram sa ca drghadar kadbhutopalama[13] y npati cakra || (6) rjgastya akbde nayanavasu
[14] rase mrggare ca mse rdra()ke ukravre pratipa[15] dadivase pakasandhau dhruve tvigbhi vedavidbhi yativara
[16] sahitai sthpakdyai sahorai karmajai kumbhalagne
sudha[17] matimat sthpita kumbhayoni || (7) ketra gva suput
mahia[18] gaayut dsadspurog datt rj maharipravaracaruha[19] vissnnasamvarddhandi vyprrtha dvijnm bhavanamapi
vhat
114

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[20] danturam ca adbhuta ca virambhya atithn yavayavi[21] kaayycchdanai suprayuktam || (8) ye bndhav npasut
ca
[22] samantrimukhy dattau npasya yadi te pratikulacitt nsti[23] kyadoakuil naraka pateyu na amutra ceha ca gatim
[24] param labhante || (9) vay npasya rucit yadi
dattivddhau stikya[25] uddhamataya ktaviprapj dndyapuyayajanddhyayan[26] dil rakantu rjya(m) atula npati yath evam || [Sarkar,
1971, p. 2627].
: (1) ! 682- 25. (narapati) . (pur), 26, (
).
(2) .
.
(3) () (bhpati) , ,
; [] / / () , [ ] , /
, .
(4) , [] 27
,
,
(paurai)28 (nyaka)29.
25

.-. , 28 760 .
[Damais, 1955, p. 204]. 6-
, ( ) .
26
. , ,
[Cds, 1968, p. 90]. .. ,
-,
I () 907 . [Sarkar, 1971, p. 31, n. 62].
.. , , ,
[Chatterji, 1967, p. 145].
27
.. , valahji
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 28, 32, n. 66], hji [,
1992, . 82].
28
. , ..
,

115

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(5) , / (npati),
, /, ; [] (:
).
(6) 682- , ,
, , ,
, ,
[] , []

, , , / , .
, ( , 200 ) [, 1979, . 29; 1992, . 127]. .
, , , , ,
[Wisseman Christie, 1991, p. 30]. : , : pura nagara XIII .,

,
kadatwan [Wisseman Christie, 1991, p. 33].
29
.. paurai sanyakagaai ( ) , (leaders)
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 28]. .. : ( ) (leaders) (?), ,
nyaka senpati [Chatterji, 1967, p. 145146, n. 1]. . , nyaka : a) Fhrer, Aufhrer, Leiter, Chef, Haupt;
b) Gebieter, Gatte; c) der Held etc. [Bhtlingk, T. III, 1882, S. 196]. , , ,
. .
.. , ,
mantrimukhya ( 22),
.. . [Sarkar, 1971, p. 28;
Kulke, 1991, p. 13]. .. [Chatterji, 1967, p. 147]. :

( ,
), ,
, . mantrimukhya
[Bhtlingk, T. V, 1884, S. 27; Apte, 1997, p. 424].

116

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

(7) , ,
( )
, caru havis 30,
[], , ,
.
(8) (npasuta),
/, , (npasya),
,
.
(9) , , , (kta), ,
/ [] , (rjya) , [] (npati).
,
,
, ,
, , . , ,
, , , , , , .

. , .. .


. , ,
.

30

Caru havis , ,
[Chatterji, 1967, p. 146].

117

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________


. .
, 2-
. 3-
,
[Sarkar, 1971,
p. 3132, n. 65], .
, 742 755 . [Poerbatjaraka, 1926, Blz. 109
110; , 1958, . 51; , 1992, . 49; Cds,
1968, p. 90, 302, n. 97; Majumdar, 1937, p. 249250; Krom, 1931,
Blz. 147148; Damais, 1964, p. 130]. .. ,
[Van der Meulen,
1979, p. 18, 2223; Hall, 1985, p. 120]. . , ..
[Cds, 1968, p. 302, n. 97; Majumdar, 1937, p.
249; . : Sarkar, 1971, p. 29, n. 12].
: , , -,
; -,
. .. , . ,
kryan (rakryan), , , I [van der Meulen, 1979, p. 1819]. rakai mataram,
[, 1992, . 9092, 6061]. , , .

(ketra)
(dsadspurog). . .. .. , ..
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 28; Chatterji, 1967, p. 146;
Van der Meulen, 1976, p. 448].
dsa , 118

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[, , 1984, . 161180; -, , 1985, . 308; , 2003, . 16; .: , 1990, . 167.]. ,


, , [ , 1992, . 50].
, dsa , . , , ,
, . , dsa :
.
, dsa,
.
, - (bndhav) .
,
. ,
, .
.
,
. , .
3.
778824 .
( ) [De Casparis, 1950;
1956; Sarkar, 1971]. , VII . . , (IX .) ( , 775 .31)
31

, . : -

119

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

( , ). .
824 . , I 907 .
(. ).
[De Casparis, 1950; 1956].

