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# ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

1.0

## STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

Symbol

Electrical Component
1. Battery
2. DC voltage source

AC voltage source

AC

Switch

Fixed Resistor

Variable Resistor

Inductor

Capacitor

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## GENERAL FEATURES OF CELLS AND BATTERIES

The differences between cells and batteries

energy.

connected.

## A cell consists of four basic components:

1. A positive electrode
Has a deficiency of electrons due to chemical reaction
2. A negative electrode
has a surplus of electrons due to chemical reaction
3. Electrolyte
Provides a mechanism for charge flow between positive and
negative electrodes
4. Separator
Electrically isolates the positive and negative electrodes

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## The effects of different cell connections

a. Series
In a series circuit, the current through each of the components is same, and the voltage
across the components is the sum of the voltages across each component.

E1

E2

E3

E4

Total Voltage, ET = E1 + E2 + E3 + E4
Total Current, IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = I4
Total Resistance, rT = r1 + r2 + r3 + r4

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

b. Parallel
In a parallel circuit, the voltage across each of the components is the same, and the
total current is the sum of the currents through each component

E1

I1

E2
I2
E3
I3

Total Voltage, E = E1 = E2 = E3
Total Current, IT = I1 + I2 + I3
Total Resistance, 1 = 1 + 1 + 1
rT r1 r2 r3

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

c. Serial Parallel
For the series-parallel circuit, we will have to identify which parts of that circuit are
series and which parts are parallel, and then selectively apply series and parallel rules
as necessary to determine what is happening.

I2

I1
E1

E4

E2

E5

E3

E6

E A = E1 + E2 + E3
EB = E 4 + E 5 + E 6
IT = I 1 + I 2
The Total Voltage of Series Sources with the Same Polarity
When the voltage sources are all in the same direction in terms of their polarities, as in
figure below, all the voltages have the same sign when added.
There is a total of 6.0V from terminal A to terminal B.

1.5V
A
+

1.5V

- +

1.5V

- +

1.5V

- +

6.0V

B
-

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## The Total Voltage of Series Sources with the Opposite Polarities

In figure below, the middle voltage source is opposite to the other three, so its voltage
has an opposite sign when added to the others. For this case the total voltage from A to
B is 3.0V.

1.5V
+

1.5V

- -

1.5V

+ +

1.5V

- +

3.0V

B
-

a) Current

## The unit of current is ampere (A).

One ampere (1A) is the amount of current that exists when a number of
electrons having a total charge of one coulomb (1C) move through a given
cross-sectional area in one second (1s).

b) Charge

## Electrical charge (Q) is an electrical property of matter that exists because of

an excess or deficiency of electrons.

## The charge in coulombs can be determined as follow:

Q It ,(coulombs, C)

Q = charge ( C )
I = current ( A )
t = time ( s )

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

c) Potential difference

## As you have seen, a force of attraction exists between a positive and

negative charge. A certain amount of energy must be exerted, in the form
of work, to overcome the force and move the charges a given distance
apart.

## All opposite charges posses a certain potential energy because of

separation between them. The difference in potential energy per charge is
the potential difference or voltage.

current.

## The unit of voltage is volt, symbolized by V.

One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between two points when one
joule of energy is used to move one coulomb of charge from one point to
the other.
W=1J
1C

y
Vxy = 1 volt

d) Resistance

## The unit of resistance is ohm, which the symbol is .

One ohm (1) of resistance exists if there is one ampere (1A) of current in a
material when one volt (1V) is applied across the material.

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## MAIN EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

Electric current is invisible, but its presence can be detected because of its effects. The
greater the current, the more pronounced the effects.
There are three basic effects an electric current can exhibit. They are:
1. Heat effect:
Electric current flowing through a conductor raises its temperature. The temperature
rise can be insignificant or high enough to cause the conductor to glow red or white hot,
i.e. toaster wire, light bulb filament.
The heating effects of electric current is utilized in electric bulbs for producing light.
When electric current passes through a thin high resistance tungsten filament of an
electric bulb, the filament becomes white hot and emits light.
An 'electric fuse' is an important application of the heating effect of current. When the
current drawn in a domestic electric circuit increases beyond a certain value, the fuse
wire gets over heated, melts and breaks the circuit. This prevents fire and damage to
various electrical appliances.

