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1.

(...) .................................................... 4
1.1.
... ....................................................................................................... 5
1.2.
... .............................................. 6

2.

................................................................................................... 7
2.1.
& ..................................... 8
2.1.1. .......................................................................................... 10
2.1.2. .................................................................................................... 12
2.1.3. ....................................................................................... 14
2.2.
- F..................................... 16
2.3.
COMBI ( & ) .......................... 20
2.4.
& COMBI-PLUS ................................................................... 22
2.5.
.............................................................................................. 28

...................................................................................................................................... 32
3.

................................................................................................... 35
3.1.
............................................................................................................................ 35
3.2.
. ............................................. 36
3.3.
.............................................................. 38
3.4.

............................................................................................................... 40
3.5.
....................................................................... 44
3.6.
...................................... 45
3.7.
.............................................................. 49

...................................................................................................................................... 49
4.

.............................................................................................................. 52
4.1.

....................................................................................................................................... 53
4.2.
................................................. 55

...................................................................................................................................... 60
5.

. ................................................................................. 61
5.1.
& ........................................................... 61
5.1.1. . ........................................................................ 62
5.1.1.1.

.............................................................................................................................. 62
5.1.1.2.
.................. 62
5.1.2. ....................... 65
5.2.
............................................ 66
5.2.1. .......................................................................................................... 66
5.2.1.1.
.................................................... 66
5.2.1.2.
............................................... 66
5.2.2. .......................................................................................... 68
5.2.3.
....................................................................................................................................... 69
5.2.4. ...................................... 70
5.3.
...................................................................................... 70

...................................................................................................................................... 77
6.

.......................................................................................... 80
6.1.
............................................................................................................................ 80
6.2.
.................................................................... 82
6.3.
.......................................................................................................... 84
6.4.
............................................................... 87
6.5.
......................................................... 89

...................................................................................................................................... 91

5.4.
.............................................................................................. 72
5.4.1. ............................................................................................... 74

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1000 ).
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13

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:
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(W/m / C)

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14

2.10.


M , 1
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( 2,2 m/s)

FR()n
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2.11.

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16

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(m ). 20701-1/2010,
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(2.6)

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17

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.

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.
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[4], :

18

"T"

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19

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C min

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(2.15)
i = 1-12

COMBI ( & )


, ,
(.. ). ,
( combi),
. , 5%
combi, 40%
, 35% , 20% , 15% 5% .
, 15% 2009
combi [5].

combi ( 2.13)
, (
). , combi
.
.

.

20

combi .

, (
) 4055%
, [9].
,
, 2025%.
, ,
, combi
1060%
[9]. ,
combi 1220 m [10]. ,
2

40% .
5070%
.
combi,
(IEA Task 26 www.ieashc.org/task26).
combi
[11].
, combi
,
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,


,
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[12]. ,
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10 C
o

2540%
.
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21

2.13.

& COMBI-PLUS


,
. ,
, .
solar combi-plus.


,
. ,
, .
solar combi-plus.
( )
,
,
[13-16].

Ferdinand Carr (1859) Edmond Carr
1886. , .
: 1) ,
: () ,

(2/LiBr) (NH3/H2O), ()
,
(2/silica gel)
, ,
. 2) , : () ,
, ()
.
2/LiBr .
2.14.

.

22

2.4.

( 2.15) : ()
( ), ()
, () , () ()
( ,
).

2.15.

[13].

( COP 0,70,8) ( COP 1,01,2)


.
, ,
23

2.14.

-
.
(40100kW) (>300kW).
,
(<10kW).


,
, ,
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
800 120lt
, 1000 160lt 1500 200lt.


. ,
,
. , 100m ,
2

30m .
2

,
, .
combi, 2.16

, [17].

( -) 75,9lt/m
2

(=3838), 42,8lt/m (=3000), 26,8 lt/m (=3170), 65,3lt/m


2

(=3576), 69,9lt/m (=2623), 66,8 lt/m (=3504),


2

116,7lt/m (=4521). 765


2

,
, ,
..

combi ( ,
)
(Fractional Solar Consumption, FSC) [18]. FSC

24

COP 1,72,2 .

