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1 .................................................................................................................7
1. ........................................................................................................7
2. ....................................................................................................................8
2.1. ....................................................................8
2.2. ..........................................................................9
3. () ......................................................................................9
3.1. ..................................................................................................................9
3.2. ().......................................................................10
3.3. ......................................................................................................10
2 .....................................................................................12
1. ...............................................................................12
2. .................................................12
3. .............................................................13
3.1. ........................................................................13
3.2. .............................................................13
3.2.1. ................................................................................................14
3.2.2. .............................................................................................14

4. ..................................................................................................15
3 () .................................................................17
1. ......................................................................................................................17
1.1. ............................................................................................17
1.2. ..........................................................................................................18
1.2.1. ...................................................................................................18
1.2.2. ...........................................................................................................................18

2. ...........................................................................................19
2.1. ....................................................................................20
3. .................................................................................20
3.1. ........................................................................................20
3.2. .........................................................................................21
3.3. ..................................................................................................................21
4 ......................................................................23
1. ......................................................................................................................................23
.......................................................................................................................23
1.2. ......................................................................................................................23
2. .....................................................................................................................................24
2.1. ..........................................................................24
2.2. .....................................................................................................................25
3. .....................................................................................................................................26
3.1. .............................................................................................................26
3.2. ....................................................................................................................26
4. .....................................................................................................................................27
4.1. ..............................................................................................................27
4.2. ....................................................................................................27
2

5
................................................................................................................................................................28
1. ..........................................................................................28
2. ..................................................................................................29
2.1. ..................................................................29
2.2. .............................................................29
2.3. ...............................................................29
3. ............................................................................................29
3.1. ............................................................................................30
3.2. to have a smoke.............................................................................................30
3.3. - give in.........................................................30
6 ..........................................................................32
1. .............................................................................................32
1.1. .........................................................................................32
1.2. ...................................................................................33
2. ......................................................................................33
2.1. : ............................................................................................33
2.2. .............................................................................................34
7 ........................................................................................................35
1. ........................................................................................35
1.1. ...........................................................................................35
1.2. .......................................................................35
2. ..........................................................................................35
2.1. ............................................................................................................................36
2.2. ......................................................................................................................36
2.3. ................................................................36
3. ......................................................................................37
3.1. ..................................................................................................................................37
3.2. ...............................................................................................................................37
3.3. ............................................................................................................................38
3.4. ..........................................................................................................................39
8

.......................................................................................................................................40
1. .............................................40
1.1. ....................................................................................40
1.2. ......................................................................41
1.2.1. ..........................................................................41
1.2.2. ..........................................43

2. ...............................44



, , (. leksis, leksicos
, ; logos ). , ()
. . , general lexicology, , ,
, . (special lexicology)
, , , . ,
, ,
,
.
, .
.
, -
. ,
(, descriptive lexicology). , , (historical
lexicology) .

, (contrastive lexicology).
,
.
,
. ,
. , ,
, , . . /, hut/ heart
, [dl], [], [l], [h] [w].
,
, , carian ur,
. ,
, .
, arm arms (arms and hands;
coat of arms); genius genii, geniuses; open (open the door; the open door). ,
(We are going there tomorrow We shall go there
Gone today, forgotten tomorrow), , We are going there now,
. . . -
, .
sculan ( shall),
.

, ,
,
. , father dad ,
, ,
( dad,
father).
, .
.
: - , , ,
. :
- , , ,
, , ,
. . . , ,
. ,
, ;

4

(, 1986). 70
, , , , .
,
- , , . .
. , , ,
, .
.
.
, .
, .
.
1. ?
. , ,
, .
2. ? ,
,
, , ,
, .
3. ?
, .
4. ? , .
;
.
5. , (casual free
and easy; to begin (smth) to get (smth) under way; etc). ,
, . ,
.
6. ?
, .
,
70 % .
7. ? ? ?
, , .
, . ,
, 1.
, .
, -
; , .
, ,
, . , , ,
. , . . ,
, , ()
(,1987, . 13). . . ,
3 : (will work, an egg), (worked, eggs) ,
. . (work, egg) (,1989, . 32).
, ,
. , . . , ,
, , .
() () ,
. ,
1

.
. . .
: ... - ... , ,
,
... (, 1994, . 8). . . ,

(, 1992).

, ,
.

, , , .

. , haerfest, ,
autumn . ( season for)
reaping and gathering in of grain or other products.
knave. cnafa
boy, servant (. . Knabe). ,
unprincipled man, rogue. . layer
layered. . , 60- . XX .
(layered hair styles introduced by Vidal Sassoon),
(the layered look big skirts with tight pants, tiers of fabric, one color on top of the other).
, (, ), .
: They never fired anyone either. They just put a superwhatever on top. When they put somebody else in below, they call it sandwiching (Safire, 1993, p. 181).

, ,
.
, -
.

. , .
, mo (
camouflage): a colour combination and pattern resembling the camouflage garments of soldiers and their equipment.
mouse.

, , ,
address, behaviour (pleasing address) , .
, - ,
, ()- .
, .
box: 1) kinds of small evergreen shrub, esp. one with small leathery leaves, much used
in garden borders (L. buxus); 2) receptacle of wood, cardboard, metal, etc. (L. buxum boxwood); 3) slap with hand
( ). , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

1

1.
,
, 2.
, , , . ; ,
. , . ,
,
. , ,
.
(), -
, .
, , . ., . .
, - .

. ()
, . , ,
. ,
, -:

(, , . .)

[.]
(, )

(, )
, .
.
/ . ,
, ; , ,
[on] , on, .
(),
, ( 1) ; 2) ; 3) ,
; fork 1) implement used for lifting food to the mouth; 2) farm tool; 3) place where a road, tree-trunk, etc.
divides or branches). ,
,
, , ,
andswerian, answer.
, , ,
. ,
. , goblin UFO ,
. ,
, ( money
, Papa, what is money?,
).
(run trot joggle; house mansion
building; etc.); (quickly in the nick of
2

., , . . ,
, . . .
7

time; limb arm, hand, wrist; etc.), (croissantization,


revolution). . ,
, ,
- , .
, , ,
, .
, . . , ,
. . ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.