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

2. Magnetic effect:
Every conductor through which an electric current is flowing is surrounded by an
invisible energy known as the magnetic field. Moving electrons create this field and the
strength of the field depends upon the strength of the current. A magnetic field is
capable of applying mechanical forces on metals and on electrons moving in nearby
conductors. This fact is important to remember in any study of radio theory.

3. Chemical effect:
Electrons passing through fluids can cause the decomposition of the fluid as takes place
during hydrolysis when water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen.

Electric

current passing through acids in which certain metals are present can result in the
decomposition of the metal, i.e. the electroplating process.

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Colour Code
Colour

Number

Black

Brown

Red

Orange

Yellow

Green

Blue

Violet

Grey

White

Gold

5%

Silver

10%

None

20%

Color Coding

## 1st band = 1st digit.

2nd band = 2nd digit.
3rd band = number of zeros (multiplier)
4th band = tolerance

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## Electrical resistance depends on four factors.

The resistance of any material with a uniform cross sectional area is determined by the
following four factors:
1. Material ()

2. Length

## Longer the length of conductor, more the resistance.

3. Cross-sectional area

4. Temperature

## Resistance R = l/A where is the resistivity.

At a fixed temperature of room temperature, the resistance is related to the other three
factors by
R

l
A

where is a characteristics of the material called the resistivity, l is the length of the
sample and A is the cross sectional area of the sample.

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

OHMS LAW
Ohms Law stated that the current is proportional to the applied voltage and inversely
proportional to the resistance.
V = voltage in volts (V)
I = current in amperes (A)
R = resistance in ohms ()

V
(amperes, A)
I
R

Determine the current, voltage and ohm in a circuit using Ohms Law.
Example 1:
Determine the current resulting from the application of a 9 V battery across a
network with a resistance of 2.2.
I

V
9V

4.09 A
R 2.2

Example 2:
Calculate the resistance of a 60W bulb if a current of 500 mA results from an
applied voltage of 120V.
R

V
120V

240
I 500 10 3 A

Example 3:
Calculate the voltage that must be applied across the soldering iron to establish a
current of 1.5A through the iron if its internal resistance is 80.

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## SERIES, PARALLEL AND SERIES-PARALLEL CONNECTION.

A series circuit
a) The schematic in Figure 1 shows three resistors connected in series.

V1
Vs

V2
V3

Figure 1
b) Total resistance (RT) in series circuit is the sum of each of the individual
values.

RT = R1 + R2 + R3 +
The flow of current and voltage division in the series circuit.
a) Current in a series circuit
i) Figure 1, shows three resistors connected in series to a dc voltage sources.
At any point in this circuit, the current into that point must equal the current
out of that point, as illustrated by the current directional arrows.
ii) Notice also that the current out of each resistor must equal the current into
each resistor because there is no place where part of the current can branch
off and go somewhere else.
iii) Therefore, the current in each section of the circuit is same as the current in
all other sections. It has only one path going from the negative side of the
source to the positive side.

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## b) Voltage in a series circuit

i) As stated by Kirchhoffs voltage law,
The sum of all the voltage drops around a single closed path in a circuit
is equal to the total source voltage in that loop.
ii) Therefore (refer to series circuit in Figure 1), the source voltage (Vs) is equal
to the sum of the three voltage drops across resistance R1, R2 and R3.
Vs = V1 + V2 + V3

Tutorial
1.

Find V:
5A
+

100

V
-

2.

Find R:

3.08A
+
R

12V
-

## 3. If there is a current of 50A through a 4.7M resistor, what is the voltage?

4. How much current is produced by a voltage of 24kV across a 12k resistor?
5. The ammeter indicates 4.55mA of current and the voltage reads 150V. What
is the value of R?

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## Determine the voltage drop across each resistor.

7. Three 470 resistors are connected in series with a 48V source.
a) What is the current in the circuit?
b) What is the voltage across each resistor?
8. Four equal value resistors are in series with a 5V battery, and 2.23mA are
measured. What is the value of each resistor?
9. Determine VR1, R2 and R3.

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

A parallel circuit
a) Each current path called a branch and a parallel circuit is one that has more
than one branch. The schematic in Figure 2 shows three resistors connected
in parallel.

VS

I1

I2

I3

IT

Figure 2
b) Total resistance (RT) in parallel circuits is
RT = R1 R2
R1 + R2
Or

1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + ..
RT
R1 R2 R3

## A rule to identifying parallel circuits is as follow :

If there is more than one current path (branch) between two separate
points, and if the voltage between those two points also appears across
each of those branches, then there is a parallel circuit between those
two points.