VIIIX .
, [Sarkar 1971
1972; Brandes, 1913].
.

[Sarkar, 1971, p. 34]. , , , .

. ,
14 778 . 12
: , ,
, . ... .. [Bosch, 1928, p. 316,
5762, pl. II; Sarkar, 1971, p. 3536].
[, 2006, . 116122; 2008, . 2443]. , :
Namo bhagavatyai ryatryai ||
(1) y trayatyamitadukhabhavddhimagna loka vilokya
vidhivattrividhairu [2]payai |
, , () (). ,
, , . .: [Jacq-Hergoualch, 2002, p.
241247]. . . [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 4348, 55
57].

120

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

s va surendranaralokavibhtisra tr diatvabhimata jagadekatr ||


(2) varjya mahrja dy paca[3]paa paakaraa |
ailendrarjagurubhistrbhavana hi krita rmat ||
(3) gurvjay ktajaistrdev[4]ktpi tadbhavana |
vinayamahynavid bhavana cpyryabhikm ||
(4) pangkuratavnatripa[5]nmabhirdeaastribhrja |
trbhavana kritamaida mapi cpyryabhikm ||
(5) rjye pravarddham[6]ne rja ailendravaatilakasya |
ailendrarjagurubhis trbhavana kta ktibhi ||
(6) akanpaklttai[7]rvaraatai saptabhirmmahrja |
akarodgurupjrtha trbhavana paakaraa ||
(7) grma klasanm[8]datta saghya skna ktv |
pangkuratavnatripadedhyakn mahpurun ||
(8) bhurada[9]kineyam atul datt saghya rjasihena |
ailendravaabhpair anupariplyryasataty ||
(9) [10] sang pangkurdibhi santavnakdibhi |
sang tripdibhi pattibhca sdhubhi || api ca ||
(10)
[11] sarvnevgmina prthivendrn bhyo bhyo
ycate rjasiha |
smnyoya dharmmaseturna[12]r kle kle planyo
bhavadbhi ||
(11)
anena puyena vihrajena prattya jtrthavibhgavi[13]j |
bhavantu sarve tribhavopapann jan jinnmanusanaj ||
(12)
kariyna paakaraa r[14]mnabhiycate
bhvinpn |
bhyo bhyo vidhivadvihrapariplanrthamiti || [Sarkar, 1971, p. 35
36].
: 32! (1) ,
, /
, ; , ,
32
() , ;
,
[, . 2, 2000, . 494].

121

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(?), [] , [ ]
/ / / .
(2) (mahrja)
, (ailendrarjaguru)
(: )
.
(3) , , [] , ,
.
(4) (deaastrin) (rjan),
, , , () 33.
(5) , (rjya) - ,
.
(6) (akanpa) 34, (mahrja)
/ .
(7) /,
(mahpuru): ,
, / (dedhyak).
(89) (rjasiha)
, , / (ryasatati), 33

Pangkur, tavn trip [, 1992, . 127, 152; De Casparis, 1986, p. 59].


deaastrin. .. ,
astrin, strin,
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 37, 39, n. 38]. 1886 . ,
[. : Sarkar, 1971, p. 39, n.
38]. .. : , , , ;
: , [De Casparis, 1986, p. 59]. .. ,
(, )
[, 1992, . 152]. .
34
.-. , 700- 4 778 22 779 . [Damais, 1955, p. 240].

122

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, , , (pati)
.
(10)
/ : , [] ,
.
(11) / ,
(jina), [] .
(12)
(: ) [, 2006, . 116117; 2008, . 3536; .:
Sarkar, 1971, p. 3538].
,
(vinayamahyna) 4-, (bhiku) 4- 5-, 8- 9-
12- 14- .
, : sang, dy, pangkur, tavn, trip kariyna [. : , 1992, . 127].
. , , , , ,
. ,
. .. ,
[Krom, 1931, Blz. 144; Nilakanta Sastri, 1949, p. 5556].
, .-. .. ,
,
, ;
. . [Vogel, 1919, p. 634; Van
Naerssen, 1947, p. 249253; Cds, 1968, p. 89; Jordaan, 1999, p.
4041]. , [, 2006, . 120; 2008, . 4041], .
, ( ), , , ( 123

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

), ?
.
782 .,
()
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 41]. :
(rjaguru) ,
, , ( ), ,
( ) [Sarkar, 1971, p. 4345;
.: , . 2, 2000, . 102].
(ailendravaatilakena, ), [Sarkar, 1971, p.
4344].
- (vairivaravramardana).
.. , ... , ,
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 41, 45, 46, fn. 9; Bosch, 1928, p. 2425].
,
dharandranmn.
,
dhara rj dht / . dharandranmn . ,
,

dharandranmn
dharadharea, [Cds, 1959, p.
48; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 110].
de visu, .. . .
... .. . ,
dharandranmn / , indra
[Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 166]35.
35

. tenendra,
. .. , [Sarkar, 1971,

124

..

