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Walter Bagehot. Physics and Politics. London, 1887. P. 20-21.
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.
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Nationalitaten frage *. , ,
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: Georges Haupt, Michel Lowy and Claudie Weill. Les Marxistes et la question nationale 1848-1914. Paris, 1974.
: Otto Bauer. Die Nationalitaten frage und die Sozial-demokratie. Vienna, 1907; ( 1924 .
) , ,
. . : Horace . Davis. Toward a Marxist Theory of Nationalism.
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* (.). . .
2
1913 . : Joseph Stalin. Marxism and the National and Colonial
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Carleton . Hayes. The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism. New York, 1931 Hans Kohn. The Idea of
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.
2
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W. Bagehot. Physics and Politics, P. 83.


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The Age of Revolution 1789-1848 (1962), The Age
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.
, -
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, ,
, , , Gwyn, A. Williams. When was Wales? .: The Welsh in
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Alankai Tamil Arasu Kadchi. The case for a federal constitution for Ceylon. Colombo, 1951, . : Robert N.
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. J. Hobsbawn. Some reflections on nationalism. P. 387.


Ernest Gellner. Nations and Nationalism. P. 1. , ,
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: Rafael Samuel (ed.). Patriotism. The Making


and Unmaking of British National Identity. 3 vols. London, 1989. ,
, (Linda Colley), : Whose nation? Class and national consciousness in
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Ernest Renan. Qu'est que c'est une nation? P. 7-8; L'oubli et je dirai meme Perreur historique sont un facteur essentiel

de la formation d'une nation et c'est ainsi que le progres des etudes historiques est souvent pour la nationalite un
danger.**
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Lluis Garcia i Sevilla. Lengua, nacio i estat al dicciona-rio de la real academia espanyola // L'Avenc, 16 May, 1979. P.
50-55.

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Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana. Barcelona, 1907-1934, vol.37. P. 854-867, nacion.
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Sao Paulo-Rio-Porto Alegre 1958-1964, vol. 13. P. 581.
I. ... 27
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L. Curne de Sainte Pelaye. Dictionnaire historique de 1'ancien langage fran9ois (Niort n. d.), 8 vols.; nation.
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Dr. E. Verwljs & Dr. J. Verdam. Middelnederlandsch Woordenbock, vol. 4. The Hague, 1899, col. 2078.

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Woordenbock der Nederlandsche Taal, vol. 9. The Hague, 1913, cols. 1586-1590.
Verwijs & Verdam. Middelnederlandsch Woordenbock, vol. 4.
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L. Huguet. Dictionnaire de la langue fracaise du 16" Hiecle, vol. 5. Paris, 1961. P. 400.
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Woordenbock... (1913), col. 1588.


John. Heinrich Zedler. Grosses vollstandiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Kunste..., vol. 23. Leipzig
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Oxford English Dictionary, vol. VII. Oxford, 1933. P. 30. * (.). . .
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John J. Lalor (ed.). Cyclopedia of Political Science. New York, 1889, vol. II, P. 932, Nation. ,
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J. S. Mill. Utilitarianism, Liberty and Representative Government. Everyman edition, London, 1910. P. 359-366.
2
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Lucien Jaume. Le Discours jacobin et la democratic. Paris, 1989), Appendices 1-3. P. 407-114. ., ,
1793.: O.Dann & J.Dinwiddy (eds.). Nationalism in the Age of the French Revolution.
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3790

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Maurice Block. Nationalities, principle of J. Lalor (ed.). Cyclopedia of Political Science, vol. II. P. 939.
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: Renee Balibar & Dominique Laporte. Le Francais national. Politique et pratique de la langue nationale sous la
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Strasbourg, 1975 P. Levy. Histoire linguistique d'Alsace et de Lorraine. 2vols., Strasbourg, 1929.

I. ... 37

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De Certeau, Julia & Revel. Une Politique de la langue, passim.

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. : . J. Hobsbawm. The Age of Revolution 1789-1848. London, 1962. P. 91-92.


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Walter Bagehot. Physics and Politics. London, 1887, ch. Ill, IV on Nation-making.
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Ernest Renan. What is a nation? Alfred Zimmern (ed.), Modern Political Doctrines. Oxford, 1939. P. 192.
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John Rae. The Sociological Theory of Capital, being a complete reprint of The New Principles of Political Economy by
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I. ... 43

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Dr. Gustav Schonberg (ed.). Hanbuch der politischen Oekonomie, Bd. I. Tubingen, 1882. S. 158 ff.
Edwin Cannan. History of the Theories of Production und Distribution in English Political Economy from 1776 to 1848.
London, 1894. P. 10 ff.
3
Rae. The Sociological Theory of Capital.
2

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Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Economie Politique, (ed.) Leon Say and Joseph Chailley. Paris, 1892.
Michel Chevalier. Cours d'economie politique fait an College de France, vol. I. Paris, 1855. P. 43.
1841 .
3
L. Rabbins. The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy. 2nd ed. London, 1977. P. 9-10.
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I. 47
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George Richardson Porter. The progress of the Nation, in its various social and economic relations, from the beginning
of the nineteenth century to the present time, 2 pts. London, 1836, Preface.
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957: Nations in political economy.
3
Ibid. P. 958-959.

48
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I. ... 49
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/. J. Schumpeter. History of Economic Analysis. Oxford,


1954. P. 515-516.

50
. . 1780 .
I. ... 51
1820- ,
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(Nationaloekonomie) (Volkswirtschaft) , ,
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: Outline of American Political Economy. Philadelphia, 1827,
. .: W. Not . Friedrich List in Amerika //
Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 29, 1925. S. 199-265 Bd. 22, 1925. S. 154-182, a : Frederick List in America
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. : . Strauss. Irich Nationalism and British Democracy. London, 1951. P.
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, .
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Dictionnaire politique - (1843) ,
, .1
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1
Elias Reghault. Nation : Dictionnaire politique, Garnier-Pages. Paris, 1842. P. 623625. N'y-a-t-il pas quelque chose de derisoire d'appeler la Belgique une nation?
2
Considerations on Representative Government : Utilitarianism. P. 365.
3
Oxford English Dictionary, VII. P. 30.
52
. . 1780 .
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.1
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Ibid. P.175-176.
2
Gustav Cohn. Grundlegung der Nationaloekonomie, Bd. I. Stuttgart, 1885. S. 447-449.
I. ... 53
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1857 . : ,
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1
. Denis Mack (ed.). II Risorgimento. Bari, 1968. P. 422.
2
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54
. . 1780 .
).
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, en passant,*
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Maurice Block Lalor. Cyclopedia of Political Science, vol. II. P. 941.

56
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, .: Georges Haupt, Michel Lowy & Claudie Weill. Les Marxistes et la question nationale 1848-1914.
Paris, 1937. P. 204-207.
I. ... 57
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XIX
1
Mill. Utilitarianism, Liberty and Representative Government. P.363-364.
2
Cf. Roman Rosdolsky. Friedrich Engels und das Problem cler geschichtslosen Vblker //Archiv fur
Sozialgeschichte, 4/1964. S. 87-282.
58
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XIX ; ,

. Linda Colley. Whose nation? Class and national consciousness in Britain 1750-1830 //Past and Present, 113,
1986. P.96-117.
I. ... 59
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, . , , 1
leuan Gwynedd Jones. Language and community in nineteenth-century Wales .: David Smith (ed.). A People
and a Proletariat: Essays in the History of Wales 1780-1980. London, 1980. P. 41-71.
2
Inquiry on Education in Wales, Parliamentary Paper, 1847, XXVII, part II (Report on the Counties of Brecknock,
Cardigan and Radnor). P. 67.
3
Haupt, Lowy & Weill. Les Marxistes. P. 122.
60
. . 1780 .
,
. , : ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, ;

. , -. Fla-mingants *
. , , , , Staatsvolk,
, XIX
.
,
. .
, ?
, , .
, , , , ,
:
* (-.). . .

I. ... 61
, , -.
-
, -
. , ,
,
(
) -
. , , , ,
.
,
, , ,
.

, .
-, ()
,
, .1 , 1

62
. . 1780 .
I. ... 63
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, .
,

( 2,5%),1 .2
, . :
.
, XIX
.
, , .
1
Tullio de Mauro. Storia linguistica dell'Italia unite. Bari, 1963. P. 41.
2
Obwohl sie alle in einem Reich "Deutscher Nation" nebeneinander lebten, darf nichts daruber hinwegtauschen,
dasz ihnen sogar die gemeinsame Umgangssprache fehlte Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte,
Bd. I. Munich, 1987. S. 50.

. , , , XIX , .

, .

( 1830 1880 .).
. -, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
, . . -,
, ,
.1
, .
(, , , , ,
) . ,
1
. Porter. Critics of Empire. British Radical Attitudes to Colonialism in Africa, 1895-1914. London, 1968. P. 331,
: G.Lowes Dickinson. A Modern Symposium. 1908.
64
. . 1780 .
.1 , .
, 1880- . (
1870- .), ,
, ,
,
.
, de
facto , .
, , .
, (. . )
, XIX .

.
, , , .
,
, .
, , (
1

. : . J. Hobsbawm. The Age of Capital


1848-1875. London, 1975, . 3.

I. ... 65
IV) XIX ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
. , 1914 , ,
, , ,
, , , . .
.
, : .
, ,
, -
.
, , . ,1
1

Franz Pichler. Polizeihofrat P. Bin treuer Diener seienes ungetreuen Staates. Wiener Polizeidienst 1901-1938. Vienna,
1984. .
t . 3790

66

. . 1780 .

,
1901-1938 ., ,
, ,
, .1
; ,
.

(Weltburger)... ...
,
.2

, ,
. ,

( ), ,
.
. -
,
1
Ibid. S. 19.
2
Ibid. S. 30.
I. ... 67

, . ,
,
:
, 1795 ,
, . () , ,
.

.
,
, ,
,

,
.1
,
1

. , , 22-25 1882 . (Werke, vol. 35. P. 278 ff.),


: ,
, , , , -
, . ,
.

68
. . 1780 .
I. ... 69
, ,
, ,
.
,
, . . , , ,
, ,
? ,
, -
,
, , . , ,
, .
-,
, , ?
? , ,
, ,
.
,
(
XVIII ), , , ,
, . , ,
,
.
, , , , XIX
.
. , ,

, ,
. , 1871
- ( ) -
, ( ). ,

. ,
1848-1867 . , -
. ,
, ( )
(1873)

.
70
. . 1780 .
, 1880.,
.1

. ,
, ,
, - ,
() .