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

The voltage drop and the current division in the parallel circuits
a) Voltage in a parallel circuit

The voltage across any given branch of a parallel circuit is equal to the
voltage across each of the other branches in parallel.
VS = V 1 = V 2
VS = Voltage source
V1 = Voltage across R1
V2 = Voltage across R2

## Kirchhoffs current law stated as follows :

The sum of the currents into a node (total current in) is equal to the sum
of the currents out of that node (total current out).

The current out of the source (IT) divides when I1 goes through R1 and I2 goes
through R2.

IT = I1 + I2 + I3
FOR PARALLEL CIRCUIT

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## The equivalent resistance in series and parallel circuits.

Tutorial
Find RT for circuit bellow:
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

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## A series-parallel circuit consists of combinations of both series and parallel

current path.

RA

RB

Figure 3

The total resistance for the combination of series and parallel circuit.
c) Total resistance (RT) in series and parallel circuits (refer to Figure 3) is
RA = (R1R2)/(R1+R2)

## Resistance in parallel circuit

RB = (R3R4)/(R3+R4)
RT = RA + RB

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

Tutorial
Find RT for circuit bellow:
a)

b)

c)

d)

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e)

f)

g)

h)

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## Voltage divider in series circuit

i) A set of series-connected resistors as shown in figure below is referred to as
a voltage divider.
i
+

R1

+
V1
-

R2
R3

Figure 4

R1

V1 V
R1 R2 R3
R1

V1

R2

R3

V2

V3

## ii) Use Ohms Law

V1 = IR1
V2 = IR2
V3 = IR3
iii) Use Voltage Divider

V1

R1
E
R1 R2 R3

R2
E
R1 R2 R3
R3
V3
E
R1 R2 R3
V2

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

Example 1:
Find current and voltage drop for each resistor.
R1 = R1
4

R2 R2
= 6

RR3
3 = 8

E = 18 Volt
Solution:
RT = 18,

I =V
RT

= 18V = 1 A
18

Ohms Law

VR1 = I x R1
=1x4
= 4V
VR2 = I x R2
=1x6
= 6V
VR3 = I x R3
=1x8
= 8V

## VR1 = (4 / (4 + 6 + 8)) x 18V

= 4V
VR2 = (6 / (4 + 6 + 8)) x 18V
= 6V
VR3 = (8 / (4 + 6 + 8))x 18V
= 8V

Example 2:
Find using Ohms Law and Voltage Divider Rules:
i.

RT

ii. IT
iii. V1, V2, V3

15 V
3

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

Example 3:
Find VAB, VBC, VCG, VBG, VAC, VAG .

A
4

12 V

G
Current divider in parallel circuit
i) The currents flowing through various branches of a parallel circuit can be
predicted using the current divider rule.

IT

I2

I1

R1

R2

I1 = V1/R1

I2 = V2/R2

I1

R2
IT
R1 R2

I2

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R1
IT
R1 R2

Example 1:
Find I1 and I2.

IT
30V

I1

I2

10

Solution:
RT

= R1 x R2
R1 + R2
= 3.33

Ohms Law

IT

=V
RT

= 30 V = 9 A
3.33

## Current Divider Rules

I1 = V/R1

= 30/5

=6A

I1 = (10 / (5 + 10)) x 9A = 6A

I2 = V/R2

= 30/10

=3A

I2 = (5 / (5 + 10)) x 9A

= 3A

Solve problem related to series, parallel and combination of series and parallel
circuit.
Tutorial
1. Determine V1 (voltage across R1) and V2 (voltage across R2) using voltage
divider.

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## 2. Calculate the voltage drop across each resistor.

3. Determine the voltage between the following points using voltage divider.
a) A to B
b) A to C
c) B to C
d) B to D
e) C to D

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## 5. Determine the voltage with respect to ground for output A, B and C.