2.
2.1.
, .
, , . .,
, , ,
() .
. , chairs, children, phenomena
, .

(-on ).
, , , .

. .
, , .
, ,
() . . . ,
- ,
(, 1977).
, . .
(, magic, magically, magician
(connected with the use of) supernatural forces; boy, boyhood, boyish, boyishness young man, time of man's youth,
young man's behaviour; etc.) ,
. , -ness (darkness, boyishness, happiness)
,
( ). , , ,
,
. , be am, is, are, was were;
boy, boy's boys , .
, , ,
, .
. , in the box in '
, give in .
,
. , . .
, :
( ) ,
().
. . . - ,
-, ,
. ,
, - ,

. ,
, .

2.2.
( )
, (<Lat. ilenotare , ), (-,
connotation <Lat. con + notare , ) .
, .
. ,
( , 3):

notorious
widely known for criminal acts or bad traits of character (-)
celebrated
for special achievements(+)
glare glance look
steadily, lastingly (long)
briefly, passingly (short)
father
parent
(neutral)
daddy
(colloquial)
, ,
(), (, , )
. ,
, , . ,
(look, know, parent, long ). - ,
(, , good,
awkward, dirt, murder, riot, treason, etc.4). (, )
( , ).
bias words, . . , .
, , (communist, fascist, democracy, etc.).
, , , - ,
, , - ,
, .
. , ()
.

3. ()
,
- . ,
, () .
, . ,
( )
.

3.1.

. buzz, cuckoo, splash, gargle, purr
, .

.: Arnold I. The English Word. M., 1986.


(J. -ington, 1561-1612):
Treason doth never prosper: What's the reason?
For if it prosper, none dare call it treason. . :
.
4

,
. , loudspeaker
loud speak r ( , ); prefabricate (pre fabric
ate: ); bestseller, rewrite, employee .
.
; :
barking (cough) (barking of a dog).
: snowdrop
; buttercup .
, ; ,
. .
, snowdrop; , honeysuckle, volleyball, wilful, , home, read, alphabet, parachute, etc.
; ,
, . , ,
. oilcloth. - ,
. ( ) glasses
( ).
; cock-a-doodle-do .

3.2. ()
,
.

. , . .
, .
,
(cupboard, forehead), . ,
lord, window, daisy, (hlaf + weard, wind +
eaze dges+eage ).
- (
). ,
tyrel mere, nostril (nase + yrel) mermaid (mere + mgden).

, . alphabet parachute, , ,
- ,
(alpha, beta prer .
+ chute . ).
,
. sweetmeats,
, ,
. spoon
, spon , .

telegram/wire (
); pseudonym/pen name ( );
radio/wireless ( , ) . .

3.3.

. .
. (J. Greenough) . (G. Kitteredge),
. ,
. , reindeer
10

rein deer, . . ,
hrenn () deer (); shamefaced
, scam (. modesty) faest (.
confirmed to). , ,
. , ,
, (sirloin),
. , sir;
surloin ( ).

. , rime
(rhyme) rhythm, cisoires
scissor.
, . ,
. primrose,
primerole (), ,
rose.

11

2

1.
, , ,
.
, ,
- . .
-, .
, ; , ,
,
, , ,
.
(, )
( , ).
, . . -
. ,
,
, .

2.

. , - core (horny capsule containing seeds of apple, pear,
etc.) , , bar of soft iron forming center of electro-magnet or
induction coil. , screen, ,
- , , .
(., , antennae, pilot, cabin, to
sail, etc).
- .
, , atom, XIX . (an
atom of a girl). atom
(supposed ultimate particle or matter).
probe, surgical instrument for exploring wound,
an instrument for exploring outer space (lunar probe).
.
to sail (travel over, glide through),
(travel on water by use of sails).
, .
, mill, (building fitted with machinery),
. Hospice (house of rest for travellers, esp. one kept by religious order),
, , .

. (. , phemo )
, -
. , cancer, rumour growth; fatal inoperable . .
, , : pass away, perish, join the
better, kick the bucket, go to green pastures, etc. ,
.
: pass away ,
; the better -, , ; .
. ,
, .
(political correctness). ,
, correct thinking, ,
12

80- . , . . ,
-. ,
, . crisis
depression, starvation undernourishment, unemployed redundant, salary cuts adjustment,
secondhand pre-owned, etc. ,
: Government spokesmen talk about REDEPLOYMENT of American troops; they mean
WITHDRAWAL. When sociologists refer to BLACKS LIVING IN SLUMS they are likely to mumble something about
NON-WHITES IN A CULTURALLY DEPRIVED ENVIRONMENT (Tune).

3.
3.1.

,
.
.
.
. , , foe,
enemi (. , enemy)
. valley/dale people/folk
, .
, , , starve,
. die
, (. . ).
reindeer,
. animal
, .
, . .
,
. (. ( )
( , )). : a weekly (paper); a musical
(show); (policy of) brinkmanship; (steam) engine . . ,
,
.
,
, (). ,
. , brick tactless
to drop a brick to say or do smth tactless; chaff (outer part of grain, removed before the grain is used as
food) easy trick An old bird isn't caught with chaff.
,
. , ,
.

3.2.

. ,
, .
, .
.
( , ,
) ( ).
. .

13

3.2.1.
, , ,
, ,
, .
( ) - ,
-, .
; ,
: town (The whole town was asleep); hall (The hall was silent); Whitehall government; British
Government (policy); kettle (The kettle is boiling) . .
. , mint (place where money is
coined) mynet (money, coin; coinage), ,
,
Moneta, . (youth period of one's life > a
person in this period), / (cork outer bark of the tree > a stopper for a
bottle; paper substance manufactured from wood fibre, etc. > a document written on it; etc.). ,
.
(-), ,
(the Crown = monarchy),
(penny = (a pretty penny)a good sum of money),
(royal horse = cavalry) . .
(pars pro toto)
(totum pars parte), (lunch meal taken > (packet lunch) food for the meal).
, -
. , sad
It is sad ( ) His story is sad ( ).
wear: The coat wears long (
) wears a coat ( ).

