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05.12.04 ,


- 2010

............................................................................................................... 2
............................................................................................... 4
................................................................................................................... 6
1.

.................................................................................................................. 12
1.1. .............................................. 12
1.2. - ........................ 14
1.3.

.................................................................................................. 18
1.4. ................................. 25
1.5. ................... 28
1.6. .............................................................. 41
1.7. .................................. 47
2. ................................. 49
2.1. - ........................................ 49
2.2. ........ 56
2.3. ................................................. 58
2.4. ................................... 60
2.5. 2.................................................................................. 73
3. .... 74
3.1. - 74
3.1.1. -4 .......................................... 76
3.1.2. -2 .......................................... 85
3.1.3. -2
-4 ....................................................................................................... 92
3.2.

.......................................................................................................... 94
3.2.1. ................................ 95

3.2.2. ............................. 103


3.2.3.
.................................................................................... 112
3.3.

.......................................................................... 113
3.4. 3................................................................................ 114
4. .................. 116
4.1. ..................... 116
4.2. .................................... 123
4.3. .................. 130
4.4.

....................................................................................................... 136
4.5.
....................................................................................................... 140
4.6. 4................................................................................ 142
.......................................................................................................... 144
............................................................................................. 148
1.
Matlab .................................................................................. 152


rq ;
- ;
F ;
E ;
, ;
g, p
;
, ;
-;
0 ;
, G() ~ 1/;
A , ;
;
Ea ;
Eb , ;
Fa() a(t);
F ;
G() ;
KG ;
KP ;
L ;
M ;
N
;
N0 ;
P ;

Pcp ;
R , /;
T ;
a(t) ;
f0 ;
g ;

g() ;
h, h0 /
;
k, l (0, 1, , N 1);
m ;
p, d (1, 2, , L);
r, q (1, 2, , M).

. ,
- .
: F = F/R, F ,
R , /, E = Eb/N0, Eb ,
, N0 .
- , .
, : .
, . , - ,
,
, ,
[17].
- ,
.
,
.

,
-, .
, () [39],
.

, -,
[3], . -

. [29],
,

.

, -
, .
XX
,
, - [10, 13].
- ,
, ..
, , ,
.
[22, 25] ,
- -

K.
K. ,
,
K.
, .., , . , . ,
, , , . , .
, ,
, ,
, .
-
.
- .
- , -
.
.
1.

,
-
.

2.


, - .
3.

.
4.

.
5.

.
. ,
, .
, , , , , ,
, ,
,
.
, . . , . ,
.
, , .

10

,
,
.
.

. .

- .
,
. .
. - ,
, , ,
- . L = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32
= 6, 10, 14.
, m,
, m + 1 0,001. m 40.
. .
,
.

11

.

,
.

Matlab.

12

1. -
, . . , . , . ,
, .
,
,
.
.

1.1.

, . .
yN, N M- , f0 T

=
yN (t )

N 1

Ar( k ) a(t kT )cos(2f 0t + (rk ) ) , T/2 t T/2 + NT,

k =0

(1.1)

a(t) [T/2, T/2] , Ar( k ) , (rk ) , k- -

13

, r = 1, 2, , M , k = 0, 1, , N 1
,
Ar( k ) [0, 1] (rk ) [, ] . , -4 : Ar( k ) = 1,
(rk ) =3 / 4 + r / 2 , r = 1, 2, 3, 4. (t) -

, .
, (t) . [12, 30] ,

. , : cos(x) (. 1.1)
a(t) = A0cos(t/T), T/2 t T/2;

(1.2)

cos2(x) (. 1.1)
a(t) = A0cos2(t/T), T/2 t T/2.

a(t)/A0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
-0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5
)
. 1.1. cos(x)

t/T

(1.3)

a(t)/A0

0
-0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5

t/T

)
. 1.1. cos2(x)

(1.1)
.

14

1.2. -
- P
Pcp :
P

= =
lim
Pcp N

max{ yN2 (t )}

1
E
NT

T /2+ NT

T /2

yN2 (t )dt

(1.4)

, . ,
, (1.4). :
=
P max{
=
y N2 (t )} max{[ Ar( k ) a(t kT )cos(2f 0t + (rk ) )]2 } max{a 2 (t )} .

N
,
:
1 T /2+ NT 2

1
Pcp E=
y N (t )dt NE
=

NT T /2

NT
1
= E
2T

T /2

T /2

Ar2 a 2=
(t )cos 2 (2f 0t + r )dt
T /2

T /2

Ar2 a 2 (t ) [1 + cos(4f 0t + 2r ) ] dt .

,
1
Pcp E
2T

T /2
1
2 2
2
A
a
(
t
)
dt
=
E
A
a 2 (t )dt .
{
}

r
r
T /2

T
/2
2T
T /2

Ea =

T /2

T /2

a 2 (t )dt ,

(1.5)

2 max{a 2 (t )}
=
.
E{Ar2 } Ea / T

(1.6)

, E{Ar2 } , , -
. , , : - ()

15

(), . 1.2 . , M, M = 2n, n , , M = 22n .

a = 1/3

3a

a = 1/18

Im(Z)

Re(Z)
3a

Im(Z)

Re(Z)
3a

3a

. 1.2. , M = 4

. 1.2. , M = 16

M ,
[1, 1], :
Ar =1 (r 1)

2
, r = 1, 2, , M,
M 1

0, 1 r M / 2,
r =
, M / 2 < r M .

Zr. Ar = |Zr| r = arg(Zr)


Arcosr = Re{Zr} Arsinr = Im{Zr}. ,

Z r =1 (r 1)

2
, r = 1, 2, , M.
M 1

(1.7)

E{Ar2 }
, , Ar.

16

2
1

( M + 1) 2r
=
1 (r 1)
=

M 1 M
M 1

2
M
M
2
r
=r 1 =r 1

1
E{ A } =
M

M
1
=
( M + 1) 2 4( M
=
+ 1)r + 4r 2 )
2 (
M ( M 1) r =1

M
M
1

2
M ( M + 1) 4( M + 1) r + 4 r 2 .
=
2
M ( M 1)
=r 1 =r 1

[4],

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n=

n
(n + 1)
2

1 + 22 + 32 + ... + n 2=

n
(n + 1)(2n + 1) ,
6

E{ Ar2 } =

M
M
1

M ( M + 1) 2 4( M + 1) ( M + 1) + 4 ( M + 1)(2 M + 1) =
2
M ( M 1)
2
6

1
M 1
M +1
(
1)
M
+
=
.
( M 1) 2
3
3( M 1)

-
:

AM

3( M 1) max{a 2 (t )}
=
2
.
M +1
Ea / T

(1.8)

, M :

3( M 1) max{a 2 (t )}
max{a 2 (t )}
lim AM lim 2= 6
=
.
M
M
M +1
E /T
Ea / T

(1.9)


( ) . [1 / 2, 1 / 2] ,

M .

17

2
: A=
Arc2 + Ars2 . :
r

E=
{ Arc2 } E=
{ Ars2 }

M +1
,
6( M 1)

E{ Ar2 } = E{ Arc2 } + E{ Ars2 } =

M +1
.
3( M 1)

, - ,
M2 = M:
3( M 1) max{a 2 (t )}
.
KAM =
2
Ea / T
M +1

(1.10)

M
(1.9).
- (1.1)
. (1.2), (1.3)
max{a 2 (t )} = A02 ,

. 1.1 .
. 1.1

Ea
A20T

cos(x)

(1/2)A20T

cos2(x)

(3/8)A20T

. 1.2 -
M , (1.8), (1.9) (1.10).

18

. 1.2

M = 2

M = 4

M = 16

M = 4

M = 16

M = 256

2,00

3,60

5,29

6,00

cos(x)

4,00

7,20

10,59

12,00

cos2(x)

5,33

9,60

14,12

16,00

M=

. 1.2 , , -, , , M = 4 (.. -4) cos2(x) - 2,67


. -, - , 300%. -,
M - . ,
cos(x) M = 4 - 1,8 .

1.3.


, . G()

1
2
E S N () ,
N NT

=
G () lim

S N ()
=

(1.11)

y N (t )exp( jt )dt N-

(1.1), E S N ()
.

19

- F = F/R
, , F.

F = F, . ,
[1] F99%,
99% .

0 = 2f0 1/T, T ,
F

=
100%

0 +F

0 F

G ()d

G ()d .

F
,
F,
,
. F, G()
| 0| F [7].
, ,
, .
G(F) , , G() k .
G() ~ 1/, ,
G() kF.

20

, ,
F,
F , , ,
.

(1.1). SN() N-
:
T /2+ NT N 1

S N ()
=

k =0

T /2

1
=
2

T /2+ NT N 1

T /2

k =0

(k )
r

1
=

2
+

(k )
r

)
)exp( jt )dt
a (t kT )cos(0t + (rk=

)
))exp( jt )dt
a (t kT )(exp( j0t + j(rk ) ) + exp( j0t j(rk=

T /2+ NT N 1

T /2

k =0

(k )
r

exp( j(rk ) )a (t kT )exp( j ( 0 )t )dt +

(k )
(k )

A
exp(
j
)
a
(
t
kT
)exp(
j
(
)
t
)
dt
=

r
r
0
k =0

T /2+ NT N 1

T /2

1
S N ( 0 ) + S N* ( + 0 ) .
2

(1.11)
G() = G+() + G(),

1
2
E S N ( 0 ) ,
N 4 NT

=
G+ () lim

1
2
E S N ( + 0 ) .
N 4 NT

=
G () lim

SN( 0):
=
S N ( 0 )

N 1

k =0

T /2+ NT

T /2

Ar( k ) exp( j(rk ) )a (t kT )exp( j ( 0 )t )dt .

x = t kT, :

21

S=
N ( 0 )

N 1

A
k =0

(k )
r

exp( j(rk ) )exp( j ( 0 )kT )

T /2

T /2

a( x)exp( j ( 0 ) x)dx .

N 1

S N ( 0=
) Fa ( 0 ) Ar( k ) exp( j(rk ) )exp( j ( 0 )kT ) ,
k =0

=
Fa ( 0 )

T /2

T /2

a (t )exp( j ( 0 )t )dt

(1.12)

a(t), 0.

E S N ( 0 ) = Fa ( 0 )
2

N 1 N 1

exp( j ( )(k l )T )

E{ A A exp( j (
(k )
r

(l )
q

=
k 0=l 0

(k )
r

))}.

(1.13)

(l )
q

, M. :
l)
l)
Ar( k ) exp( j(rk ) ) Aq(l ) exp( j(q=
) ( Z rc( k ) + jZ rs( k ) )( Z qc(l ) jZ qs(=
)

=Z rc( k ) Z qc(l ) jZ rc( k ) Z qs(l ) + jZ rs( k ) Z qc(l ) + Z rs( k ) Z qs(l ) ,

, Z rs( k ) Ar( k ) sin((rk ) ) ,


=
Z rc( k ) Ar( k ) cos((rk ) )=
, Z qs(l ) Aq(l ) sin((ql ) ) .
=
Z qc(l ) Aq(l ) cos((ql ) )=
, Z rc( k ) , Z rs( k ) , Z qc(l ) Z qs(l ) ,
. : Z rc= Z rs= ( M + 1 2r )

2( M 1) , r = 1, 2, ,

M . -

, :

E=
{Z rc( k ) Z qs(l ) } E=
{Z rs( k ) Z qc(l ) } 0 , k, l,
E=
{Z rc( k ) Z qc(l ) } E=
{Z rs( k ) Z qs(l ) } 0 , k l.
, , -,

22
) (l )
E{Z rc( k=
Z qc } E=
{ Arc2 }

M +1
, k = l,
6( M 1)

) (l )
E{Z rs( k=
Z qs } E=
{ Ars2 }

M +1
, k = l.
6( M 1)

, (1.13) :

E S N ( =
N Fa ( 0 )
0)
2

M +1
.
3( M 1)

,
=
G+ ()

1
M +1
2
Fa ( 0 ) ,
4T 3( M 1)

(1.14)

< 0:
G ()
=

1
M +1
2
Fa ( + 0 ) .
4T 3( M 1)

, (1.14)

M M. (1.14) , -

(1.1) a(t).
(1.14), (1.1) (1.2), (1.3).
:
A2T
M + 1 sin 2 (T / 2)
,
G+ () = 0
4 3( M 1) (T / 2) 2

(1.15)

= 0.
(1.2):
=
G+ ()

A02T
M +1
42
cos 2 (T / 2) .
2
2
2
4 3( M 1) ( (T ) )

(1.16)

(1.3):
A2T
M +1
44
sin 2 (T / 2)
.
G+ () = 0
4 3( M 1) ( (2) 2 (T ) 2 )2 (T / 2) 2

(1.17)

23

. 1.3 (1.15), (1.16) (1.17)


(1), (2) (3) .

