1.0
Symbol
Electrical Component
1. Battery
2. DC voltage source
AC voltage source
AC
Switch
Fixed Resistor
Variable Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor
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a. Series
In a series circuit, the current through each of the components is same, and the voltage
across the components is the sum of the voltages across each component.
E1
E2
E3
E4
Total Voltage, ET = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4
Total Current, IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = I4
Total Resistance, rT = r1 + r2 + r3 + r4
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b. Parallel
In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the components is the same, and the
total current is the sum of the currents through each component
E1
I1
E2
I2
E3
I3
Total Voltage, E = E1 = E2 = E3
Total Current, IT = I1 + I2 + I3
Total Resistance, 1 = 1 + 1 + 1
rT r1 r2 r3
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c. Serial Parallel
For the seriesparallel circuit, we will have to identify which parts of that circuit are
series and which parts are parallel, and then selectively apply series and parallel rules
as necessary to determine what is happening.
I2
I1
E1
E4
E2
E5
E3
E6
E A = E1 + E2 + E3
EB = E 4 + E 5 + E 6
IT = I 1 + I 2
The Total Voltage of Series Sources with the Same Polarity
When the voltage sources are all in the same direction in terms of their polarities, as in
figure below, all the voltages have the same sign when added.
There is a total of 6.0V from terminal A to terminal B.
1.5V
A
+
1.5V
 +
1.5V
 +
1.5V
 +
6.0V
B

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1.5V
+
1.5V
 
1.5V
+ +
1.5V
 +
3.0V
B

a) Current
One ampere (1A) is the amount of current that exists when a number of
electrons having a total charge of one coulomb (1C) move through a given
crosssectional area in one second (1s).
b) Charge
Q = charge ( C )
I = current ( A )
t = time ( s )
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c) Potential difference
One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between two points when one
joule of energy is used to move one coulomb of charge from one point to
the other.
W=1J
1C
y
Vxy = 1 volt
d) Resistance
One ohm (1) of resistance exists if there is one ampere (1A) of current in a
material when one volt (1V) is applied across the material.
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2. Magnetic effect:
Every conductor through which an electric current is flowing is surrounded by an
invisible energy known as the magnetic field. Moving electrons create this field and the
strength of the field depends upon the strength of the current. A magnetic field is
capable of applying mechanical forces on metals and on electrons moving in nearby
conductors. This fact is important to remember in any study of radio theory.
3. Chemical effect:
Electrons passing through fluids can cause the decomposition of the fluid as takes place
during hydrolysis when water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen.
Electric
current passing through acids in which certain metals are present can result in the
decomposition of the metal, i.e. the electroplating process.
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Number
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Grey
White
Gold
5%
Silver
10%
None
20%
Color Coding
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2. Length
3. Crosssectional area
4. Temperature
l
A
where is a characteristics of the material called the resistivity, l is the length of the
sample and A is the cross sectional area of the sample.
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OHMS LAW
Ohms Law stated that the current is proportional to the applied voltage and inversely
proportional to the resistance.
V = voltage in volts (V)
I = current in amperes (A)
R = resistance in ohms ()
V
(amperes, A)
I
R
Determine the current, voltage and ohm in a circuit using Ohms Law.
Example 1:
Determine the current resulting from the application of a 9 V battery across a
network with a resistance of 2.2.
I
V
9V
4.09 A
R 2.2
Example 2:
Calculate the resistance of a 60W bulb if a current of 500 mA results from an
applied voltage of 120V.
R
V
120V
240
I 500 10 3 A
Example 3:
Calculate the voltage that must be applied across the soldering iron to establish a
current of 1.5A through the iron if its internal resistance is 80.
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V1
Vs
V2
V3
Figure 1
b) Total resistance (RT) in series circuit is the sum of each of the individual
values.
RT = R1 + R2 + R3 +
The flow of current and voltage division in the series circuit.
a) Current in a series circuit
i) Figure 1, shows three resistors connected in series to a dc voltage sources.
At any point in this circuit, the current into that point must equal the current
out of that point, as illustrated by the current directional arrows.
ii) Notice also that the current out of each resistor must equal the current into
each resistor because there is no place where part of the current can branch
off and go somewhere else.
iii) Therefore, the current in each section of the circuit is same as the current in
all other sections. It has only one path going from the negative side of the
source to the positive side.
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Find V:
5A
+
100
V

2.
Find R:
3.08A
+
R
12V

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A parallel circuit
a) Each current path called a branch and a parallel circuit is one that has more
than one branch. The schematic in Figure 2 shows three resistors connected
in parallel.
VS
I1
I2
I3
IT
Figure 2
b) Total resistance (RT) in parallel circuits is
RT = R1 R2
R1 + R2
Or
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + ..
RT
R1 R2 R3
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The voltage drop and the current division in the parallel circuits
a) Voltage in a parallel circuit
The voltage across any given branch of a parallel circuit is equal to the
voltage across each of the other branches in parallel.
VS = V 1 = V 2
VS = Voltage source
V1 = Voltage across R1
V2 = Voltage across R2
The current out of the source (IT) divides when I1 goes through R1 and I2 goes
through R2.
IT = I1 + I2 + I3
FOR PARALLEL CIRCUIT
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b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
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RA
RB
Figure 3
The total resistance for the combination of series and parallel circuit.
c) Total resistance (RT) in series and parallel circuits (refer to Figure 3) is
RA = (R1R2)/(R1+R2)
RB = (R3R4)/(R3+R4)
RT = RA + RB
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Tutorial
Find RT for circuit bellow:
a)
b)
c)
d)
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e)
f)
g)
h)
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R1
+
V1