. ,
, , ; ,
, , -
. ,
,
. , - -
,
, ,
XIX .
1
Emil Brix. Die Umgangsprachen in Altb'sterreich zwichen Agitation und Assimilation. Die Sprachenstatistik in den
zisleitanischen Volkszahlungen 1880-1910. ViennaCologne Graz, 1982.
I. ... 71
,
; - .
, ,
( )
(, , , , ): ,
,
. 1880- , ,
.
, , ,
,
.
, ,
, , , .
,
. , -,
. ,
72
. . 1780 .
( , ) , , ,
.
, , , ,
,
.1
, 18301878., , , ,
.
,
, '- :
, .2 ,
, , (
, )
. :
, .3 1880 .

1

Cf. Ivo Banac. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics. Ithaca and London, 1984. P. 76-86.
.:
. Latham. Famous Sayingsand Their Authors. Detroit, 1970.
3
H. Roos. A History of Modern Poland. London, 1966. P. 48.
2

I. ... 73

, -
- ,
. .

II

,
, ?
,
,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
,
, ,
. ( )
, , , ,
, ,
- : , ,
II.
75
? , ,

; , ,
, , ,
.
.
. -, :
, ,
. ,
( );
, (,
, ) , -
, . -,
, ,
, , ,
, .
. ,
,
-

76
. . 1780 .
, .
1945 ( ) ,
, , , , ,
- , - .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
(, , ), ,
XIX , , ,
- ,
. ,
, ,
, , ( ,
)
, ,

XIX
. , ,
(,
II.
77
, , , )
,
. , ,
, ,
, .
-? ,
, XX
.
, , ( ,
), , , ,
, ,
, .1 , Volk * ,
.
. ,
, , , ,
, ,

1

. Roger Chartier. The Cultural Uses of Print in Early Modern France. Princeton, 1987, ; : E. J.
Hobs-bawm. Worlds of Labour. London, 1984. P. 39-42, .
* (.)- . .

78
. . 1780 .
(1695 .) (Kelch),
(Selbige zu hassen wohl Ursache gehabt). ,
. -, ,
, - .
1860- , , . . . -, saks ()
, .
: , ()
,
:
XVIII ( );
.1
2
,
1
: Juhan Kahk. Peasants' movements and national movements in the history of
Europe //Ada Universitatis Stockholmensis. Studia Baltica Stockholmensia, 2, 1985: National movements in the
Baltic Countries during the 19"1 century. P. 15-16.
2
Michael Cherniavsky. Tsar and People. Studies in Russian Myths. New Haven and London, 1961. . :
Jeffrey Brooks. When Russia Learned to Read. Princeton, 1985, ch. VI, Nationalism and national identity, esp. P.
213-232.
II.
79
.
, ,
( ). , das heil'ge Land Tirol
( ), .
, ,
, . .
XV ,
,
, , . ,
, . , ,
,
( XVII ), , . ,
,

, , , , , ,
, .1 ,
, -, .
XVII , ,

1
Cherniavsky. Tsar and People. P. 107, 114.
80
. . 1780 .
( ). :
; .
, , .1
, , , , .
, , .. , ,
, ,
. , , , ,
. ,
, .2
( XVI-XVII .,
). , . XVIII

. , ,
- ( !), , . .
.

1
Ibid. P. 113.
2

. : Ernst Kantorowicz. The King's Two Bodies. A Study in Medieval Political Theology.
Princeton, 1957.

II.
81
. ,
. ,
, ,
-
( )
, . , 1809
, . , , , .
, , , (, , )
,
, : .
, ? ,
, , ,
, ? , ?
, , ,
- ?
,
82
. . 1780 .
, <
,
?
, ,
, , , , , (
, , ). . ,

, ,
, .

.

, (
)
XX .
, , . , , , ,
. ,
II.
83
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
. -
,
,
.
,
,
, ,
: , ,
, ( , , )
, . . ,
.1
.
1
. : Eianar Haugen. Dialect, language, nation //
American Anthropologist, 68, 1966. P. 922-935.
. : J.A.Fishman (ed.). Contributions to the Sociology of Language, 2vols. The Hague-Paris, 1972,
, : The sociology of language: an interdisciplinary social science approach to language in
society in vol. 1.
84
. . 1780 .
II.
85
,
, , , .
- ,
- ,
(, ,
, ). , ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
( ).
,
. , ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
, , , .1
,
. ,
XIX- XX .
. - , , ,
, : , .
, , , .2

/ . : Heinz Kloss.
Die Ent-wicklung neuer germanischer Kultursprachen von 1800 bis 1950. Munich, 1952.
1
Les grands noms de cette litterature <...> ne celebrent jamais la religion dans leurs oeuvres; bien au contraire ils
nemanquent aucune occasion pour stigmatiser Paction hostile a Punite nationale des differents clerges <...>
semble que [la recherche de Pidentite culturelle] <...> se soit faite essentiellement autour du probleme de la
langue.* Christian Gut in Groupe de Travail sur PEurope Centrale et Orientale. Bulletin d'information, no. 2, June
1978, p. 40 (Maison des Sciences de PHomme, Paris).
* <...> ;
, ,
<...> , [
] <...> (.)- . .
2
Edith Durham. High Albania. 1909, . . London, 1985. P. 17; S.Thernstrom et al. Harvard Encyclopedia of
American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge and London, 1980. P. 24.
86
. . 1780 .

, , .
(1846-1900) : ; .1
, .
, ,
.
, , . .
.
, .
,
.

.2 1
. Groupe de Travail, p. 52.
2
,
. : Marlnella Lorinczi Angioni. Appunti per una macrostoria delle lingue scritte
del'Europa moderna // Quderni Sardi di Storia, 3, July 1981-June 1983. P. 133-156.
. .
. Coornaert Bulletin de la Societe d'Hisroire Moderne, 67" annee, 8, 1968, R.
Devleeshouwer, Donnees historiques des problemes linguistiques beiges. . : Jonathan Steinberg. The
II.
87
:
- , -
; XVI ;
,
. . , , ,
XVIII-XX . (
).
, ,
. , , (, ),
.
.
(1809-1872) , 1838 ,
, . ,
) (
- , ); )
; ),
.1 , , historian and the Questione della lingua : . Burke & Roy Porter (eds.). The Social History of Language.
Cambridge, 1987. P. 198-209.
1
: Ivo Banac. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics.
88
. . 1780 .
. 1790
- , ,
, , .
(1808-1845)

, , ,
(, ) .
, ,
, , 1947 de facto
, 20% , ,
.1 ,
, , ,
, ;
,
,
.
Ithaca and London, 1984 ( ): , .
. , ,
. ,
(. 81).
1
Einar Haugen. The Scandinavian languages: An Introduction. London, 1976.

II.
89
, :
,
,
. , (
, , , ) ,
, . .
,
Sauerstoff, a
franglais.* ,
,

. .
(, , )
, VI . 1847 ,
,
, .1
* , .
. .
1
(Parliamentary Papers, XXVII of 1847, part III, p.
853 .).

90
. . 1780
,
,
( ), ,
,
, (

). , , , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, -
, ?
, .
,
, ,
, , ,
.1 ,
1
Arno Borst. Der Turmbau von Babel: Geschichte der Meinungen iiber Ursprung und Vielfalt der Sprachen der
Volker, 4 Bden. in 6. Stuttgart, 1957-1963, Bd. IV. S. 1913.
II.
91
,
, , ,

, . , ,
, - . (
, ,
).' (,
)
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
,2 .
- ,
. ,
, Schwy-zerdiitsch; -
Radetzky-marsch,
1
Paul M. G. Levy. La Statistique des lanques en Belgique // Revue de 1'Institut de Sociologie (Bruxelles), 18, 1938.
P. 507-570.
2
Emil Brix. Die Umgangsprachen in Altosterreich zwischen Agitation und Assimilation. Die Sprachstatistik in den
zisleitanischen Volkszalungen 1880-1910. Vienna-Cologne-Graz, 1982. e. g. S. 182, 214, 332.
92
. . 1780 .
, , ,
, .1 ,
,
, , ,
(
), .
, .
, , ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, - ; ,
, , .
, , , .
,
, , , , , . ,
. 5
1

Joseph Roth. The Radetzkymarch. Harmondsworth, 1974.

II. ,
93
, , :
, , . ..1
, , (
), ,
, ,
, nationes, .
, XIII , ,
( , ), generationes (
), , , gentes (
). , populus, :
, -,
.2
, , XIX
.
, ,
. , ,
1
2

Frederik Barth (ed.). Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Boston, 1969. P. 30.
Borst. Der Turmbau von Babel. S. 752-753.

94

. . 1780 .

, , , ,
, , ,
.1 , , , , .

? . ,
,
.
( Wasserpolacken
Windlsche )
: - ,
, ,
, , .
- , -
.
, Volk, 1

. , VIII, 144. , :
, - ,
, - , , (ibid. S. 137, 160).

II.
95
-,
.
, , . ,
(
),
. . .1 -,
,
- ,
.
. (
) ,
,
. (1787-1864), ,
, , , ,
--
( )
1

Benedict Anderson. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. London, 1983. P.
146-149; . 5.

96
. . 1780 .
, .1
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
.
, 1789 50%
12-13% ,
langue d'oui * ,
. - .2
1

.: Hugh Seton-Watson. Nations and States: An Enquiry


into the Origins of Nations and the Politics of Nationalism. London, 1977. P.170-171.
* . , , ( -- )
. Laugue d'oui (.: langue d'oil) langue d'oc (
), . . , .
langue d'oui (langue d'oil) langue d'oc
si (): . oil (.: oui), . .
2
Ferdinand Brunot (ed.). Histoire de la langue fran9aise. ISvols., Paris, 19271943), . vol. IX; : M. de Certeau, D. Julia, J. Revel.

