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. .

2013

32.019.5
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, . .
( )

56

, . .
: / .. ; .
. . . -. , 2013. 250 c.

ISBN
, ,
.

, , .
, ,
, ,
.
32.019.5
76.006.5

ISBN

.., 2013

, 2013

.........................................................4
I.
1.1. ....................................8
1.2. ...................................17
II.
2.1. .......................30
2.2. ...................................................................38
2.3. .......49
III.
3.1. ............60
3.2. ..............................................66
3.3. ......................................................76
IV. vs.
4.1. .................85
4.2. ......................................96
V.
5.1. .................115
5.2. - ............................................122
5.3. ..........130
VI.
6.1. .143
6.2. ........................154
6.3. ..................183
6.4. .....193
.205
......................................................................................209
1. -...................................241
2. -...244

, , ,
.
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, .

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vs. , , .
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,
.

,
, .

I

1.1.
1999 (. media politics) [Zaller 1999], , .
, ( ), .
,
,
, , ,
. ,
, (,
) , (), - .
, . ,
. , :
, , [Berelson
1951: 122]. ,
,
.
(, , ..), -, .
(. bardic theory) [Fiske, Hartley 1978],

,
, . ,
, ,
. ( ), , ( , ), ,
,
, .

(. issue)
,
(. spiral of silence) [- 1996].

, . , , ,
, [Shoemaker, Reese 1996: 57].
.
-, (. media consonance)
[Reese 1991]:
.
.
-, (. pack journalism)
[Crouse 1973]:
.
(. groupthink) [Janis 1972],
.
-, ,
.

10

,
, (.. ) . (
(. reverse news cascade)) [Entman 2004].
(. news wave [Fishman 1980]), : , ,
, [Wolfsfeld 2007: 229].
, -, .
(. watchdog journalism)
[Marder 1998], ,
, . , , .
(. burglar alarm), ,
,
,
[Zaller 2003: 122]. ,
.
(. monitorial citizen model) [Schudson 1998] ,
, . -,

. ,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
[Rosen
1999: 187].

11

, , ( (. symbolic annihilation)) [Tuchman 1981]. , , . , :


,
[Bennett, Lawrence, Livingston 2007: 68].
, : ,
,
[Barker 2005: 3].

(. outsider counterspin): ,
, .
-
,
, [Bennett, Lawrence, Livingston 2007: 68]. ,

, , , [Noakes,
Wilkins 2002: 652].

(. issue dualism) [Bennett
1984]. , , ,
.
,
,
. ,

12

, :
, , , , ,
[ 2000: 231]. : , ,
[Abel 1984: 68].
(.. ) (
, ) (. media logic) [Altheide,
Snow 1979].
() . , , : ...
,
, ( )
[Gans 1979: 3940].
,
[ ] ,
,
[Kepplinger 2007: 11]. , ( )
.
, , , [ 1994: 184].
( )
(.
cognitive map) [ 1980], .

13


[Tan, Weaver 2007]:
1. (. coverage bias):

;
2. (. statement bias):
;
3. (. editorial endorsements):
, ;
4. (. citation bias): , , [Ibid.: 8].

, ..
.
:
, , . , ,
[ 2005: 43].
, .

, , , , , , . ,
(
),
( (. junket journalism)).
, , (. gate keepers) [Lewin 1947] ,
. , , (. media logic) [Altheide, Snow 1979]
, , , -

14

(. real
world indicators) [McCombs 1981]. , , ; , , , ; ..
-,
( ) . (, , ; ;
;
), . , , .
, , ..
(. continuity of news) [Galtung, Ruge 1965]
. , ( ) ,
() , . , -
, ( ) (. impression-driven model) [Lodge, McGraw, Stroh 1989].
, , , , ,
(.
information subsidies) [Gandy 1982]:
, [Berkowitz 1991: 249].
, (

15

) :
, , , . , ,
, []
, [Sigal 1973: 53]. , (. churnalism) [Davies 2008], - ()
.
,
[Shoemaker 1982]:
( ,
);
(, );
, , , , ;
, ;
.

,
. , , , , .
, , , , , [, 2008: 102].
, , II (. media policy)

16

I (. media politics). , vs. , .


,
- .
, ,
,
. ,
, , , , , .
, ,
,
,
.
.
( ), ,
/
.
.
, .

1. ,
.
2. ?
3. , .
?
4. ,
.
5. .

17

1.2.
, , .
- (.
PR democracy) [Davis 2002], , ,
. ,
: , , .
, , , , ,
... [ 1998: 195].
.
,
:
[] , , ,
,
[Bennett, Entman 2001: 2]. , , , .
(. cumulative inequality) [Wolfsfeld 1997]:
, [Wagner 2007: 2].
, , , , , :
, ,
[Entman, Herbst 2007: 208]. , (, , ).
, -

18

,
, ,
[Linsky 1986].
: ,
:
(), , ,
,
[Entman, Herbst 2007: 208].
(. economic voting)
[Hetherington 1996],
, .
.
: []
[ ] , ,
, - ,
, , , --, -- -- [Entman 1993:
52]. , , ,
- ,
(. real world indicators) [McCombs 1981]. , .

.
(. manufacturing consent paradigm)
[Herman, Chomsky 1988] -
: , , , , , , [] , [Ibid.: 1988: xi]. , , , . ,
, .

19

, ,
.
,
,
- .
, ,
.
-, ,
,
. ,
,
, . , [Leach 1962: 133]. , -
- :
46,4% , 72,3% -, , [Leyland 1999].
-,
.
,
[Valentini 2006: 8].
, , , .
,
: . - , ,

20


[Altshull 1984: 277278].
,
:
1.
, .
2. ,
, .
3. ,
, ,
,

. , ,
. , .
,
, . , ,
,
[Herman, Chomsky 1988: 22].