G+(f), dB

-10
2
-20

-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
0

fT

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

. 1.3. (1.1)

(1.14),
, . . ,
. 1.3 2 F30 ~ 2,25/T, F30 ~ 3,00/T.

. ( ) [2]. , ( , , ),
. . 1.4

24

(1.16) (1) (2).


.

G+(f), dB

-10
-20

-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
0

fT

1
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

. 1.4. (1.16)

(
),
( 1/) (1.1) . 1.3.
. 1.3

F95%T F99%T F40 T F60 T

4,15

20,57

63,66

>100

cos(x)

1,82

2,36

10,04

31,64

cos2(x)

2,23

2,82

6,51

13,74

25

. 1.3 . 1.3 , , -,

( ), . , cos(x) 99%
20,57 2,36, .. 8,7 . -, , . ,
95%
cos(x), 60 cos2(x).

1.4.
,

x(t),
x(t) = sr(t) + n(t),
, , sr(t) (r = 1, 2, , M), M , ,
n(t) . , , .
(
) ,
: sr(t),
r q (r, q = 1, 2, , M)
rq > 1,

26

rq . , [5]:

1 Z ( xn sr ,n ) 2
2 n exp

(Z )
2 n=1
n2
(
/
)
x
w
s
n =1
(Z )

,
r
rq (x) =lim rq (x) =lim ( Z )
=lim
2
Z
Z
Z
Z w
(x / s q ) Z
1 ( x s )
Z
2 n exp n 2 q ,n
n
n =1
2 n=1

(1.18)
w(Z)(x/sr) Z-
( )
sr, n2 = const(n) = N0/2, N0 .
[11, 14],
(M = 2) :
2 E
1
12
p =( p1 + p2 ) =
p1 =
p2 =
1 F

2
2 N0

pr (r = 1, 2) sr(t),
F , .. (
) :

=
F ( x)

1 x
exp(t 2 / 2)dt ,

E12 s1 s2:
=
E12

[ s (t ) s (t )]
T /2

T /2

dt.

,
. , , , , / , ,
.

27

(M > 2)
, [8]:
M

pr prq , r q,

(1.19)

q =1

pr, ,
sr(t), prq , sr(t)
sq(t). (1.19) :

p ( M 1) max prq .
( r ,q )

p M- , max prq (r, q)


( r ,q )

sr(t) sq(t) (r q). , ,


2 E
rq
p ( M 1) 1 min F
( r ,q ) 2 N 0

(1.20)

(1.20) , M-

Emin = min(Erq ) .
( r ,q )

Emin ,
-4, .. . , Ar = Aq = 1, :
Emin = min(Erq ) = min
( r ,q )

( r ,q )

T /2

T /2 sr (t ) sq (t ) dt =
2

2
T /2

= min a (t )cos(2f 0t + r ) a (t )cos(2f 0t + q ) dt .


/2

T
( r ,q )


, :
1 T /2
=
Emin min a 2 (t ) 1 + cos(4f 0t + 2r ) 2cos(4f 0t + r + q )
( r ,q ) 2 T /2

28

2cos(r q ) + 1 + cos(4f 0t + 2q ) dt
T /2

min(1 cos(r p )) =
a 2 (t )dt
(r , p)

T /2

T /2

a (t )dt
=
T /2

Ea ,

.. -4 .
, (1.1) Emin, , , . , , . , , ..
.
; ,
-
.
, , , Emin .

1.5.

, .

[28, 33].
F
F99%.
[3]. : a(t), E(F0)

29

4 F0 E,
=
E ( F0 )
=
Ea

1 2 F0
2

F
d ,
(
)
a
2 2 F0

1
2
=

F
d
(
)
a
2

T /2

T /2

a 2 (t )dt .

, :

= (2 F0 )T ,
2
:
=
Ea

T /2

a 2 (t )dt 1 .
=

(1.21)

T /2

, :

a (=
, )

' d () P () ,
n

(1.22)

= 2t/T , dn() , Pn() n = 0, 1, 2, , , n, 0.


. 1.4
d0(3,6)

6,5775101 d8(3,6)

4,7440104

d2(3,6)

5,9419101 d10(3,6)

1,5071105

d4(3,6)

1,1201101 d12(3,6)

3,3400107

d6(3,6)

9,6427103 d14(3,6)

5,0000109

[3]
= 0 = 5 0,1. , F99%.
= 3,6, 99,15% . -

30

dn() . 1.4, . 1.5


(1.22) = 3,6.

1.4 a(t)/A0
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.5

t/T
-0.3

-0.1

0.1

0.3

0.5

. 1.5. (1.22) = 3,6

, = 3,6, , 99,15% 2,29/T; 99%,


2,24/T. (1.22) = 3,6 . 1.5. . 1.6 (1.1)
(1) (1.22) = 3,6 (2).
. 1.5
-4

F99% T

3,96

2,24

F60 T
>100

,
(1.22) = 3,6 99% , , ; ,
. , -,
.

31

G+(f), dB

-10

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
0

fT

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

. 1.6. (1.1)
(1.22) = 3,6

, , , ,

. [3] ,
, C/n + 1,
a(t) (n 1)-
a(n 1)(t) , a(n)(t) . a(t) :
a ( k ) (t ) |t ==
0,=
k 0, 1, ..., n 1.
T /2

(1.23)

, (1.23), :

32

a(t) = A0cosn(t/T), T/2 t T/2.

(1.24)

t = T/2 (n 1)-
, n- sinn(t/T),
t = T/2 , n- . , (1.24)
, C/(n + 1). . 1.7
(1.24) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5 (1.21).

2 a(t)/A
0

n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5

1.5
1
0.5

t/T

0
-0.5

0.5

0.3

0.1

-0.1

-0.3

. 1.7. (1.24) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5

. 1.6
(1.24) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5. . 1.8
(1.1) (rect)
(1.24) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5 [21].
. 1.6
-4

F99% T

F60 T

4,00

2,36

31,64

5,33

2,82

13,74

6,40

3,31

10,00

7,31

3,77

8,72

10

8,13

4,18

8,49

12

33

G+(f), dB

0
-10

rect
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5

-30
-50
-70
-90
-110
-130
-150
0

fT

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

. 1.8. (1.1)
(1.24) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5

,

F99%. , n = 1 n = 5 60
3,73 , 99% 1,78 .
,
- , ,
.
n - 2,03 .
, , , . , ,
, , , ,
, C/. , (1.24)

34

n = 5 , 99% 4,18/T,
1,87 , (1.22) = 3,6.
[29] ,
,

=
g

1 +
2

g
F
d ,
(
)
(
)
a
2

(1.25)

g() . , , , (1.1), ; , ; ,
. ,
, , (1.1),
, |Fa()|2
1
M +1
T 3( M 1)

( T 4, - (1.1) ),
(1.1) 2:
1 +
1
2
g
(

)
F
(

)
d =
a
2
T
=

2 +
1
1
2
2
g
(

)
F
(

)
+
g
(

)
F
(

)
0
0
0
0
a
a

d .
2
4T
4T

, (1.25) (1.1); .
g() . , -

35


. ,
, .

, .. . ,
, , ,

. :
g() = 2n,

(1.26)

n = 1, 2, 3, ,
. , , n,
. (1.25):
=
g

1 + T /2 T /2
g ()a ( x)a ( y )exp( j ( x y ))dxdyd .
2 T /2 T /2

:
g=

T /2

T /2

T /2 T /2

a ( x)a ( y )G ( x, y )dxdy ,

(1.27)

G (=
x, y )

1
g ()exp( j ( x y ))d .
2

(1.28)

, -
=
(t )

1
exp( jt )d ,
2

,
(2 n ) (t ) =

1
(1) n (2 n ) exp( jt )d .

(1.29)

, (1.29) (1.26) (1.28), :


G ( x, y ) =
( 1) n (2 n ) ( x y ) .

(1.30)

36

n f ( x)
,
f ( x) ( x a )dx =
(1)
x n x =a
(n)

(1.30) (1.27):
g=
(1) n

T /2

T /2

T /2 T /2

a ( x)a ( y )(2 n ) ( x y )dxdy =


(1) n

+ T /2

T /2

a (t )a (2 n ) (t )dt . (1.31)


a(t), (1.31)
(1.21). . [18], , (1.31) (1.21), . ,
2n- :
a (2 n ) + a =0 ,

,
.
(1.23). , ,
, , ,
(1.23) |Fa()|2 ,
C/2(n + 1), (1.25).
, , ,
, , - ,
.
, ,
.
(1.31) [T/2, T/2] :
a0
2
a (t=
)
+ ak cos kt .
2 k =1
T

(1.32)

37

(1.32) (1.31)
g J :
(2 n )
a0
a0
2 d
2
J=
(1) + ak cos kt (2 n ) + ak cos kt dt . (1.33)
2 k 1=
T dt 2 k 1
T
=
T /2
T /2

(1.33):
2n
a0
2
2
n 2
J=
(1) + ak cos kt (1) k ak cos kt dt .
2 k 1=
T
T k1
T
=
T /2
T /2

2
cos
kt dt = 0 , k,

T
T /2

(1.34)

k l,
0,
2 2
cos kt cos lt dt =
T T
T / 2, k = l ,
T /2

(1.35)

T /2

T /2

:
T 2
J = ak2 k .
2 k =1 T
2n

(1.36)

(1.32) (1.21), .. :
2

a0
2
Ea =
2 + ak cos T kt dt =

k =1
T /2
T /2

a02
a0
2
2 2
=
+ 2 ak cos kt + ak al cos kt cos lt dt .

4
2 =k 1
T =k 1 =l 1
T T
T /2
T /2

(1.34) (1.35), :
T a02 T 2
=
+ ak .
Ea
2 2 2 k =1

(1.37)

, :

T a02 2
1.
+ ak =
2 2 k =1

(1.38)

38

(1.23).
, (1.32)
a (t )

t = T /2

b +1
2

2
2
=
=
ak (1) k sin kt
0 , b ,

T
T t =T /2
k =1

(b )

.. .
, , ( a(t)), :
, C/(b + 1) (b + 1) ,
, C/(b + 2).
n = b + 1 n = b + 2,
J.
. , , , , +T/2:
2
2
=
a (1) T k cos T kt

b
b
(b )
2
k
t=
t=
T /2
+ T /2
k =1
t = T /2

(b )

a (t )

, b .
=
a (t )

, (1.23) (1.32)
:
a0
+ ak cos(k ) =
0,
2 k =1

2
ak (1) k cos(k ) =
0, 2 b n 1, b .

k =1

b
2

, :
b

k + 2
a0
(1 sign(b)) + ak (1) 2 k =
0 , 0 b n 1, b ,
2
T
k =1
b

(1.39)

39

1, x > 0,

sign(
=
x) =
0, x 0,
1, x < 0.



.
m = 10 (1.32) C/2
C/6 (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) . 1.7
. 1.9.

2
a(t)/A0

n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5

1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5

t/T
-0.1

-0.3

0.1

0.5

0.3

. 1.9. (1.31) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5 m = 10

. 1.7
n=1

n=2

n=3

n=4

n=5

a0

1,7823100

1,6616100

1,5415100

1,4803100

1,3991100

a1

6,2601101

7,8631101

8,9614101

9,3482101

9,7064101

1,2387101 3,4042102

9,1673102

1,7380101

2,8119101

6,6156103 2,0828102 1,6557102

5,4297103

a2
a3
a4

5,3008102

2,9434102 2,0875103

6,9151103

3,0459103 2,9510103

40

a5
a6
a7
a8
a9
a10

1,8726102

8,5442104 2,8950103 8,1071104

1,2963102 4,1194104
9,5053103

1,4126103

2,7374104 3,8948104

2,2233104 7,6788104 1,0909104

7,2684103 1,3032104
5,7380103

4,5216104

1,8619104

1,6569104

4,9116105 7,7652105

8,1354105 2,8316104 2,4280105

4,6450103 5,3376105

1,0242103

3,9421105

1,2924105 2,1376105

. 1.8
(1.31) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5. . 1.10
(1.1) (rect)
(1.31) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5.

G+(f), dB

0
-10

rect
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5

-30
-50
-70
-90
-110
-130
-150
0

fT

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

. 1.10. (1.1)
(1.31) n = 1, 2, 3, 4 5

41

. 1.8
-4

F99% T

F60 T

4,07

2,42

26,60

5,04

2,71

15,21

6,07

3,18

11,71

6,73

3,49

9,90

10

7,64

3,94

9,72

12

, 60 n = 4 , n = 5. ,
, C/n + 1.
,
(1.31) (1.24) F99% 99% F60
60 . ,
(1.31) (1.24) n = 1, n > 1 .
, , ,
, ,
(1.24).

1.6.
(1.1) . , .