II.
97
, , ,

, ,
, ,
, (1860 .) 2,5%
.1
, .
XVIII ,

, .
300-500 2 ;
,
Une politique de la langue: La Revolution Fransaise et les patois: 1'enquete de 1'Abbe Gregoire. Paris, 1975.
. : Rene Balibar. L'lns-titution du fran?ais: essai sur le co-linguisme des
Carolingiens a la Republique. Paris, 1985; : R. Balibar & D. Laporte. Le Franjais national: politique et pratique de
la langue na-tionale sous la Revolution. Paris, 1974.
1
Tullio de Maura. Storia linguistica dell'Italia unita. Bari, 1963. P. 41.
2
, . . 30-40 , ,
, , 100 000 . . V.
Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte 1700-1815. Munich, 1987. S. 305.
4 . 3790

98
. . 1780 .
Hochsprache, , , .1
, , () ,
, (, ,
, .. , )
.
, , , ,
1

, , , - anche oggi il
tedesco (Hochdeutsch), ancor piu che 1'italiano, una vera e propria lingua artificiale di culture, sovradialettale sotto
insieme con la quale la maggior parte degli utenti si servono anche di una Umgangsprache locale (Lorinczi Angloni.
Appunti. P. 193n.).* XIX . , , Promessi
sposi ** ,
: - ( , , , -),
. ,
, ,
. .
* , ,
, , ( )
- (.). . .
** (.). . .

________ II.
99
, , ,
,
( ), , .
, ( ,
,
), ,
, .
( )
XVIII XX .
-,

.
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,
, 1830- 100 . . 1780 .

,
. ,
,
. ,

, -
.1 ?
, ,
. ,
- , ,
.2 , , ,
- ,
1

Shepard . Clough. A History of the Flemish Movement in Belgium: A Study in Nationalism. New York, 1930,
repr. 1968. P. 25. . : Val R. Lorwin. Belgium: religion,
class and language in national politics in: Robert A. Dahl. Political Opposition in Western Democracies. New
Haven, 1966, P. 158 ff.
2
S. B. Clough. A History of the Flemish Movement in Belgium. P. 21-22.
II.
101

. , . 1536
:
, LXXII ,
, .1
, .
?
, , ,
. ,
,
. (Kultur)
. .
, (Zivilisation),
. -
( : ) 1938
,
.2
,

1

Borst. Der Turmbau von Babel.


. Leopold Spira. Bemerkungen zu Jorg Haider // Wiener Tagebuch, October 1988. S. 6.
102 . . 1780 .
, .'
, (
) -,
; ,
, ,
, ,
, , , -
.2 ,
, , -
, -, - (
). , , ,
, , ,
( )
, .3 2

1
2

Frederik Barth. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries.


Theodore Zeldin. France 1848-1945. Oxford, 1977, vol. I. P.46-47.

Ivo Banac. The National Question in Yugoslavia. P. 44.


Istorija Crne Gore. , , 1970 .

II. 103
, , , , XIII , ( )
, , ,
, , ,
. .
, -
, ,
( ) .
, , , .
,
, . . , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
- , .
: ,
1745 , . .
, ,
. (
.)

104 . . 1780 .
, , ( ) ,
, .
, - 1809
, , , , , - .*1
, , . ,
, , ,
, ,
, (). , ,

, , ,
. , ,
, , , .
, ,
- . ,
, , , ; ,
.
,
? , , , * . . .
1
John W. Cole & Eric R. Wolf. The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley. New York and London,
1974. P. 112-113.

II.
105
,
, ( . .
). . -,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
(, ),
.

, , ,
- , cholos,
.1

, , , , ,
, , ,
. ,
1960-1970- ., cholos,
, .
,
- .

106 . . 1780 .
-, ,
, .
( ),
, , :
, , ,
, , , , , .
, - (
), ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
.
-, ,
, , -
, , , , .
,
.1
1

, () 99%, 94%
. .

.
107
.

, , ,
- -
, -. ,
.
,
, ,
.1 , ,
- , , -mdigenista, .2 ,
1

Magnus Morner. El mestizaje en la historia de Ibero-America. Mexico City,


1961; . : Alejandro Lipschutz. El problema racial en la conquista de America el mestizaje. Santiago de Chile,
1963, . . V. Leyes de Indias ,
(Sergio Bagu. Estructura social de la Colonia. Buenos Aires, 1952. P. 122).
2
, , . , . 216-218
, () ,
. . Ideologia mesianica del mundo andino, ed. Juan M. Ossio A.
(Lima, 1973) Alberto Flares Galindo. Buscando un Inca: identidad Utopia en los

108 . . 1780 .
, ,
. nigritude * ,
: ,
. ,

, , .
,
,

.
, , , ,
XVII : ().
,
.
Andes (Havana, 1986). ,
, ) mistis
;
) , ,
(. 321)
) indigenista (. 292).
* ; , (.). . .

II.
109
,
. - ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, -,
.1

. . ,
,
.2 , , ,
,
.
- , ( ,
) 1

George Antonius. The Arab Awakening. London, 1938; Maxime Rodinson.


Developpement et structure de 1'arabisme Marxisme et monde musulman. Paris, 1972. P. 587-602.
2
Fred R. Van der Mehden. Religion and Nationalism in Southeast Asia: Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines. Madison,
1963.

110 . . 1780 .
, , . , , ,
.
, , VI . . . VII . .., ,
, , .
, ,

. ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
(
). , , ,

, ( , , ).
, , , ,
, -
. ; ,

.
111
, , , , .
, ( ),
( ) ( ).
, , ,
.1
, ? ,
,

.
- , (, ,
), .
, , ,
; ,
, .2
( ) [] 1

XIX , , , , - .
, ,
.
2
, , : , ,
.

112 . . 1780 .
.
113
, . XIX
() ( ) , , . (
).1 , ,
,
( , )
( ) , .
, , , , , ,
,
, ,
( , , ). , ,
,
, . ,
,

,
1

Cf. Gwyn Alfred Williams. The Welsh in their History. London and Canberra, 1982; When was Wales?
London, 1985.
, , .1 ,
,
,
.
,
,
,
( ,
, , ). ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, () .
,
, . , ,
, ( ) ex post facto.
, , ,
,
1
.: . A. R. Gibb & H.A.Bowen. Islamic Society in the West.
Oxford, 1957, vol. I, pt. 2. P. 219-226.
114 . . 1780 .
,
( ).
, , , (
), . ,

-
. , , .
, ,1 ,
( )
,
. , ,
,
. , -, -
, , , ,
. .
,
(
)
Gellner. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford, 1983.
.
115
, ,
(1967) -
.

( , XVII ,
- ),
, , ,
. ,
,
. ( , )
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, Joes Florals,
Eisteddfodan . .
, ,
.
116 . . 1780 .
, , , ,
,
-. -
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ex officio * ( ,
), ,
( ).1 , ,
, , ,
. , ,
. XIX ,
* , (.). . . 1 - ;
Marc Block. Les Rois thaumaturges. Paris, 1924.

II.
117
,
. de facto ,

1860 .
,
, ,
IX. , XIX , ,
.
, ,
( )
.1 , ,
XIX , , ,
, Staatsvolk,
(, , . .). , ,
.
, 1

, , ,
, ,
. , (,
) (romaiosyne).

118 . . 1780 .
-,
, : .
gesta Dei per francos,*
( ,
XI ), , ,
, , . (
,
, , .

.) , ,
- , : natio, fidelitas communitas, .
. "", "" " " <...>
-
(einer gesellschaft-lichen Gruppe).1
, ,
, ,
, , * , (.). . . 1 Jeno Sziics. Nation und Geschichte. Budapest, 1981. S. 8485.

II.
119
. , - ,
.
.1
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
. , ,
,
( , , '), ,
,
1

, .
,
.
<...>, . . <...>,
. --
,
. , ,
: Mirjana Gross. On the integration of the Croatian nation: a case study
in nation-building // East European Quaterly, XV, 2, June 1981, p. 212.

120 . . 1780 .
, . -
,

,
, .
,
(,
XV-XVI .), : , , ,
. , , ,
bellatores * , . , , ,
?
.1
,
, (
)
( ). , ,
.2
1
2

Szucs. Nation und Geschichte, S. 112-125. * (.). . .


Ibid. P. 125-130.

II.
121
, ( ,
)
, . ,
: ,
, , . II
: ,
.
, ( )
- , , ,
. (
, , ,
, ,
.) XIX ,
, , ,
, ,
, , , ,
, ,
. , , ,
. , 122 . . 1780 .

, .

, ( )
. , I . . . , , ( )
. , , XIX ,
,
.1 , , , - ,
, (, ,
) XIX .
, , , , . , ,
.

. , ,
1

I. ' ( ) , .

II.
123
, 1809
( ),
- .1
- ,
.
XIX ( ), , ,
! - . ( )
(. . -) ,
,
. ,
, , , --.
(. . ). , , ,
- , ,
. ,
(romaiosyne), ,
(). ,
.
1

Cole & Wolf. The Hidden Frontier. P. 53, 112-113.

124 . . 1780 .
,
-, , ,
,
.
, , , ,
.
, ,
, . (
) , , ,
, ; , , ,
, ,
. ,
, 70 000 ,
, 120 000 ,
( 1800
, ). :
, ,
.
, .
,
.
125
, .
-, , ,
,
( ), , ,
,
. ,
, .
-, XVIII ,
. , , ,
.
, . ,
, ,
, -
,
.

. , ,
: , , 126 . . 1780 .
, (
, ). ,
,
, ,
, , . ,
(,
),
. ,
, , , .
, , ,
,
, .
, II ,
, XVIII ,
.
? , , ,
, ,
, II.
127
, ? -
, ,
, ,
,
. ( )
XIX . , , , ,
, .

3

, ,
, .
, ( XVI-XVII .),
. ,
( ),
;
. ,
. , ,
,

III.
129
. ,
, ,
( ), /
, ,
, . ,
,
,
.
XIX
, - , ,
-

, , , ;
(, ),
,
. (,
XIX ), , ,

. ,
,
5 . 3790

130 . . 1780 .
,
. ,
(
), , ,
, , ,
, , .
,
. XIX ,
,
.

. (
, ,
, ).1 , 1

, ,
- () ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
1914 . .

III.
131
- :
, ( ) ,
,
. ,
, ,
( )
, ,
. ,
, 1910 . 1: 20 ,
, : . 700 000
- (1910), (1906),
. 1 500 000 (1907), 700 000 (1907).' ,
, , , ,
.
-, .
,

1
Peter Flora. State, Economy and Society in Western Europe 1815-1975, vol. I, chapter 5. Frankfurt, London and
Chicago, 1983.
132 . . 1780 .
( ),
,
: , (God
bless the squire and his relations/and Keep us in our proper stations),*

, ,
. ,

, , ,
. ,
, 1830 .
1832 .,
,
. XIX ,
, ,
. ,
, 1880- , : ,
( * () . (.).
. .