, , , .
4.

,

21

,
, .
5. ,
, : ,
, , , ,
[Ibid.: 29].
( )
( ) , , , . , ,
: [] ( , , , ) , [Ibid.: 35].
, , , : , , ,
[ ] [Chomsky 1982: 81].
: , , , ...
, , [Robinson 2001: 1314].
,
,
[Bennett, Lawrence,
Livingston 2007: 189].

, -

22

:
, , , ;
, , , ,
...

, , ... -
, ,
[Chomsky 1989: 22].
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
:

, ,
[Herman, Chomsky 1988: 39].
24 2008 .
(. guard dog) [Donohue,
Tichenor, Olien 1995], , .
, , . , , , [Iyengar 1991].
(. theory of
indexing) [Bennett 1990]. , , ,
( ) , , . , ,

23

,

, [Bennett, Lawrence, Livingston
2007: 49].
(. news
net) [Tuchman 1978], , , . , , ,
, [Bennett 1990: 106].
(.. ) (. coalition journalism) [Molotch,
Protess, Gordon 1987]. ,
(,
).
, :
, , [Barker 2005: 5]. , ,
[Herrero 2007].
(. political contest model)
[Wolfsfeld 1997].

, ,
.
, ,
,
[Cook
2005]. , ,
(. media democracy)
[Orren 1986]: , -

24

.
, .
-, :
, , , , - . ,
[Bennett,
Lawrence, Livingston 2007: 3].
-,
, , , ,
.
.
-, :
, , , , [Ibid.: 4]. , , .
,
. ,
, [Mazzoleni, Schulz 1999].
,
, . , , ,
, .
,
(. spiral of cynicism) [de
Vreese, Elenbaas 2008],
. -

25

(. metacoverage) [Esser et al. 2001], . ,


.

. ,
, [
] , ,
[Chomsky 1982: 81]. ,
(. sceptical reflex)
[Herman, Chomsky 1988],
.
, [] [Chomsky
1979: 5].

?
, ( ) , , : ,
. , ,
[Thompson 2000: 105106].
:
, , [Wolfsfeld 2007: 231]. (
) (. mediatisation)
[Thompson 1995].

, ( (. winnowing effect)),

26

(. sound bite) [Mazzoleni 2008] (


).
: , , [Entman 1989: 20].

, , - ( (. policy cutting)): - , ,
, [Kepplinger 2007: 13].

[Kingdon 1984].
, (. prospect theory), ( ) , [Kahneman,
Tversky 1979]. ,
, .
,
. . , , , : ,
! .

[Strmbck 2008]:
1.

, .
[
2003] , .

27

2.
.
3.
, , -.
: -, , , ,
[Altheide, Snow 1991: ixx].
, , .
4.
, (. permanent campaign) [Blumenthal 1980],
.
:
, : ..,
.
, , ,
[Zaller 1999: 67].

- , - [ 2003: 10]. : , a, ,
, , , ... ;
, , . ,
, ... [Katz 2000: 129]. :
, -

28

/ . . , . , .
, , [Calhoun 1992: 7].
, : -
, ? ,
, ,
? ?
[Schrder, Phillips 2007: 890891].
. , , .
.
, (
) [ 2001] ,
.

, .

1. ,
.
2. , , ?
3. .
4.

29

?
5. ,
.

30

II

2.1.
, ( , ,
, ), (, , )
. , ,
, -.
, , , .. ,
. .
, , ,
, ().
.

-, , , , .
, ..
? [ 2008a].
1. , , , . ,
, ,
() . , , -

31

.
, .
2. -
, .
, ( ).
3. ,
, , , .
- ,
, .
.
(
) , ,
.
, .

. , ,

-.

(),
, (, ,
).

32

.

. ,
, , . : , ,
, , ,
. , , , ,
-.
, . , .
,
, , , - ( ).
- ,
, , , /
. , [ 1999], .
1. ( )
, .
, , . , , -, . , , ,
,
-, - ,
, . ,
[Beck, Cowan 2002]
:

- ;

33


;
,
.

( ), , . -
( -), -
, -,
. ,
-.
2. , , .
,
, , . , , , . ,
,
, .
.
3. .
, / . , , ,
.
,

34

.
,
, . : , ( ), - .
( , ), -, -, .
.
,
( ).
,
,
( ). , ( ).
:
, . , . , , ( ).

. ,
(-). ,
, ,
-. , ,
, . ,

35

, ,
.
(), -,
( ),
. ,
, .

, ( ) ,
[ 2008a]:
/
;
,
( );
/ / ( -);
/
;
( );
/ ( );
;
.
( ) , , . ,

,
( ).
, , -,

36

. , , ( ).

.

, . .
-, , ( , , , , ) .

.
-, .
-, .
-, , .
() -,
,
.
.
-,
.
, , , , , .
-,
. . -

37

,
.
() :
1. .
2.
.
3. , , , , , .
4. .
5. , .
6. .
[ 2008a].
- .
/ .

. , .

, .
, , , , .

, .
()
. (), ,
. .
, , , (, ) -

38

, .
,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
[] .

, -.
, ,
. , . , , .
- . ,
, .
,
, . ,
, , ,
( ).
,
,
. ,
,
. , , .
, -

39

- [
1985], :
;
;
(, , );
;
;
().
, ,
, .
.

1. ?
2.
- ?
3. ,
(, )? .
4. , .
? .
5. , .
?
6. ( )?
7. .
, ?

2.2.
, , , . -

40

, , , ,
: ( ), , , , [Rummelhart 1980: 33].
( ) (, , , )

.