80- XX -

42

[10, 13],
, . - ,
.
, , . (1.1) ( ), 2T (
), T.
M- , ,
2T log2M .
log2M T, .. ,
(1.1) M- , c T. ,
. ,
2 , , , 2 .
- (1.1)
2T T:

t 2kT
(k )
a
cos(2f 0t + r ),
2
k 0=
k 0
(1.40)
N 1
N 1
(2)
( k ) (2)
(k )
( k ) t T 2kT
(k )
=
y2 N (t ) Ar yC ,2 N (=
t )cos(2f 0t + r ) Ar a
cos(2f 0t + r ),
2

k 0=
k 0
=
y2(1)N (t )

N 1

t )cos(2f 0t + (rk ) )
Ar( k ) yC(1),2 N (=

N 1

(k )
r


( )

43

, .
. 1.11 (1.40) a(t)
cos(x).

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

yC(1)
(t)/A0
,2N

t/T
k

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
k

yC(2)
(t)/A0
,2N

k+1

k+2

k+3

k+4

t/T
k+1

k+2

k+3

k+4

. 1.11. (1.40) a(t) cos(x)

, , .. . , , .. .
,
, , .
,
L (1.1), , LT:

=
yLN (t )

L N 1

y (t )
=
=
p 1

( p)
LN

=
p 1=
k 0

1 ( k ) t t p kLT
Ar a
L
L p

(k )
cos(2f 0t + rp ) , (1.41)

LT/2 t LT/2 + NLT + max{tp},

44
( p)
yLN
(t ) p- L- yLN(t), tp -

p- t = LT/2, T, -, , Ar(pk ) (rpk ) , k- p- M- , rp = 1, 2, , M p- , k = 0, 1,


, N 1
p- . 1

L -

. , ,
:

tp = (p 1)T.

a (pk ) (t , L) =

1 t t p kLT
a
L
L

(1.42)

, , N , . , ,
.
(1.1) k- k-
T/2 + kT t T/2 + kT, k = 0, 1, , N 1.
, (k = 0) .
(1.41) LN
L . , (p + kL 1)- k-
p-
LT/2 + tp + kLT t LT/2 + tp + kLT, k = 0, 1, , N 1.

45

(1.41) LN NLT + (L 1)T, (1.1) N


NT. ,

, N . , (1.41) L- (
) .
,
, . , .
,
, , . , . KPp(,kd,l ) k- p- l- d- :
LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

KP
=
( k ,l )
p ,d

LT /2

{A

(k )
rp

a (pk ) (t , L)cos(2f 0t + (rpk ) )

(1.43)

Aq(dl ) ad(l ) (t , L)cos(2f 0t + (qld) ) dt.

,
k l , .
. , , k-

46


KP1,(dk ,k 1) KP1,(dk ,k ) , d = 2, 3, , L.
,
. KG p( k ) k-
p- :
L N 1

KG

(k )
p

= KPp(,kd,l ) .

(1.44)

=
d 1 =l 0
d p

, :
=
KG1( k )

( KP
L

d =2

( k ,k 1)
1,d

+ KP1,(dk ,k ) ) .

, , k-
k- .
, ,
, .
. .

LT/2 + kT t LT/2 + (k + 1)T, , , L = 8
M = 4 ML = 65 536. . , -

, max KG p( k ) = 0 , p ,k

.
[22] [25] ,

47


- .
, .. , 1 ( -2 ), , 0.
. , L = 2, , .

1.7.
-
.
- .
- ,
-
.
.
1.

,
-
.
2.


, - .

48

3.

.
4.

.
5.

49

2.
.
. -
. ,
. .

2.1. -
- (1.41), :
2
max { yLN
(t )}
P
= = lim
.
Pcp N 1 LT /2+ NLT +( L1)T 2

E
yLN (t )dt

NLT LT /2

(2.1)

, (1.41) (. 2.1)
(2.1)
T.
k- (1.41):
LT/2 T + kLT t LT/2 + kLT.
, k- ,
(, L- k- ):

max { y (t )}
2
LN

L 1
t t p kLT
Ar(pk ) a
max

LT
LT

L
L
t T + kLT ; + kLT p =1

2
2

(k )

f
t
cos(2
)

0
rp

50

a(1k )(t)

a(t)/A0
1

0.8

a(3k -1)(t)

a(3k )(t)

a(2k )(t)

a(4k -1)(t)

0.6

0.4

0.2
a(2k -1)(t)

0
4k - 2

4k - 1

4k

a(4k )(t)
4k + 1

t/T

4k + 2

. 2.1. (1.42) L = 4 a(t) cos(x)

2
yLN
(t ) :

L (k ) (k )

2
yLN
(t ) LT
Arp a p (t , L=
)cos(2f 0t + (rpk ) )
=
LT

t T + kLT ; + kLT
2
2

p =1

L (k ) (k )

L (k ) (k )

(k )
= Arp a p (t , L)cos(rp ) cos(2f 0t ) Arp a p (t , L)sin((rpk ) ) sin(2f 0t ) .
p 1 =p 1

,
x cos y sin
=
z cos( + ),

z cos = x, z sin = y, z 2= x 2 + y 2 ,

=
x

A
p =1

(k )
rp

a (pk ) (t , L)cos((rpk ) ) ,

51

=
y

A
p =1

(k )
rp

a (pk ) (t , L)sin((rpk ) )


2
L

2
Ar(pk ) a (pk ) (t , L)cos((rpk ) ) +
yLN
(t ) =
LT
LT

t T + kLT ; + kLT
p =1
2
2

L (k ) (k )

+ Arp a p (t , L)sin((rpk ) )
p =1

cos 2 (2f 0t ) =

L L (k ) (k ) (k )
(k )
(k )
(k )
(k )
(k )
2
A
A
a
t
L
a
t
L
(
,
)
(
,
)
cos
cos
sin
sin

=
+

rp qd p
d
rp
qd
rp
qd cos (2f 0t )
=p 1 =d 1

L L (k ) (k ) (k )
(k )
(k )
(k )
2
Arp Aqd a p (t , L)ad (t , L)cos rp qd cos (2f 0t ) .
=p 1 =d 1

(2.2)

,
:
P max
=
=
{ yLN2 (t )}
L L (k ) (k ) (k )

Arp Aqd a p (t , L)ad( k ) (t , L)cos (rpk ) (qkd ) .

LT
LT

T + kLT ; + kLT =
t
p 1=
d 1

2
2

max

(2.3)

, a (pk ) (t , L) , , , (2.3) Ar(pk ) ,

Aq(dk ) cos((rpk ) (qkd ) ) . ,


,

{ }

{ }

max
=
Ar(pk ) max
=
Aq(dk ) max cos((rpk ) =
(qkd ) ) 1 ,

, k- L
. , M. , (2.3)

52

. , , , a (pk ) (t , L)
,
2
L

(k )
P =
max
a p (t , L) .
LT
LT

t T + kLT ; + kLT p =1

2
2

(k = 0) (1.42), (2.3) :
2

t
t

p
.
P =
max a

L t LT T ; LT p =1 L
2
2

(2.4)

,
= /2 . [25, 32], - = 2 L = 2
a(t). (2.3)
: ; (2.4)
:
2
L t t 2 L
t t p
1

p
=
P
max ' a
+ '' a
,
L t LT T ; LT p 1 =
L
L
1
p
=


2
2

(2.5)

, p,
p.
(2.1). ,
T. k- (1.41):
Pcp

1 LT /2+ NLT +( L1)T 2

1 LT /2+ kLT 2

E=
y
(
t
)
dt
E
yLN (t )dt .

LN

NLT LT /2

T LT /2T + kLT

2
(2.2) yLN
(t ) -

53

1 LT /2+ kLT 2

Pcp E=
=
LT /2T + kLT yLN (t )dt
T

1 LT /2+ kLT L L ( k ) ( k ) ( k )

(k )
(k )
(k )
2

E
A
A
a
t
L
a
t
L
f
t
dt
(
,
)
(
,
)cos
cos
(2
)

rp qd p
d
rp
qd
0

LT /2T + kLT =p 1 =d 1

1
E
2T

L L (k ) (k ) (k )
(k )
(k )
(k )

A
A
a
t
L
a
t
L
dt
(
,
)
(
,
)cos
=
rp qd p
d
rp
qd

=
=
p
1
d
1

LT /2T + kLT
LT /2+ kLT

1
= E
2T

L ( k )2 ( k )2
Arp a p (t , L) +
LT /2T + kLT p =1
LT /2+ kLT

(k ) (k ) (k )
(k )
(k )
(k )

A
A
a
(
t
,
L
)
a
(
t
,
L
)cos
dt
=
rp qd p
d
rp
qd
p= 1 d= p +1

L 1

+ 2

1
=
2T

L
( k )2
( k )2
E Arp a p (t , L) +

LT /2T + kLT p =1
LT /2+ kLT

)}

(k ) (k )
(k )
(k )
(k )
(k )
E
A
A
cos
a
(
t
,
L
)
a
(
t
,
L
)

dt.
rp qd
rp
qd
p
d
p= 1 d= p +1

L 1

+2

E Ar(pk )2 =

M +1
3( M 1)

)} {

( )

( )

k)
E Ar(pk ) Aq(dk ) cos (r=
(qkd )
E Ar(pk ) cos (rpk ) Aq(dk ) cos (qkd )
p

( )} {

( )

(k )
Ar(pk ) sin (rpk ) Aq(dk ) sin =
E Z r(pkc) Z q(dkc) Z r(pks)=
Z q(dks)
qd

} {

= E Z r(pkc) Z q(dkc) E Z r(pks) Z q(dks) = 0,

LT /2+ kLT
L ( k )2

1
M +1
Pcp =
a
(
t
,
L
)
p
dt .
2T 3( M 1) LT /2T + kLT p =1

(k = 0) (1.42):

54
LT /2
L 1 2 t t p
M +1
1
Pcp =
a
dt .
2T 3( M 1) LT /2 T p =1 L L


x = (t tp)/L:

=
Pcp
=

1
M + 1 L T /2t p / L
=
a 2 ( x)dx

T
T
L
t
L
/2

/
p
2T 3( M 1) p =1
1
M + 1 L T /2 pT / L+T / L 2
a ( x)dx.

2T 3( M 1) p =1 T /2 pT / L

, p 1 L
[T/2, T/2]:
M + 1 T /2 2
1 LT /2+ kLT 2
1
=
P E=
y
t
dt
(
)
LT /2T + kLT LN

a (t )dt .
T
2T 3( M 1) T /2

(2.6)

(2.3) (k = 0) k
, (2.6), - L- :

L L
t t p t td
1
max Arp Aqd a
a L
LT
LT
L
L
t
T
;

p
d
1
1
=
=

2
3( M 1)
2
=2
Ea / T
M +1

cos(
)

rp
qd

. (2.7)

(2.7) -
, ,
. , (2.7)

M. , ..
, (2.7)
:

L t t 2
1

p
max a

LT
LT
L
L
t T ; p =1


3( M 1)
2
2
=2
.
Ea / T
M +1

(2.8)

55

(2.8)

M M. ,

L = 1 (2.8) (1.10), .
, = /2 , :
2
L t t 2 L
t t p
1

p
max ' a
+ '' a L
LT
LT
L
L
t T ; p 1 =
=

p1

3( M 1)
2
2
,
=2
M +1
Ea / T

(2.9)

, p,
p.
. 2.1 - (1.41) L = 2, 4, 8 a(t), (2.8).
. 2.1

cos(x)

cos2(x)

M=4

M = 16

M=

4,00

7,20

12,00

4,00

7,20

12,00

6,83

12,29

20,49

13,14

23,65

39,41

5,33

9,60

16,00

2,67

4,80

8,00

5,33

9,60

16,00

10,67

19,20

32,00

, , -,
L = 2 , , , cos2(). -, , L = 2 L = 4, -.

56

, , -,
, , - .