3.2.2.

, . ,
, ,
.
(, )
, .
bridge, smth to join two parts over smth:
1. Structure carrying a road across a river, etc.
2. Platform over and across the deck of a ship.
3. Upper bony part of a nose [between the two cheekbones].
4. Movable part over which the strings of a violin etc. are stretched. eye (of a
needle), neck (of a bottle), , foot (of a mountain), back (of a boot),
, ,
nut, onion head.
(-) . ,
soft :
soft music, voice, whispers quiet, pleasant to hear, tender;
soft surface, ground, velvet smooth and delicate, pleasant to touch or walk on.
sharp:
sharp voice, sound piercing, going deep into or through;
sharp feelings, pain, flavour producing a physical sensation like cutting or piercing;
sharp mind, intelligence acute, keen, deep.
deep (cutting), sharp knife
with a fine cutting edge, not blunt. , sharp
unscrupulous, not altogether honest (lawyer, practice).
, . ,
-, .
14

,
, . ,
, ,
caterpillar. , ,
lungs (of a town).
sharp ,
. . ,
leg , : one of the parts of an animal's or a person's body;
support for (a body, a cover of a table, etc.). stool-pigeon: a)
pigeon used as a decoy; b) (fig) person acting as a decoy, e. g. one employed by the police to trap a criminal.
, ,
,
. ,
, , (.,
, is a regular mouse leg of a table the
Bar All the world is a stage).

4.
. ,
. XIX ., : 1)
; 2) ; 3) ( ) .
, , , , .
, , , ,
.
, . , ,
. ( (, ) )
; , .
, , . .
.

, . , -
() . , to bootleg,

, (sell alcoholic drinks illegally) (sell anything illegally).
, ,
.
holiday. .-. halig dajg a religious feast day, c.-a. holi day church festival falling on a
week day, day of rest from work.
. , season spring
season part of the year between winter and summer any part of the year.
. ,
, affection
( any feeling, feeling feeling of
love) hound ( any dog, a certain kind of dog).
,
. atom, .
, , :
beauty 1) quality; 2) person of this quality ( ).
, , .
, . .
- ,
, , caterpillar, .
. , .-a. gebed (prayer)
bead (for counting prayers),
small ball of wood, glass, etc with a hole through it, for
threading with others on a string or wire.
15

, .
, , villain (feudal serf, farm-servant)
(person guilty or capable of great wickedness, scoundrel).
boor.
(a peasant, farmer).
illiterate, dull or insensitive peasant, boor a rude, illmannered person. urbane (
, . urban living or situated in town, courteous, elegant, or refined in manner), marshal (servant
looking after horses general officer of highest rank), nice (.-a. foolish, c.-a. pleasant), etc.
boy knave.
Knave, .-. cnafa, c.-a. knave ,
a male infant, a boy, or youth (. . . Knabe ).
a boy or lad employed as servant, a stable boy, groom; a cook's servant a man low in
rank or position. -f ,

rogue, unprincipled man.
knave . , knave.
, boy.
boi(e), knave, (servant, person of low rank and position)
a person lacking refinement, an ordinary fellow. , , boy
a youth, a male child.
, .
, , -
, .
, ,
().

16

3
()
1.
, , ( poly + sema)

. ,
. 2- :
the - ,
(The tiger was old), (The tiger is a cat-like animal) .

(). .

. , . . ,
. ,
, ,
(igloo, koala). . ,
.
,
,
. robot
a user who is actually a programme ( -).
kangaroo XIX XX . a tall thin man,
especially ill-shaped and round-shouldered.
- - . . (. Warrel)
Science of Human Behavior (Warrel, 1962) : 500
10 000 , ,
. , - 25 .
, . -
, , .

1.1.
. . . ;
, . , .
. , . ,
.
. , , ,
. , ,
, , ( !) ,
. . . .
take , lay hold of smth, , :
take smth from the table lay hold of smth with the hands; take advantage use; take smb. else's hat borrow without
permission; take smb home carry, accompany; take a cup of tea eat, drink; take notes make a record of smth; take
smb for a fool suppose, consider, etc. ,
, ,
. take ,
, .
. ,
thing any material or non-material object.
, : swimming things belongings;
there's another thing I would like to ask you about there's another subject...; That only makes things worse
circumstances; You take things too seriously events, circumstances.
(sweet little thing a
17

darling) (., ,
, . ).

1.2.
1.2.1.
,
(. contextus , ).
, , ,
. . : (, 1990). ,
, , ,
.
,
. , (,

, ),
-. , , .
. . : , ,
, -, . . ,
. , , ,
(. , . . ,
).
. : ,
- . .
, .
, -
-, . ,
, . . ,
, , , , .
,
.
, .
, - ,
, - . ., ,
. ()
() ;
, , . . .
, , , , ;
.
, ,
. . .