)
combi.

2.16.


, combi .

2.17.


(FSC) (fsav).
2.16.

2.17 (fractional
thermal energy savings, fsav) FSC,
2.16

25

fsav FSC,
combi. fsav FSC,

. , FSC
( ).

(..
, ,
).
(IEA Task 26 www.ieashc.org/task26), 2.17.
.
(0,77, 35,6%) ()
.
,

fsav. (0,48, 33,2%)
64,7 lt/m . fsav FSC
2

( )
. (0,27, 16,0%) 3332kWh/m ,
2

2424kWh/m (0,27, 32,0%).


,
2

, ,

. 54
[14],
, .
(COP)
0,500,73. H2O/LiBr 0,66 NH3/H2O
0,60. COP 1,3. ,
(
) 60165C. ,
97C, .
COP, 0,59.
( 52,582C)
, Carnot-CEF (
COP COP Carnot
) (CEF=0,38),
(CEF=0,31).
(52,5C), CEF (0,54).
63%
. (21%),
(10%)

26

( ).

3,6m/kW ,
0,55,5m/kW.
0,32,7m/kW.
2m/kW 5m/kW. ,
NH3/H2O
H2O/LiBr ( 2.18).

2.18.


4000/kW. ,
, .
H2O/LiBr (3100/kW),
NH3/H2O (6500/kW).
3500/kW.
,
COP 0,58 COP (0,65).
( )
kW 225 W/kW.
22,5%.
5,3kg/h kW .
4,0 6,0kg/h kW .
combi-plus
.
,
[19].
,
.

27

( ).

2009,
172,4GW th, (55,1GW th
6 2
6 2
78,610 m ) (96,4GW th 137,710 m ),
(19,7GW th 28,210 m ) 1,2GW th
6

1,710 m [5].
6

. ( )
12,9GW th, (3,3GW th).
,
, (101,5GW th), (8,4GW th),
(8,3GW th), (4,0GW th) (2,9GW th).
6 2
30,2GW th 43,110 m .
(38%)
, , , , 39% [20].

, 50,9kW th/1,000 .
, 90% ,
554,0kW th/1,000
314,5kW th/1,000 265,8kW th/1,000 .
, ,
, , .. 70%
, 77% , 12%
[21].
, ,
6 2
4,110 m 2,9GW th
474.159 ()
1.502.161kg CO2 [5]. 2009,
200.000m .
2

,
. ,
34m 200300lt.
2

2.19 ,
()
[22]. .
7 C
o

.
2.19
[22]. (kW)
() ... .

28

2.5.

()
2.19.

() () ,
.

29

()


. 1988
( . ) .
435 ,
.
.
6 ( 2.20),
, 24 ,

500m ,
3

2/3

30cm . 90 C
. .

, 3035 C 30 C.
130MWh 161m . , 80%
2

( 71%).
.

2.20.

,
.

,
, 1984 .
, ,
800m 300m , , .
2

. ,
, ( 2.21).
2700m (350kW
2

) 7075 C. 810 C
o

22000m (130000m ). 1200kW


2

55 C .

30

, ,
.

2.21.

()

. ()
()
. ()
() .

, 60 (3000m )
2

(500m ) (105kW) ( 2.21).


2

75-80 C.
o

( 1000lt).
COP 60%.
(170kW) .
(fan coils) .
(290kW),
(174,6kW) ,
.


.
High-Combi (www.highcombi.eu) 6
,
, , , , .

, 70% ,
. , (
, ,
)
.
,
(427m ) (). ( 2.22)
2

(95m ), (,
2

58m ), (35kW), (
3


(12kW) [23].

31

()

combi-plus
.

,
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
, .
,
. :
, , & , & .
,
: & , &
, & ,
& .

1.

.. , .. , . , & ,

2.

J.M. Swift, T. Lawrence (Editors) (Editors). ASHRAE GreenGuide (3

-4 e, 479 ., (2006).
rd

edition), The Design,

Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, pp. 464. Atlanta: American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (2010).
3.

15316-4-3 / 2003-03-05. -
- 4-3:
, .

4.