( , , ),
.
, (.. ), , , : , , ,
, [Gamson 1988: 170].
, . () ( )
,
.
.
, ( , ) , , . ,
, . , , , ,
[Tannen 1999: 115].
.

, ,
.

41

, , (
) ,
. , , .
( ) , ,
, , (
) ( ) [
2000].
,
, ,
[Goffman 1974: 21]. ( ) .
,
, . ( )
, . , , . .
, [ 1979].


,
[, 1976].
, , .
, , , [Benford 1997: 417].
, ... [ ] ,
[Ibid.: 416].

42

[Scheufele
1999]. (. frames in thought) ,
, , , .
(. frames in communication)
, , , [Entman 1993].

/ () .
, ,
: , ,

[Reese 2001: 11] , ,
. , , ,
, , [Gamson 1996: 113].
, ,
[Schn, Rein 1994: 23], .
, , : , , ,
, () , , [ ] , [Gotsbachner 2009: 50].
,
, .
[Hallahan 1999].

.

.

43

.
,
, (.. ).
,
, , .
,
.

.
, , ,

[Gamson 1984].

,
,
[Snow, Benford 1988].

, [, 2008].
, ,
() (.
associated implications) [Black 1979],
(). , . , , , [ 1990:
167].

- (.. ,

44

) -. -
, , : , .
, [,
2008: 181]. , , [ 2001].
: , , ,
,
[, 2008: 186].
,
(. selffulfilling prophecy) [Merton 1968].
( -),
,
(-) . :
, [ 2007: 87].
[ 1990: 159].

,
. , , ,
, .
, , , [, 2008: 185].
(
) , , , ,
[ 2001]. , ,
(

45

) [,
1994: 20].
,
, , ,
[ 2001].
, ,
[, 2008], ,
,
.
,
, -, (), -, () .
, ,
, , . : ,
,
,
[Gotsbachner 2009: 61].
, :
, , , ,
[ 2010: 376].
, , [ 2003]. - [ 1987]

. ,
, , , , -

46

, , , (. anecdotal narratives). [Boswell 2010],


(. embedded narratives)
[Ryan 1986].
, ,
: , (, , , ,
, ),
, , [Lee, McLeod,
Shah 2008: 697].
, : , . , , , , .
, ,
[Altheide 1997: 652].
.
, , [Pan, Kosicki 2001: 36],
(. advocacy frame
contest) [Tewksbury et al. 2000]. (. frame sponsors) [Gamson 1988]
(. discourse community) ,
[ 1996].

[Gamson 1996]:
,
[Pan, Kosicki 2001].
(. partisan framing) (. nonpartisan framing).

47

,
, , : ,
[Friedman 2006].

, [Gamson et al. 1992].
: . [] . [Abolafia 2004: 15].
, (. collective action frames) ,
[Snow, Benford 1992: 137].
(. accessibility)
, (. applicability) [Eagly, Chaiken 1993]
.
(. recency) .
.
(. hydraulic pattern) [Price, Tewksbury, Powers 1997] . ,
,
, [Chong, Druckman 2007]. ,
,
.
, , ,
, ,
, -

48

- ( ) / . :
. , , , [Zaller 1996: 59].

, [ 2004],
, ()
. ,

:

[Entman 2004: 1920]. , , , ,
, .

: ,
, , , ,
[Gamson et al. 1992: 385]. , ,
.

1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5. .

49

2.3.

,
:
, , [Tankard 2001].
,
,
.
. 1991
, 1983 , 1988 .

,
. -
: ,
[Entman 1991:
23].

, ,
,
, ,
[ 1989].

: ,
, , [Czarniawska
1997]. , , (. media frame).
(. news framing) ,
, [Entman 1991: 9], .
-

50

.
, , , ,
() [Pan, Kosicki 1993].
(.
constructionist model) ,
(. interpretive package),
() [Gamson, Modigliani 1989].
,

. , , , , [Gitlin 1980: 6]. ,
,

. ,

[Miller, Riechert 2001].
,
,
: , , , ( )
, , ,
[] [Entman 2007: 165].
, ,
.
(. episodic frame / thematic frame) [Iyengar 1991]. ,
. .

51

: ,
. ,
(
),
[Iyengar, Simon 1994]. ,

( ) ( ) [
1984].
- .
,
. - , [de Vreese,
Elenbaas 2008: 300].
, , [Semetko, Valkenburg 2000].
, ,
, .
, , [Lee, McLeod, Shah 2008].
, ,
, . , .

[Druckman 2004].
(), . (
) ,
( / )

52

.
,
, [van Gorp 2007: 66]. ,
:

;
;
;
;
.

, . : ,
, .. ,
, , , [Ibid.: 6667]. , .
, , , , .
, , ,
[Norris 1995: 359] (
).
, .
, , .
(. curiosity gap) [Gentry et al.
2002; Loewenstein 1994], . ,
, ,

53

. ,
; .
:
, , , [Macgilchrist 2007]. , .

, , , .

. ,
. , (. frame mapping) [Miller, Riechert 2001] -.
, - , : ,
,
.

[Hallahan 1999]. (, )
. ,

[Higgins 1996].
-
.
( )
,
, .

54

(. archetypal narratives) [Jacobs 1996] , ,


, [Tomascikova 2009: 288].
[Mazzoleni 1987]:

;
;

.
, , , [Fiske 1987]. ( ) ,
, , , ,
, [Shoemaker, Reese 1996: 106]. ,
[Entman, Herbst 2007: 203].
[ 2011].

.
,
[Beck,
Cowan 2002] ,
.

55

,
, ,
- , .
, ,
.
-, ,
( ) . .
,
. , ( , ) - .
-,
. ,
, , .
-,
. , , . ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, ( ),
(, [ 2010]) :
1.
/ (), ( ) (. vs. ).