2.2.
(1.41):
2
N

1
( p)
G () lim
E S LN () ,
=
N NLT
p =1

( p)

=
S LN
()

(2.10)

( p)
yLN
(t )exp( jt )dt N- -

p- L- . ,
( p)
. 1.3, S LN
() :

( p)
LN

LT /2+t p + NLT N 1

()

LT /2+t p

LT /2+t p + NLT N 1

k =0

LT /2+t p

LT /2+t p + NLT N 1

LT /2+t p

k =0

k =0

1 ( k ) t t p kLT
(k )
Arp a =
cos(0t + rp )exp( jt )dt
L
L

t t p kLT
1 (k )
Arp exp( j(rpk ) )a
L
L

t t p kLT
1 (k )
Arp exp( j(rpk ) )a
L
L

exp( j ( 0 )t )dt +

j
t
dt
exp(
(
)
)
0

1 ( p)
( p )*
S LN ( 0 ) + S LN
( + 0 ) .
2

p- . , x = (t tp kLT)/L:
=
S ( 0 )
( p)
LN

LT /2+t p + NLT N 1

LT /2+t p

k =0

t t p kLT
=
exp( j(rpk ) )a
exp( j ( 0 )t )dt
L
L

Ar(pk )

57
N 1

Ar(pk )

k =0

T /2

T /2

0 ) Lx)dx
a ( x)exp( j ( =

N 1
1 ( L)
Fa ( 0 ) Ar(pk ) exp( j(rpk ) )exp( j ( 0 )(t p +=
kLT ))
L
k =0

=
=

exp( j(rpk ) )exp( j ( 0 )(t p + kLT )) L

N 1

LFa ( L( 0 ))exp( j ( 0 )t p ) Ar(pk ) exp( j(rpk ) )exp( j ( 0 )kLT ) ,


k =0

Fa( L ) ( =
0 ) L

T /2

T /2

a (t )exp( j ( 0 )=
Lt )dt LFa ( L( 0 ))

(2.11)

a(t/L).

(2.10)
2
N

1
( p)
) lim
G (=
E S LN () = G+ () + G (),
N NLT
p =1

L 1 L
L ( p)

2
1
( p)
( d )*
E S LN
( 0 ) + 2 Re ( S LN
( 0 ) S LN
( 0 ) ) ,
N 4 NLT
p= 1 d= p +1
p= 1

G+ () lim
=

L 1 L
L ( p)

2
1
( p)
( d )*
E S LN
( + 0 ) + 2 Re ( S LN
( + 0 ) S LN
( + 0 ) ) .
N 4 NLT
p= 1 d= p +1
p= 1

G () lim
=

G+():

( p)
E S LN
( =
0 )
L Fa ( L( 0 ))

N 1 N 1

exp( j ( )(k l ) LT )

=
k 0=l 0

(2.12)

E Ar(pk ) Aq(lp) exp( j(rpk ) j(qlp) ) .

0,
k l,

E Ar(pk ) Aq(lp) exp( j(rpk ) j(qlp) ) = M + 1


3( M 1) , k = l.

(2.13), (2.12):

(2.13)

58

( p)
( 0 )
=
E S LN
NL

M +1
2
Fa ( L( 0 )) .
3( M 1)

(2.14)

(2.14), ,

( p)
( d )*
E Re ( S LN
( 0 ) S LN
( 0 ) ) = 0 .

(2.15)

(2.14) (2.15), G+():


=
G+ ()

2
1
M +1
L
M +1
2
=
Fa( L ) ( 0 )
Fa ( L( 0 )) , (2.16)
4 LT 3( M 1)
4T 3( M 1)

< 0:
=
G ()

2
M +1
L
M +1
1
2
=
Fa( L ) ( + 0 )
Fa ( L( + 0 )) .
4 LT 3( M 1)
4T 3( M 1)

, (2.16)

M M. (2.16) , , -,

,
a(t). -, L L . , a(t)
,
. , .

2.3.

(1.18) .
, , .
(1.41), , M- . p- (p = 1, 2, , L) k-
t [LT/2 + tp + kLT, LT/2 + tp + kLT] r- (r = 1, 2, , M)

59

M 2 (L 1) . (L 1) spr(t, c), , p- r- , c (c = 1, 2, , M 2 (L 1)).


,
p- [10, 38, 40]:
M 2 ( L 1)

p ,rq (x)= lim (pZ,rq) (x)= lim M 2c(=L11)


Z

d =1

w( Z ) (x / s pr (t , c))

(2.17)

(Z )

w (x / s pq (t , d ))

, , : p- r-
spr(t), r q (r, q = 1, 2, , M)
p,rq > 1.

(2.18)

(2.17) (1.18) ,

p,rq

M 2 (L 1) . ,
, /. , ,
ln(rq). (2.18) ,
:

p-

spr(t),

rq

(r, q = 1, 2, , M)

lim

max {w( Z ) (x / s pr (t , c))}


c

max {w( Z ) (x / s pq (t , d ))}


d

> 1.

(2.19)

60

(2.19) (2.18).
, /,
. ,
, (, ), . , ,
, , (, ) . , /
(2.19).
(2.19), , M- .
, : spr(t, c) spq(t, c) p = 1, 2, , L, r q (r, q = 1, 2, , M)
c, d = 1, 2, , M 2 (L 1), .

2.4.
, , L , - ,
,
. a(t) (1.41),
(1.25) (1.21) (1.23), - .

61

, - KG KP , L.
. 1.5,
,
(1.32).

.
, , .
. ,
. , , ,
.
, , ,
- ,
(2.7) t [ LT / 2 T , LT / 2] . (2.7) t .
, ,
-. ,
m (1.21)
, , t , . ,
, - 2 ( ).
(2.7) t :
LT /2

1
P(t )
dt = 2 .
T LT /2 T Pcp

62

,
. ,
,
, , .
m , m,
. {ak( m ) } , k = 0, 1, 2, , m, {ak( m ) } {ak( m+1) } (..
a (t / L) / L ):
2

LT /2
( m +1)
m +1
a0( m ) m ( m )
1
2 a0
2
2
=
m ,m+1
+

+
a
kt
ak( m+1) cos
kt dt .
cos

LT
LT
LT
2
2


=
k 1=
k 1

LT /2

(2.20)
{ak( m ) } am( m+1) = 0 ,
, (2.20):
1
=
2m ,m+1
LT

a0( m ) a0( m+1) m+1 ( m )


2
kt dt
+ ( ak ak( m+1) ) cos
=

2
LT

=
k
1
LT /2
LT /2

T /2
a0( m ) a0( m+1) m+1 ( m )
1
2
( m +1)
a
a
cos
=
+

(
)

k
k
kt dt .
T T/2
2
T
k =1

(1.37),

2
1 (m)
1 m+1 ( m )
( m +1) 2
= ( a0 a0 ) + ( ak ak( m+1) ) .
4
2 k =1

2
m ,m +1

, {ak( m ) } ,
m, m + 1 0,001. 0,001 , ,

63

, ,
{ak( m ) } ( ) {ak( m+ z ) } z >> 1, ,
.
m, .
m,
.
m 1

m, m + 1

0,001. -

, m 0,001.
m 1.

[15]. ,
, , . , , ,
cosn(t/T) (, ), n
.
,
. , ,
.
..

64

, (1.36) , (1.37)
(1.39) . , , [LT/2, LT/2], :
a (t / L)
=
L

1 a0
2
2 + ak cos LT kt .
L

k =1

(2.21)

(1.25) (2.16):
=
g

2
1 +
1 ( L)
1 +
2
g
(

)
F
(

)
=
d

g
(

)
L
F
(
L

)
d.
a
a
2
L
2

(2.22)

(1.25) (2.22)
1
M +1
.
T 3( M 1)

(2.22) g(). ,
,
g() = 2n,

(2.23)

, , () L ,
g() = (L)2n.

(2.24)

, g() (2.23)
(2.24) ; , (1.25):
=
g

1 + 2 n
1 1 + 2 n
2
2

L
F
(
L

)
d

F
(

)
d
a
a
2
L2 n 2

(2.25)

=
g

1 +
1 + 2 n
2
2
2n
(
L

)
L
F
(
L

)
d

F
(

)
d .
a
a
2
2

(2.26)

65

, (2.25) (2.26), (2.23)


(2.24), ,
, .
, ,

(1.36)
T 2
J = ak2 k .
2 k =1 T
2n

:
2

1 a0
2
=+
ak cos
kt dt =

L
LT
2

k =1

LT /2
LT /2

( L)
a

a0
2
=
+
a
cos
Ea .

k
kt dt =
2

k =1
T /2
T /2

, (1.38):

T a02 2
1.
+ ak =
2 2 k =1
(1.23).

t = LT/2:
b +1
1 (b )
1
2
2
a (t / L)
=
ak (1) 2
k sin
kt
=
0 , b .

t = LT /2
L
L k =1
LT
LT t = LT /2
b

, . :
b
1 (b )
1
1 (b )
2
2
,
a (t / L)
=
ak (1) 2
k cos
kt
=
a (t )

b +1/2
t = T /2
LT
LT
L
L
L

=
1
k
t = LT /2
t = LT /2
b

b .
-
Lb + 1/2 , ,

66

, .
, ,
, (1.39):
b

k + 2
a0
(1 sign(b)) + ak (1) 2 k =
0, 0 b n 1, b .
T
2

k =1
b

, , ,

[23]. - .
- P = 16 ti t [ LT / 2 T , LT / 2] :
ti = LT/2 T +iT/P, i = 1, 2, 3, , P.

(2.27)

{ti}, t0 = LT/2 T, t [ LT / 2 T , LT / 2] ,
- t0 ,
tP. - P :
2

2T 3( M 1) L ti t p
a
,
L
M + 1 p =1 L

(2.28)

i = 1, 2, , P, (1.21). (2.21) (2.28) , .


. 1.6 (1.43) (1.44) . , , , , .
-, L > 2 -

67

. : .
.
(1.41) (. 2.1),
. k- 1- .
k-
1- l- d- :
KP1,(dk ,l )

1
2L

1
L

LT /2+ NLT +
+ ( L 1)T

LT /2

) (l )
Ar(1k ) a1( k ) (t , L)cos(2f 0t + (r1k ) ) Aq(dl=
ad (t , L)cos(2f 0t + (qld) )dt

LT /2+ NLT +
+ ( L 1)T

LT /2

Ar(1k ) Aq(dl ) a1( k ) (t , L)ad(l ) (t , L){cos((r1k ) (qld) ) + cos(4f 0t + (r1k ) + (qld) )}dt.

:
( k ,l )
1,d

KP

1 ( k ) (l )
Ar1 Aqd cos((r1k ) (qld) )

2L

LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

a1( k ) (t , L)ad(l ) (t , L)dt .

(2.29)

LT /2

. ,
= /2,
. . , . ,

{ }

{ }

max
=
Ar(1k ) max
=
Aq(dl ) 1

max cos((r1k ) (qld) ) =1 ,

68

k- 1- l- d- :
( k ,l )
1,d

max{KP
A, ,l

1
} = max
l
2 L

LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

LT /2

a1( k ) (t , L)ad(l ) (t , L)dt .

(2.30)

, KP1,(dk ,k 1)
KP1,(dk ,k ) , (2.30) 2 : l = k 1
l = k. k- 1-
, :
( k ,l )
1,d

max{KP
A, ,l ,d

1
} = max
l ,d
2 L

LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

LT /2

a1( k ) (t , L)ad(l ) (t , L)dt ,

(2.31)

l = k 1, l = k d = 2, 3, , L.
(d, l) (2.31)
2(L 1) , (L 1).
, (2.31) :
(d = 2 + i, l = k 1) (d = L i, l = k),
i = 0, 1, , L 1. (2.31):
( k ,l )
1,d

max{KP
A, ,l ,d

1 LT /2+ NLT +( L1)T ( k )

(k )
a
t
L
a
t
L
dt
} max
(
,
)
(
,
)
=

d
1

d >1
2 L

LT /2

1 LT /2+ kLT + LT t kLT t t kLT


d
max
a
a
=

dt

d >1
2
L
L
L


LT /2+ kLT +td

1
= max
d >1
2

td

a ( t kT ) a t L kT dt .
T /2+ kT +td / L

T /2+ kT +T

,
k- 1- , :

69

1
max {KP } max
=
A,,k ,l , p ,d
d >1
2
( k ,l )
p ,d

(
)
(
/
)
a
t
a
t
t
L
dt

,
d

T /2+td / L

T /2

(2.32)

d = 2, 3, , L. (1.21), ,
1/2:
KPp(,kd,l ) 1 / 2 .

, , KPp(,kd,l ) / 2 .
(2.32),
p [0, 1 / 2] (L 1) :

T /2

T /2+td / L

a (t )a (t td / L)dt 2 p , d = 2, 3, , L.

(2.33)

.
k- 1- :
(k )
KG1=

L N 1

,l )
KPp(,k=
d

d 2=l 0
=

( KP
L

d 2
=

1 L l =k ( k ) (l )
=
Ar1 Aqd cos((r1k ) (qld) )

2 L d = 2 l= k 1

( k ,k 1)
1,d

)
+ KP1,(dk ,k=
)

LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

a1( k ) (t , L)ad(l ) (t , L)dt .

(2.34)

LT /2

, , , ,
A A cos(
(k )
r1

(l )
qd

(k )
r1

LT /2+ NLT +( L1)T ( k )

(l )
a
(
t
,
L
)
a
(
t
,
L
)
dt
) =sign
,
1
d
/2

LT

(l )
qd

(2.35)

l = k 1, l = k d = 2, 3, , L. (2.35) k- 1- :

70
LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

1 L l =k
max{KG } =

2 L d = 2 l= k 1

(k )
1

a1( k ) (t , L)ad(l ) (t , L)dt .