J.A. Duffie, W.A., Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes (2

nd

edition), John Wiley &

Sons Inc, New York, (1991).


32

2.22.

W. Weiss, F. Mauthner. Solar Heat Worldwide, Markets and Contributions to the Energy Supply
2009, pp. 58. Gleisdorf: AEE - Institute for Sustainable Technologies and International Energy
Agency, Solar Heating & Cooling Programme, May (2011).

6.

S.A. Klein, W.A. Beckman, J.A. Duffie. A Design Procedure for Solar Heating Systems, Solar
Energy, Vol. 18, No 2, p. 113-127, (1976).

7.

. B. , ' , , (1987).

8.

J.A. Duffie, W.A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 2

9.

C. Philibert. Barriers to technology diffusion: the case of solar thermal technologies, 29 p., Paris:

nd

edition, John Wiley &

Sons Inc, New York, (1991).


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Environment Directorate,
International Energy Agency, (2006).
10. W. Weiss, G. Faninger. Austria A solar thermal success story, Solar Update, Vol. 48, No 1, p. 67, (2008).
11. K. Ellehauge. Key Issues in Solar Thermal, Solar Combisystems. Solar Combisystems Final
Report, 4.1030/C/00-002/2000, Altener program, European Commission, Brussels, (2003).
12. K. Ellehauge, A. Thr, D. Jhnig. Conditions and problems to be aware of when integrating solar
combisystems in buildings. Solar Combisystems Final Report, 4.1030/C/00-002/2000, Altener
program, European Commission, Brussels, (2003).
13. .-. Henning (editor), Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning in Buildings A Handbook for Planners,
Springer-Verlag, pp. 150, Vienna, (2004).
14. .. , . . &

, 3 RENES 2005, , 23-25 (2005).


15. C.A. Balaras, H-M. Henning, G. Grossman, E. Podesser, C.A. Infante Ferreira, Solar Cooling: An
Overview of European Applications & Design Guidelines, ASHRAE J., Vol. 48, No 6, p. 14-22,
(2006).
16. C.A. Balaras G. Grossman, H-M Henning, C.A.I. Ferreira, E. Podesser, L. Wang, E. Wiemken.
Solar Air Conditioning in Europe An Overview, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.
11, No 2, p. 299-314, (2007).
17. . Thr. Solar Combisystem European overview of installed systems 2001-2003. Solar
Combisystems Final Report, 4.1030/C/00-002/2000, Altener Program, European Commission,
Brussels, (2003).
18. . Letz. Validation and background information the FSC procedure. Technical report of Subtask
A, IEA-SHC Task 26, Solar Combisystems, pp. 23. Paris: International Energy Agency, (2002).
19. ESTIF. Solar Thermal Action Plan for Europe, pp. 26. Brussels: European Solar Thermal Industry
Federation, (2007).
20. ESTIF. Solar Thermal Markets in Europe - Trends and Market Statistics 2009. European Solar
Thermal Industry Federation, Brussels, June, (2010).
21. REN21. Renewables 2010 Global Status Report. Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st
Century, Paris, September, (2010).
22. . . ,
, (2001).
23. . , . , . , . , . , . , E..
, . , . . , K

, 4 RENES,
,
, , 10-12 (2010).

33

5.

, , www.energycon.org
- www.energycon.org/sace/sace.htm
- www.ebhe.gr
& www.cres.gr

www.cres.gr/kape/education/solar_cooling_brochure-

SMALL.pdf
European Solar Thermal Industry ESTIF - www.estif.org
High Solar Fraction Heating and Cooling Systems HighCombi - www.highcombi.eu
International Solar Energy Society - www.ises.org
Task 26 Solar combi systems - www.iea-shc.org/publications/task26/
Task 38 - Solar Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration - www.iea-shc.org/task38/
Task 40 - Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings - www.iea-shc.org/task40/
Task 45 - Large Systems: Large Solar Heating/Cooling Systems, Seasonal Storage, Heat Pumps www.iea-shc.org/task45/
Solar air-conditioning SOLAIR www.solair-project.eu
Solar Combi+ - www.solarcombiplus.eu
Solar cooling technology across southern European islands SOLCO www.solcoproject.net
Solar Keymark, The Quality Label for Solar Thermal Products - www.estif.org/solarkeymark

34

3.1.