III.
133
), ,
, ,
, , ,
.
.
, , .
, ,
, ,
(
, - ).
,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , , . ., ,
( ),
, ,
134 . . 1780 .
, ,
.
.
,
,
, , .
, (, ,
), , (
1871 )?
, . 1789-1815 .
: -
. ,
, , ,
, . , ,
:
1789 .
. ,
,
, III
III.
135
I.1 , , .
,

, ,
XVI-XVII ., .
1914 -
,
( )
. , ,
, , ,
, .2
XX
, , - XIX
1
Linda Colley. The apotheosis of George III: loyalty, royalty and the British nation //Past and Present, 102 (1984).
P. 94-129. ,
, .: Hugh Seton-Watson.
Nations and States. London, 1977. P. 84.
2
Cf. Revolutions briefe 1848: Ungedrucktes aus dem Nachlass Konig Friedrich Wilhelms IV von Preussen
(Leipzig, 1930).
136 . . 1780 .
.
, ,
, . .
, .
, , ,
, ,

. ,
- ,
-
(, ,
), , ,
.
, , ,
? , 1880-1890- ,
, -
.
(),
. , , ///.
137
, .
- , -, .
1884-1885 . ,
(. .
) , ,
, , , ,
XVIII
.1
. ,
( , Kaiserlich und kbniglich), , (
United Kingdom).*
1
.: Raphael Samuel (ed.). Patriotism: The Making and
Unmaking of British National Identity, Svols. London, 1989 . Linda Colley. Whose nation? Class and
national consciousness in Britain 1750-1830 //Past and Present, 113, November 1986. P. 97-117 Imperial South
Wales : GwynA. Williams. The Welsh in their History. London and Canberra, 1982.
. Nairn. The Enchanted Glass: Britain and its Monarchy. London, 1988, part 2.
* (.). . .

138 . . 1780 .
, ,
,

,
.
,
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
(, ,
) .1
,
.
,
XIX , 1880- ,
. , 1

, , , , ,
.

III.
139
, -
II.
, , -,
, , , ,
, . . , . ,
, ,
( ) . ,
, , ,
, , ,
.1 ,
( , ,
, 1783 .)2 ,
, .
patrie,* ,
, -

Cf. Hugh Cunningham. The language of patriotism, 1750-1914 //History Workshop Journal, 12, 1981. P. 8-33.
J. Godechot. La Grande Nation: 1'expansion revolu-tionnaire de la France dans le monde 1789-1799. Paris, 1956, vol. I.
P. 254.
* (.). . .
2

140

. . 1780 .

, , ,
. 1200 , ,
19 1789 , ,
, , . ., .
1790 , , , ,
.' , La Nation consentie, voulue par elle-meme 2 *
. ,
,

. - (un
plebiscite de tous les jours,** )
. : , ,

.
. . ,
1
Ibid., I, p. 73.
2

. : Pierre Nora (ed.). Les Lieux de Memoire. La Nation. Paris, 1986. P. 363.
* , (.). . .
** (.). . .

III.
141

,
,
.
1914 , ,
( ) .1
(. . )
,
, ,
,
.
XVIII , ,
. -
; , ,
,
,
. ,
, , ,
1
Marc Ferro. La Grande Guerre 1914-1918. Paris, 1969. P. 23; A Offner. The working classes, British naval
plans and the coming of the Great War //Past and Present, 107, May 1985. P. 225-226.
142 . . 1780 .
, , .
, ,
, patrie, .
, .
- , (
) . , ,
,
.
.
, , ,

1914 . , ,
,
, -,
.
;
;
(, ) ,
III.
143
( ).
,
, ,
.

. ,
, ,
, , . ,
, ,
. , , XIX
,
. , ,
.
.1 ,
XIX ,
1
.: Karl Deutsch. Nationalism and Social Communication. An Enquiry into the Foundations of Nationality.
Cambridge MA, 1953. Ernest Gellner. Nations and Nationalism.
Oxford, 1983. Cf. Jong Breuilly. Reflections on nationalism // Philosophy and Social Sciences, 15/1 March 1985. P.
65-75.
144 . . 1780 .
, ,
.
,
.
,
- .
, pays, paese,
pueblo patrie ( 1776 . ).
() , .1
, ( ),
, ,
: , , , , . ,
, , ,
,
,
. , ,
,
, , ,
. 1

J. M. Thompson. The French Revolution. Oxford, 1944. P. 121.

III.
145
( )
.
Tableau de la geographic de la France (1903):' ,
,
,
"" (patrie)*. , ,
.

,
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
,
, , , , .
1880-1914 .
1

Histoire de la France , . .: J.-Y.Guiomar. Le Tableau de la


geographic de la France de Vidal de la Blache : Pierre Nora (ed.). Les Lieux de Memoire II. P. 569 ff.

146 . . 1780 .
- ,
, .

.

. Primat der Innenpolitik,*
:
. ,
, . ,
1840 . ,
.1
,
, ,
,
* (.). . .
1

.
, , XIX . (Cf. D. Nord-. Des Limites d'etat aux frontieres nationales, .
P. Nora (ed.). Les Lieux de Memoire, vol. II. P. 35-62 passim, esp. p. 52).
1840. ,
. Cf. . V.
Wehler. Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte 1815-1845/49. Bd. II, Munich, 1987. S. 399. ,
.

III.
147

,
.1 , 1920-
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
, : (herr-lich.es) , !; ,
, ,
; ,
( Heimatland).2
1

. J. Hobsbawm. Mass-producing traditions: Europe 1870-1914, .: . J. Hobsbawm & . Ranger (eds.). The
Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, 1983, ch. 7; Guy Vincent. L'Ecole primaire franfaise: Etude sociologique. Lyon, 1980,
ch. 8: L'Ecole et la nation, esp. P. 188-193.
2
; ,
,
. , ,
, Deutschland uber alles.*
* (.). . .

148 . . 1780 .
III.
149


, ,
.
,
: ( ,
, , , -),1 ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
1914
, , , ,

( ) , -. ,
, , XIX ,
,
. ,
,
, .

, ,
,
, -,
.1 , , ,
,
. -
, , , XIX
, , ,
, ,

.
1

. Gerard de Puymege. Le Soldat Chauvin .: . Nora. Les Lieux de Memoire, II, esp. P. 51 ff. ,
, .
1
.: Pierre Andre Taguieff. La Force du
prejuge: Essai sur le racisme et ses doubles. Paris, 1987. P. 126-128. -
.: Gunter Nagel. Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936). Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Sozialdarwinismus
in Frankreich. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1975.

150 . , 1780 .

,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
, ;
, ,
.
, ,
1840 ,

. ,
,
, , ,
III.
151

,
( , ,
).1
, . ,
/ , ,
.
II,

; ,
( ); 1947
, .
( ), (Umgangsprache)
.

, . .
1
. Land of 100 tongues but not a single language (New York Times, 2 December, 1987).
.: J.Fishman. The sociology of language: an interdisciplinary social science approach to
language in society . T.Sebeok (ed.). Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 12. The Hague-Paris, 1974.
152 . . 1780 .
,
.
:
, ,
, , , ,
, .
,
,
( , ,
).
, ,
, [
] ,
. .1
, , 1

Karl Renner. Das Selbstbestimmung der Nationen in besonderer Anwendung auf Oesterreich. Leipzig and Vienna, 1918.
S. 65. , Der Kampf der osterreichlischen Nationen um den Staat (1902).
, , - .

III.
153

- .

.1

, 1830 , .
, , .
( ) () ,
- , . ( , 1895
).2 , ,
, , ,
.
,
.
1

, ,
<...> ,
- (J.
Fishman. The Sociology of Language. P. 164).
2
W. A. Macartney. The Habsburg Empire. London, 1971. P. 661.

154 . . 1780 .
, ,
, ,
. : ,
, .
, , 1848 .1
, , ,
; ,

, ;
; ; ,
;
; ,
, , ,
. , -:
,
: , ,
.2
,

1
P. Burian. The state language problem in Old Austria // Austrian History Yearbook, 6-7, 1970-1971. P. 87.
2
Ned Thomas. The Welsh Extremist: Welsh Politics, Literature and Society Today. Talybont, 1973. P. 83.
HI.
155
, .
, XIX .
, ,
, XIX
, .
, (1853 .),
: ,
, , .
-, , , (
) .
1860 . , , . .
, - .
1873 . .
,
, ,
( = ).
, , , ,
,
156 . . 1780 .
, .
, , ,
-,
, ,1 ,
.
, .
, ,
. ,
, - , , ) ,
, )
,
,
, , . .2 ,
, XIX ,
, .
,
. ,
III.
157
1
. Renner. Staat und Nation. S. 13.
2
Emit Brix. Die Umgangsprachen in Altbsterreich zwischen Agitation und Assimilation. Die Sprachen statistik in den zis
leitanischen Volkszahlungen, 1880-1910. Vienna-Cologne-Graz, 1982. S. 76.
.

, , , , 1840-
, (
-),1 XIX

.2 1842 . Revue des Deux Mondes ,
, , , , , ; , , , , ,
, .
, ,
,
III.3 ,
, ,
, . , ,
, , ,
, .4
, 1

Cf. Sarah Wambaugh. A Monograph on Plebiscites, With a Collection of Official Documents //Carnegie Endowment for
Peace, New York, 1920, esp. P. 138.
2
Nordmann in P. Nora (ed.). Les Lieux de memoire, vol. II. P. 52.
3
Ibid. P. 55-56.
4
Brix. Die Umgangsprachen. S. 90.

