CHAPTER5
CENTRE OF MASS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A particle of mass 4m which is at rest explodes into three fragments. Two of the fragments each of mass m are
found to move with a speed v each in mutually perpendicular directions. The total energy released in the process
of explosion is
(1987; 2M)
2. The magnitude of the force (in newtons) acting on a body varies with time t (in microseconds) as shown in the
fig. AB, BC and CD are straight line segment. The magnitude of the total impulse of the force on the body from
t = 4 µs to t = 16 µs is
Ns
(1994; 2M)
Time (µs) Æ
TRUE/FALSE
1. Two particles of mass 1 kg and 3 kg move towards each other under their mutual force of attraction. No other force acts on them. When the relative velocity of approach of the two particles is 2 m/s, their centre of mass has a velocity of 0.5 m/s. When the relative velocity of approach becomes 3 m/s, the velociy of the centre of mass is 0.75 m/s. (1989; 2M)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Only One option is correct :
1. Two particles A and B initially at rest, move towards each other mutual force of attraction. At the instant when the speed of A is V and the speed of B is 2V, the speed of the centre of mass of the system is :
(1982; 2M)
(a) 
3V 
(b) V 
(c) 
1.5 V 
(d) zero 
2. A ball hits the floor and rebounds after an inelastic
(1986; 2M)
collision. In this case :
(a) 
the momentum of the ball just after the collision is the same as that just before the collision. 

(b) 
the mechnical energy of the ball remains the same in the collision 

(c) 
the total momentum of the ball and the earth is conserved 

(d) 
the total energy of the conserved 
ball 
and 
the earth is 
3. A shell is fired from a cannon with a velocity v (m/s)
at an angle q with the horizontal direction. At the highest point in its path it explodes into two pieces of equal mass. One of the pieces retraces its path to the cannon and the speed (m/s) of the other piece
immediately after the explosion is :
(1986; 2M)
(a) 3 v cos
(c)
3
_{2}
v cos
q
q
q
4. An isolated particle of mass m is moving in horizontal
plane (xy), along the xaxis, at a certain height above the ground. It suddenly explodes into two fragment of masses m/4 and 3m/4. An instant later, the smaller fragment is at y = + 15 cm. The larger fragment at this
instant is at :
(1997 C; 1M)
(a) 
y = – 5 cm 
(b) y = + 20 cm 
(c) 
y = + 20 cm 
(d) y = – 20 cm 
5. Two particles of masses m _{1} and m _{2} in projectile motion
39
have velocities
collide at time t _{0} . Their velocities become
at time 2t _{0} while still moving in air. The value of :
v r
1
<
v r
2
respectively at time t = 0. They
v¢ ^{r}
1
and
v¢ ^{r}
2

(
m v r
1
¢
1
+
m
2
v r
¢
2
)

(
m v r
1
1
+
m v r
2
2
)

(2001; S)
(a)
zero
(b) (m _{1} + m _{2} )gt _{0}
(c)
2
(m _{1} +
m _{2} )gt _{0}
(d)
1
_{2}
(m _{1} + m _{2} )gt _{0}
6.
Two blocks of masses 10 kg and 4 kg are connected
constant K. The blocks are initially resting on a smooth
7.
8.
9.
by
frictionless horizontal surface. An impulse gives a
of negligible mass and placed on a
a spring
horizontal floor with the spring at its natural length, as shown in fig. A third identical block C, also of mass m,
moves on the floor with a speed
v along the line
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
the kinetic energy of the AB system, at maximum compression of the spring, is zero
the kinetic energy of the AB system, at maximum compression of the spring, is mv ^{2} /4
the maximum compression of the spring is
the maximum compression of the spring is
r
p
1 ^{=}
ˆ
p i
and
p' ^{r}
2
and
(2008; 4M)
ˆ
i
+ b
2
ˆ
j
ˆ
j
velocity of 14 m/s to the heavier blocks in the direction
of the lighter block. The velocity of the centre of mass
is : 
(2002; S) 