(/)

60
.
70

3.1:

( 3.1).

.

.
().
.
.
1,08eV
/ (). ,
. ,
.
,
.
25%
.
.

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. ,
.

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3.2 .
,
()

35

3.

;
2%

;
3%

; 18%

-
; 32%

. ,

.


; 21%

-
; 24%

. ,

,
,

3.2: /

, "".
,
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
, , .

3.2.


, .
,
. -,
- .
,
-, , .
/ ,
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"" , ,
. ""
,
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.
,
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. , . '
.
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36

.

. ' ,
. ,
. 0.5Volt
.


. ' ,
.

.
.
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.
.

.
, .
.
,
.
,
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.

.
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.
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.
,
, , 911%, 1618%
. ,
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. .

.
.
.
. ,
.
. .

37

. ,


. ,
.
Schottky. ,
,
MIS. - - SIS.

3.3.

/ ,
"U"
"Uoc", ( 3.3). ,
, .
(I-U) 3.3 / ,
"G"
.

3.3: /

,
(Standard Test Conditions, STC)

(I-U). IEC 60904/DIN EN 60904
1000W/m ,
2

/ 25 C (2 C), (
o

IEC 60904-3) AM=1,5.



,
( )
.

38

/ .

(max),
(Isc) 5%-15% (Imp)
(Uoc) 0,50,6V
0,60,9V .

(FF), "Nmax"

"Isc" "Uoc".
FF =

Nmax
Uoc Isc

(3.1)

0.750.85
0,560,61.

"", / , :
=UI

(3.2)

"U",
3.4, "G"
.
/
0,50
0,45
0,40
(W)

0,35
0,30
0,25
0,20
0,15
0,10
0,05
0,00
0,0

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

(U)

3.4: /

3.4, "max" "Ump",


"Uoc".
Ump0,9Uoc.
(-U), /
"Ump" "Imp".

39

"" / (
) ""
,
"G" "" /.
(3.3), 3.5 /
.
=

N
GA

(3.3)

3.5
.
/ ,
.
/, ,
.

3.4.


/ .
, /
' .

, /.
. /
"*"
. ,

40

3.5: /

/ 10 -15 ( 3.1). ,

, "-15 ", ""


. ,
,
.
3.1: / ( .., .., 2001 )

""

""

+29

-24

+18

-10

+3

-2

-10

+10

-22

+23

-25

+30

"+15 ",
' .

3.6: /, (I-U)

,
/ . ,
(I-U) . ,
(I-U)
( 3.6). ,
"Uoc" /.
3.6
/,

41

55 60 . ,

"U",
. 3.7,
(-U)
.

3.7: (-U) /

,
/ . ,
"Uoc"
(I-U) . ,
, ( 3.8). / "Uoc=0.6V"

2mV/ C. , "U" /
"", :
U = U 25 [1 0.002 ( 25 )]

(3.4)


"Isc", (3.5)
"I" ( mA), :

I = I25 [1 + 0.025 A ( 25 )]

(3.5)

"A" / cm .
2

"" :

= + k G

(3.6)

42

"U", . ,


/ 0,02 C/(W/m ) 0,04 C/(W/m ).
o

3.8: /

/
"max" ( 3.8).
, / , , /
( 3.9).
d

h2

h1

3.9: /
/,
""
.
/ "h1"
"h2" "d":

43

"" , "G" "k"

(3.7)

3.5.

/ Watt,
, /
, .

.
,
. 3.10,
/ .

I
-

3.10: /
1.2

2.5

I (Ampere)

I (Ampere)

1.0
2.0

1.5
1.0

0.5

0.8

0.6
0.4
0.2

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

U (Volt)

0.2

0.4

0.6
0.8
U (Volt)

1.2

1.4

3.11: (I-U)
/

(I-U)
/ 3.11. / , "U"
"n" ,
"I" , :
n

U=

Ui

i=1

(3.8)

44

h h1

= 2
d

(3.9)

i =1

, /,
,
/ , :
n

I = min{Ii }
i =1

(3.10)

U = Ui

(3.11)

i=1

"", / , ,
,
( (3.2)).