_____________________________________________________________________________


, 792793 . [De Casparis, 1950, Blz. 1124; 1961, p.
241248; 1981, p. 7374; Sarkar, 1971, p. 48(ivii)]. ,
. ..
, .. , XV XII. XV
, XII ,
(abhayagirivihra krita
sihalnm) [De Casparis, 1961, p. 242; .: Sarkar 1971, 48(iv)].

[Sundberg, 2006(2), p. 35].
, ,
(vuddhatva)36 [Sarkar,
1971, p. 48(III-Iv)].
.
.. .. [De Casparis, 1950, Blz. 2122;
Sarkar, 1971, p. 48(Iv) dharmatugadeva]. .. (samaratuga),
(rjye pravarddhamne) [De
Casparis, 1961, p. 245]. .. [Sundberg, 2006(2), p. 20, n. 29].

p. 43, 45]. ,
indrena. ,
indra .
36
. b v . , , :
Skr. bla > OJ. wla ; Skr. bhya > OJ. whya ; Skr.
badva > OJ. wadw , ; [MonierWilliams, 1899, p. 720, 728, 730; Zoetmulder, 1982, Part 2, p. 2166, 2172, 2176] (.
wlaputra); Skr. bala , , ; , >
OM. wala , [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 722; Cds, Damais, 1992,
p. 80]. .: [ 2001, . 4647].

125

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Sundberg, 2003, p. 175, n. 20]. , ,


, .
, ,
,
(. ), .
. [Sarkar, 1971, p. 64; De
Casparis, 1950, Blz. 3841]. 5 . , ,
. 11- 824 . 9- (5-
) ai, -lendravaatilaka, . , , -, (kitndra),
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 6667].
(mandira) . , , 37.

(, .. )38.
, , , . (,
, [, 1992, . 9092, 150])
, , [Sarkar, 1971, p. 6769, 71].
,
. , .
37

rghana . Ntha , , , ( , ,
). Ghana , , ,
; [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 1099, 534, 376]. ..
rghanantha ( , .. ) [Sarkar, 1971, p. 70].
38
, , .

126

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
. , . , 778792 . ( , , ).
( ).
.
1,04 ,
, 0,40 ,
0,50 . . 29, 4 [Cds,
1929/1961, p. 20; . : Jacq-Hergoualch, 2002, p. 243]. 697 . , .. 775 . .. [Cds, 1918,
p. 2930, pl. 12].
1933 . .. ,
,
[Majumdar, 1933, p. 122]. ...
, [Bosch, 1941, p.
2638]. . ,
[Cds, 1918, p. 23], ..
[Cds, 1959, p. 4248; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 103111]. . : ,
, (npa,
npati, bhpati) (indrarja),

(mahrja rjdhirja).
... svasti (,
, , ! [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 1283])
, .
visriy , visrin [Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 1001], ,
- . ,
127

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
[Cds, 1959, p. 42
48]. svasti , , [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 4647].
. ,
vivkhyo
[Cds, 1918, p. 30]. . (ayant laspect de Viu),
[Cds, 1918, p. 32; 1959, p. 47; Cds, Damais, 1992, p.
110]. khy [Monier-Williams,
1899, p. 129]. , rmahrjanm
/ .


( ( ), 39 ) [Cds, 1918, p.
29, 31]. ,
, .

[Shastri, 1924, p. 310327]. ,
( ) () . (
) , 40
,
[Shastri, 1924, p. 322324; Nilakanta Sastri,
39

Kaja ; kara , , kajakara


, (padmapi) ; ;
[Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 240, 583].
40
. samargravra samargradhaira [Shastri, 1924, p. 323, n. 4].
. .

128

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

1949, p. 126127; Krom, 1926, 139; Damais, 1968, p. 364; Jordaan,


Colless, 2009, p. 42]. ,
, .. , . . , . . , 850, 843
. [. : Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 3233], , IX . ,
. ,
.
wlaputra () 856 .
, .. [De Casparis, 1956, p. 280330, especially 312]. ,
[Jordaan (ed.),
1996]. , (rjya karatwan, maang
kaatwan) (sang prabhu jti ning
rat) [De Casparis 1956, 312, 318].
1983 . III, 908 .
(898910),
() [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 30,
52].
, 882 . [Sarkar, 1971, p. 278287]. :
(yuwantha)
(mangraka bhmi ri jawa). ,
(), /
(jet) [De Casparis, 1956, p. 311312]. .. , ,
. , wlaputra :
, hi . ,
wlaputra ,
129

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ;
[Zoetmulder, 1982, Part II, p. 2179; Monier-Williams, 1899, p. 729].
, , .
782 . (vairivaravravmardana)

(sarvvrimadavimathana)41 (rvravairimathana)
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 44; Cds,
Damais, 1992, p. 108; Nilakanta Sastri, 1949, p. 126; .: Cds,
1918, p. 29]. . .. , [Nilakanta Sastri, 1949, p. 5556], ,
,
. . . ,
[Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 43]. ..
, [Sundberg, 2003, p. 176].