(a) 
30 m/s 
(b) 20 m/s 

(c) 
10 m/s 
(d) 5 m/s 
A particle moves in the XY plane under the influence
of 
a force such 
that 
its 
linear 
momentum 
is 

r p(t) = A[i 
ˆ kt cos( 
) ˆ  j 
sin( 
kt )], 
where 
A and 
k 
are 
constants. The angle between the force and the
momentum is:
(2007; 3M)
(a) 
0° 
(b) 30° 
(c) 
45° 
(d) 90° 
Two small particles of equal masses start moving in opposite directions from a point A in a horizontal circular orbit. Their tangential velocities are v and 2v, respectively, as shown in the figure.
Between collisions, the particles move with constant speeds. After making how many elastic collisions,
other than that at A, these two particles will again
reach the point A?
A
^{v}
2v
(2009; M)
(a) 
4 
(b) 3 
(c) 
2 
(d) 1 
Look at the drawing given in the figure which has been drawn with ink of uniform line thickness. The mass of ink used to draw each of the two inner circles, and each of the two line segments is m.
The mass of the ink used to draw the outer circle is 6m. The coordinates of the centres of the different parts are: outer circle (0, 0) left inner circle (– a, a),
right inner circle (a, a), vertical line (0, 0) and horizontal line (0, –a). The ycoordinate of the centre of mass of
the ink in this drawing is
(2009; M)
2. Two balls, having linear moments
^{p}^{'} r
1
c _{2} .
= a
1
ˆ
i +b
1
ˆ ˆ
j +c
1
ˆ
k
^{p}^{'} r
2
p' ^{r}
1
undergo a collision in free space. There is no external
be their final
momenta. The following option figure (s) is (are) NOT
force acting on the balls. Let
ALLOWED for any nonzero value of p, a _{1} , a _{2} , b _{1} , b _{2} ,
c _{1} and
(a)
=
a
2
a
=
2
b
2
ˆ
j
1
1
ˆ ˆ
i c k
+b
2
ˆ ˆ
j
i + b
1. A circular plate of uniform thickness has a diameter of 56 cm. A circular portion of diameter 42 cm is removed from one edge of the plate as shown in figure. Find the position of the centre of mass of the remaining
portion.
(1980)
(a)
(c)
a
_{1}_{0}
a
_{1}_{2}
(b)
(d)
a
_{8}
a
_{3}
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
More than one options are correct?
1. Two blocks A and B each of mass m, are connected by
a massless spring of natural length L and spring
40
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
A body of mass 1 kg initially at rest, explodes and
breaks into three fragments of masses in the ratio 1 : 1 : 3. The two pieces of equal mass flyoff perpendicular to each other with a speed of 30 m/s each. What is the velocity of the heavier fragment? (19 81 ; 3 M)
Three particles A, B and C of equal mass move with equal speed V along the medians of an equilateral triangle as shown in fig.They collide at the centroid G of the triangle.
After the collision,
path with the speed V. What is the velocity of C? (19 82 ; 2 M)
B retraces its
B
C
A comes to rest,
A block of mass M with a semicircular track of radius
R, rests on a horizontal frictionless surface. A uniform cylinder of radius r and mass m is released from rest
at the top point A (see Fig.). The cylinder slips on the
semicircular frictionless track. How far has the block moved when the cylinder reaches the bottom (point B) of the track? How fast is the block moving when he cylinder reaches the bottom of the track?(1983; 7M)
Two bodies A and B of masses m and 2m respectively
are placed on a smooth floor. They are connected by
a spring. A third body C of mass m moves with
velocity v _{0} along the line joining A and B and collides elastically with A as shown in Fig. At a certain instant of time t _{0} after collision, it is found that the instantaneous velocities of A and B are the same. Further at this instant the compression of the spring
A ball of mass 100 g is projected vertically upwards
from the ground with a velocity of 49 m/s. At the same
time another identical ball is dropped from a height of
98 
m to fall freely along the same path as that followed 
by 
the first ball. After some time the two balls collide 
and stick together and finally fall to the ground. Find
the
time of flight of the masses. (1985; 8M)
L
7. simple pendulum is
A
suspended from a peg on
a vertical wall. The
pendulum is pulled away
from the wall to a
horizontal position See
figure and released. The ball hits the wall, the coefficient of restitution being
2
_{5} . What is the minimum number of collisions after
which the amplitude of oscillations becomes less than
60 
degrees? 
(1987; 7M) 
8. object of mass 5 kg is projected with a velocity of An 
20 m/s at an angle of 60° to the horizontal. At the highest point of its path the projectile explodes and breaks up into two fragments of masses 1 kg and 4 kg. The fragments separate horizontally after the explosion. The explosion released internal energy such that the kinetic energy of the system at the highest point is doubled. Calculate the separation between the two fragments when they reach the ground.
(1990; 8M)
9. A block A of mass 2m is placed on another block B of
mass 4m which in turn is placed on a fixed table. The two blocks have a same length 4d and they are placed
as shown in figure. The coefficient of friction (both
static and kinetic) between the block B and table is µ. There is no friction between the two blocks. A small object of mass m moving horizontally along a line passing through the centre of mass (CM) of the block B and perpendicular to its face with a speed v collides elastically with the block B at a height d above the
41
(a) 
What is the minimum value of v (call it v _{0} ) required to make the block A topple? 
(b) 
If v = 2 v _{0} find the distance (from the point P in the figure) at which the mass m falls on the table after collision (Ignore the role of friction during the collision). [1991; 4+4M] 
10. A uniform thin rod of mass M and length L is standing vertically along the yaxis on a smooth horizontal
surface, with its lower end at the origin (0, 0). A slight disturbance at r = 0 causes the lower end to slip on the smooth surface along the positive xaxis, and the
13.
rod starts falling. (1993; 1+ 5M) 