(2.36)

LT /2

(2.31), (2.36) (L 1)
2(L 1). , , (2.31), :
T /2+ kT +T

a ( t kT ) a t d kT dt .
L

d = 2 T /2+ kT +td / L
L

=
KG }
max{
(k )
1

(2.37)

, ,
k- 1-
,
(2.37) , :
=
max{KG p( k ) }
p ,k

d =2

T /2

T /2+td / L

a (t )a (t td / L)dt .

(2.38)

, (L 1):
KG p( k ) L 1 .

, , , 2(L 1)
, .

KG p( k ) / ( L 1) .
(2.38),
g [0, L 1] :
L

d =2

T /2

T /2+td / L

a (t )a (t td / L)dt g .

(2.39)

.
(2.21) (2.33) (2.39)
, .

71

, (2.33) (2.39)
.
,
, = /2 , L L/2.
- = 2,01,
, ,

= 0,01.

, m,
, , - 2,00 0,02 , .. .

(1.36) (1.38), (1.39), -
(2.28) (2.33) (2.39).
,
. ,
=
G+ ()

L
M +1
2
Fa ( L( 0 )) ,
4T 3( M 1)

.. , Fa(L( 0)). (1.32) (2.11):


Fa ( L 2f )
=

T /2

T /2

T /2

a (t )exp(=
j 2fLt )dt

b cos T

T /2 k =0

2f = ( 0), b0 = a0/2 bk = ak k = 1, 2, , m.
:

kt exp( j 2fLt )dt ,

72
T /2

=
Fa ( L 2f )

b cos T
k

T /2 k =0

T /2

=
kt cos(2fLt )dt
b cos
T

T /2 k =0

T /2

fLt ) j sin(2fLt ) )dt


kt ( cos(2=

m
1
=
bk cos ( 2 ( fL + k / T ) t ) + cos ( 2 ( fL k / T ) t ) dt .
2 T/2 k =0

fLT. fLT n,
n [m, m],

1 m 2sin ( ( fL + k / T ) T ) 2sin ( ( fL k / T ) T )
Fa ( L 2f )
=
+

bk 2 ( fL + k / T )=
2 k =0
2 ( fL k / T )

1 m sin ( ( fLT + k ) ) sin ( ( fLT k ) )


=
+
=

bk
2 k =0 ( fL + k / T )
( fL k / T )

1 m
2fL
=
=
(1) k bk sin(fLT )

2 k =0
(fL) 2 (k / T ) 2

T m
fLT
(1) k bk sin(fLT )
=
.

(fLT ) 2 k 2
k =0
fLT = n,

Fa ( L 2f ) =

T
a .
2 n

:
LT
M +1
=
G+ (2f )
2
4 3( M 1)

fLT
(1) bk sin(fLT )
, fLT n,

2
2

fLT
k
(
)
k =0
m

LT
M +1 2
=
=
G+ (2f )
a , fLT n.
16 3( M 1) n

(2.40)

(2.40)
.

73

2.5. 2
1.

, a(t)

-, - .
2.

a(t) L.
a(t) L- L .
3.

, - .
4.

- -

.
5.

,

.
6.

, -

,
.
.

74

3.

,

, - . , , .
.
- , ,
g p, , -
.
L = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 = 6, 10,
14.
, m,
, m + 1 0,001. m 40.

3.1. -

, (
) . - L, L - -

75

L- -
L.
- , ,
. , > L , L

max(L)

= L.

min

= 2,01.

. 3.1 max(L) -4
= 6 L.
. 3.1
L
max(L)

16

32

2,97

5,54

11,03

22,06

44,12

min max(L) , - .
:
= {2,01 2,49 2,97 4,26 5,54 8,29 11,03 16,54 22,06 33,09 44,12}.

(3.1)

L (3.1),
max(L).
L = 32.
- -4 -2,

= /2.

76

(2.8) (2.9)
3( M 1)
M +1

3( M 1)
M +1
, M -, .
3.1.1. -4
. 3.1
F = F99% / R, . 3.1 F60
-4, = 6 L = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. . 3.1
.
, L, (3.1) , , , ; , L = 32 .
, , L, .
, L = 32
, L = 16 ..

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-1

10

10

77

F-60 dB

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

10

10

g 10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

10

10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-1

10

10

. 3.1. -4 = 6
- -

78

. 3.2 L = 2, 4, 8, 16
32 , = 6.

1.2
1

a(t)/A0

= 2.49
= 2.97

0.8
0.6

0.4
0.2
0
-1
1.2
1

t/T
-0.75

-0.5

-0.25

0.25

0.5

a(t)/A0

0.75

= 2.49
= 2.97
= 4.26
= 5.54

0.8
0.6

0.4
0.2
0
-2
1.2
1

t/T
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

a(t)/A0

1.5

= 2.49
= 2.97
= 4.26
= 5.54
= 8.29
= 11.03

0.8
0.6
0.4

0.2
0
-4

t/T
-3

-2

-1

79

1.2
1

a(t)/A0

= 2.49
= 2.97
= 4.26
= 5.54
= 8.29
= 11.03
= 16.54
= 22.06

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

t/T
-6

-8
1.2
1

-4

-2

a(t)/A0

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-12

= 2.97
= 4.26
= 5.54
= 8.29
= 11.03
= 16.54
= 22.06
= 33.09
= 44.12

0.8

-16

-8

-4

12

t/T
16

. 3.2. - -4 = 6

. 3.2 ,
-, .. a(t)

. . ,
32-

= 22,06 (. 3.2) , ,

16- . -
= 2,49 2-.
,
, L -

80

. , . 3.3 = 5,54 L = 4, 8, 16, 32.


, .

0.8 a(t)/A0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-2

t/T
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

. 3.3. - -4 = 6
= 5,54 L = 4, 8, 16, 32

L , - = 2,01. , ,
. [16],
, m 40 .
32- - = 2,49 , , m = 40
.
. 3.2 - -4 = 6. ,
L ,
m = 40 .
p ,
. , L 16 p.

81

. 3.2
L

16

32

F99% T

F60 T

2,01

2,49

0,12

0,061

1,54

6,08

2,97

0,19

0,095

1,36

7,41

2,01

11

2,49

0,12

0,061

1,54

5,70

2,97

0,24

0,121

1,29

3,44

4,26

0,56

0,257

0,89

2,44

5,54

0,88

0,339

0,68

3,70

2,01

18

2,49

0,12

0,061

1,55

4,44

14

2,97

0,24

0,121

1,29

3,47

10

4,26

0,56

0,256

0,89

2,43

10

5,54

0,88

0,339

0,69

1,92

8,29

1,57

0,421

0,46

1,60

11,03

2,26

0,454

0,34

1,85

2,01

31

2,49

0,12

0,060

1,56

3,90

21

2,97

0,24

0,119

1,30

2,68

16

4,26

0,56

0,255

0,90

2,00

12

5,54

0,88

0,338

0,69

1,55

10

8,29

1,57

0,421

0,46

1,27

11,03

2,25

0,454

0,35

0,93

16,54

3,61

0,479

0,23

0,70

22,06

5,01

0,488

0,17

0,93

2,01

2,49

34

2,97

0,22

0,110

1,31

2,12

82

32

4,26

0,56

0,255

0,90

1,98

25

5,54

0,88

0,338

0,69

1,55

12

8,29

1,55

0,419

0,47

0,77

12

11,03

2,24

0,453

0,35

0,77

12

16,54

3,62

0,479

0,23

0,73

22,06

5,00

0,488

0,17

0,47

33,09

7,74

0,495

0,11

0,34

44,12

10,53

0,497

0,08

0,46

. 3.13.3 . 3.2 .
1.

L -4 = 6 ,

- = 2,01.
2.

L -,
.. .
3.

- 60 .
4.

F -

- (LF F),
. L < LF
- , L > LF
- = F,
L-

LF-.

F = 0,12 LF = 16 F = 16,54.
5.

F, L, .

83

6.

, , , .. .
L -, ..

7.

,
, .

- -4 = 10, 14. ,

= 6,

= 10, 14.
. 3.4 F,
. 3.4 F60 -4, L = 32
= 6, 10, 14. . 3.4
.

=6
= 10
= 14

-1

10

10

F-60 dBT

=6
= 10
= 14

10

10

84

g 10

=6
= 10
= 14

10

10

=6
= 10
= 14

-1

10

10

. 3.4. 32- -4
- -

, ,
. ,
, , .
. 3.4 , F60 . , -

85


G() ~ 1/. , (, 40 ,
60 ) .
3.1.2. -2
. 3.5 F
-2 (
= /2 )
= 6. . 3.5 .

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

10

-1

10

10

g
0

10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-2

10

10

86

p
-1

10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-2

10

10

. 3.5. -2 = 6
- -

. 3.6 L = 2, 4, 8, 16
32 , = 6.

a(t)/A0

= 2.01
= 2.27
= 2.52

0.8

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-1

t/T
-0.75

-0.5

-0.25

0.25

0.5

1 a(t)/A

0.75

= 2.01
= 2.27
= 2.52
= 2.65
= 2.77

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0
-2

t/T
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

87

a(t)/A0

= 2.01
= 2.27
= 2.52
= 2.65
= 2.77
= 4.14
= 5.51

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

t/T
-3

-4
1

-2

-1

a(t)/A0

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0.8

-6

-4

-2

a(t)/A0

0.4
0.2
0
-12

t/T
8

= 2.27
= 2.52
= 2.65
= 2.77
= 4.14
= 5.51
= 8.27
= 11.03
= 16.54
= 22.06

0.6

-16

= 2.01
= 2.27
= 2.52
= 2.65
= 2.77
= 4.14
= 5.51
= 8.27
= 11.03

0.8

-8

-8

-4

12

t/T
16

. 3.6. - -2 = 6

88

. 3.6 , , -4,
a(t) . . ,
32- = 8,27 (. 3.6) , ,
16- . -
= 2,01 2-.
, -4, , L
. , . 3.7 = 2,65 L = 4, 8, 16, 32.
, .

0.8

a(t)/A0

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-2

t/T
-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.5

1.5

. 3.7. - -2 = 6
= 2,65 L = 4, 8, 16, 32

. 3.3 - -2 = 6.
. 3.3
L

m
2

F99% T

F60 T

2,01

0,00

0,000

1,34

8,17

2,27

0,00

0,000

1,32

7,81

89

16

32

2,52

0,00

0,000

1,36

7,41

12

2,01

0,00

0,001

1,11

4,77

2,27

0,07

0,034

0,85

2,83

2,52

0,13

0,065

0,76

2,65

2,65

0,16

0,081

0,71

3,39

2,77

0,19

0,095

0,68

3,70

18

2,01

0,00

0,001

1,13

4,31

11

2,27

0,07

0,034

0,85

2,78

10

2,52

0,13

0,064

0,76

2,52

2,65

0,16

0,080

0,72

1,90

2,77

0,19

0,096

0,69

1,90

4,14

0,53

0,247

0,46

1,60

5,51

0,88

0,339

0,34

1,85

27

2,01

0,00

0,001

1,16

3,26

21

2,27

0,07

0,033

0,86

2,55

14

2,52

0,13

0,064

0,76

1,77

13

2,65

0,16

0,079

0,72

1,63

12

2,77

0,19

0,096

0,69

1,55

10

4,14

0,53

0,246

0,46

1,27

5,51

0,87

0,337

0,35

0,93

8,27

1,56

0,420

0,23

0,70

11,03

2,26

0,454

0,17

0,93

2,01

35

2,27

0,07

0,034

0,85

2,16

28

2,52

0,13

0,064

0,76

1,75

27

2,65

0,16

0,079

0,72

1,63

25

2,77

0,19

0,096

0,69

1,55

12

4,14

0,52

0,242

0,47

0,77

12

5,51

0,87

0,336

0,35

0,77

90

12

8,27

1,56

0,420

0,23

0,73

11,03

2,25

0,454

0,17

0,47

16,54

3,62

0,479

0,12

0,34

22,06

5,01

0,488

0,08

0,46

. 3.53.7 . 3.3 , , -4,


-2. -4, L ,
- = 2,01, -2 -4. , = 6 L = 2,
F, 2-
.
-2
= 10, 14 , , = 6, = 10, 14.
. 3.8 F,
. 3.8 F60 -2, L = 32
= 6, 10, 14. . 3.8
.

F 100

=6
= 10
= 14

-1

10

10

91

F-60 dBT

=6
= 10
= 14

10

10

g
0

10

=6
= 10
= 14

-2

10

10

p
-1

10

=6

10

-3

10

= 10
= 14

-2

10

. 3.8. 32- -2
- -

92

, ,
-4,
. , , .