158 . . 1780 .
, ,
1866 1869 . ( ) ,
.1
,
; ,
,
. ,
,2
, ,
, , ,
, ,
( ,
). , , ,
, , 1840 .
1

Richard Bockh. Die statistische Bedeutung der Volks-sprache als Kennzeichen der Nationalitat //Zeitschrift fur
Vb'lkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft, 4, 1866. S. 259-402); . Der Deutschen Volkszahl und
Sprachgebiet in den europaischen Staaten. Berlin, 1869.
2
Volksdeutsche,
, .
III.
159
,
,
.
?
, :
.
, ,
.
. , XIX ,
,
uttersprache, , , ,
, , . . ,
Muttersprache.1
-
, , ,

, ( ),
, .
. , ,
, ,
1860-
Brix. Die Umgangsprachen, S. 94.
160 . . 1780 .
. 1880 . , ,
,
.
,
.
, 1910..,
.
, .1
,
.
.
1
Ibid. S. 114.

4
1870-1918 .
,
, ,
(passiver Volkheit) .
, .

. , , 1789
.1
, ,
, , , , - , .
,
1
. Renner. Staat und Nation. S. 89.
6 . 3790

162

. . 1780 .

,
1830 , , ,
, -:
( :
).1 -, , :
(, XIX );
,
,
; ;
1789 , ,
.
,
, , ,
1830 - , ,
. , ,
, 1830-1870
.,
.
1880-1914 . .
-, ( ), ,

1
Ibid. S. 9.
IV.

163

, . ,
, ,
. -,

, ( )
. , , ,
(
),
-, , ,
, , XIX . ( )
, .
, ,
. -,
XIX
, ,
.

- 1539
, 164 . . 1780 .
, ,
ancien regime,*
.1 ,
. ,
, ,
* (.). . .
1
() ; , , ,
. .
, ,
,
, , , ? ,
, ,
, ()
- ,
(les petits gens) <...>
(de gens comme il faut) <...>
. , ,
( . . Fernand Brunot. Histoire de la langue francaise. Paris, 1930-1948,
vol. IX, I. P. 207-208.

_______ IV.
165
, , , , .

, XIX
.
,
,
. , ,
, , , (
) .
XVIII
, ,
, , , ,

.
,
( ), , , ,

. ,
-
, 166 . . 1780 .
() , ,
. (1831 .);
, ,
, -.1 ,
1780-1840 . ,
,
( ) , ,
,
, .
,

, ,
( )
. (1878 .)
, , , .
,
, -
,
1
. Juttikala & . Pirinen. A History of Finland. Helsinki, 1975. P. 176.
IV.
167
. .
, ,
, , .
.
, , ,
,
, 1 1871 . 13 1881 33 1891 '
. , , :

(Welsh Sunday Closing Act 1881 , ),2
(), ,
, .
1
, ,
1852-1892 .,
.
2
. Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the operation of the Sunday Closing (Wales) Act.,
1881 (Parliamentary Papers, H. . ., vol. XL of 1890); K.O.Morgan. Wales, Rebirth of a Nation 1880-1980.
Oxford, 1981. P. 36.
168 . . 1780 .
, , ,
(, , ),
, ,
. , , ,
(1907) 1890-
, ,
.
, ,
, ,

, ,
. ,
,
(,
). , 1914
, 1870 ( )
, , ; ( ,
); ;
(
, IV.
169
; , , , ,
,
.
.
, /
. ,
. (1893 .),
, .
'- - (
) ( ), .

1900 .
, 1848
, .
1860- (
),
1880-
(
-, )
,
170 . . 1780 .
( , -, ,
, , ). 1880 .,
,
.1
- () 1850- , Joes Florals
( Eisteddfodau) 1859 .
1880- ,2
XX .3 ,
,

: 1894 ,
,
(PNV) , ,
(Euskadi).4
1
Juttikala & Pirinen. A History of Finland. P. 176-186.
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Francesc Vallverdu. El catala al segle XIX //L'Aven9, 27, May 1980. P. 30-36.
3
Carles Riba. Centanys de defensa illustracio de 1'idioma a Catalunya //L'Avenc, 71, May 1984. P. 54-62).
, 1939 .
4
H.-J. Puhle. Baskischer Nationalismus im spanischen Kontekst H.A.Winkler (ed.). Nationalismus in
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IV.
171

XIX () , ,
1870 , ,
,
, , ,

.1 ,
( )
( ). -
XX , , ,
.

: ;
, XIX
. -, ,
, , , , ,
, ,
. -, , ,
,
1

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Report of the International Commission to Enquire into the Cause
and Conduct of the Balkan Wars. Washington, 1914. P. 27.
172 . . 1780 .

, , ,
, ,
. . ,
( -) 1880 ;
(, X. . )
1890- ., 1900 .1
. , , , , , ,
,
, . , ,
,
,
( )
. ,
(, , 1

J. Romein. The Watershed of Two Eras: Europe in 1900. Middletown, 1978. P. 108. 1898 . (OED Supplement:
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, ,
.

_______ IV.
173
, , , . .) ,
XIX .

/ , . ,
, - Entente Cordiale 1904

.1 ,
.
, 1870-1914 . .

,
. ,

: , ;
,
, ,
, ,
, .
, 1

Jean Finot. Race Prejudice. London, 1906. P. 5-6.

174

. . 1780 .

,
,
, , . ,
, : ,
- ,
,
,
, (
) -
. , 1914 . ,
, , ,
. ,
, , - ,

. , ,
,
,
, IV.

175

.

,
. ,
; ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
,
, . ,
(
). ,
, , .
, ()
,
.
, 95% -- ,
176 . . 1780 .
IV.
177
, . . . ,
1935 ,
, ""
.1 1900 ,
; , , ,

.2
, , XIX ,
,
.
(
) ,
.
- .
:
,
,
. ,
1
Lewis Glinert. Viewpoint: the recovery of Hebrew // Times Literary Supplement, 17, June 1983. P. 634).
2
Cf. Declan Kiberd. Synge and the Irish Language. London, 1979, e.g. P. 223.
, ,
().1
.
- (
XIX ) ,
,
; , ( )
.
,
, ,
( ) (
). ,
- ( , ) . 1930- ,
(Hindi Sahitya Samuelan, HSS),
, 1
Einar Haugen. Language Conflicts and Language Planning: The Case of Modern Norwegian. The Hague, 1966;
, The Scandinavian languages as cultural artifacts . Joshua A. Flshman, Charles A. Ferguson, Jyotindra
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178 . . 1780 .
. 1942 ( ).
HSS ;
,
, ; 1950
, , ,
, 1956 .1
,
,
,
, (
franglais). ,
, ,
, . ,
,
1
J. Bhattacharyya. Laguage, class and community in Bengal //South Asia Bulletin, VII, I and 2 Fall 1987. P. 56-63;
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179
, XIX . 1890-
, , 93%
, .1 ,

. ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, .
, , ,
,
( 1863 .) ?
( ,
, , ,
).2 1
. Suttner. Die Badenischen Sprachenverorduungen von 1897, 2 Bden. Graz-Cologne, 1960, 1965, Bd. II. S. 8688.
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J. Fishman. The sociology of language: an interdisciplinary approach, . . . Sebeok (ed.). Current Trends in
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180 . . 1780 .

,
,
, , , ?
, 1919
, , , ,
20 000? , ,
XIX , ( ) -
; , ,
- ,
? '
, , ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
,
1
Juttikala & Pirinen. A History of Finland. P. 176.
IV.
181
( , ,
).
, , , , ( ,
, ),
, ,
.
,
. , ,
,
, ; ,

, .
, , ; .
,
; ,
.
, ,
. , ,

182 . . 1780 .

, , XX
. ,
;
, .1
, ,
, ;
, , , ,
, ,
, , .
,
, , .
,
, ,
. ,
, ,

,
1

,
.

IV.
183
, .
, ,
. (
, , ,
.)
,
, ,
.1 ,
, , ,

.
- ,
- .
- ,
, .
, ,
, 1

1794 , , , , ,
.

184 . . 1780 .
, , .
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, , indigenistas.
de facto ,
. ,
, 1846 1910 . ,
, .1
,
,
. , ,
, ,
( ), . ,
( ) ,

1
A. Zolberg. The making of Flemings and Walloons: Belgium 1830-1914 //Journal of Interdisciplinary History, V/2,

1974. P. 210-215.
IV.
185
, - , , en masse *
. (
, , ,
, , .)
, , , ,
, .
, grande bourgeoisie **
, XIX (. .
), . ,
, ,
-flamingant. ,
, ,1 ,
. (
, * , (.). . .
** (.). . .
1
Waslaw Dlugoborski. Das polnische Burgertum vor 1918 in vergleichender Perspektive . J. Kocka (ed.).
Burgertum im 19 Jahrhundert: Deutschland im europaischen Vergleich. Munich, 1988, Bd. I. S. 266-289.
186 . . 1780 .
.) ,
1707 .
, , ,
.
,
,
; ,
(1903 .)
, .1

( ) ,
. 1890- .
,
, ,
. , ,
, , 1

Jules Destree & Emile Vandervelde. Le Socialisme en Belgique. Paris, 1903, 1- ., 1898. , 48--
- .

IV.
187
. ,
, -, , .
,
. ,

,
.
II
( Oberlehrer,* )
.

, -
, .
, ,
, .
, ( ),
, .
, ,

* (.). . .

188 . . 1780 .
,
() : -
,
, , -
,
. ,
(

), , 1880- . , , , ,
. ,
, <...>,
, Flamingant .'
, ,
, - ,
,
. , , 1

Zolberg. The making of Flemings and Walloons. P. 227.