56


( ) (.
vs. vs. vs.
).
3.
,
[Snow, Benford 1992:
137].
2.

(
)
(. vs. , vs. vs.
) [Bruner 2004].
.
, -
: [Stone 1989:
299]. , , , , ,
[Gotsbachner 2009: 61].
- , ( ) [van Hout, Jacobs 2008].
, , : ,
- . [Stone 1989: 283].
,
,
[Ibid.: 282]. (.
causal story) , , ,
[Ibid.: 293294].

57

[Gamson, Modigliani 1987: 143],



[Rein, Schn 1977: 239].
, , , , [Ochs,
Capps 2001: 23].
, , . ,
.
[, 2011].
-,
,
. -, , . -,
- , ,
, , ()
[ : 100101].

.
?
-,
(, ). -,
, ( ) (. thematic priming) [Kosicki
2002].
: , , , -

58

, , ,
, . , , ( )
, [Entman 2007: 170].
(. interpretive politics) [Abolafia 2004].
/ ,
/ .
(. rhetoric of action) [Gamson, Meyer 1996] . (. frame alignment) [Snow et al. 1986], (. frame
bridging) ,
[Benford, Snow 2000].
(. rhetoric of reaction) [Gamson, Meyer 1996] (
(. counter-rhetoric) [Ibarra, Kitsuse 2003]) -
:

;
, ;
, ;

/
, , , .
(. reframing) [Dearing, Rogers 1996]


. -

59

: ,

[, 2011: 96]. ,
, , , [Abolafia 2004: 10].
: [Macgilchrist 2007: 83].
,
[Macgilchrist
2007: 84].
,
, , .
,
,
.

.

1. ?
2.
.
3. , .
4. .
5.
.

60

III

3.1.
, , ,
, , :
, , , , , [ 2005: 229].
:
, , [ 1996: 69].
:
, , [van Dijk 1993: 254]. : , , , , () ,
, [Ibid.: 256] (.
[ 1986]).
,

, :
, , , [Foucault 1980: 93].
, , .
(. politics of signification)
[Hall 1982],
,
, . ,
[Wodak, Meyer 2009].

61


,
,
,
[Lester, Stewart 1996]. (
)
,
, , : , ,
,
. , ,
[Hayes 2008: 135].
, ,
[Cobb, Elder 1972: 172]
(,
, [Fairclough 2005]).
: . .
, ,
,
[Campbell 1996: 3]. :
sine qua non , ,
[Stone 1989: 281]. , , , .
,
[Gotsbachner 2010: 1]. , ( )
(.. ) .
(. menu dependence)
[Sniderman, Bullock 2004], ,

62

,
. ,
. , (. public arena) [, 2000]
,

.
. ,
, , , ,
, [,
2008: 5].
: , ;
, , .
, , , ,
[Schattschneider 1975: 68]. : , [Reich 1988: 5].
:
. , , ,
, ,
[Denton, Woodward 1985: 42].
, , , , [, 2000: 18].
: (. problem definition) [],

[Eustis 2000].
, , -

63


[Stone 1988: 106].
, ,
,
:
,
,

[Kingdon 1984: 67]. , ,
, ,
.

, , , ,
: ,
, , , , ,
(. social cascade) [Baumgartner, Mahoney
2008: 435]. , , [Coburn 2006: 343344].
, ,
, ,
[Hall et al.
1978: 59]. : , , ,
.
[Leech et al. 2002].
, [] [Weick 1995: 35], ..
[Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, Lampel 1998].

,

64

. : ,

, ,
, , ,
, [Baumgartner,
Mahoney 2008: 435].

[Schofield 2000] (. heresthetics).
: . , ,
[Riker 1984: 24].
[Riker 1986]: 1. ,
; 2. ; 3.
; 4. , .
,
,
(. news management), ,
.
, , .
:
(..
), , [Hayes 2008: 135].

(. focusing event)
: , , , ,
[Kingdon 1984, 96].
- (. triggering events) [Wolfsfeld 2007]
, ,
(. political waves)
[Wolfsfeld 2007], , . -

65

(. critical discourse moments) [Chilton 1987]



, . ,

/ / . (. issue attention cycle) [Downs 1972], .

: - ,
;
, [Cobb, Ross 1997: 34].

,

,
. ,
, , , .
, ( ) .
-,
(. bounded awareness), : , , , ,
[Bazerman, Chugh 2006]. :
, -
.
, , , , .
[Simons 1974: 174].
, (
, , ,

66

[Friedman 2006]).
-, (. satisficing)
[Simon 1957]. , , , , , , .
,
.
-,
(. low-information rationality) [Popkin 1994].
,
.
-, (. rational
ignorance) [Downs 1957].
, (.
cognitive misers) [Fiske, Taylor 1991] ,
.

[Delli Carpini 2004],
.

,
.

1.
.
2. .
3. ?
4. , .
5.

.

3.2.
II.
II (. media policy)

67

(. agenda setting) [McCombs, Shaw


1972]. , ,
. ,
,
. , .
(. public agenda) ,
- . ,
?.
(. media agenda)
(.. , ), , . / .
(, ) .
, () ()
.
, , ,
, [Graber 1993: 134].
, , (.
principle of inertia) [Shaw, McCombs 1977].
(. issue attention cycle): ,

68

, ,
[Downs 1972: 38]. (. threshold of public attention), S-
, [Neuman 1990]:
1. , (, );
2. (, );
3. (, );
4. (, ).
/
(.. ).
(. time lag in agenda setting) [Stone, McCombs 1981]. , mutatis mutandis .
(. real world agenda) , , . ,
,
. , , , , , , .
,
, .