. ,
I (9851016)
: ( ),

(ailendra-vaa-sambhtena
rviaydhipatin kaah-dhipatyam-tanvat) [Nilakanta Sastri,
1949, p. 128, 75; Aiyer, 1933(1), p. 213266; Karashima &
Subbarayalu, 2009, p. 272].
(,
) . , ,
41

ea, , -, () -s vivkhyo. .: [, 1996, . 857, 44].


: / .

130

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
10051006 . (),
. I . (10701122) , ailendra-Cmaivarmavihra, 10891090 . [Majumdar, 1933, p. 124; Aiyer,
1933(2), p. 267281; Karashima, Subbarayalu, 2009, p. 281].
, (, )
XXI .


[ .: Jordaan, 1999; Jordaan, Colless, 2009].
. -, , () ; -, VIIIXI
.,
( , ); -,
. .


732 . , (
,
, ) IXX
. [ .: Sarkar, 19711972]
: . ..
856 . ,

,
131

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

824 . [De
Casparis, 1956, p. 293297].
. , . , , ,
[Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 3435].
,
I (907) III (908):
I (907)
III (908)
Rakai Mtaram sang Ratu
Rahyangta ri Mang Rahyangta
Sajaya
i Hra
r Mahrja Rakai PanangRake Panangkaran (746784)
karan
r Mahrja Rakai PanungRake Panaraban (784803)
galan
r Mahrja Rakai Warak
Rake Warak Dya Manara (803
827)
Dya Gula (827829)
r Mahrja Rakai Garung
Rake Garung (829847)
r Mahrja Rakai Pikatan
Rake Pikatan Dya Sala (847
855)
r Mahrja Rakai Kayuwangi Rake Kayuwangi Dya Lokapla
(855885)
Dya Tagwas (885)
Rake Panumwangan Dya
Dewendra (885887)
Rake Gurungwangi Dya Bhadra
(887)
r Mahrja Rakai Watuhuma- Rake Wungkal Humalang Dya
lang
Jbang (894898)
r Mahrja Rakai Watukura
Rake Watukura Dya Balitung
Dya Balitung
(898 )
: [Jordaan & Colless, 2009, p. 37].
. ,
. 132

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

( ), (), () [ .: , 1992, . 150, 79; Wisseman


Christie, 2001, p. 28]. (watak/watk): , .. ( rake raka i). : dya, (m)pu, sang
r. (, ) (). ,
(abhieka),
, . .
, I r
Dharmmodya Mahambhu, III r
Iwarakeawotsawatungga [Sarkar, 1972, p. 65; Wisseman Christie,
2001, p. 52]. ,
. ,

,
(sang lum i Kelsa) [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 28, 30,
51]42.
. ,
, () () (rahyangta i Hra), III
(rahyangta ri mang). , , rahyangta i Hra , , .
(B, 78) (. ). , : ( ), . , , , .
42

. : / .
lah lumah (lum): (, );
(), [Zoetmulder, 1982, Part 1, p. 955].

133

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ..
VIII .,
(
) [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 34].
, :

(
) (746784)

/ (narendra sraa43) (784803)


(803827)
(827828)


=? (782)
=? (792
793)
=(?
, 775 .)
=? (824)
=? ? ( )
( ,
?)
( 860)

: [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 35].


.. .
. : 640 818 .
, ,
, ( .-. 43
-, narendra sraa 792 . ; , . [Miksic et al. 2001, p. 319332; Miksic,
2003, p. 1942]. .. , , [Sundberg,
2006(2), 22, n. 33].

134

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, )
[Sundberg, 2006(2), p. 18; Damais, 1964, p. 93141]. .. , / ( .. , . ),
/,
( 792 824 .
784803 803827) [Sundberg, 2006(2), p. 22].
.. , , Sraa ,
. , .
.
..
,
[Sundberg, 2003, p. 116; 2006(1), p. 113].
,
III . I (. ).
,
[Sundberg, 2003, p. 174]. ,
, ,
.
, .
.. , Panarabwan
[Sundberg, 2003, p. 163188, 164165 fig. 1].
o ak h ja svh.
khanipa.

VIII . [Sundberg, 2003, p. 170173, 180183].
III [Wis135

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

seman Christie, 2001, p. 30, 51]. ,


[Sundberg, 2003, p. 174].
, ( .. )
[Sundberg, 2003, p. 175]. ,
803 ., III,
824 . ,
,
,
[Sundberg, 2006(2), p. 27].
.. III
(803827)
[Sundberg, 2006, p. 95136, 120124].
-, Sang Hyang
Kamahynikn, (,
- ), waragwarak 821 . [Sarkar, 1971, p.
57]44, 824 .
[Sundberg, 2006(1), p.
116, 121123].
(Menoreh Hills) ,
[Sundberg, 2006(1), p. 123]. , ,
(Sang Manarah) [ ].