3.6.

/
( 3.12).
( )
/
.

, ,
() .

3.12: ()
() /

/ ,
""
"U", (.."HT"),
, /
. , /

45

I = Ii

.
, ( )
/ "z", :
zmin z zmax

z min =

(3.12)

E o /( CC INV )
(H T PV ) S

(3.13)

zmax = zmin / *

(3.14)

:
T:

(kWh/mo/m )
2

/ ""
CC:

(87%93%)

INV:

(inverter) (90%96%)

(96%99%)

PV:


(8%17%)

/
20C,
/
(85%95%).

/
.. (96%99%)

/
(90%95%)

S:
*:


"z",
.
"z1xz2" , :

z = z1 z 2

(3.15)

z 2 = Uo / Ud

(3.16)

"Ud" / .
,
(.. "do" ),
"U" (DODL)
, :

46

( ),

"db"

do (E / 8760 )
db DODL U

(3.17)

.
12V 24V 48V.
,
/ ,
/ .

.
,
,
.
.
/ ,

. ,
.
/ :
Ey = NoCFt

(3.18)

"" / , "CF" (Capacity


Factor) "t" (8760 8784 ).

.
/
1520%.
13001800kWh .
/ /
"" ( kW) "" ,
( m ) 1kW 25 C, :
2

A=

No

(3.19)


2kW. /
14%. (3.19)
14,3m
2

( )
. /
16% 12,5m /
2

10% 20m .
2

47

Qmax =

10kW .
(3.18) 18%
3%, :
Ey = 10kW0.188760h = 15768kWh

(3.20)

:
Ey = 10kW0.158760h = 13140kWh

(3.21)

Ey = 10kW0.218760h = 18396kWh

(3.22)

48

,
,
.
.
( )
.
, (solar
trackers) .

,
.

( 3.13).
,
(, , ..).

3.13: /

/
/
(zero energy buildings) (near zero energy
buildings) .

1. ., .., .., 2007, "


",

, 401, . 28-34.

49

3.7.

", 4o
,
(RENES), .
3. I., ., ., 1998, " -
",
v v , -RENES, pp.315-322,
, .
4. I., ., 1999, "-
", 6o I- ,
', pp.301-308, .
5. .., .., .., 2007, "
: - -
", 1 , . , .
6. .., ., ., ., 2002, "
-
", 7o I, ', .151-158, .
7. .., ., 2001, "
", 4 ,
, " ", .
8. .., .., 2001, " ",
1 , , .
9.

..,

..,

.,

2002, "

"" ",
2 , 2002, .
10. .., .., ., 2008, "
", 20
, .
11. .., .., ., 2005, "
", 1
-, .
12. .., ., ., ., / ., 2002, "
", 2 ,
.
13. ., ., ., ., 2002, "
", 7o I, ', .89-96,
.
14. .., .., ., 2006, " & ",
-4 e, .
15. ., ., 1999, " ", . , .
16. .., .., .., .., 2007, "
- ", 2
-, .
17. .., 2009, " ", 3 , , .

50

2. .., ., .., .., 2010, "

18. Bayod-Rjula A.A., Ortego-Bielsa A., Martnez-Gracia A., 2011, "Photovoltaics on Flat Roofs:
Energy Considerations", Energy, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1996-2010.
19. Haas R., 2002, "Building PV Markets: Customers and Prices", Renewable Energy World Jr.,
Vol.5/3, pp.98-111.
20. Hartmann N., Glueck C., Schmidt F.P., 2011, "Solar Cooling for Small Office Buildings:
Comparison of Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Options for Two Different European Climates",
Renewable Energy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1329-1338.
21. Kaldellis J., Spyropoulos G., Kavadias K., Koronaki I., 2009, "Experimental Validation of
Autonomous PV-Based Water Pumping System Optimum Sizing", Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no.
4, pp. 1106-1113.
22. Kaldellis J.K., 2002, "Minimum Stand-Alone Wind Power System Cost Solution for Typical Aegean
Sea Islands", Wind Engineering Journal, Vol.26/4, pp.241-255.
23. Kaldellis J.K., 2003, "Optimum Techno-Economic Energy-Autonomous Photovoltaic Solution for
Remote Consumers Throughout Greece", Journal of Energy Conversion and Management,
vol.45/17, pp.2745-2760.
24. Kaldellis J.K., Fragos P., Kapsali M., 2011, "Systematic Experimental Study of the Pollution
Deposition Impact on the Energy Yield of Photovoltaic Installations", Renewable Energy, vol. 36,
no. 10, pp. 2717-2724.
25. Kaldellis J.K., Kavadias K.A., Neonakis J.K., 2002, "A Probabilistic Computational Method for the
th