1.2.2.
, , .
, ( )
(-) .
-,
. , sound
: 1) healthy, not injured, hurt or decayed; 2) based on reason, prudent; 3)
capable, careful; 4) thorough, complete.
: 1) sound mind in a sound body; sound fruit; 2) sound argument (policy); sound advice; 3) a sound tennis
player; 4) sound sleep; sound thrashing. mind, body, fruit (smth that can be injured,
hurt or decayed) 1. reason,
18

argument, policy, advice, 2.


player sleep thrashing.
: mouth opening through which animals take food in;
space behind this containing the tongue, etc. dog,
animal. mouth opening or outlet
bag, cave, river, etc., inanimate. , ,
.
, -
. , , ill , .
(fall ill; be taken ill), in bad health.
(ill luck; ill will) bad, hostile. make,
(make smth move) compel, cause (They made me
tell the story.), construct or produce smth (She
made coffee for all of us. Bricks can be made
of clay.).
, ,
(-) , ,
. , - ran a horse ran
the risk make move expose oneself to a possibility of danger
.
- , , The horse ran.
It stopped to start again soon ,
stop (. It stopped doing smth).
it. living being,
come to rest, halt (The dog stopped to start again. The tourists stopped for a night to start again in the
morning.); it inanimate object discontinue (The rain stopped.).
, , ,
, ,
. , , ,
. .
, . . ,
.
table Move that table a bit to the right.
a piece of furniture;
, list of facts, numbers, systematically arranged (mathematical tables).
, .
, , .
, ,
, . , , , .
, . , ,
,
. () case.
form of a noun or pronoun, question to
be decided in a law-court, person suffering from a disease, operation,
actual state of affairs , , instanceor example of the occurrence of smth.
, ,
, .
, : What a mess this table is! (bangs his fist on it spilling the tea).
, . ,
, .
(a boy's girl's dog's cat's mouth).
, .
, .

19

2.
,
, , .

2.1.
, , ,
, . . ,
,
. , room part of a
flat, space (no room to drop an apple) possibility
(There's always room for improvement) . . .
- ().
,
. (,
) . . .
, ,
, .

. , , .
, . , hand
part of the human arm beyond the wrist, (
) (influence or agency; a source from which
smth comes; skill; employee who works with his hands; applause; etc.) (keeping;
possession; responsibility; share in an activity; pointer on a watch, clock, etc.; handwriting; signature).
;
, - (to
surprise: 1. give a feeling of smth sudden or unexpected; 2. come upon suddenly), ,
, . .
, ,
.

. .

. , room part of a flat.
,
. ,
. make,
: V + construct or produce smth; e. g. make
coffee, make bricks; V + + Inf compel, force, persuade; e. g. They made me repeat the story; V + + cause smth
or smb to be a particular thing or possess a particular quality; e. g. make the world a better place; make smb a star.
ill : to be ill//an ill omen.
- ,
- . , walk
, journey on foot, quick, lazy, morning . .,
. , - ,
, path or route (my favourite walks in the neighbourhood; a stony walk to the castle, etc.).
,
(stony walk/quick walk).
.
()
, , . ,
blank empty, blank wall, blank look, blank
despair blank verse with no door, window, or other opening; without interest or expression; utmost;
without rhyme .

20

3.
3.1.
(. dia chronos ),
, . ,
bandy , (to bandy compliments, suggestions) to
exchange. , . .
to throw (a little ball).
, , .
,
.

, , . ,
quick (speedy; lasting a short time) .
quick , to touch to the quick the quick
and the dead, quick silver. ,
quick alive, , ,
.
.
beam: 1) line of light that shines from a torch or the sun; 2) a long
thick bar of wood, metal, or concrete, esp. one which is used to support the roof of a building.
, ,
beam um .

3.2.
, ,
.
,
.
brand.
Brand 1) burning or charred log or stick; 2) mark made by hot iron; 3) stigma; 4) trade-mark; 5) particular kind
of goods (.-, brandoz: bran-pret. of brinnan burn + suf. -do). ,
. -
. order: I) way in which things are placed in relation
to one another (alphabetical order); 2) condition in which everything is carefully arranged (working order); 3) obedience to
law, rules authority (keep order); 4) rules accepted (on a point of order); 5) command given with authority (obey orders); 6)
request to supply goods (an order for two tons of coal); 7) written direction (bank order). ,
, .
,
. , .
, ,
.
. , .
, .
step. (0. movement of
one's leg) , 1) one action in a series of actions to
gain a purpose; 2) putting the right (or wrong) foot at the same/different time with others; 3) way of walking (as seen or
heard); 4) place for the foot when going from one level to another. (0. movement of
one's leg) 3 (way of walking as seen or heard) ,
3- (sound made by smb when walking). 4 (place
for the foot when going from one level to another), 4- (grade, rank,
promotion).

21

3.3.
,
.
. :
1. , .
.
. industry, ,
diligence (his industry and thrift) trade or manufacture
(cotton industry), toast (cp. A buttered toast to propose a toast).
2. , .
, stock: I) share (stock exchange); 2) part of a gun; 3) family;
(central part of a tree) , .
.
3. . ,

florem flour
part of a plant that produces seed (flower) fine meal, powder made from grain
(flour). account of real or imaginary events (story) floor
or level in a building (storey) estoree, a building.
4. ,
. , box
, .
,
.
,
( , , ),
.

22

4

1.

(homonyms < Gk
homo same+ onoma name), . . ,
.
(stock part of a gun; a share; line of ancestry; etc.), ,
( );
(knight <
kniht; night < niht). , ,
. , basis
base lowest part of anything,
, deep sounding (voice).

1.2.
,
. ,
, ; ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
, .
(homophones < Gk homos same, phono sound), ,
, , (bare/bear, road/rode, etc.).
(homographs < Gk homos same, grapho write), , , (row,
read, bow, etc.). ,
(bear carry, bear animal; match contest, match person; match
fit).
,
(lighter device; lighter boat, PI. lighters), ,
(rose flower; Past form of rise), ,
, ; saw (
see saw). ( . .
, )
, .
-
, -.
, , . . . , match contest match person
, .
,
. ,
, , , . , match
contest (noun) match put smth in competition (verb)
, compete;
. mere (noun) pond, small lake
mere (adj) not more than, . -- ,
, ,
. match possible husband / match put smth in competition; stem
severe, strict / stern back end of a ship . , ,
23

,
. -
. ,
, , .
, ,
(-s: 3rd person Sg, Present Indefinite form of a verb/Pl of a noun/Possessive marker; -er: Noun suffix/
Comparison form of Adjective suffix).
- . ,
, , (., , ,
. . , . . , . . ),
. , ,
, ,
( ), (
).