R2
R3
Figure 4
R1
V1 V
R1 R2 R3
R1
V1
R2
R3
V2
V3
V1
R1
E
R1 R2 R3
R2
E
R1 R2 R3
R3
V3
E
R1 R2 R3
V2
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Example 1:
Find current and voltage drop for each resistor.
R1 = R1
4
R2 R2
= 6
RR3
3 = 8
E = 18 Volt
Solution:
RT = 18,
I =V
RT
= 18V = 1 A
18
Ohms Law
VR1 = I x R1
=1x4
= 4V
VR2 = I x R2
=1x6
= 6V
VR3 = I x R3
=1x8
= 8V
Example 2:
Find using Ohms Law and Voltage Divider Rules:
i.
RT
ii. IT
iii. V1, V2, V3
15 V
3
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Example 3:
Find VAB, VBC, VCG, VBG, VAC, VAG .
A
4
12 V
G
Current divider in parallel circuit
i) The currents flowing through various branches of a parallel circuit can be
predicted using the current divider rule.
IT
I2
I1
R1
R2
I2 = V2/R2
I1
R2
IT
R1 R2
I2
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R1
IT
R1 R2
Example 1:
Find I1 and I2.
IT
30V
I1
I2
10
Solution:
RT
= R1 x R2
R1 + R2
= 3.33
Ohms Law
IT
=V
RT
= 30 V = 9 A
3.33
I1 = V/R1
= 30/5
=6A
I1 = (10 / (5 + 10)) x 9A = 6A
I2 = V/R2
= 30/10
=3A
I2 = (5 / (5 + 10)) x 9A
= 3A
Solve problem related to series, parallel and combination of series and parallel
circuit.
Tutorial
1. Determine V1 (voltage across R1) and V2 (voltage across R2) using voltage
divider.
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3. Determine the voltage between the following points using voltage divider.
a) A to B
b) A to C
c) B to C
d) B to D
e) C to D
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6. If there are 10V across R1, what is the voltage across each of the other resistor?
7. Determine the voltage at each point, with respect to the negative side of the
battery.
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I1
12V
I2
15
30
R1
4
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I2
R2
3
R1
Rb Rc
Ra Rb Rc
R2
Rc R a
Ra Rb Rc
R3
Ra Rb
Ra Rb Rc
Ra R2 R3
R2 R3
R1
Rb R1 R3
R1 R3
R2
Rc R1 R2
R1 R2
R3
Rc
a
R1
R2
Rb
R3
Ra
c
Delta () and Star () Circuit Connection
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Rc
a
25
Rb
Ra
10
15
c
Solution:
R1
Rb Rc
10 25
250
5
Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50
R2
Rc Ra
25 15
375
7.5
Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50
R3
Ra Rb
15 10
150
3
Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50
Tutorial
1.
Ra 140, Rb 70, Rc 35
R1
R2
10
20
b
R3
40
c
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2.
a
4
5
6
b
8
3. Based on the schematic diagram below, calculate the current values across
10 resistor using transformation StarDelta.
R1
R2
6
R3
R4
R5
10
4V
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A
10 V
G
1
a) Electrical power
P
where :
P
W
t
W
t
P IV
where :
P
I
V
b) Energy
Energy is the ability to do work and power is the rate at which energy is
used.
The joule (J) is the SI unit of energy. However, there is another way to
express energy. Units of energy called kilowatthour (kWh) can be used.
When you pay your electric bill, you are charged on the basis of the
amount of energy you use, not the power.
W Pt
where :
W
P
t
P
I
R
You can get an equivalent expression for power in terms of voltage and
current by substituting from the Ohms Law
V IR
P I 2R
P I I R
P I IR
P IV
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You can obtain another equivalent expression by substituting from the Ohms
Law
V
R
P IV
I
V
P V
R
V2
P
R
Example 1:
A source e.m.f of 5V supplies a current of 3A for 10 minutes. How much energy is
provided in this time?
Solution :
W Pt
W IVt
W (3A)(5V )(10 x60)
W 9000J @ 9kJ
Tutorial
1. A particular electronic device uses 100 mW of power. If it runs for 24 hours,
how many joules of energy does it consume ?
2. For how many seconds must there be 5 A of current through a 47 resistor
in order to consume 25 J?
3. If a 75 V source is supplying 2 A to a load, what is the resistance value of the
load?
4. If a resistor has 5.5 V across it and 3 mA through it, what is the power?
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5. An electric heater works on 120 V and draws 3 A of current. How much power
does it use?
6. What is the power when there are 500 mA of current through at 4.7 k
resistor?
7. Calculate the power dissipated by a 10 k resistor carrying 100 A.
8. If there are 60 V across a 680 resistor, what is the power?
9. A 56 resistor is connected across the terminals of a 1.5 V battery. What is
the power dissipation in the resistor?
10. If a resistor is to carry 2 A of current and handle 100 W of power, how many
ohms must it be? Assume that the voltage can be adjusted to any required
value.
11. A 12 V source is connected across a 10 resistor.
a) How much energy is used in two minutes?
b) If the resistor is disconnected after one minute, is the power during the
first minute greater than, less than or equal to the power during a two
minute interval?
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