Economic Evaluation of Soft Energy Applications in Course of Time", 4 GRACM Congress on


Computational Mechanics, Paper 2002_60, Patras, Greece.
26. Kaldellis J.K., Koronakis P., Kavadias K., 2003, "Energy Balance Analysis of A Stand-Alone
Photovoltaic System, Including Variable System Reliability Impact", Renewable Energy Journal,
Vol.29/7, pp.1161-1180.
27. Kaldellis J.K., Ninou I., Zafirakis D., 2011, "Minimum Long-Term Cost Solution for Remote
Telecommunication Stations on the Basis of Photovoltaic-Based Hybrid Power Systems", Energy
Policy, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 2512-2527.
28. Kaldellis J.K., Vlachos G. Th., Kavadias K.A., 2002, "Optimum Sizing Basic Principles of a
Combined Photovoltaic-Wind-Diesel Hybrid System for Isolated Consumers", Proceedings of
EuroSun 2002 International Conference, Paper W141, Bologna, Italy.
29. Liu Z., Bao Y., 2011, "Design Issues and Contribution to Building Energy of Photovoltaic Roof",
vol. 250-253.
30. Sidrach-de-Cardona M., Mora Lopez Li., 1998, "A Simple Model for Sizing Stand Alone
Photovoltaic Systems", Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Jr., Vol.55/3, pp.119-214.
31. Sonnenenergie D.G., 2008, "Planning and Installing Photovoltaic Systems: a Guide for Installers,
Architects and Engineers", Earthscan.
32. Wang D., Guan X., Zhang S., 2011, "Experimental Study on PV Solar Wall", vol. 250-253.
33. Williams N.J., Van Dyk E.E., Vorster F.J., 2011, "Monitoring Solar Home Systems with Pulse
Width Modulation Charge Control", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the
ASME, vol. 133, no. 2.
34. Zogou O., Stapountzis H., 2011, "Energy Analysis of an Improved Concept of Integrated PV
Panels in an Office Building in Central Greece", Applied Energy, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 853-866.
.

51


() , ,
. :

, , ,

( )

(, )

14%
,
35% .
,
, .
,
, 97%
.
.
2010 4,5%,
.
, 12,5%,
8% ( 7,7% ).
,
.
.
,
. , ,
, .
,
.
.
CO2, .
,
.
,
() ().

.
, ,
, , ..,
30 50%.
:
) ( ),
) ( ),
) .

52

4.

, .
30 50%.
:
) ( )
)
)
) o

4.1.

( ) ,
(, , ,
) (>15%).
.
40%,

85%.
1025%, 50%.

. ,
30% .
.
,
, ,
60%.
4.1.:

(MJ/kg)
14,5
19,0
18,6
22,0
17,3
21,0
18,9
19,8
15,3
26,3

, ( 4.1.)
, ( 7 )
1200 3000 kg/, , .
,
().

53

,
.
( ).
24% , 4 kg
1 kg .

() ,
. , 500600 C
o

.
40%.
.
300kg , 140m3 , 14lt , 53lt , 8lt
, 3lt , 76lt , 12lt 30kg .
90%, 10%
.
(83%) (11%)
, .
2233MJ/kg.
.
33MJ/kg 28MJ/kg.

,
,
.
51%
40%, .
2030 MJ/kg. 4.2.
.
4.2.:

(MJ/kg)
5,7
5,4
8,2

( C)
133
137
98
o

54

4.1:

,
, .
710MJ/kg.
, , .
,
4J/m . ,
3

7J/m .
3

1000oC
.
.
6070%.
.