2.
2.1.
( . synonymia )

. ,
, , .
,
.
- .

. , , ,
, -
, , , . , . .
, ,
.
,
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
(spirants/fricatives; /; / . .)
,
, (), . ,
, , .

1, , .
, , .
, . .
. , rotten addled
egg, brain head.
. , jail, prison,
(be in jail/prison; put in jail/prison; jail bird/-).
tongue/language: mother tongue/language, dead language/-; to wage/carry: to
wage/carry on straggle, campaign, to wage/- war.
.
,
, , ,
. , Its effect on history is exaggerated. They have been overrating it for years
exaggerate overrate .
, .
24

. ,
.
- (mistake/blunder: wrong opinion, idea, act/foolish mistake);
(mistake/slip (small mistake)/lapse (unexpected mistake) . .,
(die/expire/pop off). - .

2.2.
.
-
(gentleman/man/chap; thrifty/economical/stingy),
(cowshed/cowhouse; haystack/hayrick; tap/faucet; windshield/windscreen).
, . . , ,
. , please pray
; stop talking shut up , ,
. ,
, - . , small/ little/ tiny/
wee (girl) small little (small not large in degree, size, etc.; little
small, usually emotive, often preceded by another adjective, expressing feeling: a pretty little girl), tiny
small (tiny extremely small), a wee ,
(wee very small, Scottish). ,
, ,
, ( ).
; .
, ,
, ( ) ,
, (power force energy ,
power (power ability to do or act; force power of body or mind; energy
force, capacity to do things and get things done; beautiful handsome pretty ,
).
, . . , .
. ,
, . power goodlooking .
( -
), ( ) . ,
( ) (spirants/ fricatives).

(, . .),
. ,
( ) .
valley dale,
; causate, ,
. cause
cause trigger start,
, , (cause: make smth happen; trigger be the cause of
smth serious or violent; start make a beginning of smth).
,
, . , poet swan
, poet,
. (the Swan of Avon).
. ,
, . ,
smash, condemn, stop, fight , racism
fight.
25

.
, , , ,
. , jump, bounce, hop, spring, leap
, ( - ), oak,
, elm, fir, birch , .

3.
3.1.
, , ,
. , .
:
1) , : not tall but short; 2) , : (I'll tell you if you are) right or wrong; 3) X A, a Y : (Jack is)
tall, but (Jim is) short. ,
(wisdom foolishness), (mingle separate), (quickly slowly), (up
down) . .
,
. , dull stupid bright,
monotonous, tedious interesting, blunt sharp, a dismal, cheerless happy, cheerful.
,
. , crown -discrown , ,
, . . , . truth fib
, , truth
, a fib , . .
.
,
, .
, , .
, , , ,
, , .

3.2.
, , . ,
tall short ,
hot cold. short medium
hot warm, cool chilly, warm cool . . ,
, . . .
( ), (
). ,
, : happy unhappy; regular
irregular. , . .
, ;
. , ,
( ), ,
( ).
.
, , , . . ,
(mother father ( parent); employer employee ( person at
work) . .). , ,
(give take ( ), lay lie ( ) . .).
.

26

, , .
, .
, .
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the spring
of hope, it was the winter of despair... (Ch. Dickens. A Tale of Two Cities).
, spring winter.
, , ,
, . spring winter
, , .

4.
4.1.
.
( . para onima ) ,
, ()
. , () ,
,
, (adage/adagio).
, (. /; ,
conservatory/conservatoir).
, .
,
. ,
. , ,
. , disburse (pay smth
out, especially from a fund) disperse (spread out over
a wide area), (Quite an amount of money was dispersed in regional development
grants).

4.2.
,
, . .
, ( ) ,
, . ,
.
; .

27

5


1. .
, .
,
. .
, + N,
, ,
, : ,
. :
May I come in? Knock at the door, etc.
. , ,
. ,
; , , , ,
Good morning
.
, .
, ,
, . .
,
. , red
(red frock, red banner, red strip, red hair, etc.), .
, , ,
, (red frock, dirty frock,
new frock, expensive frock, etc.).
. , black sheep (= the worst
member), + N,
(black ram grey sheep).
, () , . .
- .
, ,
. , ,
. , , ,
; -
. , Instead of
taking urgent measures the government chose sitting on the fence sit on the fence
waiting (
, .. .chose sitting in the pub).
, , ,
. to place oneself on record, :
to do smth noteworthy to say smth. in public.
. , wear and tear
- (breaking down), (overstrain).
,
.
, . ,
brain-trust - brain-truster, single-rhyme single-rhymer.
,
. : I
ground my teeth; he was grinding his teeth; let her grind her teeth then, etc. , : You are the
coolest cucumber I've ever met. , ,
.
28

, () ,
. , (
) .
.

2.
2.1.
, ,
. ,
(take silk; break the ice, etc.). (pick and choose; rain or shine; light
to darkness; for love or money; by hook or by crook; etc.).
(as the matter stands; before you could say Jack Robinson; as the crow flies).
, (Take it easy! Draw it mild! Bless my soul! Take your
time; etc.), (as dead as a door-nail; as mad as a hatter; etc.).
,
(behind the scenes; in the blood; for good), - ,
(to bear up; to give in; etc.).

2.2.
. . ,
. , ,
(a bitter pill to swallow; a wolf in sheep's clothing; a cock-and-bull story; to stir up a hornets'
nest; much cry and little wool; to call a spade a spade; etc.). -
, (as hell; birds
of a feather; this cat won't jump; the fat's in the fire; etc.).

2.3.
,
. ,
. . . ;
, . . , (mare's nest nonsence; spill the beans reveal a
secret). ,
. . . , ,
. . (husband's tea very weak tea; dressed up to the nines dressed to
perfection).

3.

(, . . , . .
),
. ,
. , . . ,
, to pay compliments (respect, attention, court).
, to pay, ,
, (, greeting,
love), . . -, ,
.