(i) 
What is the path followed by the centre of mass of the rod during its fall? 
(ii) 
Find the equation of the trajectory of a point on the rod located at a distance r from the lower end. What is the shape of the path of this point? 
11. A small sphere of radius R is held against the inner surface of a larger sphere of radius 6R. The masses of larger and small spheres are 4M and M respectively. This arrangement is placed on a horizontal table. There is no friction between any surfaces of contact. The small sphere is now released. Find the coordinates of the centre of the larger sphere when the small sphere reaches the other extreme position. (1996; 3M)
14.
12. A wedge of mass m and triangular crosssection (AB = BC =CA =2R) is moving with a constant velocity
ˆ
vi towards a sphere of radius R fixed on a smooth
horizontal table as shown in the figure. The wedge makes an elastic collision with the fixed sphere and returns along the same path without any rotation. Neglect all friction and suppose that the wedge remains in contact with the sphere for a very short time Dt
on
during which the sphere exerts a constant force F

r
15.
42
r 

(a) 
Find the force _{F} 
and also the normal force exerted 
by the table on the wedge during the time Dt. 

(b) 
Let h denote the perpendicular distance between the centre of mass of the wedge and the line of action of F. Find the magnitude of the torque due 
to the normal force _{N}
wedge during the interval Dt.
r
about the centre of the
A cylindricalsolidofmass 10 ^{–}^{2}
kg and cross sectional
area 10 ^{–}^{4} m ^{2} is moving parallel to its axis (the xaxis) with a uniform speed of 10 ^{3} m/s in the positive direction. At t = 0, its front face passes the plane x = 0. The region to the right of this plane is filled with stationary dust particle of uniform density 10 ^{–}^{3} kg/m ^{3} . When a dust particles collides with the face of the cylinder, it sticks to its surface. Assuming that the dimensions of the cylinder remains practically unchanged and that the dust sticks only to the front face of the x coordinates of the front of the cylinder find the x coordinate of the front of the cylinder at t = 150 s. (1998; 5M)
Two blocks of mass 2 kg and M are at rest on an
inclined plane and are separated by a distance of 6.0
m as shown. The coefficient of friction between each
block and the inclined plane is 0.25. The 2 kg block is given a velocity of 10.0 m/s up the inclined plane. It collides with M, comes back and has a velocity of 1.0 m/s when it reaches its initial position. The other block M after the collision moves 0.5 m up and comes to rest. Calculate the coefficient of restitution between the blocks and the mass of the block M. (1999; 10M) [Take sin q ª tan q = 0.05 and g = 10 m/s ^{2} ]
A
towards a carriage of mass 9 kg at rest kept on the rails
at a point B as shown in figure. The height AC is 120
m. Cannon balls of 1 kg are fired from the car with an initial velocity 100 m/s at an angle 30° with the horizontal. The first cannon balls hits the stationary
carriage after a time t _{0} and sticks to it. Determine t _{0} .
At t _{0} , the second cannon ball is fired. Assume that the
resistive force between the rails and the carriage is
constant and ignore the vertical motion of the carriage
car P is moving with a uniform speed of 5 3 m/s
throughout. If the second ball also hits and sticks to the carriage, what will be the horizontal velocity of the carriage just after the second impact? (2001; 10M)