,


[Stevenson, Gonzenbach, David

69

1994]. , , , , ,
[Behr, Iyengar 1985].
,
.
, ,
, [Sheafer 2007: 24]. , , . :

, [Wanta, Golan, Lee 2004].
(.
issue agenda)
(.
attribute agenda). () ,
, ,
, , , .
: (. compelling arguments) [Ghanem 1997],
. , - , , , .
, ,
. : ()
, [Kiousis 2005]. ,
- , .
- , ,
. -

70

[Manheim 1987]:
, ; , ; .

(. macro dynamic model of agenda setting), (. agenda setters) [Choi
2004]. ,
. ,
, .
,
, .. .
, ,
[Zhu 1992]. , ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
,
[
2007] . , [. policy
agenda]
(, , ,
),
, , . -

71

: ,
, , [ 2001: 53].
, ,
[Erbring, Goldenberg,
Miller 1980] ( [ 2008]).
-, ( ), .
-, , . (. information-processing
model) [McGuire 1985], , , . ,
[ 1999],
, , , , , . , ,
, :
, , [Sabatier, Jenkins-Smith
1998: 145]. ,
, , .
-, , .
, , ; ,
,
, . , , .

72

-, () . , (, )
.
,
(. nonobtrusive issues),

[McCombs 1981]. ,
[Demers et al.
1989]. , , ,
(. associative memory networks) [Collins, Loftus 1975].
, . (.. ) ,
,
. ,
,
[Miller, Krosnick 1996]. , .
(. priming):
() (, , ) [Meyer, Schvaneveldt
1971]. ,

[Schacter,
Buckner 1998: 185].
,
( ) .
,
[,
2005]. , ,
, , -

73

, ,
[Eagly, Chaiken 1993].
(. prospect theory), , [Tversky, Kahneman 1973].
,
, , .
[Jacobs, Shapiro
1994], (. verbal
priming). ,
(
) . ,
. ,
[DeCoster, Claypool 2004].

:
, , , , .
(, ,
), :
, ,
, [Kiousis 2008]. - (. attribute priming) [Kim, Scheufele, Shanahan 2002], (. issue
priming) [Iyengar, Kinder 1987] , , .
-

74

(. primed encoding / primed reflection)


[Hwang et al. 2007].
. ,
, .
. - (. spin control / spin doctoring), ... [] , [Bruce 1992: 141].
(. issue ownership)
[Petrocik 1996],
, . , , , ,
, , .. .
,
, ,
[Iyengar, Kinder 1987: 63].
, ?
, ,
[Benton, Frazier 1976]: ( ), , ,
, ,
[McCombs, Ghanem 2001]. , -, , ,

[McCombs, Lopez-Escobar, Llama 2000].

75


( ), , , , , , ,
[Tan, Weaver 2007: 8]. .
, ,

[Scheufele 2000]. , , . ,
, ,
.
: , , . , ,
[Chong, Druckman, 2007:
115]. - ,
, ,
[Lee, McLeod, Shah 2008]. ,
.
(. credibility)
(. commensurability) (. fidelity),
[Snow, Benford
1988].
, (. media agenda setting)

, . ,
,
. (. media agenda
building) -

76


( ) / (
).
.

1. ? .
2. , .
3. .
4. .
5. , ?
6. , , ,
.

3.3.


- .
.
, - . ,
, .
,
,
[ 2002]:
.
, , -

77

/ .
, .
, , / .

.
.
, .
;
.
, .
, , . , ,
, , , , .
[ 2010].

,
.
, .

, . - , .. -,
[Becker 1991: 343] , [Cobb, Elder 1972: 14]. ,
.
, -

78

, (. decision framing) [Russo, Schoemaker 2002].


[Spiller, Stein, Tommasi 2003] :

,
;

, , .

.
-, ,
[Protess et al. 1987]. ,
.
-, ( ) .
: X , Y, ,
X.
, X
[Connolly 1972]. , ,

[Kingdon 1984: 91].
-, (. pork barrel) [Ellwood,
Patashnik 1993]. ,
. ,
. ,

79

, .
, . ,
[Mayhew 1974].
-, () ,
.
:
1.
;
2.
, - ;
3.
;
4.
;
5.
( ).
.
, [Herman,
Chomsky 1988], - .
(.
symbolic agenda / substantive agenda): . ,
[ ] ...,

. , , : , , , .. [Walgrave, Soroka, Nuytemans 2008: 818].
(. resource agenda) [Pritchard, Berkowitz 1993] , , (. decision agenda) [Kingdon 1984] ,
.
, , :
, ; , -

80

[Walgrave, Soroka, Nuytemans 2008: 818].


(
) ,
, ,
[Walgrave, Nuytemans, De Winter 2004].
(. media politicisation): [, ] [ ] , , , ,
, [Cook 2005: 165]. , :
1.
.

, ,
, . ,
.
2.
.
, [Eilders 1997]. , , ,
.
. -: - [ ]
, , .
, [Entman 1993: 52].
,
.
3.
.
, , ,
. -

81

. ,
.
4.
.
, , . , , .
,
[Walgrave, Deswert 2004]. .
, .
.
5.
.
. ,
, . , , , , [Walgrave, Van Aelst 2004].
,
,
- . , .
[ ] ,
[Pfetsch 1999: 9]. , .
,
: ,
, -

82

. , .
6.
.
: ...
, [] ,
[Walgrave, Nuytemans, De Winter 2004: 17]. ,
: ,
,
[Ibid.: 16].
,
.
[Pritchard 1992]. ,
. .
7.
.
, , . , .
8.

.
/ ,
. ,
.

83

9.
.
, . , , ,
. , ,
.
,
: , ...,
[ 2002: 116].
, ,
, , , [Kingdon 1984: 6162],
:
,
[Davis 2002: 175].
, [ 2010]. .
,
,
, , ,
.
-,
( ) -
-.
, , . , . , , ,
, .