29

3.1.
, ,
, .
, , ,
.
, , . .
.
.
, , , book of reference,
- rough copy . .
, ,
.

3.2. to have a smoke


,
. , , , ,
, (. . )
(a laugh, a smoke, a look, a walk, etc.).
.
, , , , ,
(
, to make a laugh, to have a look) (
, to take strolls). ,
,
. , -
. , to take a run, to have/make a run,
. , ,
, . , ,
.

3.3. - give in
,
. , . . ,
, ; , ,
- . . .
, , .
. . , .
, ,
. ,
, adverb. , , ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
: to look back/down/up/around ( ); to sit/to sit down
( ); to end/to end up ( ) . .
(to give up resign, surrender; to go on continue; etc.), .

. , to let out (a secret) to
go on. ,
: come in enter (He came in and shut the door) ; come in be concerned
(Where do I come in in this business?) ; look out try to see what is outside (Look out into the
street) ; look out be on the watch (Will you go to the station and look out for Mr. Hill?); look
out afford an outlook (Our hotel room looks out on the sea front) . .
30

, ,
, ,
. , ,
. (,
.) ,
, .

31

6

1.
1.1.
,
(. morphe ). , . .
, ,
. ,
, ( )
( ). - ,
, .
, , , super-,
(1) situated directly over smth; 2) above; 3) more than, beyond the norm; 4) exceeding by).
.
(columnar; impose) 1 super-columnar; supermarine; superimpose;
2 supercelestial; superlunary; 3
supernatural; supernormal; supersensible; 4
supertertius. , ;
impose (1) lay or place, usu by force; 2) take advantage of; 3) practise deception) superimpose
(put one thing on top of smth else) natural (concerned with, produced by nature) supernatural (spiritual; not
controlled or explained by physical laws), . . ,
. ,
man, cut, red. ,
. ( , ,
, , blackboard schoolboy) ,
; .
, , ,
( ) (
). , .
, . . ( )
. - -est,
-s, , -ing . .
,
. , ,
, .
,
. , -ess
tigress, actress, hostess, lioness ., ,
*cattess *guestess .
, ,
, , ,
.
-man -boy postman, spaceman, horseman, fisherman,
etc.; cowboy, newsboy, playboy, etc. man,
boy, , ,
(., , old man, young boy , ).
after aftereffect (delayed result), aftermath (fig.
consequence), afterthought (reflection about a past event), afternoon (time between morning and evening), etc.
,
. , after ,
, , . . .
,
(free morphemes) (bound morphemes).
32

,
( black bird blackbird; list enlist; after, effect aftereffect, etc.).
. , teacher
teach , ,
. -
. , , ,
astronom- astronomer astronomical, .
vegetarian, vegetable, vegetation; theory, theoretician, theoretical.
() , . . ,
, . ,
- cranberry, , blackberry,
blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, .

1.2.
, .
, ,
(conceive,
conclave, include, invest, etc.)
(immediate constituents analysis). ,
. , discouragement disappear,
disclose, discover, etc., dis-; government, settlement, installment, etc.
-ment; courage ,
, , (courageous, encourage, etc.).
, .
, astronomer theoretician, ,

(astronomical, theoretician, etc.; writer, reader; phonetician, optician, etc.).
, , ,
cranberry. , , , , ,
.

2.
2.1. :
,
.
,
. , -er (reader; writer) -ist (escapist;
snowboardist), -ous -1. ,
,
.
. ,
.
, , . , notifi- notification
note; snowboard- snowboardist
snow board. (quick-
quickly; write- writer, etc.) possibly.
,
. , courageous courage- ,
.
, , .
, , (quick- quickly, read reader, etc.). ,
. , governmental
33

govern- -ment; prefabricate ,


fabric- -ate. .
( ) (snowboard- snowboardist. vacuum-clean- vacuumcleaner, etc.). ,
, : light + heart; light-heart- +-ed
light-heartedness; colour- + blind; clour-blind-ed colourblindedness. etc.
, . . (quick-,
fabric-, heart-, employ-, etc. ), ,
(eleg- elegance, lamin- laminate, etc.), ,
, , (hamlet eaglet, piglet,
leaflet,etc; chrysanthemum geranium, alyssum, etc.).

2.2.
, . . ,
. , ,
. , V+ -r
(writer, teacher, speaker, etc.)
(V verb) . N + -ous ,
- (courageous, monstrous, dangerous, etc.).
, .
. , + >
, . N + -ous V + -r,
, , .
(, . .), ,
. .
. ,
. V + -r ,
, (hacker, codger);
, . N+-OUS
,
-ous.
, ,
, , , . ,
writer , , .
, .
, . ,
, , (scribbler, novelist, poet,
etc.), .

34

1.
1.1.
, . ,
, , .
.
(violin -ist); , ,
(lovely loveliness bystand bystander).
(brinkman brinkmanship), ,
(lopsided lopsidedness). . ,
disappointment ( ) appoint.
disappoint ( ,
). -ment
. , , (
). (wordfamily).
, .
, grade. ,
, (grade step, stage, or degree).
to grade, gradation, gradient, gradual, etc.,
. , , ,
. ;
, . , grade
graduate mark with degree for measuring,
graduate give a degree or diploma person who has taken a university degree
.

1.2.
, ,
, .
,
.
.
( 5 ) ,
. , ,
6 : ( + ),
( + ), ( V > N N > V), (
-), ( ,
) ( ).
(, feed food; (murmur),
(cuckoo; splash) , , , tip-top; hocus-pocus)
. - ,
(. ).

, , ( ),
( ) ( , , ). ,
.

35

2.
,
. , , ,
,
; , ,
. ( )
, ( ) .