16. A particle of mass m, moving in a circular path of radius R with a constant speed v _{2} is located at point (2R, 0) at time t = 0 and a man starts moving with a velocity v _{1} along the positive yaxis from origin at time t = 0. Calculate the linear momentum of the particle w.r.t. man as a function of time. (2003; 2M)
17. Two point masses m _{1} and m _{2} are connected by a spring of natural length l _{0} . The spring is compressed such that the two point masses touch each other and then they are fastened by a string. Then the system is moved with a velocity v _{0} along positive xaxis. When the system reaches the origin the string breaks (t = 0). The position of the point mass m _{1} is given by x _{1} = v _{0} t – A (1 – cos w t) where A and w are constants. Find the position of the second block as a function of time. Also find the relation between A and l _{0} . (2003; 4M)
18. There is a rectangular plate of mass M kg of dimensions (a × b). The plate is held in horizontal position by striking n small balls each of mass m per unit area per unit time. These are striking in the shaded all region of the plate. The balls are colliding elastically with velocity v. What is v?
It is given
b = 2m; a = 1m; g = 10 m/s ^{2} .
n = 100,
M = 3 kg,
m = 0.01kg; (2006; 6M)
19. Two towers AB and CD are situated a distance d apart as shown in figure. AB is 20 m high and CD is 30 m high from
the ground. An object of mass m is thrown from the top of AB horizontally with a velocity of 10m/s towards CD.
Simultaneously another object of mass 2m is thrown from the top of CD at an angle of 60° to the horizontal
towards AB with the same magnitude of initial velocity as that of the first object. The two objects move in the
same vertical plane, collide in mid air and stick to each
other.
(1994; 6M)
Calculate the distance d between the towers. Find the position where the object hit the ground.
20. Three objects A, B and C are kept in a straight line on a frictionless horizontal surface. These have masses m, 2m and m, respectively. The object A moves towards B with a speed 9 m/s and makes an elastic collision with it. Thereafter, B makes completely inelastic collision with C. All motions occur on the same straight line. Find the final speed (in m/s) of the object C.
(i)
(ii)
^{A} B
C
ASSERATION AND REASON
This question contains, statement I (assertion) and statement II (reasons).
1. StatementI : In an elastic collision between two bodies the relative speed of the bodies after collision is equal
to the relative speed before the collison.
(2007; 3M)
Because :
StatementII : In an elastic collision, the linear
momentum of the system is conserved.
(a) StatementI is true, statement II is true, statement
II is a correct explanation for statementI.
(b) statementI is true, statementII is true; statement
II is NOT a correct explanaion for statementI.
(c) 
statementI is true, statementII is false. 
(d) 
statementI is false, statementII is true. 
43
2. StatementI : If there is no external torque on a body
about its centre of mass, then the velocity of the centre
of mass remains constant.
Because :
StatementII : The linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant.
(2007; 3M)
(a) 
StatementI is true, statement II is true, statement 

II 
is a correct explanation for statementI 

(b) 
statementI is true, statementII is true; statement 

II 
is NOT a correct explanaion for statementI 

(c) 
statementI is true, statementII is false. 