G() ~ 1/.
3.1.3. -2 -4

- -2 -4 . 3.9 F, . 3.8
F60 L = 32 = 10. . 3.8
.

M-4
M-2

)
-1

10

10

F-60 dBT

M-4
M-2

10

10

93

g
M-4
M-2

10

-2

10

10

p
M-4
M-2

-1

10

)
-2

10

10

. 3.9. 32- -2 -4
- -

,
-2 -4. , -2 - = 2,01, -4 L . ,
2,5 L-
-4 (2L)- -2.

94

3.2.


g p. g, max(L) p, max(L) . . 3.4 g, max(L)
p, max(L) = 6 L.
. 3.4
L

16

32

g, max(L)

0,19

0,88

2,26

5,01

10,53

p, max(L)

0,095

0,339

0,454

0,488

0,497

,
g, min = 0,01 p, min = 0,01. g, min, g, max(L) p, min, p, max(L)
,
.

:
g = {0,01 0,10 0,19 0,53 0,88 1,57 2,26 3,64 5,01 7,77 10,53},
p = {0,010 0,053 0,095 0,217 0,339 0,397 0,454 0,471 0,488 0,493 0,497}.

(3.2)

-4. (2.33) (2.39)


.
, , = /2

95

,
L L/2.
3.2.1.
. 3.10 F,
. 3.10 F60 g -4 = 6.
. 3.10 -
g .

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-1

10

g
-2

10

-1

10

10

F-60 dBT

10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

10

g
-2

10

-1

10

10

10

96

p
L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-1

10

-2

10

g
-2

-1

10

10

10

10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

40
30

20
10

g
-2

-1

10

10

10

10

. 3.10. -4 = 6

. 3.11 L = 2, 4, 8, 16
32 g, = 6.

a(t)/A0

= 0.01
g
= 0.10
g

= 0.19
g

0.5
0
-1

t/T
-0.75

-0.5

-0.25

0.25

0.5

0.75

97

a(t)/A0

= 0.01
g

= 0.10
g

0.8

= 0.19
g

0.6

= 0.53

0.4

= 0.88
g

0.2
0
-0.2
-2

t/T
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

1 a(t)/A0

= 0.01
g

0.8

= 0.10

0.6

= 0.19

0.4

= 0.53

0.2

= 0.88

= 1.57

-0.2

= 2.26

-4

g
g

g
g
g

t/T

-3

-2

-1

= 0.01
g

1 a(t)/A

= 0.10

= 0.19

0.8

0.6

= 0.53

0.4

= 0.88
g

0.2

= 1.57

= 2.26

-0.2

= 3.64

-8

-6

-4

-2

=6 5.01 8
g

t/T

98

= 0.01
g

1 a(t)/A0

= 0.10
g

= 0.19

0.8

0.6

= 0.53

0.4

= 0.88

0.2

= 1.57
g

= 2.26

-0.2

= 3.64
g

-16

-12

-8

-4

t/T

=
125.01 16
g

. 3.11. -4 = 6

. 3.11 ,
, .. g, a(t)
, -, , ( )
, sin(x)/xu. , L,
sin(x)/xu . sin(x)/xu ,
-
.
sin(x)/xu.
, g
, L.
, sin(x)/xu
, . . 3.12 -4, = 6, g = 0,10, L = 8, 16, 32.

99

1 a(t)/A0

L=8
L = 16
L = 32

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

t/T

-0.2
-16

-4

-8

-12

16

12

. 3.12.
-4, g = 0,10, = 6 L = 8, 16, 32

. 3.5 -4 = 6.
. 3.5
L

F99% T

F60 T

3,44

0,01

0,005

1,83

8,66

3,04

0,10

0,050

1,59

5,75

2,97

0,19

0,095

1,36

7,41

3,85

0,01

0,005

1,32

5,41

4,64

0,10

0,044

1,18

4,68

4,51

0,19

0,056

1,15

4,31

4,25

0,53

0,247

0,90

3,61

5,54

0,88

0,339

0,68

3,70

12

5,98

0,01

0,004

1,11

3,54

12

6,01

0,10

0,042

1,09

3,30

11

5,64

0,19

0,088

1,07

3,04

5,76

0,53

0,257

0,79

2,08

6,37

0,88

0,344

0,64

2,11

100

16

32

8,52

1,57

0,422

0,45

1,79

11,03

2,26

0,454

0,34

1,85

19

9,24

0,01

0,004

1,03

2,82

18

8,51

0,10

0,049

1,03

2,67

18

7,72

0,19

0,094

1,02

2,62

10

6,33

0,53

0,258

0,78

1,30

10

7,07

0,88

0,341

0,62

1,43

10,09

1,57

0,425

0,41

1,11

12,93

2,26

0,455

0,31

1,00

16,89

3,64

0,479

0,22

0,90

22,06

5,01

0,488

0,17

0,93

28

12,82

0,01

0,004

1,00

2,00

27

11,60

0,10

0,049

1,00

1,92

26

10,28

0,19

0,094

0,99

1,83

18

6,46

0,53

0,258

0,78

1,16

17

7,35

0,88

0,340

0,62

0,95

11

10,94

1,57

0,425

0,41

0,75

10

14,38

2,26

0,456

0,30

0,68

19,72

3,64

0,480

0,21

0,62

25,47

5,01

0,488

0,16

0,55

33,66

7,77

0,495

0,11

0,45

44,12

10,53

0,497

0,08

0,46

. 3.103.12 . 3.5 .
1.

L , .. g,
F
g .

101

2.

F60.
3.

g = 0,01, .. , L, L = 16
[5, 19]. L.
4.

g 0,2 , L,

. , g > 0,2
F (LF F), . L < LF
g , L > L
g = F .
5.

F, .. g > 0,2, -

L - .
6.

g p

L; g p.
7.

L -

, ..

g,

,
.

-4 = 10, 14 , ,
= 6 = 10, 14.
. 3.13 F,
. 3.13 F60 g -4, L = 32

102

= 6, 10, 14. . 3.13 - g .

=6
= 10
= 14

-1

10

g
-2

10

-1

10

10

F-60 dBT

10
=6
= 10
= 14

10

g
-1

10
-2
10

-1

10

10

10

p
=6
= 10
= 14

-1

10

-2

10

g
-2

10

-1

10

10

10

103

=6
= 10
= 14

40
30

20

10
-2

10

-1

10

10

10

. 3.13. 32- -4

, ,
, - g . , , g,
.
. 3.13 , F60 .
3.2.2.
. 3.14 F,
. 3.14 F60 p -4 = 6.
. 3.14 -
p .

104

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-1

10

-2

p
-1

10

10

F-60 dBT

10

-2

-1

10

p
-1

10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2
10

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

105

L = 32
L = 16
L=8
L=4
L=2

40
30
20

10

p
-2

-1

10

10

. 3.14. -4 = 6

. 3.15 L = 2, 4, 8, 16
32 32 ( L = 32) p, = 6.

a(t)/A0

= 0.010
p
= 0.053

= 0.095
p

0.5

0
-1

t/T
-0.75

-0.5

-0.25

0.25

0.5

a(t)/A0

0.75

= 0.010
p
= 0.053
p
= 0.095
p

0.5

= 0.217
p

= 0.339
p

0
-2

t/T
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

106

1 a(t)/A0

= 0.010
p

0.8

= 0.053

0.6

= 0.095

0.4

= 0.217

0.2

= 0.339

= 0.397

-0.2

= 0.454

-4

p
p

p
p
p

t/T

-3

-2

-1

= 0.010
p

1 a(t)/A0

= 0.053
p

= 0.095
p

= 0.217

0.5

= 0.339

= 0.397
p

= 0.454
p

= 0.471

t/T

-8

-6

-4

-2

1 a(t)/A0

=60.488 8
p

= 0.010
p

0.8

= 0.053

0.6

= 0.095

0.4

= 0.217

0.2
0
-0.2
-16

t/T
-12

-8

-4

12

16

107

0.4

a(t)/A0

= 0.010
p

0.3

= 0.053

0.2

= 0.095

0.1

= 0.217

= 0.339

-0.1

= 0.397

-0.2

= 0.454

p
p

p
p
p

t/T

-16

-12

-8

-4

12

16

. 3.15. -4 = 6

. 3.15 , ,
, p a(t) sin(x)/xu. p < 0,048
. ,
.
. p > 0,048,
.. , .
-,
sin(x)/xu - .
p ,
L. . 3.16
-4, = 6, p = 0,217 L = 8, 16, 32.

108

0.8

a(t)/A0

L=8
L = 16
L = 32

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-16

t/T
-4

-8

-12

16

12

. 3.16.
-4, p = 0,217, = 6 L = 8, 16, 32

. 3.6 -4 = 6.
. 3.6
L

F99% T

F60 T

3,41

0,02

0,010

1,81

8,40

3,01

0,11

0,052

1,58

5,55

2,97

0,19

0,095

1,36

7,41

3,61

0,04

0,010

1,29

5,17

5,26

0,22

0,052

1,11

5,38

5,08

0,28

0,095

1,08

5,13

4,21

0,44

0,217

0,96

3,77

5,54

0,88

0,339

0,68

3,70

11

6,48

0,08

0,010

1,09

3,04

10

7,73

0,36

0,052

0,98

3,27

7,64

0,65

0,095

0,87

2,84

10,39

1,43

0,217

0,63

2,57

8,31

1,05

0,339

0,56

2,54

109

16

32

7,85

1,26

0,397

0,50

1,97

11,03

2,26

0,454

0,34

1,85

10

11,00

0,18

0,010

1,00

2,24

10,22

0,77

0,052

0,90

1,84

11,27

1,19

0,095

0,79

1,82

16,70

2,39

0,217

0,55

1,62

19,71

3,11

0,339

0,41

1,34

23,08

4,03

0,397

0,33

1,33

16,01

2,63

0,454

0,28

1,27

15,29

2,95

0,471

0,26

1,00

22,06

5,01

0,488

0,17

0,93

21

15,92

0,33

0,010

0,98

1,58

19

15,55

1,46

0,052

0,86

1,45

19

23,75

2,59

0,095

0,75

1,19

16

32,82

4,89

0,217

0,49

0,94

41,89

6,72

0,339

0,35

0,86

41,26

7,15

0,397

0,28

0,81

38,46

6,93

0,454

0,21

0,77

44,49

8,14

0,471

0,17

0,46

31,83

5,76

0,488

0,14

0,64

30,33

6,33

0,492

0,13

0,49

44,12

10,53

0,497

0,08

0,46

. 3.143.16 . 3.6 .
1.

L
, .. p, F
p.

110

2.

p , , .
F60

3.

p .
p

4.

.
, p < 0,2 - -

5.

p ,
. p > 0,2 -
, p.

-4 = 10, 14 , ,
= 6, = 10, 14.
. 3.17 F,
. 3.17 F60 p -4, L = 32
= 6, 10, 14. . 3.17 - p .

=6

= 10
= 14

-1

10

p
-2

10

-1

10

111

=6
= 10
= 14

F-60 dBT

10

p
-2

-1

10

10

-1

10

=6
= 10
= 14

-2

10

10

10

60
50
40

=6
= 10
= 14

30
20
10 -2
10

p
-1

10

. 3.17. 32- -4

112

, , p
. , ,
p, .
C F60 c
.
3.2.3.


. 3.18 p g
-4, = 6 L = 4, 8, 16, 32, 14
, 58 .

-1

10

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

-2

10 -2
10

-1

10

10

10

. 3.18. -4, = 6 L = 4, 8, 16, 32

, p g ;
g p
. : ,
L

113

, .
,
, , , .
, . , ,
. , ,
, .. .

g L.

3.3. -

, . 3.1 3.2,
- . . 3.19 -4, = 6 L = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 g.
g, 2 L 16. .
, , -,

, - .

114

-, g . , , .. ,
- . , g.

. 3.19. -
-4 = 6

-, g L, .
L > L, g L- . ,
= 7,5 g = 1,0 L = 16.

3.4. 3
1.

, -


- ,
-

115

. , L = 2 L = 16
-4 = 6
F = 0,68 F = 0,09.
2.

, g -

. , , ..
, - .
3.

L, .
L > L, g L- . ,
= 7,5 g = 1,0 L = 16.
4.

g = 0,01, .. , L, L = 16
. -
L.
5.

L -

,
, .

116

4.

, , .
.
, .

.

4.1.

[27],
. 4.1.

fclk/2

Yfclk

fclk/(2L)

fclk

...

S-P
1/L

{0, 1} S-P
1/2

cos(0t)

/2

...

S-P
1/L

. 4.1.

