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-ME 302Theory of Machines II

HARMONIC EXCITATION OF
SINGLE DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM
SYSTEMS

ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

Kvan Azgn

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Forced Vibrations

eq
m
x c eq x k eq x F(t), x 0 x 0 , x 0 x 0

Initial Conditions

x t is the total forced vibration response (work is done on the system by external forces)
x t xh t xp t
eq
x h t is the homogenous solution, the free vibration response (soln. of m
x c eq x k eq x 0)
x p t is the particular solution and it depends on the form of F(t)
For >0, only xp(t) has contribution to the long term behavior of x(t). That is why xp(t) is
also called the steady state solution.

t

ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

Kvan Azgn

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Forced Vibrations

eq
m
x c eq x k eq x F(t), x 0 x 0 , x 0 x 0

Initial Conditions

xh t

ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

xp t

x t

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Harmonic Excitation
eq
m
x c eq x k eq x F(t) F0 sin t
Amplitude of
excitation (N)

Frequency of

Harmonic excitation (with single frequency) commonly occur in practical problems, thus deserves
special attention

M
c

k
Suspension

k
Sinusoidal

Any periodic excitation can be approximated by a truncated Fourier Series (sinusoidal) Expansion
ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

Kvan Azgn

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eq
m
x k eq x F(t)
k eq
F(t)

x
x
eq
eq
m
m

x n2 x

F(t)
eq
m

eq is the generalized mass (meq or Ieq)

where x is the independent generalized coordinate, m
and k eq is the generalized stiffness (keq or kt,eq)
When F(t) is harmonic, i.e.,

x n2 x

F0
F
sin( t) OR
x n2 x 0 cos( t)
eq
eq
m
m

F (t ) F0 eit
x t Xe

i t

Kvan Azgn

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F (t ) F0 eit

F0 it
2

x n x
e
i t
m eq
x t Xe

i t

x t X i e

Where

X i e

i t

2
n

Xe

2 i
n

i t

i e e

F0 it

e
m eq

F
m eq X

Kvan Azgn

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F0
i e e
m eq X
2

2 i
n

F0 i
i
e

m eq X
2
2

2
n

Note that this eq. is the char.

equation where s terms are
replaced by i terms

F0
Imag. part : 0
i sin sin 0 0 or
m eq X

0 if n
F0
Real part :
cos
if n
m eq X
2

2
n

F0
2
n

m eq

F0
2

keq 1 2
n

F0
1

for n
2

keq

1 2
static
case

Kvan Azgn

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Harmonic Excitation of Undamped SDOF Systems

when n
F (t ) F0 eint

F0 int
2

e
n
i n t
m eq
x t tXe

i t
i t
x t 2 in Xe n tX in e n
Where

2 in Xe

i n t

tX in e

i n t

2
n

t Xe

i n t

F0 int

e
m eq

F0
2in e
m eq X
i

Kvan Azgn

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Harmonic Excitation of Undamped SDOF Systems

F0
2in e
m eq X
i

F0 i
2in
e
m eq X
since e i cos i sin
2n m eq X
F0
Imag. part : 2 i n
i sin sin
m eq X
F0
Real part : 0

F0

m eq X
2

sin 1

2n m eq X
F0

F0
X
2n m eq
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Harmonic Excitation of Undamped SDOF Systems

Substituting X and into the assumed solution

X
Input : F (t ) F0 eit F0 cos t i F0 sin t

Re( F ( t ))

For n ,

F0
1
keq
2
1 2

static
case

Im( F ( t ))

0 if n
x t Xeit X cos t i X sin t where

if n
Re( x ( t ))

Output :
For n ,

x t tXe

i t
2

Im( x ( t ))

tX cos t i tX sin t
2
2
Re( x ( t ))

X
ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

Im( x ( t ))

F0
2n m eq
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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

eq
m
x c eq x k eq x F(t)
c eq
k eq
F(t)

x
x
x
eq
eq
eq
m
m
m

x 2n x n2 x

F(t)
eq
m

where x is the independent generalized coordinate

eq is the generalized mass (meq or Ieq)
m
c eq is the generalized damping (ceq or ct,eq)
k eq is the generalized stiffness (keq or kt,eq)
When F(t) is harmonic, i.e.,

F(t) F0 sin t OR F(t) F0 cos t

We need to introduce the complex excitation and
complex solution
it

F (t ) F0 e

x t Xe

i t

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F (t ) F0 eit

F0 it
2

x 2n x n x
e
i t
m eq
x t Xe

Where

X i e

i t

2n X i e

i t
x t X i e
2

x t X i eit

i t

2
n

Xe

i t

F0 it

e
m eq

F0
i e 2n i e e
m eq X
2

2 i
n

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F0
i e 2n i e e
m eq X
2

2 i
n

F0 i
i 2n i
e

2
2

2
n

since e

cos i sin

equation where s terms are

replaced by i terms

2n m eq X
F0
Imag. part : 2n i
i sin sin
m eq X
F0
F0
Real part :
cos cos
m eq X
2