84


[Kepplinger 2007: 14]. ,
. , , ,
, .
, ,
[Fuchs, Pfetsch 1996: 10].
(, , )
-.
,
.

1.
.
2.
.
3.
.
4.
, .
5.

?

85

IV
vs.
4.1.
, , . ,
. , /
.


. , ... , , , , [ 1998: 22].
.
[, 1995],

, ,
[ 1996: 110]. ,
,
[Blumer 1966: 535], , , , [ 1996: 119120].

, : , , , : ,
, [ 2000: 151]. ,

86

[, 1995: 208],
,
,
[ 2000: 55]. , , , , [
1996: 90], [Delia, O'Keefe, O'Keefe 1982: 156].
.

,
, , [ 2000: 55].
,
, , ,
[ 1996: 110].
[ 1985] : , [, 2004: 21]. ,
, , :
,
,
[ : 101].
, , ,
- .
, , - .
,
(), -

87

. , ,
.
, ,
. , .
[
1998],
.
, , , . , .
,
, , , ,
, , :
, - , ..
, [Bourdieu 1994: 2324]. ,
: ( ), :
, ,
[Bourdieu, Passeron 1979: 191192]. , , ; , ,
[ 1998].
,
,
: ... ,
( ) , ,
, , .. , -

88

: , [Bourdieu 1972: 182]. , ,


- [ 1998].
,
; ,
, , . ,
-
[ ]. , : ,
, , [ ]. - , [ ].
() , ,
.

.

, , , [ 1992]: , , ,
.
, ,
[Jodelet 1990: 361362].

,
: , ,

89

[Forgas 1981: 230]. , ( ) : , , , , . [Billig et al. 1988: 7].



(, , ),
, .
, , , . :
, ,
[Ibid.: 7].
[
2001; 2005; 2007]
. , , .
. , , . .
:
, (
).
[Bruner 1990; 1998] ,
: , , , , [Bruner
1990: 34].

90

, , , , , [ 1998:
32]. , ,
, . , , . [ : 75].

( ), (), , , , ,
[Blumer 1966: 535].
: - ;
,
, [
1996: 1516]. , - [DAndrade 1994]. , [ 2003] , : , ,
,
, [,
1995: 41].
, ,
, ,
, . , - ,
[Fiske
1982].
. -,
, [Delia, O'Keefe, O'Keefe
1982], , ,

91

, , [ 1998, 44, 63].


,
, .
, . , ,
, .
,
[, 1995: 158]. , () ,
.
. ,
, ,
[]
[ 1993b: 148].
.

, - , , ,
, , . , ,
.
-
,

92

[ 1990].
,
, , . , . ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
, .. .
[Almond 1970],
,

.
,
,
, , ,
. ,
, , .
- [ 1993]
,
.
,
, ,

93

, , .
,
. ,
.
, : , [ 2001: 52].
, . [ 2002].
, , - ,
[Barker 1990],
.. . :
,
...
, ,
,
, ,
[ 1993: 90].
[ 1993],
.

( ).
, ,
, [Lipset 1959: 77].
, ...
, , , , ,

94

,
[Dahl 1965: 19].

, , [George
1989: 584]. ,

[ 1993a].

[ 2011].
, ,
, , , ,
.

. , ( )
, [ 1993b: 323].
, , ,
.
,
[ 2010]. ,
.
,

95

(. discursive legitimacy) [van Leeuwen, Wodak 1999],


[ 2002; 2009].
, ,
. ? :
, ,
,
[Domhoff 1979: 169].
(. ),
.

,

. ,
, , [Karppinen 2007: 498].
, -, . (.
narrativization) , ,
[Vaara, Tienari, Laurila 2006].
,
, : , , , , ,
[ 2010: 371].
(.
relational model of procedural justice) [Blader, Tyler 2003], , ,
, , .

96

, , ,
, , [Thibaut, Walker
1975].
,

, ,
( ), .


, ? [Benhabib 1996: 74].
,
(
, ).
(. deliberative
democracy / discursive democracy) [Dryzek 1990].

.

1.

.
2.
.
3.
.
4.
?
5.


.

4.2.
(. deliberation) ,
, ,
,
, , -

97

,
[Dryzek 2009: 1391, 13811382].

, , [Ibid.].
,
[Mansbridge et al. 2006].
,
,
,
[Dryzek 2001]. : ,

,
[Hunold 2001: 154].


, , ,
, [Schmitt-Beck 2008]. , , ; , , ,
; , ,
[Parkinson 2003].

.
;
,
[Fearon 1998]. , , , (
)
[Englund 2006].

98



, : ,
, ,
, . : , , ,
[Chambers 2003: 309].
:
,
. ,
, , [Wessler 2008].

,
.
, , , , []
, [Besson, Marti
2006: xviii]. ,
, ,
,
.
, [Schneiderhan, Khan 2008].
, , , , , , , -

99

[Fung 2006: 67].


.
, [Blumenthal 1980],
, , , : ,
, [Reich 1988].
[Heclo 2000: 17], ,

[Bennett, Manheim 2007: 282].
[Manheim 1991]
, , , , , [Heclo 2000:
15]. ,
:
: , , [Ibid.: 13]. ,
,
[] [Loomis 2000: 162].
,
( ),
: , , , [Heclo 2000: 14]. , , , , ,
, , ,
[Ibid.: 33]. :
,
[Lafont 2006: 12].