IV.
189
, ,
- , , , -
.1
, ,
( ) ,
(
). ,
, , , ,
. . .
, , , , .
, ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
.
, -
, , , , 1
Ibid. P. 209 ff.
190 . . 1780 .
. ,
Flamingant .
.
,
; , ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
, . -
, .
, - ,
(PNV),
, .
. ,
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-,

,
. , PNV

1
Puhle. Baskischer Nationalismus. S. 62-65.
IV.

191

.
, ,
, , :
,
, ,
.
( ) , 1860-
( ,
), XIX
, ,
. ""
. ,
, ,
,
.1
,
, ,
1

Mirjana Gross. Croatian national-integrational ideologies from the end of Illyrism to the creation of Yugoslavia //
Austrian Yearbook, 15-16, 1979-1980. P. 3-44, esp. 18, 20-21, 34.
192 . . 1780 .
(), (, ) (, ).
, ,
,
;
, - ,
, .
, ;
, , ,
. ,
. 1880-
, , , , -
: , , .1 ,
, ,
, , - ,
; ,
patrie 1870. .2
1
Antoine Prost. Vocabulaire des proclamations electorates de 1881, 1885 et 1889. Paris, 1974. P. 37.
2
Jean Dubois. Le Vocabolaire politique et social en France de 1869 a 1872. Paris n. d. 1962. P. 65, item 3665.
IV.
193
, , .1
. ,
, , Turner,
, 1890-
( ) (--) 1848 (-) .2
,
, ,3 , , , ,
.

nationalisme ; : A. Prost. Vocabulaire des


proclamations, , . . 52-53, 64-

65.
1
.: Zeev Sternhell. Maurice Barres et le nationalisme fran^ais. Paris, 1972; . S.
Valutti F. Perfetti . R. Lill F. Valsecchi (eds.). II nazionalismo in Italia e in Germania fino alia Prima Guerra
Mondiale. Bologna, 1983.
2
Hans-Georg John. Politik und Turnen: die deutsche Turnerschaft als nationale Bewegung im deutschen
Kaiserreich von 1871 bis 1914. Ahrensberg bei Hamburg, 1976. P. 41 ff.
3
Jens Petersen .: W. Shieder (ed.). Faschismus als soziale Bewegung. Gottingen, 1983. P. 122.
7 . 3790

194 . . 1780 .
, .1
, , , ,
, ,
. 1914
, , ,
, .
, , ,

. ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
- ,
. 1

Michael Kater. The Nazi Party: a social profile of members and leaders 1919-1945. Cambridge MA 1983, esp. p.
236; Jens Petersen. Elettorato e base sociale del fascismo negli anni venti //Studi Storici, XVI/3, 1975. P. 627-669.
IV.
195
,
( ) ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, (
, )
, ,
.
, 50 , ,
,
,
(, , ).1
1
4 : E. J. Hobs-bawm. Worlds of Labour. London, 1984
Working-class internationalism in F. van Holthoon & Marcel van der Linden (eds.).
Internationalism in the Labour Movement. Leiden-New York-Copenhagen-Cologne, 1988. P. 3-16.
196 . . 1780 .

.
, ,
,
; , , 1914
( ),
, 1918
. , , ,
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), . ,
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, ex officio
.
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, ,
; ,

.
,


197
, , , , , , , , ,
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, ,
,

( . . 3, . 104-106). ,
, 1914,
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, , (, 198 . . 1780 .
IV.
199
, )
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. ? .

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, .

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) -
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. de facto
, 47% () 1917
. ,
, .1 1

. : G. Haupt, Low & Weill. Les Marxistes et la question Rationale. Paris, 1974. P.
39-43. , .
1
.: David Kirby.
Rank-and-file attitudes in the Finnish Social Democratic Party (1905-1918) //Past and Present, 111, May 1968), esp. p.
164. .: Ronald G. Suny (ed.). Transcaucasia: Nationalism and Social Change. Ann Arbor, 1983,
, part II, R. G. Suny, Anahide Ter Minassian and Gerard J. Libaradian.

200 . . 1780 .
, ,
(). ,

.

,
, . ( ) ,
.
, . (1860-1930),

, ,
.1
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,
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. , ,
, 1
A. Fejtsma. Histoire et situation actuelle de la langue frisonne //Pluriel, 29, 1982. P. 21-34).
IV.
201
;
, , .1
,
(,
). ,
,
, , - ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.2
, 1
JVI (Janatha Vimukti Peramuna), 1971
, . Kumarl Jayawardene. Ethnic
and Class Conflicts in Sri Lanka. Dehiwala, 1985. P. 84-90.
2
CM. Z. A. Zeman. The Break-up of the Habsburg Empire, 1914-1918. London, 1961; Die
Auflosung des Habsburgerreiches. Zusammenbruch und Neuorientierung in Donauraum (Schriftenreihe des
bsterreichischen Ost- und Siidosteuropamstituts, Bd. Ill, Vienna, 1970).

202 . . 1780 .
IV.
203

.
,
.1 ^
. ,
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,

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, ).

. ( ,
).

Peter Handk. Die Volksmeinung wahrend des letzten Kriegsjahres in Osterreish-Ungarn . Die Auflosung. S. 58-66.
* (.). : , . . .

. ,
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204

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;

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.

, 1917 . ,
1500 , 1917

1918 . (. . ),
. ,
, . 18% , 10%
, 16% . 56%
, : ( Ibid. S. 62.
IV.
205
) 29%, 9%, 18%. ,
56% , 57% 43%. ,
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; 40% , , 28% ( ). 35%
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. 206 . . 1780 .
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207
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, XIX
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_______ V. , 1918-1950
209
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1914-1917 . ,
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.
210 . . 1780 .
V. , 1918-1950
211
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1931 ,
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to , , , , | -

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, reductio ad absurdum * ,
1940- * , (.)- . .

212 . . 1780 .
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- 1922 1,3-1,5 . ,
.1
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. ,
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en masse .
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
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, : 1945 . 1940.
, -
,
1

. . A. Macartney. Refugees in Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York, 1934, vol. 13. P. 200-205; Charles
B. Eddy. Greece and the Greek Refugees. London, 1931. 400
, .

V. , 1918-1950
213
, , (
, 1918 ,
). ,

. -, ,
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, .
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, 1918
,
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_______ V. , 1918-1950
215
, . ,
,
, , ( ) .1
.
( )
, .
, ,
. , ,
1947 , ,
, 1971 .
,
, . (,

).2
,
1
Mirjana Gross. On the integration of the Croatian nation: a case study in nation building //East European
Quarterly, 15, 2 June 1981. P. 224.
2
CM. G. Adhikari. Pakistan and Indian National Unity. London, 1942. Passim, esp. p. 16-20.
216 . . 1780 .
700- :
, 40% .
:
. -
, ,
-

,
. - ,
.
, ,
.
, (
) , .
( )
, , .
. , , ,
. (R.Palme Dutt. India Today. London, 1940. P. 265-266).
V. , 1918-1950
217
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. .
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).
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218 . . 1780 .
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V. , 1918-1950
219
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220 . . 1780 .
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V. , 1918-1950
221
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1914 . , 1905
, 1917-1919 .
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1916-1922 ., -
, . - ,
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.
,
222 . . 1780 .
.

, ,
, ,
,
. , 1980 ,
-,
, ; 6,5%
.1 , 80% ,
91% - ( ), 30% 1977
( , , ),2 , ,
, ,
. (
) , , ,
, ,
(
),
1

Le Monde, 11 1981.
H.-J. Puhle. Baskischer Nationalismus im spanischen Kontext .: . A. Winkler (ed.). Nationalismus in der Welt von
Heute. Gottingen, 1982. S. 53-54.
2

V. , 1918-1950
223

,
- . , ,
, ( )
, , .
1977 54% , , -,
8% (,
, ).1
.
1914 , ,
.
. ,
1945 .
- - .

, 1

. : . Garcia Ferrando. Regionalismo autonomies en Espana. Madrid, 1982 . Lopez Aranguren. La conaencia regional en el proceso autonomico espanol. Madrid,
1983.

224 . . 1780 .
, ,
.1
1960- .

.
, 1918-1950 . ,
( , , ,
. .). ,
.
. , ,
, .
,
, , .
( ,
, 1933. .) , ,
, , 1
. . Sherrington. Welsh nationalism, the French Revolution and the influence of the French right .: D.
Smith (ed.). A People and a Proletariat: Essays in the History of Wales 1780-1980. London, 1980. P. 127-147.
_______ . , 1918-1950
225

,
-
-. -

.
(1932 .),
.
.

, (
). ,
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( 1914 ),
, , ,
.
, , ,
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,
.
8 . 3790

226 . . 1780 .
, .1
(1880- )
.
1918 , , , , , .
, ;
; ,
, 1936 ,
.
( , ) ,

, , , .

, , ,
. , 1
. J. Hobsbawm. Mass-Producing traditions .: . J. Hobsbawm & . Ranger (eds.). The Invention of Tradition.
Cambridge, 1983. P. 300-301.
V. , 1918-1950
227
1929
( ). , :

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.
, - .
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.
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1914-1918 . ,
,
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228 . . 1780 .
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. , , 19181945 . , . . ,
,
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. 1945
, 1919. , 1945.
, ,

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. 1940-
, , ,
, ,
.
, , , - , ,

_______ V. , 1918-1950
229
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.
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, ,
.
. , , -
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.
,

230 . . 1780 .
V. , 1918-1950
231
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, 1930-
,
, , ,
, . . .1
, ,
, , ,
, . , ,
,
XX . ,
( 1941 ), ; ,

, , .2 ,

1
.: . Dommanget. Eugene Pottier.
Paris, 1971, ch. III. . . Maurice Thorez. France Today and the Peoples Front.
London, 1936, XIX. P. 174-185, esp. 180-181.
2
Charles De Gaulle. Memoires de Guerre, II. Paris, 1956. P. 291-292. . Earl Browder. The Peoples
Front in the United States. London, 1937. esp. P. 187-196, 249-269.
, .
, ,

,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , .
-,
, ,
,
. ,
, . : ,
. , : , ,
: , .
, ,
, . 232 . . 1780 .
,
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.
,
.
-, ,
.
1930- ,
, ,1
.
,
, .
, , 1936
. , ,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, . ,
-

Hywell Francis. Miners Against Fascism: Wales and the Spanish Civil War. London, 1984; Paolo Spriano. Storia
del Partito Comunista Italiano, vol. III. Turin, 1970, ch. IV.
_______ . , 1918-1950
233
, ,
:
.
-, , ,
, . ,

. ,

, , ,
,
1945
. , ,
, .
, .
; ,
1939 . 1941 .
, , , - .
,
, 234 . . 1780
, (. .
-) -
.
, ,
.1 ,
, .
, ,
.
. -
. (. . )
. , ,
, (
) , ()
. , ,
,
, , ,

. 1941 : A. Bullock. The Life and Times of Ernest Bevin, vol. 2 (1967). P. 77; H. Felling. The Labour
Governments 1945-1951. London, 1984. P. 120.

_______ . , 1918-1950
235
, , , .

, , , .
,
: ,
.
, -
- , ,
, . . .

, , .
, , , : ,
,
, , ,
,
.1
1

. Sean Cronin. Frank Ryan. The Search for the Republic. Dublin, 1980; : Frank Ryan (ed.). The Book of the
XV Brigade. Newcastle on Tyne 1975, Madrid, 1938.