6. If there are 10V across R1, what is the voltage across each of the other resistor?

7. Determine the voltage at each point, with respect to the negative side of the
battery.

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I1

12V

I2
15

30

I
I1
2A

R1
4

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I2
R2
3

## Formula required to transform from Delta to Star and Star to Delta.

a) Delta () to Star () conversion

R1

Rb Rc
Ra Rb Rc

R2

Rc R a
Ra Rb Rc

R3

Ra Rb
Ra Rb Rc

Ra R2 R3

R2 R3
R1

Rb R1 R3

R1 R3
R2

Rc R1 R2

R1 R2
R3

## The circuit to show star and delta connection.

Rc

a
R1

R2

Rb

R3

Ra

c
Delta () and Star () Circuit Connection

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## Solve problem involving Star-Delta transformation using related formulas.

Example 1:
Convert the delta network to star network.

Rc
a

25

Rb

Ra

10

15

c
Solution:

R1

Rb Rc
10 25
250

5
Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50

R2

Rc Ra
25 15
375

7.5
Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50

R3

Ra Rb
15 10
150

3
Ra Rb Rc 15 10 25 50

Tutorial
1.

## Transform the star network in figure below to a delta network

Ra 140, Rb 70, Rc 35

R1

R2

10

20

b
R3

40

c
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2.

## Referring to figure below, find Requivalent between terminal a and b.

a
4

5
6

b
8

3. Based on the schematic diagram below, calculate the current values across
10 resistor using transformation Star-Delta.

R1

R2

6
R3

R4

R5

10

4V
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A
10 V

G
1

## ELECTRICAL POWER AND ENERGY.

a) Electrical power

## Power is an indication of how much work (the conversion of energy from

one from to another) can be accomplished in a specified amount of time,
that is, a rate of doing work.

## Power (P) is a certain amount of energy (W) used in a certain length of

time (t), expressed as follows :

P
where :

P
W
t

W
t

## = power in watts (W)

= energy in joules (J)
= time in seconds (s)

## When a direct current of I amperes is flowing in an electric circuit and the

voltage across the circuit is V volts, then

P IV
where :

P
I
V

## = power in watts (W)

= current in ampere (A)
= voltage in volt (V)
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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

b) Energy

Energy is the ability to do work and power is the rate at which energy is
used.

The joule (J) is the SI unit of energy. However, there is another way to
express energy. Units of energy called kilowatt-hour (kWh) can be used.

When you pay your electric bill, you are charged on the basis of the
amount of energy you use, not the power.

W Pt
where :

W
P
t

## = energy in joules (J)

= power in watts (W)
= time in seconds (s)

## When there is current through resistance, the collisions of the electrons

produce heat as a result of the conversion of electrical energy. The amount of
power dissipated in an electric circuit is dependent on the amount of
resistance and on the amount of current, expressed as follows :
P = I2R
where :

P
I
R

## = power in watts (W)

= current in amperes (A)
= resistance in ohms ()

You can get an equivalent expression for power in terms of voltage and
current by substituting from the Ohms Law
V IR
P I 2R

P I I R
P I IR
P IV

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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

You can obtain another equivalent expression by substituting from the Ohms
Law
V
R
P IV
I

V
P V
R
V2
P
R

## Calculation of electrical power and energy in a circuit

Example 1:
A source e.m.f of 5V supplies a current of 3A for 10 minutes. How much energy is
provided in this time?

Solution :

W Pt

W IVt
W (3A)(5V )(10 x60)
W 9000J @ 9kJ
Tutorial
1. A particular electronic device uses 100 mW of power. If it runs for 24 hours,
how many joules of energy does it consume ?
2. For how many seconds must there be 5 A of current through a 47 resistor
in order to consume 25 J?
3. If a 75 V source is supplying 2 A to a load, what is the resistance value of the
4. If a resistor has 5.5 V across it and 3 mA through it, what is the power?
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## ET101 ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIT 1 (Introduction to Electric Circuit)

5. An electric heater works on 120 V and draws 3 A of current. How much power
does it use?
6. What is the power when there are 500 mA of current through at 4.7 k
resistor?
7. Calculate the power dissipated by a 10 k resistor carrying 100 A.
8. If there are 60 V across a 680 resistor, what is the power?
9. A 56 resistor is connected across the terminals of a 1.5 V battery. What is
the power dissipation in the resistor?
10. If a resistor is to carry 2 A of current and handle 100 W of power, how many
ohms must it be? Assume that the voltage can be adjusted to any required
value.
11. A 12 V source is connected across a 10 resistor.
a) How much energy is used in two minutes?
b) If the resistor is disconnected after one minute, is the power during the
first minute greater than, less than or equal to the power during a two
minute interval?

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