100

[Pettit 2001].
-,
( ).
-, .
-,
.
,
, , [Kies 2010].
[Bchtiger
et al. 2010].
I , , ,
.
II ,
[Ibid.: 33]. , , (.
discourse quality index) [Steenbergen et al. 2003]. , , , , , , .
, ( ), (
) [Bobbio 2010].
(,
), (, ), (,
). ,

101

,
, : , , [Ibid.:
18].
( II),
:
1.
(. public spiritedness): , ,
: ,
[Dryzek 2002: 68].
2.
(
) (. discursive equality / discursive reciprocity):
,

, .
. ,
,
.
, .. [Williams,
Rice, Rogers 1988].
3.
(. plural
agreement): ,
: ,
, [Hartz-Karp 2007]. , ,
: . .
, , -

102

, [Cohen 1989: 21]. ,


,
[Besson, Marti 2006: xix].
:
, ,
,
[Gutmann, Thompson 1996: 26].
4.
(. acceptability of arguments): , , [Cohen 1989: 20].
, ,
, ,
[Fung, Wright 2003: 17]. ,
,
[Sancho 2003: 6].
5.
(. inclusiveness):

, , , .
,
,
[Dryzek 2001: 651].
[Hunold 2001: 159].
6.
:
, . ,
, . ,
, [Ibid.].

103

(. deliberative democracy): ,
[Cohen 1989: 19].
,
c :
-
[Parkinson
2003: 180]. ,
, , , : , , [Gastil, Burkhalter 2008].
,
, () , [Gutmann, Thompson
2004].
,
,
.
, , . , , ( , ), , [Sancho 2003: 3].
,

[Bohman 1998: 401].

- [Hendriks 2002]:
, ,
, , , , -

104

[Wessler 2008]. ,
, , , ,
[Crosby 1995].
(. terated deliberation) [Gutmann, Thompson 2004], , , ,
..
, .
, [Dryzek 2009]. , ,

(. competitive authoritarianism) [Levitsky, Way 2002], , - , .

,
. -, : . -, :
, . , : [Hunold 2001].
, , :
1.
: ,

,
-

105

, . ,
:
( )
[Wessler 2008]. , .
2.
:
, .
.
3.
: ,
. (
) ,
[Parkinson 2003: 182].
, :
, , ,
, , , ,
, .
.

, ,
, ,
(
), [Parkinson 2003:
186].
, ,
, [Besson, Marti 2006]. , -

106

,
, , ,
[Elster 1998: 12]. ,
, ,
[Sancho 2003]. (. civilizing force of
hypocrisy) [Elster 1998] , , . , ( ) .
, .
,
, [McGann 2006]. .

[Fung 2006]. , ,
.
(. deliberative theory of interest representation) [Mansbridge 1992],
, .

.
,
,
[Naurin 2006]. -

107

.
,
,
, [Thompson 2008]. , , . () , ,
[Naurin 2006: 192].
,

.
,
,
[Schfer 2010].

(. discursive dilemma) [Pettit 2001],
, .
, ,

, ,
[ 1995: 199]. , . : ,

, , [] , , , [Lafont
2006: 89].

108

(. rational ignorance) [Downs 1957]


, ,
. , ,
,

[Somin 2010: 254].
(. rational irrationality) [Caplan 1999]: .
, ,
, .
, , , , , ,
.
: , , ...
. , [Somin 2010: 264].
, , , , . , ,
, ,
[Galston 1991].
, .
: , , , [Neuman 1991: 95]. :
, , [Bennett 1996:
2223]. , , , , ,

[Deneen 2008: 71].

109




,
, , (. insurgent democracy) [Dryzek 2000].
, [Friberg-Fernros, Schaffer 2011].
,
.
, : , . , .
, [McGann 2006].

, , , [Chambers 1996]. , , .

(. testimony) ,
, [Sanders 1997]. , .
.

110

, , , , ,
.
,
, ,

[Chambers 2009: 341342, 345]. (. political pandering) [ 1995]: , . [],
, , , ,
[Chambers 2009: 343].
: , ,
, [Jacobs, Shapiro
2000: 7].
(. oratory model / conversation model). , , , .
,
[Remer 2000].
, , ,
[Weaver et al. 2007]. (, ) , ( ), [Marsden 1987].
( ) , .

-

111

,
, ( ). . , : , , ,
[Wessler 2008]. , ,

, : , [Parkinson 2003: 184].
,
(. scale problem).
, ,
, [Dryzek 2001]. ,
,
, . ,
. ,
,
, . , , ,
[Dryzek, Niemeyer 2008: 493].
: ,
, , [Ibid.: 485]. , (, ), , .
,
( , )

112

(. descriptive representation) [Pitkin 1967],


.


[Arnstein 1969]:
1.
( -): , ,
;
2.
: ,
;
3.
:
,
;
4.
: ,

;
5.
: ,
;
6.
: .
, , , ,
: [] [ ] ,
[Hibbing, Theiss-Morse 2002: 191].
, (. logrolling) [Miller 1999]
.
, y, x.

. x y,
, , [Ibid.].

113

,
,
[Riker, Brams 1973].
, , ,
, . ,

, ,
[Sanders 1997: 348].
,
, -
,
, , [Somin 2010]. ,
:
, .
, . :
[ 1995: 347].
, ,
, ,
, , [Sanders
1997]. : . ,
[, 2003: 505].
(. policy deliberation)
:
, .. , , -

114

. , ,
[Stone 1988: 138].
.

1.
.
2.
, .
3.
?
4.
?
5.

?
6.
,
.
7.

.