117

. 4.1. L- c LT M- . fclk = log2M / T . , , - (S-P), fclk , ,


. ,
- ,
fclk. .
( ), L ; : ,
, , L-. - fclk / 2.
, () fclk / 2L . fclk / 2L.
( . 4.1
): 1 = 0, 2 = 1 / (fclk / 2), .. p- p = (p 1) / (fclk / 2).
,
, log2M / 2. , LT.
LT, ..
. , . (

118

Y fclk) - . Y , .

- .
, .

, .
, .

(. 4.2).
- , . . 4.1
log2M , .. , .

fclk

Yfclk

fclk/L

S-P
1/L

...

{0, 1}

x
cos(0t)

. 4.2.

119

. 4.1 . 4.2

. - .

fclk/2

Yfclk

fclk/L

fclk

...

S-P
2/L

{0, 1} S-P
1/2

cos(0t)

/2

...

S-P
2/L

. 4.3.
, = /2

. 4.3 , = /2.
. 4.1 ,
, , . 4.2 log2M .

[3637]. . 4.1 - F99% 8- -4 = 6,

120

g = 0,53, N .
. .
. 4.1
Y
N
-4
F99% T

16

32

64

38,28%

12,01%

1,59%

1,59%

1,59%

16

30,79%

11,78%

2,84%

0,68%

0,19%

>100%

>100%

2,15%

0,38%

<0,01%

16

>100%

>100%

1,90%

0,13%

<0,01%

0,3050

0,1589

0,0804

0,0409

0,0214

16

0,3049

0,1586

0,0800

0,0401

0,0201

. 4.1 , . , Y = 64 N = 16 - 0,2%.
. 3 ,
16 8 2%.
Y, , 16
128 .
. . 4.4 2- -2,

= /2. , - = 2,01 = 14. -

121


. 4.2.
. 4.2
a0

1,6054100

a4

4,9269102

a8

5,0257104

a1

8,2107101

a5

1,0502102

a9

2,0069104

a2

1,3842101

a6

4,1017103

a10

9,0947105

a3

1,2412101

a7

1,1754103

a11

4,4040105

. 4.4 {1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, } .

a)

y(1)
(t)/A0
2N,I

0
-1
-1
1

b)

t/T
0

y(2)
(t)/A0
2N,Q

0
-1
-1
1

c)

t/T
0

6 t/T

y2N(t)/A0

0
-1
-1

. 4.4. ab); , f0 = 5/T c)

122

a)

y(1)
(t)/A0
2N,I

0
-1
-1 (2)
1

b)

t/T
0

y2N,Q(t)/A0

0
-1
-1 (2)
1

t/T
0

y2N,Q(t)/A0

0
-1
-1
2

e)

d)

y2N,I(t)/A0

-1
-1 (1)

c)

t/T

t/T
0

y2N(t)/A0

0
-2
-1

t/T
0

. 4.5.
ad); ,
f0 = 5/T e)

. 4.5 2-
-4. , = 6. . 4.3.

123

. 4.3
a0

1,3965100

a4

1,5390102

a1

9,8854101

a5

6,4256103

a2

2,1131101

a6

3,0671103

a3

5,2437102

a7

1,6627103

. 4.5 {1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, }
.
, ( ) -
.

.

4.2.

[31, 34], . 4.6.

cos(0t + )

/2
x

. 4.6.

P-S {0, 1}
2/1

124

. 4.6.
. ,
.
.
, 0 , (.
. 1.4).
, . , , .
-
.
(. . 4.1).
.
. , , :
L N 1

yLN ,c / s (t ) =
p 1=
k 0
=

1 (k ) (k )
Ar ,c / s a p (t , L) ,
L p

, Ar(pk,)s Ar(pk ) sin (rpk ) .


=
Ar(pk,)c Ar(pk ) cos (rpk )=
, , , .

125

k-

p-

L- :
LT /2+ kLT +t p

KI
=

[yLN ,c (t ) + n(t )]a (pk ) (t , L)=


dt

LT /2+ kLT +t p
LT /2+ kLT +t p

=
KG p( k ) +

(k ) (k )
(k )
L Arp ,c a p (t , L) + n(t ) a p (t , L)dt ,

LT /2+ kLT +t p

(4.1)

n(t), . 1.4, , .
,

..

KG p( k ) = 0,01, (1.21), (4.1):


LT /2+ kLT +t p

(k )
KI
Arp ,c +
n(t )a (pk ) (t , L)dt .

L
LT /2+ kLT +t p

(4.2)

[9], . ,
KI Ar(pk,)c . , (. . 1.4), Ar(pk,)c
:
=
q arg min {KI L / Aq( kp ,)c } ,
q =1, ..., M

(k )

Arp ,c = Aq( kp ,)c .

, :
( KI) .
,
,
:

126

(4.2) KG p( k ) ,
/,
.
. 2.3 ,
, (2.18) (2.19). , , -,
.

, [6]. .
, , ,
, :
min
{r }

LT /2+ NLT + ( L 1)T

LT /2

( x(t ) y LN (t ,{r})) 2 dt ,

(4.3)

{r} , {r}.
(4.3) MLN , , , M.
(4.3), , , .

Llog2(M)/2 (. . 4.1),
log2(M)/2 .
T -
, .. log2(M)/2 -

127

. ,
Llog2(M)/2, T log2(M)/2 ,
, .. .
. 2 L log 2 ( M )/2 , , . () 2log 2 ( M )/2 . , log2(M)/2
L = 2, M = 4. . 4.7 , 4
2, ,
.
, : ( ), ( ) .

(00)

(00)

(01)

(01)

(10)

(10)

(11)

(11)

. 4.7. L = 2, M = 4

T - . , . 4.7, , , .
, , . -

128

, log2(M)/2 . . 4.8, , . 4.7. , (00), {1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, }

(00)
(01)
(10)
(11)
. 4.8. L = 2, M = 4

, , .
(4.3) , x(t). T: k- p- k- (p + 1)- ( p = L (k + 1)- 1- ).
. ,
.
, A k- , . 4.9. k-
A, , A,

129

. , , , , A
, ,
x(t) k- , x(t) ,
. ,
, A , . . , .. x(t) k- , A A.

B
A
:

C
k1

k+1

. 4.9. , A k- L = 2, M = 4

, 2log 2 ( M )/2 , .. L = 2,
M = 4 2 . . 4.9 A.
, , B C. ,
A, , , .. x(t), B C.
A
( ), .
.

k- ,

.

130

,
log2(M)/2 , . , . , k- ,
(k 5Llog2(M)/2) .
,
( ). , (k 5Llog2(M)/2) , , ,
, . ,
, , , /,
p < 103, .
, / .
, - .

.

4.3.

, -, ,
.

131

(. 4.10)
: , , . () .
.

().

yLN,c[k]

yLN,s[k]

dr

nc[k]
ns[k]

xc[k]
xs[k]

. 4.10.

132

x(t ) =
[ yLN ,c (t )cos(0t ) + yLN ,s (t )sin(0t )] + n(t ) .

:

xc (t ) = x(t )cos(0t ) = yLN ,c (t )(1 / 2 + cos(20t )) + yLN ,c (t )sin(20t ) + n(t )cos(0t ) .


xc (t ) =
yLN ,c (t ) / 2 + nc (t ) / 2 ,
n(t) = n(t)cos(0t) . [9] n(t), n(t), ,
, , .. , 2
, n(t). ,
.
2 , .
, ,
N0 = kT,
k = 1,381023 / .
N0 = 204 (/).

( ), .
,
, , , .

133

() dr.

yLN,c[k] yLN,s[k] k = 1, 2, , Nt T.
nc[k] ns[k]
, .

/.
, ,
F = Nt/2T,
Nt .
t = T/Nt,
2F

=
P

N0
=
2F N0 F ,
2

N0/2 .
/
h2 =

Ea / log 2 M
,
N0

h02 =

E0 / log 2 M
,
N0

E0 = PT , P . h
, h0 .
=
h02

P
1
P N t
.
=
TF
P
log 2 M P 2

134

1 T 2
1 Nt
1 Nt
2
=
P
=
n (t )dt
(=
n[k ]) t
(n[k ]) 2 .

0
T=
T k 1=
Nt k 1

D
= P=

1 P N t
.
h02 2


n p
p .
A
p (, A
(1 )). ( p), ( (1 p))
,
.
, 1, , 0.

E{} = 1p + 0(1 p) = p.
, p E{}.
D{} = m2{} E2{}.

m2{} = E2{} = 1p 0(1 p) = p,


:
D{} = p p2 = p(1 p).
p p

135
n
{} = p = 1 = k ,
E
i n
n i =1

k A (, ) n
.
p , k :
=
Pn (k ) Cnk p k (1 p ) nk ,

n 1 .
np 10; n(1 p) 10. , ,
1
p (1 p )
=
E{ p} p;=
D{ p} =
D{ p}
.
n
n

, p ,

p (1 p )
P | p p | D{ p} = P | p p |
= 1 = ( ) ,
n

()

2 x 2
( x) = e t /2 dt .
2 0
, 1 , ,
,

p (1 p )
p (1 p )
; p +
p
.
n
n

p ,
, , ,

p (1 p )
p (1 p )
p
.
; p +
n
n

. 4.4 n.

136

. 4.4
1

0,900

0,990

0,999

10

1,81

3,17

4,59

20

1,73

2,84

3,85

30

1,70

2,75

3,65

1,64

2,58

3,29

n1

, ,
. /.
.

4.4.
. 4.11 -4, L = 4, = 6,
(. . 3.2.1). 4.11
, . 4.12 ,
. . 4.1112
-4 [35].
, , 106 .
. 4.1112
(1 ) = 0,99.

137

10

= 0.01
g
= 0.10

-1

10

= 0.19
g

= 0.53
g

-2

10

= 0.88
g
-3

L=1

10

-4

10

h, dB
0

10

12

14

. 4.11.
4-

10

= 0.01
g
= 0.10
g

-1

10

= 0.19
g
= 0.53

-2

10

= 0.88
g

-3

L=1

10

-4

10

h0, dB
0

10

12

14

16

. 4.12.
4-

18

138

. 4.1112 , , , . , g = 0,19 p = 104 2 . -,


( g > 0,19), .
, - -
,

. , g = 0,19
p = 104 2 5,5 .

10

= 0.01
g
= 0.10
g

-1

10

= 0.19
g

= 0.53

-2

10

= 0.88
g
-3

L=1

10

-4

10

h, dB
0

10

12

14

. 4.13.
4-

. 4.13 , . . 4.13

139

, . 4.14
, .
. 4.1314 -4.
,
, 103 , 103 .
. 4.1112, . 4.1314

(1 ) = 0,99.

10

= 0.01
g
= 0.10
g

-1

10

= 0.19
g

= 0.53
g

-2

10

= 0.88
g

-3

L=1

10

-4

10

h0, dB
0

10

12

14

16

18

. 4.14.
4-

, , ,
. ,
, -

140

. , . 4.13
g = 0,01, 0,10 0,19

. (g = 0,88) 2
p = 104.
. 4.14 , , , , - ,
. g = 0,88
7 p = 104, .. 5 , .
3 4
.

4.5.
( F)
.


,
[20]:
=
C (log 2 M + p log 2 ( p / ( M 1)) + (1 p )log 2 (1 p )) / T .

(4.4)
=
F

F99%
T F99%
.
=
log 2 M + p log 2 ( p / ( M 1)) + (1 p )log 2 (1 p )
C

(4.4)

141

E
=
E E0 =
/ N 0 P / ( N 0C )

, (4.4),

h02 / log 2 M
E =
,
log 2 M + p log 2 ( p / ( M 1)) + (1 p )log 2 (1 p )
h02 . 4.3. ,
[24].
F E ,
, [26]:
=
(21/F 1) F
E

(4.5)

. 4.15
, . 4.4.
1 (4.5); 2, 3
-4, -16 ; 4 cos(x); 59 4- , g = 0,01, g = 0,10, g = 0,19, g = 0,53, g = 0,88 . , , , p = 104.
,

, . , 4-
,
. ,
, ,

142

, ,
4- .

10

p = 10-4

9
5
1

10

7
0

10

10

10

. 4.15.

4- , .
, 4- , ,
g = 0,53, .. , , .

4.6. 4
1.

, .

143

2.

.
3.

, -

.
g = 0,19 p = 104

2 .
4.

,
. ,
, -
.
5.

, -

- .

144

-
- , .

, .

, -

,
.

, -

, -


, - .

, .
,

, - -

145

.
.
.
.
6 .
. 2006 ., 64- -
. . . , -
XXXVIII 2009.
. 2538/140908802 25.06.2008
2538/140908803 25.06.2008
(-), - 2008-2010 .
. , , , .
, .

- 4-

, F = 0,45, , 2 , cos() .

, -


- , 16 32 F = 0,17, F = 0,08.

146

, 32- 2,3 60 0,46/T 0,29/T.

16 8 2%.