44

. , , .. , . ri sang mapati ri sukun si wangun


umilu ri waragwarak gusti si nanggap rama nntap, ()
() ( ) ( ) , , , () () ,
() , , . , ,
, [Zoetmulder, 1982, Part 1,
p. 772]. , [Sundberg, 2006(1), p. 121].

136

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

..

(. ):
, ;
[Sundberg, 2006(1), p. 124, n. 50].
..
, , .. .
, , ,
.
, 824 .
: [Sarkar, 1971, p. 6566]. ,

III,
,
.

.
,
(-) IX .
, -, ; -,
.
. , (, ,
),
(Patapn), [Jordaan,
Colless, 2009, p. 36; Jordaan, 2006, p. 322; 1999, p. 44]. , (. ), .
, ang karayn Part(t)apn 137

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

II (
) [Jordaan, 1999, p. 44;
Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 196; .: De Casparis,
1950, Blz. 6162; karayn .: Mahdi, 2010, p. 14; .:
Vogel, 1919, p. 634, n. 2]. ..
II 832 ., .-. , 800 . [De Casparis, 1950, Blz.
5557; Damais, 1970, p. 44]. . 847 . [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 194].
[Jordaan, 1999,
p. 44].

, (
, I
III) . .
,
(.
).
( ,
,
(. )) III. - [Jordaan, 1999, p. 44]. , , -
[Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 38]. ,
, ,
ratu, raka rakarayn [Jordaan, 2006, p. 9].
. ,
,
(siddhamtka), , , ;
,
( ?)
742755 . [Cds, 1968, p. 90] 138

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Jordaan, 2006, p. 6]. ,



/ [Jordaan,
2006, p. 6].
, . (, ). ,
,
: 778 . () (. ); karayn.
,
III (. ). , (mahrja dy
pacapaa
paakaraa,

23;
mahrja
paakaraa, 7).
,
( 778 .), ( 782 .,
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 4244]). , , ( , ,
). , ,

.
.
III. , -.
()
(bihra i pikatan). , [Wisseman Christie, 2001, p. 2930, 51].
139

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
. , ,

, ,
,
(. ), ,
(
).

,
(
824 .).
809 . .. [Sarkar, 1971, p. 4952]. ,
.
(Muuan) 807 . ..
: , 854 . [Sundberg,
2006(1), p. 116, n. 35; 111, n. 9, Damais, 1952]. .. .-. , , , (
. , ) .
809 . ( ) (manima, sma) [Sarkar,
1971, p. 4950]. .. (), 854 ., (raka)
(sawa)
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 127]. .-. , 809 .
[Damais, 1951,
p. 2931; 1952, p. 3031]. .-.
, 2 . [Brandes, 1913], . .
,
.
,
.
ang karayn
Part(t)apn/ 140

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, .
III ,
, , .
VIIIIX .

. ,
, VII . [Cds, Damais, 1992, p.
4852].

.-. . , (VII .) VIII
. [Vogel, 1919, p.
626637; Krom, 1919; 1926].
778 . 782 .,
, ,
(
) , 686 . (bhmi Java), [ .: Sarkar, 1971, p. 3448;
Ferrand, 1922, p. 52104, 161163; Chavannes, 1894; Takakusu,
1896; Cds, 1930, p. 4550; Cds, Damais, 1992, p. 5256; , 2001, . 250256].
, .. , , , VIII .
[Stutterheim, 1929;
.: Jordaan, 1999; 2006, p. 322].
, () 742 . 742759 .
141

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(), 768818 .
( ), 820 873 ( ). ( ) 852 871.

. . [Jordaan, Colless, 2009]. , VIII .
, - .
,
, . ,
(ailendra Interregnum, 775855 .),
[Jordaan,
Colless, 2009, p. X]. , - , .
.
rvijayendrarja rvijayevarabhpati ( ), , .. , ,
, . . .
.
( rvijayanpati
) [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 5557].
. . ( IX .) ( 916 .). ,
850 . [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 5765].
: . ,
, ,
. ,
, :
142

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

100 ( 500 )
[Ferrand, 1922, p. 5657; , 2004, . 34;
Tibbetts, 1979, p. 33; , 1995, . 298]. ,
.

II ,
1052 . [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 61].

( -2)
,
(tngah rumah) [De Casparis, 1956, p. 39]. ,
, , , ,
.
IX .
,
, .
, ( ) [Tibbetts, 1979,
p. 113; Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 66].