2.1.
,
. ,
, . , ,
(courageous, friendly, dictation, etc.),
(anti-missile, postwar, disengage, etc.). ,

- -.
(befriend, hatter),
. ,
,
. , , -dom,
, rank, condition, domain
(kingdom, earldom, freedom, officialdom, etc.).
(-fy, -er, -izer),
(-or, -ous), ,
. , anti-missile , outdazzle
, beautiful , re-read, ,
.
, , 1
+ .
(derived word).

2.2.
+ ,
(compound word). (cowboy, blackboard,
spaceship,etc.), (pen-holder, match-maker, baby-sitter).
, (eye-brow, sunrise, schoolgirl),
(handicraft, tradesman, mother-of-pearl).
. ,
whitewash blackboard ,
. ,
,
. , barefoot ,
. , , ,
. ,
.

. ,
, , (blacklist to blacklist; daydream to
daydream; stagemanager to stagemanage; babysitter to babysit; honeymoon to honeymoon honeymooner;
etc.).

36

2.3.
make up, . .
, .
, , ,
, . , ,
, .
, teach-in ,
, get-together . ,
, ,
,
.
- (derivational compounds)
forget-me-not, .
,
() . (,
) , , I-am-no-that-kind-of-girl (look) this modem
behind-the-ears-nonsense.
- by heart at large,
, . , ,
,
.

3.
3.1.
, (back formation),
. ,
, , , .
. ,
write writer; work worker; pain painter
burgle burglar. , , :
burglar , , burgle,
(, ,
: commit burglary).
, flight-test flight-testing baby-sit baby-sitting.
lase,
laser (light amplification of stimulated emission of radiation). ,
, ,
, "-".

3.2.

. ,
,
to finger finger; to elbow elbow, etc.
, .
, , . ,
, , , ,
, .
,
. , ,
.

37

, , , .
. () ,
, . ,
poor people poor ,
; the poor poor people.
. Adj + N (a lunatic asylum
a lunatic) Adv + N (a weekly paper a weekly),
. , telephone I'll
telephone soon, other I'll ask the others, etc.
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, (a go-no-go (person), a go-getting
(man), etc.).
,
. ,
: to host (a party) to be a host (at a party); to elbow (one's way
through the crowd) to use one's elbow for the purpose; etc. N > V
/ : fish to fish; skin to skin; etc.
V > N,
(a laugh, a smoke, etc.) ,
(a photograph; some peel; etc.).
(a help, a switch), (a stop, a walk) . .
, (empty, dark, etc.)- ,
, :
a) (to fall a fall; mother to mother; etc.);
b) (a hand handy, handful, handicraft, etc.
to hand).
, , , .

3.3.
,
, , .
. (clipped or stump words)
(initial words, or acronyms).
: doc< doctor; frig< refrigerator; phone< telephone, etc. exam,
doc, gym ( examination, doctor, gymnasium ). plane, phone ( airplane, telephone)
, frig flu ( refrigerator, influenza) . ,
.
(mike<microphone, ambish<ambition, etc.).
, , , , .
, zoological zoological garden
zoo; movie (<moving pictures).
, ,
( < British Broadcasting Corporation; AIDS < acquired immune deficiency syndrome; USA < United States
of America; etc.). , ,
. ,
.
,
(kg, km, mph, Dr, Mr, etc.). ,
( ).
, -. i. e. (
id est, that is); e. g. ( exempli gratia, for example); etc. ( et cetera,

38

and so on) . .
, (. libra, . pound), d (. denarius, . penny) . .5
, . .
(A-bomb < atomic bomb; V-day < Victory day, etc.).
, X-mas,
, Christ .

3.4.
, , ,
.
, ( ).
, ,
. , -,
() () .
(Euroshima < Europe + Hiroshima).
(motel < motorist + hotel).
, , -,
( blending; , , blends
portmanteau words). smog,
smoke fog .
, (motel <
motorist+hotel; Euroshima < Europe + Hiroshima; etc.). ,
(docudrama < documentary + drama; vidkid < video+ kid; etc.).
, .
, ( )
.
, . .
. , infobit: info- < information + bit (intentional pun on the
computer acronym bit, meaning a binary digit). - an individual item of information, such as
a recipe or a description of a place, that meets the requirements for inclusion in a data bank.
.
, . , illiterature
(illiterate + literature) literature for the illiterate, poorly
written fiction. , ,
. , -teria caveteria < cave + cafeteria
washeteria . , ,
, -holic, addict
bookaholic, workaholic, computerholic, etc.
, . positron (positive +
electron), advertistics (advertising + statistics), feminalls (feminine overalls) . . XIX .,
,
,
.

, ($), S
.
39

8


1.
1.1.
30% ,
. , , ,
, .
. ,
. ,
.
. , ,
, ,
, , , , . .
.
father (fadar),
(Vater), (fader), (. pater, . pater, , pedaer).
, ,
. , pitr
. ,
, .
daughter, (.-. dohtor,
. dauhtar, . dottir, . datter, . dotter, . Tochter), (. dukte,
. , . thygater, , dokhtaer). , ,
duhitr.
, ,
, , . , , moon (.-.
, . , . Mond, . mani, . , . menulis, . , . mus); night (.-a. niht, .
nahts, . Nacht, . nacht, . nat, . nos, . naktis, . , . , . nakt);
,
. , cat (.-. cat, ., . kat, . Katze, . catus, .
), bull (.-. bull-uc, . bul, . Bulle, . bulius), goose (.-. gos, ., . gas, . gans, . Gans, .
anser, . ); , fish (.-. fisc, . fisks, . Fisch,
. piscis, . ichthys), wolf (.-. wulf, . wolfs, . wolf, . Wolf, ., . ulv, . vulpes, . vilkas,
. , . vrkas). ,
, , know (.-. cnawan, . noscere < gnoscere, . gignoskein, .-. gnath , .
, . jna); lie (.-. licgan, . ligge, . liegen, . , . lectus < *legtus , . lexos);
work (.-. wyrcan, . verk, . werk, . ergon); tear (.-. teran, . dirti , . derein ,
. , . daraya ) .