(d) 
statementI is false, statementII is true. 
PASSAGE BASED PORBLEM
Passage
A small block of mass M moves on a frictionless
surface of an inclined plane, as shown in figure. The angle of the incline suddenly changes from 60º at point B. the block is initially at rest at A. Assume that collisions between the block and the incline are totally inelastic (g = 10 m/s ^{2} )
A
1. The speed of the block at point B immediately after it strikes the second incline is (2008; 4M)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
2. The speed of the block at point C immediately before it leaves the second incline is (2008; 4M)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
3. If collision between the block and the incline is completely elastic, then the vertical (upward) component of the velocity of the block at point B, immediately after it strikes the second incline is (2008; 4M)
(b)
(d)
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.
3
_{2} mv
2
TRUE/FALSE
1. F
2.
5 × 10 ^{–}^{3} Ns
ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. 
(d) 
2. 
(c) 
3. 
(a) 
4. 
(a) 
5. 
(c) 
6. (c) 
7. (d) 
8. 
(c) 
9. 
(a) 
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1.
(b, d)
2.
(a), (d)
44
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.
3.
4.
9 cm from centre of bigger circle (leftwards)
Velocity of C is V in a direction opposite to velocity of B.
2.
_{1}_{0}
m/s at 45°
m R
(
–
r
)
M
+ m
, m
5.
(i)
V
0
3
(ii)
2
2 mV
0
2 6.
3 x
0
6.53 s
7. 4
9.
(a)
11.
(L +
2R, 0)
13. 10 ^{5} m
16. ^{Ê} Á  mv
Ë
2 sin
v
2
R
t
2
x
y
2
(b)
+
Ê
Á Ë
L
2
– r
ˆ
˜
¯
r
2
15. 12s, 15.75 m/s
17.
x
2
=
v t
0
+
m
1
m
2
= 1
, ellipse
14. e = 0.84 M, = 15 kg
ˆ
˜
¯ Ë
ˆ
i
+
m
Ê v
Á v
2 cos
R
2
t

v
1
ˆ
ˆ
˜ j
¯
Ê m
Á Á
Ë
1
m 2
ASSERATION AND REASON
1. (b)
2.(d)
ˆ
+ 1 ˜ A
˜
¯
PASSAGE BASED PROBLEM
1. (b)
2.
(b)
3.
(c)
8. 44.25 m
18. 10 m/s
SOLUTIONS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. From conservation of linear momentum magnitude of
r
P
3
should be
(resultant of
2mv in a direction opposite of
r
P
1
and
r
P
2
).
r
P
12
12 =
\ Speed of particle of mass 2m
P
P = mv
1
2.
=
=
mv
2 +
3
2
2
mv
m
2
Impulse
=
Ú Fdt = area under Ft graph
\ Total impulse from
= Area EBCD
= Area of trapezium EBCF +Area of triangle FCD
t = 4 µs to
t = 16 µs
=
1
2
(200
+
800)2
¥
10
–6
= 5 × 10 ^{–}^{3} Ns
+
1
2
¥
800
¥
10
¥
10
–6
TRUE FALSE
1. Since, net force on the system is zero. Velocity of centre of mass will remain constant.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. Net
force on
system is zero. So
_{D}
r
V
COM
_{=} _{0}
and
45
because initially centre of mass is at rest. Therefore, centre of mass always remains at rest.
\ (d)
2. In an inelastic collision only momentum of the system remain conserved. Some energy is always lost in the form of heat, sound etc.
\ (c)
3. Let v' be the velocity of second fragment. From conservation of linear momentum, 2m (v cos q) = mv' – m (v cosq)
\ 
v'= 3 v cos 
q 
\ 
(a) 
4. Before explosion, particle was moving along xaxis i.e., it has no ycomponent of velocity. Therefore, the centre of mass will not move in ydirection or we can say y _{C}_{M} = 0.
Now, 
^{y} 
CM 
= 
m y 1 1 1 m 
+ + m m 2 2 
y 2 ﬁ 
0 

or 
y _{2} = – 5cm 

\ 
(a) 