236 . . 1780 .
, ,
, , .
- . (),
,
,
. , ,
, 1942 : ,
.
( 1943 )
.
, / , , ,
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. ,

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V. , 1918-1950
237
.1 1968 , ,
, ;
,
, ,
, .
, 1930-1960 .
, , . ,

,
, .
, 1948 .
1970- .
, ,
, , ,
. 1
.: William R.
Beer. The social class of ethnic activists in contemporary France . Milton J. Esman (ed.). Ethnic Conflict in the
Western World. Ithaca, 1977. P. 157.
238 . . 1780 .
, ,
( ),
, .
1930-
.
: , ? 1920- (
), -
.1 ( ) -, ,
,
, indigenismo,
, 1930-1940 .
,
. , , ,
1

Hans Kohn. History of Nationalism in the Bast. New York, 1933; . Nationalism and Imperialism in the Hither

East. New York 1932. , - 1928 1930 . ,


. , ,
.

V. , 1918-1950
239
sui generis *, ,
, , -
. ,
- , , ,
() ,
: .
- ( ):
, ();
( ,
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.

240 . . 1780 .
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. ,
,
values,
,
. ,
,
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).

,
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.
( . .
, , , ,
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,
_______ V. , 1918-1950
241
, ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, ; ,
.1 ,
.
- , ,
, XIX ,
, . . 1945 . ,
1

Die nationale Frage und Osterreichs Kampf um seine Unabhangigkeit: Ein Sammelband.
(Paris, 1939) .
,
- ,

, . - -
, ( )
Anschluss, , ,
.

242 . . 1780 .
, , ,
, , .
,
, , ..
,
, ,
.
, ?
, , ,
, , ,
. , ,
, , ,
-, ,
/ XIX .1 ,
1
Kumari Jayawardene. Ethnic and Class Conflicts in Sri Lanka. Dehiwala, 1985; . The national question and
the left movement in Sri Lanka //South Asia Bulletin, VII, 1 and 2, 1987. P. 11-22; Jayadeva Vyandoga.
Reinterpreting Tamil and Sinhala nationalism (ibid., p. 39-46); R. N. Kearney. Ethnic conflict and the Tamil
separatism movement in Sri Lanka // Asian Survey, 25, 9 September, 1985. P. 898-917.
V. , 1918-1950
243
,
.
, ,

.1 , ,
, , , -,
.
, 1945 , ( ) , , ,
;
, ,
( , ).
(/ /, )
( , -, -). , ()
(1967)
19 ,
, , ,
1
Fredrick Barth (ed.). Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Boston, 1989. P. 34.
244 . . 1780 .
, 60% . ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
25% , 40% , 40%
20% , ,
1974 . ,
, ,
. , , ,
,
,
,
.
, , , , , , ,

, , ,
modus vivendi *, ,
.
, , ,
* (.). . .

V. , 1918-1950
245
, - , .
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) :
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,
246 . . 1780 .
.
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!
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. , ,
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( ) ,

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(Die Kommunistische Internationale

_______ V. , 1918-1950
247
,
() -
. , ,
- ,
,
. , 1970 97% - (
- ), -
, , , ,
,
. ,
,
,

( ).
. , vor dem VII Weltkongress: Materialen. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935, p. 445): ,
1930 .
, VI 1928 . .
(Compte-Rendu Stenographique du VI Congres de FInternationale Communiste 17
juillet-1 septembre 1928. . La Correspondance Internationale, no. 125, 19 October 1928, p. 1292-1293; no. 130, 30
October 1928, p. 1418).

248 . . 1780 .
,
,
.
, , ( 1890- ,
1950- ). , .

,
. , () ( -
).
, . , ,

, ,
, .

, . . ,
( -).
, ,
, de facto
. V. , 1918-1950
249
,
,
(
).1 (
, ),
, ,

( ) .2 ,
( ),
,
4. , , ,
( ),

, , ,
,
(1956 .). 40,
72% ,

1
2

, .
. Barth (ed.). Ethnic Groups, p. 34-37.

250 . . 1780 .
, - .1
, .
25
. ,
.
,
,
, .
,

, .
, ,2

. -, ,
, (, ) .
(
); , 1
. Sunil Bastlan. University admission and the national question Charles Abeysekera. Ethnic representation in
the higher state services . Enthnicity and Social Change in Sri Lanka (Papers presented at a seminar organized
by the Social Scientists' Association, December, 1979), Dehiwala 1985. P. 220-232, 233-249.
2
Earth (ed.). Ethnic Groups. P. 33-37.
V. , 1918-1950
251
, ,
..., .
,
, , , ,
.
, , ,
. , , ...
. ,
,
, , ,
, . ,

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252 . . 1780 .
.
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,
,
. V. , 1918-1950
253
: ,
. ,
, :
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, , , ethnic ( ,
, ), , ,

.1 , ,
, , ,
,
.2 , ,
, . ,
, .
1

Tresor de la Langue Francaise (vol. VIII, Paris, 1980) 1896 ,


1956 . Anthony D. Smith The Ethnic Origins of
Nations (Oxford, 1986) ,
, . ,
, 1960- . ( ).
* John H. Kautsky. An essay in the politics of development .: John H. Kautsky (ed.). Political Change in Underdeveloped Countries: Nationalism and Communism. New York-London, 1962. P. 33.

254 . . 1780 .
V. , 1918-1950
255
, , . .
, , . (

, ,
()
joual .)
,
, , ,
,
( ), (
) . (
2'/2 700 ). ,
,
(, ),
( ) ,
( , ). ,
,
,1 , .

. , ,
,
, , ,
,
,
,
.
, -,
( ),
, , ,
, 315 000 , 1971 ., 135 000
70 000
. .2
,
1
N. Tanner. Speech and society among the Indonesian elite .: J.. Pride & J. Homes (eds.). Sociolinguistics.
Harmondsworth 1972. P. 127.
2
Robert F. Harney. Sogreat a heritage as ours. Immigration and the survival of the Canadian polity //Daedalus, vol.
117/4, Fall, 1988. P. 68-69, 83-84.
256 . . 1780 .
,
. , , ,
, - , : ,
XIX /
.
, /

, , , ( ),
( ) (
, ,
).1 ,
, , , , ,
, , ( ,
, belles lettres) * . , , 1975 .
, 1

. Francois Grosjean, Life with Two Languages. Cambridge MA, 1982, ,


1974 . 38 . 20 ()
, 36
(. 114). . : L. Harries. The
nationalization of Swahili in Kenya //Language and Society, 5, 1976. P. 153-164.
* , (.). . .

V. , 1918-1950
257
;
,
,
.1
.
1

- (, . .), (David Riesman. Introduction to Daniel Lerner, The Passing of Traditional Society. New York, 1958. P. 4)
,
; , .
. . , Howard Handelman. Struggle in the Andes: Peasant
Political Mobilization in Peru. Austin, 1974. P. 58. 1960-
. ,
; ,
-.
9 . 3790

6

1990- ,
, .

, ,
.
;
,
.
1830-
.
, , ,

VI. ...
259
, , , ,
. , -
, 1991
() 1918-1920 .,
.1
1989-1992 . .
. ,
,
. , , , , - .

, ,
. , (
) - ,
( ,
). ,

1
,
, , , ,
1990- .
260 . . 1780 .
XIX , , . , , - ,
, (-) - -
( ) , , ,
. ( ) '
, (. . 52-53).
,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
,
; , , .
,
XX . , -,
. , ,
,
: 1988-1992 .
1918-1921 .
VI. ...
261
; ( ) (
) !
, .
, . -
,
,
- .1
. ,
. 1917

.
, ;
() . ,
, ,
.
1

1917 ;
. . Radkey. Russia Goes to the Polls. Ithaca, 1989.

262 . . 1780 .
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.1 1939-1940 . ,
, ( ) .
, 1988-1992 .

, 1918-1921 .. , , ,
,
1914 , .
,

VI. ...
263
1

, .
( ) 1914
: .
, (
, , ); ,
. , , : ,
, , , .

, . , ,
-
. ( ,
, 1913
.) , , 1917
( ) , .
( ) ,
, , 1991
.
, (
) ,
, ,
1880-1950 ., - ,
. (
.) ,
,
- (. .
), ,
264 . . 1780 .
, ,
. , , ,
,
.1
, ,
,
,
.

, .
, ,
.
, 1989 ( , , ,
), ,
, , )
-; ) - ,
, , , )
1

Cf. Graham Smith (ed.). The Nationalities Question in the Soviet Union, part IV, Muslim Central Asia. London and
New York, 1990, e. g. P. 215, 230, 262.

VI.
265
. , -
. -

; , ( ,
, ,
).
, , , 1871 1990 . ,
-
( , ).
, (tut) jetzt, wie im 1866, em Stuck von unserer Arbeit in seiner Weise.1*
1989
,
, ,

. , 1

, 15 1870 . (-Engels, Werke, Bd. 33. Berlin, 1966. S. 40).


* , 1866 ., , -* (.). . .

266 . . 1780 .
, .
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.
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1 ( , ,
), . ,
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,
, , . , . .
, ,
, ( )
. ,
,
. ,
, , , ,
(

VI. ...
267
1

Helens Carrere d'Encausse. L'empire eclate. Paris, 1978; idem. La gloire des nations, ou La Fin de 1'empire
sovietique. Paris, 1990.
).
. , ,
, . , (,
, , )
, .
, , ,
,
:
, , , (
). - ,
(1992) . -
, . ,
,
, .
, , , ,

.
, ,
, ,
268 . . 1780 .
, XIX ,
. XX , ,
, , , -
, . .
, , , ,
.1 , , ,
, ,
,
.
de facto , .
, , () ,
,
.

, .
,
1

,
- (, ), ,
, .

VI.
269


(
, ). , ,

XX (. . 190 193). ,
,
,
.
, , , .
, XX , ()
()
, - ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, . , , , ,
, ,
270 . . 1780 .
. , , .
? , , ,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
- , -,
( ,
). ,
-
. ,

/ - .
,
( 1980- ). ,
, ,
, , VI.
271
- ,
.
,
- ,
.
.
:
( 50% ),
, - ,
, 130 000
( 1988 .) . . , ,
,
.1 ,
,
- .
1

Leon Dion, The mystery of Quebec (Daedalus, vol. 117/4, Fall 1988, p. 283-318):
,
, , <...> <...>
, (. 310).