.
. ()
742 . 742759 . (),
768818 . ( ), 820 873
( ). ( )
852 871.
775855 . 818 . . .
. , ,
[Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 6769].
143

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

:
,
( )
( ,
.. , . , . . [Jordaan,
Colless, 2009, p. 6970]); ; , , ;

.
VIIIIX .
,
.
, . . ,
, [Jordaan,
Colless, 2009, p. 7677].
. . . . -, ,
,
, .
: [Majumdar, 1933, p. 122; Cds, 1959, p. 47; Mahdi, 2008, p.
128],
.
45 .
45

XX . (. 59 . I ): , , ,
, , , , ; , , ,
, , ;
, , ,

144

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, B,
eka dvitya , ,

A. :
, B ,

; , , (: , , , vinu ); , ,
ad hoc.
. ,

( III I),
746784 .
782 . 778 .
. 775778 .,
/ . , ,
, , (. ).
.

; , , , , , , , , , , ; , , , , , ,
, , , , ,
; , ;
; ; , -, , , , .

145

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(. ),
, .
,
( ). 742 .
/. 742755 . ( Java/Yaba) [Pelliot, 1904, p. 225; Cds, 1968, p. 90,
302, n. 97; Majumdar, 1937, p. 249; Krom, 1931, Blz. 147148].
, () (?) 767 . [Cds,
1968, p. 91; , 1995, p. 192].

774 ., ,
C.38 ( 784 .), ; ,
[Bergaigne, 1893, p. 242260; Majumdar,
1927(2), p. 4144]. (Yang Tiku) C.25,
721 . 799800 . .. , , 709 .
(787788 . ..) , (nvgatair jjavavalasaghair) , .. [Bergaigne, 1893, p. 207218; Majumdar,
1927(2), p. 46, 50 B.6, VI]. ,
742 775 .,

767 . ,

Shepo=.
, , ,
/ .
,

VIII ., ?
146

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
. -, :
III , . -,
.
, ,
(, , )? ?
? , ,
.
(
: , , ).

. .
[Jordaan, 1999]. : , , (,
), [ .:
Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 128]. .; . , . .. .
,
(. , .-. ) [. : Jordaan, 2006, p. 4].



.
147

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(
) , (dapnta selendra), ,
, selendra ailendra [Boechari, 1966, p. 243].
VII .
.-. ,
800 . [Damais, 1970, p. 44]. (nama vaya 3- ),
- (
, , ,
).
selendra=ailendra . ,
,
680- .,
: rvijaya ,
, akavara , , uklapaka , rketra
rjayana , nti [Cds,
1930, p. 34, 39, 48].
ai paihumpaan hakairu,

.
daiva ( deva daiva ). , ailendra
selendra .
. 1934 .
( ) : ailendra, parvatabhpla ailarja
kurung bnam id. Funan *biu-nm ( phnom, vna) [Cds, 1934, p. 6770;
1968, p. 36, 8889]. . , : . ,
148

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. [Jacques, 1979, p.
375; Vickery, 1998, p. 36].
1930- . ..
, .. , .
. [Majumdar, 1933, p. 121141; Sarkar, 1985, p. 323339;
Chandra, 1994, p. 64102; Jordaan, 1999(2), p. 210243].
, . ,
, .
, . VVII .; , ,
, VIIVIII . [Manguin,
2010, p. 172174; Manguin, Indrajaya, 2006, p. 24557; 2011, p.
113136].
, ,
: , , .

.. , , , .
[Stutterheim, 1929; Poerbatjaraka, 1958, p. 254264; Boechari, 1966,
p. 241; Wisseman Christie, 1995, p. 273].
, .
, ( ) ( ,
VIIIX .).
, , XV XVI . ,
,
, 149

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, .
, . , , , ad hoc.
,
XXI . (. ). , -
( ) . , , .
,
, . , , . , , .
-, , , , . -, (916 .):
.
, .
.

, 1 , .
46 400 () 800 () .
, . ,
[Ferrand, 1922, p. 56; , 1995,
. 298].
. . , ( ), ,
46

.
, [Tibbetts, 1979, p. 113].

150

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Jordaan, Colless,
2009, p. 213220],
. ,
, ,
. :

X . .
,
( -) [, 2008, . 105109, 115
116].
, . , ,
.
,
.
.-. : ( )

, ,
.
[Munoz, 2006, p. 133135].
, (Yavabhmi)
,
, ( )
(rja somakulnvayasya
mahata rdharmaseto sut trhvay) [Nilakanta Sastri, 1949, p.
126127].
, . .
VIII .
,
- / ( ), .
151

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

856 . ,
. , , (
).
. ( ) 824 .
(
, , , , )47. ,
. . [Jordaan, Colless, 2009, p. 40],
,

( [, 2000, . 2,. 81,
459460]).
.
, .
VIIIIX . , .
, . ,

47

. ,
, 9- 856 . .. .
, . . dya lokapla
ranujmata lokapla ( 12, 9), ..
: , [] (..
), , ranujmata [De Casparis, 1956, p. 312, 318, n. 19]. ,
ra- , , mata [Zoetmulder, 1982, p. 1126, 1470],
, .
( ) .

152

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

. , . .