5.  ( 
m v r 1 ¢ 1 
+ 
m v r 2 
¢ 2 
) 
 
( m v r 1 1 
+ 
m v r 2 2 
)  

= 
 
m 1 
( 
v 1 
 
2 gt 0 
) + m 2 
( v 2 
 
2 gt 
0 

= 2 (m _{1} + 
m _{2} ) gt _{0} 
\ (c)
= 
m 4 
¥ 
15 
+ 
3 m 4 
¥ y 
2 

)  m v 1 
1 m  m v 2 
2 
 
r dP 

r 
ˆ 
ˆ 

F 7. dt = r =  kA ˆ 
sin( kt i ) 
 
kA ˆ cos( ) kt j 

P = A kt i cos( ) r r Since, _{F}_{.}_{P} _{=} _{0} 
 
A sin( kt j ) 

r 
and r _{P} 
should be 90°. 

\ Angle between 
_{F} 
\ (c)
8. Let first collision be at an angle q,
\
q r
=
(2p q) r
v
2 v
2q = 2pq
q =
2 p
3
\ After first collision at B, m _{2} will move back with speed v and make collision with m _{1} at C.
(again at
q =
2p
3
anticlockwise from OB)
Now, again m _{1} will move back with speed v and
9.
meet m _{2} at A(at
\ (c)
q =
2p
3
anticlockwise from OC)
^{y}
cm
=
6
m
(0)
+
(
m a
)
+
m a
(
)
+
m
(0)
+
m
(

a
)
6
m
+
m
+
m
+
m
+
m
=
a
10
\
(a)
y
x
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1. After collisions between C and A, C stops while A
moves with speed of C i.e. v [inhead on elastic
collision, two equal masses exchange their velocities]. At maximum compression, A and B will move with same speed v/2 (from conservation of linear momentum).
Let x be the maximum compression in this position.
\ KE of AB system at maximum compression
=
^{1} (2
2
m
)
Ê
Á Ë
v
2
ˆ
˜
¯
2
or, K _{m}_{a}_{x} = mv ^{2} /4
From conservation fo mechanical energy in two positions shown in figure.
46
or,
^{1} mv
2
1
2 2
=
mv
4
^{1} kx
2 4
2
=
1
mv
2
+
1
2
kx
2
r
2. Initial momentum of the system p
1
+
p r
2
=
0
\
Option (b) is allowed because if we put
Final momentum p' p' 0 should also be zero.
1
+
2
=
c
1
=c 0
2
r
r
p r '
1
+
p r '
2
will be zero. Similary, we can check other
options.
\ correct options are (a) and (d).
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
move along horizontal we should have
(ii)
Mx = m (R –
x =
m(R

r –
r)
M
+
m
x)
Let V _{1} be the speed of
speed of M towards left. From conservation fo linear momentum.
mv _{1} = Mv _{2} From conservation of mechanical energy
m towards right and v _{2} the
(1)
mg
(R –
r)
=
1
2
mv
2
1 +
1
2
2
Mv
2
(2)
Solving these two equations, we get
3.
4.
This velocity is at 45° as shown in figure.
Before collision net momentum of the system was zero. No external force is acting on the system. Hence momentum after collision should also be zero. A has come to rest. Therefore B and C should have equal and opposite momentum or velocity of C should be V in opposite direction of velocity of B.
(i) The centre of mass of M + m in this case will not move in horizontal direction. For centre of mass not to
6.
47
or
or
1
_{2} kx
2
0
1
k =
=
3
2
0
mv
2 mv
3 x
2
0
0
2
For collision of both the balls,
49 t 
1
¥
9. 8
t
2
=
98