2
n

2
2

n m eq X

F0

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

sin

2n m eq X
F0

, cos

2
n

2 m eq X
F0

arctan 2 n2 2 , 2n
And,
2 2n i n2

F0
e i
m eq X
1

n2 2 2n
F0
X
m eq
X

F0
keq

2
n

2 2

2
n

1
2

n
n

F0
m eq X

F0
m eqn2

1
2

n
n

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

Substituting X and into the assumed solution

Input : F (t ) F0 eit F0 cos t i F0 sin t

Re( F ( t ))

Output : x t Xe

i t

Im( F ( t ))

X cos t i X sin t

Re( x ( t ))

Im

Im( x ( t ))

x(t ) Xe

i t

Im

F (t ) F0 eit
Re

r F0

Re
rX

Kvan Azgn

F0
keq

1
2

1 2 2

n n

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

F (t ) F0 eit

x 2n x x

meq
m eq
2
n

s 2 2n s n2 X ( s )
G ( s)
G (i )

F (s)
m eq

X ( s)
1

F ( s) m eq s 2 2n s n2

X (i )
1
1
1
1

F (i ) m eq i 2 2n i n2 m eq n2 2 i 2n

n2 2 i 2n

1
1
1
1
G (i )

m eq n2 2 i 2n m eq 2 2 2 2 2 keq
n
n

1
2

n
n

X
F0

2
2
1 n i 2n
2
2
G (i )

arctan

, 2n

2
n
2
m eq 2 2 2 2
n
n

Kvan Azgn

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

Some Definitions:

n
Xmn2
M

F0

Xk
F0

Fs 0 max. spring force

:
F0 excitation force amp.

X
X Amplitude of forced response

:
F0
0
Static deflection due to F0
k

1
2 2

1 2
ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

2
, = arctan 2
1

Kvan Azgn

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

When =0, M at =1
For other values of , M reaches a maximum when
R

1
2
2 2

is a minimum

2
M

dR
2 1 2 2 2 2 2 0
d
4 2 1 2 2 0

1 2 2

M max

1
2 1 2

Kvan Azgn

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

1

2 2

REMARKS:
M=1 when 0 for all values (this is static case where 0)
M 0 when (Due to inertia, i.e.,
x= 2 x)
Increasing decreases M for a given .
For =0, M at 1 (i.e., n )
For 0.5 M reaches a maximum (resonance) at res 1 2 2
with a value M max

1
2 1 2

dM
For 0.5,
0 at 0, for 0.5 M decreases monotonically
d
with increasing , there is no resonance peak.
ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

Kvan Azgn

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M

2 2

1 2

=0

=0.5

=0.707

Increasing

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

2

= arctan
REMARKS:
For =0, response and excitation are in-phase for 1
and out-of-phase for 1
For 0, response and excitation are in-phase only when 0
For 1 phase is -90 regardless of damping and
excitation is in-phase with velocity.
For 1, - -

2
For
1,
1 - , response is opposite to excitation.

Kvan Azgn

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=0

2
= arctan 2
1
Increasing
Increasing

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

Example: For an undamped spring-mass system m=10kg, k=1kN/m,
F0=50N. Determine the amplitude of oscillations for steady state
mx kx 50 sin t
1000
10

2
For 1 , 1 1
0.2 1 M 1
n 10

X1

F0
50
M
k
1000

For 2 , 2
X2

1 0.2

2 2

0
.
005

5 mm

1
5.208 mm
0.96

2 20

2 1 M 1
n 10

F0
50
M
k
1000

1 2

2 2

1
0
.
005

3 1.67 mm
5 mm

Kvan Azgn

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Harmonic Excitation of Damped SDOF Systems

Example: A part with m=2kg vibrates in a viscous medium. Result of a
frequency sweep shows that a harmonic exciting force of amplitude
2.8N results in a maximum steady state vibration amplitude of 12mm
and of period 0.2s. c=?
res

2 2

31.42
Tres 0.2
k
k
1 2 2 31.42, "k" and " " are unknown (1) 1 2 2 987.21
m2
2
X
1
0.012
1
res

, "k" and " " are unknown (2)

F0 k 2 1 2
2.8 k 2 1 2

res n 1 2 2
M max M res
k

2.8
1
2 987.21
=
, let u= 2 561.35u 1 u 1.96 1 4u 4u 2
2
2
0.012 2 1
1 2

561.35u 561.35u 2 1.96 7.87u 7.87u 2 569.22u 2 569.22u 1.96 290.40u 2 290.40u 1 0
u 0.996545 1 u1 0.99827
Which one? Note that there would be no resonance if 0.707
u 0.034554 2 u2 0.05878
0.05878 substitute in (1) or (2) k 1988.169
c 2 km 2 0.05878 1988.169 2 7.4135 Ns / m
ME-302 THEORY OF MACHINES II

Kvan Azgn

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