. XXI .
4. -
VIII X .
VIII X .
[Van Naerssen, 1977; Barrett Jones, 1984; Wisseman
Christie, 1983; 1985; 1992].
( / ). ratu , () [Wisseman Christie, 1983, p. 11; ,
1992, . 79]. -
raka , rakarayn [, 1992, . 180]. (watk) (wanua).
.. , [, 1992, . 137138)]. , ?
. -, :
778 . pangkur, tawn
tirip (. ), I 850 .
: , , , , , , , , , , , , [Sarkar, 1971, . 115].
,
( ) /, ,
,
[, 1992, . 151153]. -,
,
[Barrett Jones, 1984, p. 126137]. -, 153

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

-
,
(, ).
, I
. ,
- . ,
.
VIII X .
-.
[Miksic (ed.), 1996, p. 5859]. , , . : , , , , , , [Miksic (ed.),
1996, p. 6667; , 1984, . 5865, . 3]. : , , , , , , , , [Miksic (ed.),
1996, p. 6869, 7281; Miksic, 1990; Jordaan, 1993; Jordaan (ed.),
1996; Iyer, 1998; , 1984].

.. [, 1984],
.
, , VIII IX . 50
[Dumaray, 1977; .: Miksic, 1990, p. 25],
IX
. ( 856 . [De
Casparis, 1956, p. 280330]).
: 123 , 31,5 ;
10- , 5 3
154

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, ;
504 1460
[, . : http://slovari.yandex.ru/~/// ( 6 2011 .)]. ,
,
.
, , 800 .

, . , , ,
, ,
, ,
[Miksic,
1990, p. 25]. , 48.
850 . , -, ,
,
. , .
,
, .
, ,
[Blanton, Fargher,
2008, p. 11; .: , 2010(2), . 383392]. , .
.-. . . .
48

..
, .-.
21 30 , 15 , 4 1,5
; [, 1984, .
86].

155

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

, () .

,
( ) ,
,
[Blanton, Fargher, 2008, p. 13]. , , ,
, - , ,
, .

[Sarkar, 1971
1972; De Casparis, 1950; 1956; Brandes, 1913].

.

wanua, .
, .. .. [Van Naerssen, 1977;
, 1979 (12); 1982(12); 1992; 1993; , 2004].
,

, .
. . . .
( )
, ,
( ). ,

.
156

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, :
, ,
, , . , , , , , ..
.
, , ,
, ( . , ), ,
- .
, ,
. ,
, , , .

, .
. , ,

, - ,
. , ,
;
,
.
. ( ). /
, . ,
,
157

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

: , ,
, ( ).
, : , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , .
[ . , 1992, . 143147]. ?

. , )
, ) , - (, ), ) , , .

,
. ,
, , ,
( sawa), , . , : ,
882 .
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 250261].
, , () .
, 158

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
(bargaining) . ,
, .

I 907 ., (898910), , (sma [ .: Barrett Jones, 1984, p. 5990;
.: Wisseman Christie, 1985]), (pati)
(wanua). ,
(sambandhanyan inanugrahn sangk yan makwai buatthaji iniwnya i r mahrja kla ni warangan haji, 56).
, , ,
.
906 .
, [Sarkar, 1972,
p. 5559; , 1992, . 146]. (nayaka) , .
(rmanta)
(rakryan mapati i
Hino [Barrett Jones, 1984, p. 99]) . .
,
, .
. , , , , , -, .
. () 891 . , , .. ,
(rakryan)
159

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

(sang mapatih
katrii) [Sarkar, 1971, p. 295306].

. . , ,
. ,
, ,
,
( ). ,


.
, , :
. ,
,
,
[Barrett Jones, 1984, p. 6970].
. 919 . , , , 1 1 (ikanang rarai lakilaki waduan
dinman pirak antak anakupang winehan [Sarkar, 1972, p. 168, 176
III.6]). 928 . : , , (rma), 49 ,
49

() ,
, ,
; [.: Zoetmulder,
1982, p. 759, 1324, 2171]. , . .. , , -

160

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

, , ,
,
[Sarkar, 1972, p. 242, 234 verso, 3941].
, ,
,
. , , , (kanihamaddhamotama [Zoetmulder, 1982, p. 791]).
, , .
-
, ( )
.
.
,

[
.: , 2003, . 4849; , 1983, . 174, 254255].
.
? . ,

[Wisseman Christie, 1992; 2007].

VIIIX .
. , .
, .
, . .
( 855885) (sawa) (tgal)
, I 879 . [Sarkar, 1971, p. 217]. , [, 1992, . 145]. : , [, 1992, .
145].

161

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

907 .
(sawa). ,
, , . , ,
,
, .

.