1
¥
9.8
t
2
2 2
\ t = 2 sec., At this instant height from ground
=
49 t 
1
2
¥
9. 8
t
2
=
78. 4 m
and using conservation of linear momentum, we get,
m v
1
1

m v
2
2
=
2mv
,
Solving this, we get _{v} _{=} _{4}_{.}_{9} _{m}_{/}_{s}_{e}_{c}
\
S = ut +
1
2
at
2
ﬁ  78. 4 = 4.9t  4.9t
ﬁ t = 4.53 sec.
Total time of flight = 4.53 + 2 = 6.53 sec.
2
7. As shown in figure initially when the bob is at A, its potential energy is mgl. When the bob is released it strikes the wall at B. If v be the velocity with which the bob strikes the wall, then
Speed of the bob after rebounding (first time)
Similarly,
v
_{1} =
(1)
(2)
Thespeedaftersecondreboundisv _{2} = e ^{2} _{(}_{2}_{g}_{l}_{)}
In general after n rebounds, the speed of the bob is
v _{n}
=
e ^{n}
(3)
Let the bob rises to a height h after n rebounds. Applying the law of conservation of energy, we have
or
\
at
2 n
. l
(4)
\
or
?
<
60
Ê 4 ˆ ˜
5
Á
Ë
¯
n
l
\ _{n} _{>} _{3}
ﬁ h <
<
l
2
ﬁ
l
2
Ê 4 ˆ ˜
5
Ë
Á
n
¯
<
1
2
(here n is an integer)
8. Let v _{1} and v _{2} be the velocities after explosion in the directions shown in figure. From conservation of linear
momentum, we have
5 (20 cos 60°) = or 4v _{1} – v _{2} = 50
Further it is given that, kinetic energy after explosion becomes two times. Therefore,
4v _{1} – 1 ×
v _{2}
(1)
1
_{2} ¥
2
1
4 ¥v
+
1
_{2} ¥
1
2
¥v
2
=
2
È
Î Í
1
2
¥
5
¥
(20cos60 )
2
˘
˙
˚
or
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2), we have
4v
2
1
+ v
2
2
=1000
(2)
v _{1} = 15 m/s,
v _{1} = 5 m/s and
v _{2} = 10 m/s v _{2} = – 30 m/s
or
In both the cases relative velocity of separation in horizontal direction is 25 m/s.
\ x = 25t = distance between them when they strike the ground
Here,
T 
u sin 
q 
20sin60 


t 
= 
2 
= 
g 
= 
9.8 
= 1.77 s 
\ x = 25 × 1.77 = 44.25 m
9. If v _{1} and v _{2} are the velocities of object of mass m and block of mass 4m, just after collision then by conservation of momentum,
mv =
Further, as collision is elastic
mv _{1} +
4mv _{2} , i.e.
v =
v _{1} +
111
mv
2
2
1
=
mv
+
222
4
mv
2
2
, i.e.
v
4v _{2}
2
= v
2
1
2
2
+ 4v
(1)
(2)
Solving, these two equations we get either
2
=
5
2
v
5
=
v
3
5
v _{2} = 0 or v _{2}
v _{2}
=
Therefore,
Substituing in Eq. (1) v _{1}
v
when v _{2} = 0, v _{1} = v, but it is physically unacceptable.
(a) Now, after collision the block B will start moving with velociy v _{2} to the right. Since, there is no friction
48
between blocks A and B the upper block A wil stay at its positions and will topple if B moves a distance s such that
s >
2d
(3)
However, the motion of B is retarded by frictional force f = µ (4m + 2m)g between table and its lower surface. So, the distance moved by B till it stops
0
2
2
= v
– 2
Ê 6 µmg Á Ë
4
m
ˆ
¯ ˜
s
i.e.,
s =
v
2
2
3 µg
Substituting this value of s in Eq. (3), we find that for toppling of A
(b)
if
speed.
v
v _{1} =
3
5 v
=
and as time taken by it to fall down
t
=
=
[as
h =
d]
The horizontal distance moved by it to the left of P in this time
(a)
(b)
x = v t =
1
d
6
Note :
Toppling will take place if line of action of weight does not pass through the base area in contact.
v _{1} and v _{2} can obtained by using the equations of head on elastic collision
v r
1
v r
2
=
=
2v r
2v r
cm
cm