272 . . 1780 .
Canadiens * ,
- ,
Francophonie ** .1 ,
, , 3,5 , 1945 , , ,
,
. , -
, , 1946-1971 . 15%
.
- , , ,
. ,
, ,
( , ). 1960- ,
, 80% 25%,
.2
, -* (.)- . .
** , (.). . .
1
R. F. Harney. So great a heritage as ours. Immigration and the survival of the Canadian polity //Daedalus, vol. 117/4,
Fall, 1988. P. 75.
2
Gerard Pelletier. Quebec: different but in step with North America //Daedalus, vol. 117/4, Fall, 1988. P. 271; Harney. So
great a heritage as ours. P. 62.

VI. ...
273
, . ,

. (

) , , , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, - ,
,
.
;
,
.1
1

1970- . (
),
.
. ,
, , , .
- , 66%
. Cf. F.J.Artibise. Canada as an urban nation //Daedalus, vol. 117/4, Fall, 1988. P. 233-264.

274 . . 1780 .

, .
,
,
.

. , .1
, ,2 , , . "" 3 ,
, , VI. ...
275
1
. Hroch. Nationale Bewegungen fruher und heute. Ein europaischer Vergleich (unpublished paper 1991). P. 14.
, , ,
( ) ,
, Illusion der Reprise. , XIX
,
(. 11).
2
J. Kornai. The Economics of Shortage. Amsterdam, 1980.
3
Katherlne Verdery, Nationalism and the Road to Democracy. P. 36.

. , , ,
, , , .
, [ ], , ,
; -,
<...> "".1
, ,
,
( ,
). - : "".
"" .2
, .
, , ,
,
. ? , ,
; , ,
: , 1
2

Caroline Humphrey. Icebergs, barter and the mafia in provincial Russia //Anthropology Today, 7(2), 1991. P. 8-13.
Andrew Lass. . Verdery. Nationalism and the Road to Democracy. P. 52.

276 . . 1780 .
VI. ...
277

, , , , !
.
, . ,
:
;
, !
. , , ( )
, .
- / ? ,
, "",
, ,
, , .1
"" ; , ,
, , ,
, 1
Martin E. Marty. Fundamentalism as a social phenomenon //Bulletin, The American Academy of Arts and
Sciences, 42/2 November, 1988. P. 15-29.
. , ,
, , <...>
. ,
, .
,
, ,
, ""
<...> ,
, ,
- :
,
.1
/ ,
, ( )
. ()
() ,

.2 , 1
Ibid. P. 20-21.
2
,
278 . . 1780 .
, ,
. ,
. ( )
, ,
, XX .
, ?
: (
); ; ,
,
.

. , ,
, - .
, -

VI. ...
279
(, ).
, ,
, (, -,
) ,
.

,
, ,
, . . . , ,
, , , ,
,
, , .
, , . ,
.
, ( ,
).
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(),
(,
). , , ,
() ,
. ,
,
.
280 . . 1780 .
, , , , ,
-.
, ,
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; , ;
,
.1 (
) , , ,
.
,
, , , ,
. .
,
, -
, .

1958-1974 . ( )
81,2% . . A. Zolberg . M.Esman (ed.). Ethnic Conflict in the Western World. Ithaca,
1977. P. 118.

VI. ...
281
, , , - , , ( ),

,
.
, , . , ,
,
.
,
( ) ,
, , , . ,
, ,
, , ,
,
, .
, ,
. -,
. ?
? , ?
282 . . 1780 .
, ,
- , 200 ,
, , .
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. ( ,
, , .) , ,
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, - ?

,
,
, .
: , , ,
.
, , ,
,
.

VI. ...
283
,
, - ,
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,
). , ,
( ),
.
, , ,
, ,
X

X, - . ,

, , , ,
, , , . ,
. -
,
, , ,
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, .
284 . . 1780 .
(),
: - (
); , , , , ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
(
1947 , , ),
, , ,
, , . ,
, : ,
( ),
; , (,
) <...> .1
, , , . ,
. -

VI.
285
1

John H. Kautsky. An essay in the politics of development .: John H. Kautsky (ed.). Political Change in
Underdeveloped Countries: Nationalism and Communism. New York-London, 1962. P. 35.
. ,
,
(, , , ,
, ). ,
, 1917
, , .
( ) ,
- .
, -
,1
,
.
, , ,
:

1
, ,
. ,
, .

286 . . 1780' .
.
,
, , . * ,
( ),
. , ,
,
,1 .
, , 1948
, ,
( ).
, , ,
, , ,
.2 , , ,
-
, XX
VI. ...
287
1

,
. ,
.
2
Arno Mayer. Why Did the Heavens not Darken? The Final Solution in History. New York, 1989. P. 257-262.
. , , ,
-
.
.
, ( ,
) .
, 1960- ,

(
)
,
.
123 1951 . 280 1972 . 365 1984,
832 2173 1972 .,
, 4615.' ,
XX .
()
1
David Held. Farewell nation state //Marxism Today, December, 1988. P. 15.
288 . . 1780 .

, ,
, .
, , , ,
.
, , ,
,
.
1914 .
( ), , ,
, XXI , XX.
, XX ,
XIX ,
, .
-, ; -

, ,
-

VI. ...
289
,
,
.
.
,
. , , ,
1980-
. , ,
, ,

, ,
. ,
, . ,
, , ,
? , , ,
, . , 1980-
, ,
, ,
. 3790

290 . . 1780 .
...
, , (The Wall Street Journal, 5 December, 1988,
p. 1). ,
( , ).
. , , , , ,
-,
XIX .
: ,
, , ,
, , XIX
1939 . , ,
, ,
; , ,
. , (
, ),
.
1945 ;
.
VI. ...
291
, , 1989 , ;
, , ,
XX .
, ,

, , , ,
, .

, . - ,
,
(1992), ,
. .
, , ,
:
, , , , .1 (
, , , 1


, . , .

292 . . 1780 .
.) ,
.
, .
,
-;
.
, (. .
2,5 . .) .
.
,
, --
.
, , ,
.
, - , ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
VI.
293
. ,
, ,
, . ,
, , .
(, , ,
)
, .
, ipso facto ,
(, ); ,
, ipso facto
, .1 ,
,
- (
),
.
Kleinstaaterei, ,

1

: Sydney Pollard. Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe 1760-1970. Oxford, 1981, (.
VII).

294 . . 1780 .
, , ,
, .
,
, ,

. ,
1990 . :
, 600 000
.1 1990 ., ,
,
,
, .2 , :
XIX
,
, , <...> ,
,
VI. ...
295
1

Henry Kamm. Language bill weighed as Slovak separatists rally // New York Times, 25 October, 1990.
Algerians hit at language ban // Financial Times, 28 December, 1990.
,
, .1


, , , .
;
; , ,
, , ,
, ,
. , 180 , ,
,
, , ,
, .
, , -,
XXI . , -
; , -
( 1
The state of the nation state // Economist, 22 December 1990-14 January 1991. P. 78.
296 . . 1780 .
The Economist).1, ,
-, , .
,
, , ,
.
, , . .
. ,
, ,
.2 ,
: - ,
;
XXI ? ,
, ' Ibid. P. 73-78.
2
"" <...> ()
,
, , "
" <...> . William R. Beer. The social
class of ethnic activists in contemporary France .: Milton J. Esman (ed.). Ethnic Conflict in the Western World.
Ithaca, 1977. P. 158.
VI.
2

297

. , , ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
; , ,
, , ,
. , 1943
,
.1 1946 .
.
,
, -.
, ,
(, )
, -
,
1
Marcello Citnino. Fine di una nazione. Palermo, 1977; G. C. Marino. Storia del separatismo siciliano 1943-1947.
Rome, 1979.
298 . . 1780 .
.
. -,
,
,
.

, , ,
,
, . . de facto . -,
. , , ,
, () .
- ,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
/ -

.
, , VI. ...
299
. , ,
- , , ,
. . ,
em Volk, ein Reich, ein Fuehrer, . . /, ,
(Volk , ).
, , , ,
XVIII ,
, - ,
. -
.
, , ,
- .
,
1972 . .1 , , , (
)

,
.

1
Bundesministerium fur innerdeutsche Beziehungen, Materialen zum Bericht zur Lage der Nation, 3 Bden.
Bonn, 1971, 1972, 1974, III. S. 107-113, esp. S. 112.
300

. . 1780 .
, , .
, , . 83% ,
, ; 78%
, 71% , 34%
- .
. 90%
, 54% ( , . . ) , ,
, , 47% ,
. , ,
.
: , ?,
43% 81%
( ) : .
35% , , 31% (39%
40 ) , , ,
. , ,
, (42%); , -,
, , VI.
301
(52%); --
36%. , (1871) ,
XIX .
: , , ,
-,
. , , ,
,
1945 , , (
1918 1945 .), , ,
. (
) .
, 1990
.
, - . , ,
- francophonie (
1959 .)?
,
. ,
302 . . 1780 .
(la patrie)
, ,
, .1 1960-
-
, .
.
,
. :
, , , ,
. , ,
, , , 1- XX . ,
, -

. XIX
, .
1

Dion. The mystery of Quebec. P. 302. , 31 1967., ,


,
;
, (Canadian News Facts, vol. I, no. 15, 14 August 1967), p. 114.

VI. ...
303

1870 . (. .,
).1 -
- XXI ? .
, , - ,
, .
- , - ,
- -
- . -,
/ , ,
, , ,
.
, .
, ,
, , . , , , , ,
1
Eugen Weber. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford, 1976.
304

. . 1780
, , ,
, ,
, .1
, , ,
,
, . ,
- ; ,
, ,
,
.2 , , , ,
, .
, , 1

1970- . , , . M.Garcia Ferrando. Regionalismo y autonomies en Espana. Madrid, 1982, Table II.
2
, , -, , (John Breuilly), Nationalism and the State.
, ,
,
(Reflections on nationalism //Philosophy and Social Science, 15/1, March 1985. P. 73).

VI. ...
305
, ,
. , ,
, , , , ,
.

............................................................5
I.
..........25
II.

........................74
III.
................................ 128
IV.

1870-1918 ........................................... 161
V.
, 1918-1950.................... 208
VI.

......................................... 258
:
. . :
. .
: . .
:
. .
. .
: . . -: . .
1780 ( . .
)
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