, light (.-. leoht, . liuhab, . Light, . light, . lux, . leuxos,
. rucan), . : one (.-. an, . ains,
. ein, . en, . unus, . oine); six (.-. six, ., . seks, . sechs, . sains, . , . sex,
. hex, . sas); hundred (.-. hundred, hund, . hundert, . centum, . hekaton,
. catam, . ).
, .
, , ,
, .
,
(, , , ).
ankle (.-. ancleow, ., . ankle, . enkel, .
Enkel); calf (.-a. cealf, . kalbo, ., . kalf, . Kalb); hunger (.-. hunger, . hungr, . Hunger, .
honger, . huhrus) .; free (.-. freo, . freis, . frei), sick (.-. seoc, . siuks, .
40

sjukr, . sjuk, . siech) . .; to drink (.-. drincan, . drigkan, . drekka, . dricka, . drikke,
. trinken), to make (.-. macian, .-. macon, . maken, . machen) .
, all (.-. eal, . alls, ., . al, . all,
. all), along (.-. andlang, . entlang), forward (.-. foreweard, . vorwarts, . voorwaarts) . .
.
, .
,
. .
garlic (.-. gar leac) (geirr ),
(Ger ) (laukr ), (log), (look),
(Lauch). .
about .
on-be-utan, onbutan.
; on (ana), (); be
bei by, utan (ud)
aus, ut, ut. understand
, .
.
, ;
.

1.2.
, 70% ,
.
; ,
,
, .
,
, .
, - ,
, / , ;
.
.
, - ,
. .

1.2.1.
, ,
. . , ,
paper (papier),
papuros, papyrus. cinnabar (, - ) (cinnabaris),
(kinnabari), , .
.
,
, .
,
. ,
.
.
, , ,
.
, (. ), butter (. butyrum), copper (. cuprum)
. . .
41

, street (. via strata), wall (. vallum), mint


(. menta, moneta) . .
, , -Chester (. castra
) Chester, Colchester, Manchester, Lancaster Gloucester, Worcester; -wich Greenwich, Harwich
vicus .
. priest (. presbuteros), minster (.
monastermm), candle (. candela, candela), creed (. credo) . . ,
, ,
, chest (. cista, ), silk (. sericum, ), coriander (.
coriandrum), parsley (. petroselinum), rose (. rosa) .
,
: school (. schola), verse (. versus), circle (. circulus), .

(formula, fraction, magnanimity, fatal, jovial,
beneficial, vernacular). ,
.
, , (oculist, osteotomy, etc.).

. ,
,
IX . ,
. proud, tower, chancellor
( ).
1066 . XVI .
. ,
. ,
country, valley, river, border . . .
; king, queen, earl, lord, lady.
emperor, duke, duchess, baron, count, dame, damsel ., ,
. ,
: sovereign, crown, administration, parliament, guardian,
reign . . ,
: justice, crime, plaintiff, evidence, dungeon ., : war, navy, peace, captain, admiral,
victory, conquer . .
XII-XVI . ,
, , : chastity, innocence, devotion; barber, butcher,
merchant, coin; garment, cotton, towel; fry, boil, mutton, cabbage.
XVII .
: capital, commerce, insurance, bank, machine, investment . XVIII .
: aristocrat, democracy, despot, section . .
;
(garage, chauffer, development, fiancee . .).

.
(X-XI .). ,
,
.
. XII . , ,
.
,
, .
, .
; : husband, fellow, drag, bag, snare, leg,
calf, skin, skirt; cast, take, guess; ill, wrong, low .
; ombudsman a person appointed by an
institution (such as a government or a university) to receive a report on complaints made by ordinary people against the
services of that institution.
42

.
. . (.
), .
.

(bowsprit, buoy, cruise, dock, reef, yacht)
(rock , spool , stripe ). XVI-XVII .
(easel, etch, landscape);
, -
(bushman, kraal, veldt).
(, , )
.

XVI . (adagio, allegro, basso, opera, trio, sonata), ,
(cameo, fresco, studio, intaglio; canto, stanza).
(volcano, lava, casino, gondola, cicerone).
, (fascism, bank, traffic).
,
. pasta,
paparazzi, mafia.
XVI-XVII ., , ,
,
, , ,
. armada, banana, barbecue, canyon,
cargo, chocolate, cigar, cocoa, hurricane, potato, ranch.
, ,
, , , , ,
. cobra, Madeira, tank, veranda, mandarin, banana.
, ,
, , 80 . XX . , ,
(altyn, boyar, borzoi, samovar, vodka, nihilist, tundra, taiga).
- : Komsomol, artel,
Soviets. , : sputnik, cosmonaut.
, XX .,
- (perestroika, glasnost).

1.2.2.
-, - .
, .
/ . ,
.
,
(domino, protege, tete-a-tete).
. ,
(reason, culture, exhibition).

, . ,
caseus (), , ,
. alouer, ,
allow, . canister (
canistrum ), coffin ( coffin ), travel
( travailler ).
,
.

43

, ,
. , anion, cation ( . ana
, cata ion ); telephone, phonograph, teletype.
.
.
, .
- , .
, , . . . ciao
( ), rajah ( , , ), wigwam ( , ) .
.
, , .
, (etymon, homonym, lexical;
pensive, oration, gregarious, matron). H. H. .
,
(genius genii, geniuses), (garage- [grid3/gra:3]),
(ballet, queue). , .
, ,
. ,
- ,
, .
. take, wall,
table . , , H. H.
.

2.
. ,
800 ,
. , ,
. . ( , ,
chainsmoking, kettel-rauchen),
(
). , . . ,
, , .
, - , .
, .
, ,
(); ,
, .
, , , .
1) ( ) bio-computer,
telecommuter, audiotyper; 2) ( ) sudser (soap opera),
bigC (cancer); 3) ( ) acid (narcotics), bread
(money), box (TV-set).
. , . .
. ,
(acryl, perlon). . .
- (yuk, yech), (zizz short ),
. ,
.
.

44