732 ., ,
: ,
(. ) (ete rjapathe
jano nacakitacorairna cnyairbhayai) (. ). , , .
I 907 . , (sinarabhrnta ikanang pati rumak ikanang havn, A.7
[Sarkar, 1972, p. 65]). 891 . (tgal) ,
(anak banwa ri balingawn pan
lan ya manahur dening rh kasawur wangke kbunan [Sarkar, 1971,
p. 304 LVII,89]). ( 38).
(
.. , ). / (vere
kidul, vere lor, vadva) 821 . [Sarkar, 1971,
p. 57; , 1992, . 65].
, , . 907 .
162

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

[Sarkar, 1972, p. 99101].


-,
, , , 50.
922 . , .. [Sarkar, 1972, p. 198206;
, 1992, . 143; 1995, . 1314]. (
)
vka kilaln, .. 51,
(samgat) . kilaln [, 1979(2), . 2833].
, ,
(wwang yukti) [,
1992, . 143; 1995, . 13].
. , (wka kmir).
.
. , ,
.
,
, ,
. 873 .,
(
50

-
, 912 .
[Sarkar, 1972, p. 135137].
51
mangilala/kilaln dbya haji
. [Barrett Jones, 1984, p. 137141]. . ,
mangilala , kilaln ,
[, 1992, . 142; 1995, . 1314]. : mangilala , kilaln *kilala
[Zoetmulder, 1982, p. 867].

163

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

[.: Zoetmulder, 1982, p. 571])



, (manglurung)
[Sarkar, 1971, p. 187]. ,
.

, , III [Wisseman
Christie, 2001, p. 2931, 5152].
882 ., , 52.
, .

[Sarkar, 1971, p. 251]. () .
.

, (. ).
,
. . , , . ,
. .
. , ,
, .
52
,
, rake Kayuwangi (
[, 1992, . 91, 151]).

164

..

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
. -
, .
, ,
. , ( ), . .
.
.
, ,
.
, .


( ),
( I ).
-
, .

165

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________

VVIII . . : ,
, , ;
; , , , . .
- . VIVII .
. , , .
, , .
,
. , . . - .
. ,
.
,
. ,
: ,
.

166

..

_____________________________________________________________________________


.
, ,
. 850 .,
. .
,
.. [1992].
.

.

. ,
. , 778 .
, .

. ,
,
928 . -
, .
. .
.

167

VX .

_____________________________________________________________________________


. / . .. , .. , .. . .: , 2000.
. .
(
). / . .. , .. . 2-
., . . .: , 2001.
. .
. 1. . / . .. . .: . . . .
- , 1983.
. / . . .. . . III. .:
, 2000.
. .
. . I.
/ . . .. . .: , 1968.
BEFEO Bulletin de lcole Franaise dExtreme Orient. Paris [
www.persee.fr/ ].
BKI Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van
Nederlandisch-Indi, uitgegeven door Het Koninklijk instituut voor de
Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde van Nederlandisch-Indi. sGravenhage
[ www.kitlv.nl ].
JA Journal asiatique. Paris.
JRAS Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland. London.
TBG Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde.
Batavia.

168

..

_____________________________________________________________________________


.. . .: , 2003.
.. // .
. . .. . .: , 2006.
. 629.
.. : .
.: , 2008.
. . / . . .. . .: -- , 2001. 288 .
.., .. :
// - . . .. ,
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Summary
Zakharov, Anton O. Political History and Political Organisation of Indonesia in Early Middle Ages (the 5th early 10th centuries),
Moscow: Institute of Oriental Studies, Institute of the Eastern Countries, 2012.
The monograph reconstructs political history and institutions
of early kingdoms of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. The chapter 1 analyses contemporary theories of statehood and political organization. It
also examines the influential theories of Southeast Asian states,
among them the galactic polity by S. Tambiah, the maala theory by
Oliver Wolters, and the bhmi theory by Hermann Kulke.
The chapter 2 offers the Russian translations of earliest Sanskrit incriptions from Borneo and Western Java. It investigates polities of Mulavarman in Borneo and of Purnavarman in Western Java;
the latter is known as Tarumanagara.
The chapter 3 deals with the polity of Srivijaya. It contains an
analysis of the oath inscriptions of Srivijaya, a review of recent archaological investigation in Sumatra and Bangka, and a reconstruction of foundations of royal power in Srivijaya.
The chapter 4 gives the Russian translations of some Central
and Eastern Javanese inscriptions, including the Canggal, Dinojo, and
Kalasan records. It investigates the question of the ailendra dynasty.
The dynasty of ailendras was of Javanese origin and the first ruler
who claimed to be a ailendra was Panankarana. In fact, there was no
difference between so-called Sajaya dynasty and the ailendras.
The expansion of Panankarana reached the Malay Peninsula where he
left the famous inscription from Chaiya (also known as the Ligor
stele). While Javanese communities (wanua) were autonomous, they
were subjected to the Javanese monarchies (kraton). The kings of
Ancient Java were autocratic.
The state formation in maritime Southeast Asia was inextricably intertwined with warfare. All early rulers conquered their
neighbours and thus became kings. The Indianisation of early kingdoms was a means to power and varied in different places and times.
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