115

V

5.1.
(. narrative control) [Gubrium, Hostein 2008]
, , : , ,
[Ibid.: 260]. .. ,
(. utilitarian story / autotelic story)
, [Ryan 2009]. , ,
[Freedman 2006: 22], ..
.
(. story coercion) [Luhman 2005] ,
[White 1987: 167]. ,
.
: , , ,
.
;
, , [Boswell 2010].
,

, [Roe 1994: 2].
, ,
(. discourse coalition) [Hajer 1993],

116

.
(. policy narrative) , , [ 2007] , [ 2007], .
[Jones, McBeth
2010] , , , [Boswell 2010].
: (. narratives of decline) , , (. narratives of control)
[Stone 1988].
(. policy
narrative) ( ) , , [Boswell 2010]. ,
,
: , , (,
, , (. issue stakeholders) ) [Ibid.].
, , ,
[Ibid.].
,
( ) :
[Delori, Zittoun 2009: 3]. : , , , , . , [] [Ross 2011]. -

117

: , [Chong, Druckman 2007: 111].


(. elaboration likelihood
model) [Petty, Cacioppo 1981], ( ), ( ) .
(. transportation imagery
model) [Green, Brock 2000], , ,
, [Green, Brock 2000].
[Page, Shapiro, Dempsey 1987] . , ,
. ,
.
(. exemplification) [Zillmann 2002]
,
. [Braverman 2008].
- , .
, ,
,
, [Brosius 1999].
. , , , [Beck,
Cowan 2002].
.

118

, .
, .
, , ,
.
, , .
(. hard news)
, .
(. reception-acceptance
model) [Zaller 1992], .
, , ,
, : ,
, , [Baum 2004: 315]. , . ,
, . ,
(. soft
news), .
, , , , , - : ,
, ( ) , ,
, , -

119

[Baum 2002: 94]. (. cheap framing) [Baum 2004] . ,



,
, [Iyengar 1991].
:
,
. , ,
.
, , ,
[Mulligan 2012: 3].
(. incidental byproduct model) [Baum 2002], , , , .
, ,
, , (. Oprah
effects) [Baum, Jamison 2006].
, .
: ,
[Gamson et al. 1992: 387]. , , , , , :
, . . . [Fulton et al. 2005: 1]. : ,

, [Tomascikova 2009: 287].

120

(. fictional media)
, , , ,
: ,
, , ,
- [Mulligan 2012: 34]. : , (. human interest stories), , .
, [Gerrig,
Prentice 1991; Green 2004]. ,

(. narrative perceived realism).
(. external perceived realism), .
: ,
,
, , .
, , , ,
. ,
, , [Mulligan 2012: 4]. , ( ) ,
.
(. fictional framing) [Ibid.]
(. narrative policy) [Jones, McBeth
2010], ( ) . , 80%
[Cameron,
Sallot, Curtin 1997]. :
,
-

121

,
[Bennett,
Edelman 1985: 158, 170].
,
. : ,
, . ,
,

,
[Zaller 1999: 59].
:
,
[Sellers 2010: 221].
:
[-]. , , ,
[Shoemaker, Reese
1996: 117]. , , , , [Mazzoleni, Schulz 1999]. , ,
[Schrder, Phillips 2007], , , .
(. pseudoevents) [Boorstin 1962],
:
-
[Esser, Spanier 2003]. , ,
[Swanson 2004].
(. dethematization) [Plasser et al. 1996; Pfetsch 1999], ..
, .
, , -

122

, . , 21 2012
( ), .
:

, [Bennett 1992:
403]. : ,
. ,
. (. news management)
[Pfetsch 1998].
,
.

1.

.
2.

?
3.
.
4.
, .
5.
, .

5.2. -
, XX , , , , , , , [Blumler, Kavanagh 1999].

123

, , , , [Ibid.: 213]. ,
.
,
, , [Ibid.: 214]. , , , .
, , - (. spin) [Maltese 1994; Sumpter, Tankard 1994]: -
.
,
, [Esser,
Reinemann, Fan 2000: 216].
[Andrews 2006].
( ) [Pearson, Patching 2008], (. deliberate priming) [Medvic 2001].

,
: , , [Esser, Spanier 2005: 34].
,
,
[. advocacy story] ,
. , - , , ,
, .. ,

124

[Stockwell 2007].
, ,
, [Rosenstiel 1994: 309]. : , -, , [Jones
1995: 169].
- -
, -
:
, - [Esser 2008:
4785].
-
: -; [Craig 2003: 84]. ,
.
- ,
,
, (. off the record) (. leak).
,
,
(. press
gallery folklore) [Dale 1985]. [Richardson 2002].

,

. , , , .
-

125

( ) , ( )
. , .

- (. sound
bites), (. buzzwords) (.
image bite), , .
,

[Esser, Reinemann, Fan 2000; Gaber 2000; Pitcher 2002; Starick 2005]:
1.

;
2.
,

;
3.
;
4.
:
5.

;
6.

;
7.
;
8.

;
9.
,
.
(. politics of blame
avoidance) [Edelman 1977]
(. PRisation of news) [McQueen et al.
2011].

126

,

(. churnalism) [Davies 2008] . , , ,
. ,
-,
.
, ,
,
[Esser et al.: 215]. ,
,
( )
,
. - (. meta-coverage) [Esser, DAngelo
2003] [Esser et al.: 218] [Stockwell 2007].
, , , -
.
, [Larsson
2009].
,
, , [Plasser 2005: 53], -
.
( )
,
. ,
, ,
, , , - [Stockwell 2007: 130]. , -

127

, (. publicity officer), .
, -
(. story teller),
. (.
message) .
- -
, (. strategic coherence) [Svet 2010]. , ,
(. line of the day)
(. stay on message).
II, .
/
, . , . ,
, [Karppinen
2007: 17].
.
-,
. , .

.
[ 2006]. ,

128

.
,
- . ,

[ 2006: 33].

,
, ,
[, 2008: 112].
-,
. ,
,
[, , 2002].
-,

, :

[ 2000: 410411].
(. information policy),

[Braman 2011]. : , , , - ,

[ 2003: 38].
, . , -

129

, .

, , .
( ) , :
, ,
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