4-
p = 104 h02 = 12 .
. , , ,
, , .
.
- ,
-
-
.
.
, , , ,

.

147

148


1.

.., ..

: . .: , 1990. 271 .
2.

.. . .: . ,

2008. 636 .
3.

.. . .: , 1963. 312 .

4.

.. .

: , 2005. 232 .
5.

.., .., .., .., ..

. .: , 1985. 272 .
6.

. .

. . , 2007. 488 .
7.

.. -

. .: , 1984. 336 c.
8.

.., .., ..,

: . . , 1981.
232 .
9.

.. .

. 3-, . . .: , 1989. 656 .


10. .., .. . .: , 1988.
304 .
11. .., .. . .: , 1978. 328 .
12. . . . . 2-, .: . . .: ,
2003. 1104 .

149

13. . . . .: , 2000. 502 .


14. .. . . 2-, . . .: . , 1970. 728 .
15. . . .
. / .., .. . .. .: ,
1975. 534 .
16. .., .. .
.: , 1971. 408 .
17. . . . .
. / . .. .. . .: , 1963. 832 .
18. .. . . 5-. .: , 2002. 320 .
19. .., .. . : . .: - . -., 2008. 158 .
20. .., .. . :
. .: - . -., 2008. 135 .
21. .., .., .. - , n- // .
. 1990. 8.
22. .., .., .. -
// . 1997. 3. . 2233.
23. .., .. -
// - . 2010. 5.
. 2529.

150

24. .., .. .
// . 2008. 12. . 49.
25. . ., . -
// .
. 2006. 2. . 8394.
26. .., .., ..
// . 1988. 5.
27. .., .. - // . 1980. 8.
28. .. // . 1967. . 22, 7. C. 9196.
29. ..
// . 1975. . 30, 6.
. 1215.
30. Amoroso, F. Pulse and Spectrum Manipulation in the Minimum (Frequency) Shift Keying (MSK) Format // IEEE Transactions on Communications. 1976.
Volume 24, Issue 3. P. 381384.
31. Barbieri, A. Fertonani, D. Colavolpe, G. Time-frequency packing for linear
modulations: spectral efficiency and practical detection schemes // IEEE Transactions
on Communications. 2009. Volume 57, Issue 10. P. 29512959.
32. Gronemeyer, S. McBride, A. MSK and Offset QPSK Modulation // IEEE
Transactions on Communications. 1976. Volume 24, Issue 8. P. 809820.
33. Huang, J. Feher, K. Gendron, M. Techniques to Generate ISI and JitterFree Bandlimited Nyquist Signals and a Method to Analyze Jitter Effects // IEEE
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P. 359366.
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152

1. Matlab
%%
clear;
clc;
%%
L =
4; %
N =
2; %
M =
20; %
P = N-1; %
E =
1; %
NPF = 16; % -
Val_PF = 2.2;
% - (=-1, )
Val_Kor = 0.1;
% (=-1, -)
Flag_SQ = false; % -4 (false), -2 (true)
%
x0 = [1.5779950340804132e+000 ];
if length(x0) < M+1
x0 = [x0, zeros(1, M+1-length(x0))];
else
x0 = x0(1, 1:M+1);
end
%%
% -
%
FName = sprintf('Data\\Data_Bound_N%d_M%d', N, M);
load(FName, 'Bound');
Aeq = Bound;
if isequal(Bound, [])
beq = [];
else
beq = zeros(size(Bound, 1), 1);
end
% -
A = [];
b = [];
% :
% Non_Linear_Conds Minimized_Func
%%
Write_Fun_Con_Files(L, N, M, NPF, Val_PF, Val_Kor, Flag_SQ);
%%
%
FMC_Options = optimset('fmincon');

153
FMC_Options.Algorithm = 'active-set';
FMC_Options.MaxFunEvals = 10^4;

% Algoritm
% Maximum number of function
% evaluations allowed
FMC_Options.MaxIter = 10^4;
% Maximum number of iterations
% allowed
FMC_Options.GradObj = 'on';
% Gradient for the objective
% function defined by the user
FMC_Options.GradConstr = 'on';
% Gradient for nonlinear
% constraint functions defined by the user
FMC_Options.TolFun = 10^-9;
% Termination tolerance on the
% function value
FMC_Options.TolCon = 10^-9;
% Termination tolerance on the
% constraint violation
FMC_Options.TolX
= 10^-9;
% Termination tolerance on x
%
ans_x = fmincon(@Minimized_Func, x0, A, b, Aeq, beq, -10*ones(M+1, 1),
10*ones(M+1, 1), @Non_Linear_Conds, FMC_Options);

function Write_Fun_Con_Files(L, N, M, NPF, Val_PF, Val_Kor, Flag_SQ)


%%
fid = fopen('Minimized_Func.m', 'wt');
%
Line = sprintf('function [J, grad_J] = Minimized_Func(x)\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% k^(2*N)
Line = sprintf(['Koefs = (2*pi*(0:', int2str(M), ')).^', int2str(2*N),
';\n']);
fwrite(fid, Line);
% J
Line = sprintf('J = sum(Koefs.*(x.^2))/2;\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
%
Line = sprintf('if nargout > 1\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('
fwrite(fid, Line);

grad_J = (Koefs.*x).'';\n');

Line = sprintf('end\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
fclose(fid);
disp(' ');
%%
fid = fopen('Non_Linear_Conds.m', 'wt');

154
%
Line = sprintf('function [C, CEQ, grad_C, grad_CEQ] =
Non_Linear_Conds(x)\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% -
Line = sprintf('Val_PF = %f;\n', Val_PF);
fwrite(fid, Line);
%
Line = sprintf('Val_Kor = %f;\n', Val_Kor);
fwrite(fid, Line);
%
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% -
Line = sprintf('C = [];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% -
if ~isequal(Val_PF, -1)
Line = sprintf('if nargout > 2\n');
buf = [int2str(L), ', ', int2str(M), ', ', int2str(NPF), ', ',
int2str(Flag_SQ)];
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf(['
[PF, grad_PF] = PFs_Computation(x, ',
buf, ', Val_PF);\n']);
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('else\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf(['
PF = PFs_Computation(x, ', buf, ',
Val_PF);\n']);
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('end\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('C = [C, PF];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
end
%
if ~isequal(Val_Kor, -1)
Line = sprintf('if nargout > 2\n');
buf = [int2str(L), ', ', int2str(M), ', ', int2str(Flag_SQ)];
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf(['
[Korrel, grad_K] =
Korrelations_Computation(x, ', buf, ', Val_Kor);\n']);
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('else\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf(['
Korrel = Korrelations_Computation(x,
', buf, ', Val_Kor);\n']);
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('end\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('C = [C, Korrel];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
end
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);

155
% -
Line = sprintf('CEQ = [];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
%
Line = sprintf(['Koefs = ones(1, ', int2str(M+1), ')/2;\n']);
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('Koefs(1, 1) = 1/4;\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('Energy = sum(Koefs .* (x.^2)) - 1;\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('CEQ = [CEQ, Energy];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
%
Line = sprintf('if nargout > 2\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% -
Line = sprintf('
grad_C = [];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% -
if ~isequal(Val_PF, -1)
Line = sprintf('
grad_C = [grad_C, grad_PF];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
end
%
if ~isequal(Val_Kor, -1)
Line = sprintf('
grad_C = [grad_C, grad_K];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
end
Line = sprintf('\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
% -
Line = sprintf('
grad_CEQ = [];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
%
Line = sprintf('
grad_E = (2*Koefs.*x).'';\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('
grad_CEQ = [grad_CEQ, grad_E];\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
Line = sprintf('end\n');
fwrite(fid, Line);
fclose(fid);

function [C_PF, grad_C_PF] = PFs_Computation(x, L, M, NPF, Flag_SQ, Val_PF)


%
FName = sprintf('Data\\Data_PF_L%d_M%d_NPF%d', L, M, NPF);
load(FName, 'PF_Martixes');
% x NPF
ats = cell(1, NPF);
for k = 1:NPF
ats{1, k} = x * PF_Martixes{1, k}; %#ok<USENS>
% , ats{1, k} - 1L
end

156
% L NPF
Koefs = cell(1, NPF);
for k = 1:NPF
Koefs{1, k} = sign(ats{1, k});
end
% -
C_PF = zeros(1, NPF);
if Flag_SQ
BUF = zeros(2, NPF);
for k = 1:NPF
BUF(1, k) = sum(Koefs{1, k}(1, 1:2:L-1).*ats{1, k}(1, 1:2:L-1));
BUF(2, k) = sum(Koefs{1, k}(1, 2:2:L ).*ats{1, k}(1, 2:2:L ));
C_PF(1, k) = 2*(BUF(1, k)^2 + BUF(2, k)^2)/L;
end
else
BUF = zeros(1, NPF);
for k = 1:NPF
BUF(1, k) = sum(Koefs{1, k}.*ats{1, k});
C_PF(1, k) = 2*BUF(1, k)^2/L;
end
end
C_PF = C_PF - Val_PF;
%
if nargout > 1
grad_C_PF = zeros(M+1, NPF);
if Flag_SQ
for k = 1:NPF
buf1 = zeros(M+1, 1);
for p = 1:2:L-1
buf1 = buf1 + Koefs{1, k}(1, p)*PF_Martixes{1, k}(:, p);
end
buf1 = 2*buf1*BUF(1, k);
buf2 = zeros(M+1, 1);
for p = 2:2:L
buf2 = buf2 + Koefs{1, k}(1, p)*PF_Martixes{1, k}(:, p);
end
buf2 = 2*buf2*BUF(2, k);
grad_C_PF(:, k) = 2*(buf1 + buf2)/L;
end
else
for k = 1:NPF
buf = zeros(M+1, 1);
for p = 1:L
buf = buf + Koefs{1, k}(1, p)*PF_Martixes{1, k}(:, p);
end
buf = 2*buf*BUF(1, k);
grad_C_PF(:, k) = 2*buf/L;
end
end
end

157
function [C_Korrel, grad_C_K, Korrels] = Korrelations_Computation(x, L, M,
Flag_SQ, Val_Kor)
Flag_Type = 1;
N = 3;
% 0:

% 1:
% 2:
% 3:


-
- 2^N

% -2, L 2
if Flag_SQ
L = L/2;
end
%
FName = sprintf('Data\\Data_Korrel_L%d_M%d', L, M);
%
if nargout > 1
load(FName, 'Korrel_Martixes', 'grad_Korrel_Martixes');
else
load(FName, 'Korrel_Martixes');
end
%
Korrels = zeros(1, L-1); % ,
%, 2
BUF = x.' * x;
for p = 1:L-1
Korrels(1, p) = sum(sum(BUF.*Korrel_Martixes{1, p})); %#ok<USENS>
end
% Flag_Type
switch Flag_Type
case 0 %
[val, pos] = max(abs(Korrels));
Koef = sign(Korrels(1, pos));
C_Korrel = val/2 - Val_Kor;
case 1
Koefs = sign(Korrels);
C_Korrel = Koefs.*Korrels/2 - Val_Kor;
case 2 %
Koefs = sign(Korrels);
C_Korrel = sum(Koefs.*Korrels) - Val_Kor;
case 3
Koefs = ones(2^N, L-1);
Koefs(1, :) = sign(Korrels);
for k = 1:2^N
buf = 2*(dec2bin(k-1, N)-48)-1;
Koefs(k, 1:N)
= buf;
Koefs(k, N+1:L-1) = Koefs(1, N+1:L-1);
end
C_Korrel = zeros(1, 2^N);
for k = 1:2^N
C_Korrel(1, k) = sum(Koefs(k, :).*Korrels) - Val_Kor;
end
end

158
%
if nargout > 1
BUF = zeros(M+1, M+1);
for k = 1:M+1
BUF(k, :) = x;
end

switch Flag_Type
case 0
grad_C_K = Koef * sum(grad_Korrel_Martixes{1, pos}.*BUF, 2) / 2;
case 1
grad_C_K = zeros(M+1, L-1);
for n = 1:L-1
grad_C_K(:, n) = Koefs(1, n) * sum(grad_Korrel_Martixes{1,
n}.*BUF, 2) / 2;
end
case 2
grad_C_K = zeros(M+1, 1);
for n = 1:L-1
grad_C_K = grad_C_K + Koefs(1, n) *
sum(grad_Korrel_Martixes{1, n}.*BUF, 2);
end
case 3
grad_C_K = zeros(M+1, 2^N);
for n = 1:L-1
grad_Korrel_Martixes{1, n} = sum(grad_Korrel_Martixes{1,
n}.*BUF, 2);
end
for k = 1:2^N
for n = 1:L-1
grad_C_K(:, k) = grad_C_K(:, k) + Koefs(k, n) *
grad_Korrel_Martixes{1, n};
end
end
end
end