u r
u r
1
2
10. (i) Since, only two forces are acting on the rod, its weight Mg (vertically downwards) and a normal reaction N at point of contact B (vertically upwards). No horizontal force is acting on the rod (surface is smooth).
Therefore, CM will fall vertically downwards towards negative yaxis i.e. the path of CM is a straight line.
(ii) Refer figure (b). We have to find the trajectory of
a point P (x, y) at a distance r from end
B.
CB
= L/2, OB =
(L/2) cos q, MB = r cos
q
\
x =
OB – MB = cos q {(L/2 –
r)}
or
cos q =
Similarly,
y =
x
{(
L
/
R
r sin
)
q

r
}
(1)
^{y}
_{r}
or,
Squaring and adding Eqs. (1) and (2), we get
sin q =
sin ^{2} q + cos ^{2} q =
2
2
x
+
y
{(
L
/2)
2
–
r
2
}
r
2
(2)
or,
{(
L
x 2
/ 2)

r
}
2
+
y
r
2
2
= 1
(3)
This is an equation of an ellipse. Hence, path of point
P is an ellipse whose equation is given by (3).
11. Since, all the surfaces are smooth, no external force is acting on the system in horizontal direction. Therefore, the centre of mass of the system in horizontal direction remains stationary.
Initial
Final
x coordinate of CM initially will be given by
x _{1}
m x
1
1
+
m
2
x
2
=
m
1
+
m
2
=
(4
M
)(
L
)
+
(
M L
+
5
R
)
4 M
+
M
=
(
L
+
R
)
(1)
Let (x, 0) be the coordinates of the centre of large
49
12.
(ii)
(b)
(a) (i) Since, the collision is elastic and sphere is fixed,
Now, linear impulse in xdirection = change in momentum in xdirection.
\ (F cos 30°)Dt=mv – (– mv) = 2mv
Taking the equilibrium of wedge in vertical
F sin 30°
z direction during collision.
N = mg +
F sin 30°
2
mv
For rotational equilibrium of wedge [about (CM)]
F
Magnitude of torque of N about CM = magnitude of
torque of F about CM = F.h
r
 t
13. Given : m _{0} = 10 ^{–}^{2} kg, A = 10 ^{–}^{4} m ^{2} , v _{0} = 10 ^{3} m/s
A
m = m _{0} + mass of dust collected so far
=
m _{0} + Ax
r dust
or m =
The linear momentum at t = 0 is P _{0} = m _{0} v _{0}
and momentum at
m _{0} + Ax r
t = t is
P _{t} = mv
= (m _{0} +
Ax r )v
From law of conservation of momentum
P _{0} =
P _{t}
\ m _{0} v _{0} =
(m _{0} +
\ m _{0} v _{0} = (m _{0} +
Ax r )
Ax r )
v (but v
^{d}^{x}
dt
=
dx
dt
or
or
(m _{0} +
2
Ú
0
A r x)dx = m _{0} v _{0} dt
150
Ú
0
(m _{0} +
A r x)dx =
m _{0} v _{0} dt
ﬁ
È
Í
Î Í 2
x
2
m
0
x
+
A ?
Hence, m x + Ar
0
x
2
2
˘
˙
˙
˚
x
0
=
[
m v t
0
0
_{]} 150
0
= 150 m _{0} v _{0}
)
Solving this quadratic equation and substituting the values of m _{0} , A, r and v _{0} , we get, x = 10 ^{5} m.
14. Let v _{1} = velocity of block 2 kg just before collision.
v _{2} = velocity of block 2 kg just after collision. and v _{3} = velocity of block M just after collision. Applying work energy theorem,
(change in kinetic energy = work done by all the forces at different stages as shown in figure.
50
Figure I.
For 2 kg block between starting point and the moment just before collision
^{D}^{K}^{E}
^{=} ^{W} friction ^{+}
^{W} gravity
(i) Coefficient of restitution (e)
Relativevelocityof separation
= Relativevelocityof approach
1
2
{
m v
2
1
2
 (10) } = 6m
mg
cosq 
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