.
385m3 270 m CH4 115 m3 CO2.
3

.
, .
,
.
.
, .
.
. 2030%

.

4.2.


. ,
(, , ..),
(>50%)
.

(-radiators),
. ()
, ,

.
, .

55

,
.
,
(wood pellets) (wood chips) ( 4.3).

4.3: () ( )


, / , / ,
(.. ).
,
. ,
.
,

.
,
.
550mm.
. ,
(, )
,


. 30%
, .
17MJ/kg 8%
13MJ/kg 30%.

56

4.2:

. ( 1/3),

.
, ,
. ,
.

.
,

. ,
. 50500kW
(40000500000kcal/h), :

85%

4.4 ,
.
.
.

4.4:

,
. 4.5
.

57


120
200 200/kW, .
,
.

, 4.3.
, .
500600 kW.
4.3. (: SEI 2003)
(mg/m )




3

SO2
130
0
0
27

Nx
78.2
44.5
12.2
81

0
0
0
24

CO
2.3
14.8
7.4
6

NMVOC
<3
0
0
<1


. ,

(pellets) .
,
() .
, (<25MW) .
3040% .
. 4.4.
.
4.4.

3500 /kWe

2500 /kWe

5000 /kWe


.

. 1kWh
, 2kWh .
,
6 .

58

4.5:

. ,
. ,

. , diesel, , .

. 4.5

2011.
4.5. ( 2011)

8700kcal/lt
8400kcal/lt
3
8900kcal/m
10300kcal/kg
3700kcal/kg
3
25005500kcal/m
30004000kcal/kg
35005000kcal/kg


(/kWh)
1,52/lt
0,150
0,92/lt
0,091
3
0,72/m
0,073
0,65/kg
0,085
0,045/kg
0,010

0,09/kg
0,021
0,30/kg
0,070

T kW 2MW
, , , ,
...
, ,
500/kW e ( ),
, ( 60000h)
.
,
, , ,
.
,
103/1993/-369
. 2, ( 1) :
,
, ,
, ,
, .
,
. 1993
.
, ,

.
,
.
59

1. , ., , . ., (1987).
, , , .
2. .., .. (2001). ,
, .
3. 2003. .
, Promoting Biomass Heating in
Large Buildings and Blocks - BIOHEAT.
4. ., - . ,
. 2004.http://www.bioheat.info/
5. . [] .
.
139, 2003.
6. ., (1995). . -.
, 41, .
7. 2011. 2008. www.ypeka.gr
8. & , (1989).
, .

9. Borjesson, P.I., Johansson, T.B., (1994). Bioenergy-European Status and Prospects, Proc.
Eureka Technology Conferences "Energy for the Future", Lillehammer, Normay, 14-16 June.
10. EVA 2003. Final report of European project: Promoting Biomass Heating in Large Buildings and
Blocks - BIOHEAT. Project 4.1030/Z/00-163/200, in the frame of Altener programme. Vienna
2003. www.bioheat.info
11. European Biomass Industry Association EUBIA - www.eubia.org
12. Gosse G., (1993). The state of biomass energy in the year 2000, European Directory of
Renewable Energy Suppliers & Services, Bruce Cross (editor), James & James Science.
13. Hall, D.O., (1993). "Biomass Energy" in Renewable Energy: Prospects for Implementation, T.
Jackson (editor). Stockholm Environmental Institut, Energy Policy, Stockholm.
14. Pelkmans, L (1997). Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel, CADDET Newsletter, No 3,
September.
15. SEI 2003. Brochure for Wood Fuels for Residential Buildings. Sustainable Energy Ireland,
Renewable Energy Information Office. www.bioheat.info

& www.cres.gr
European Pellet Centre www.pelletcentre.info
Green Energy Ecologic Heating System: www.acp-bioenergy.gr/frontend/articles.php?cid=123
, : www.scribd.com/doc/16713591
www.biofuels.gr/biomass_burn_1.html

60

( )
1980,
(heat pumps) [1].

,
(, , ).
& , .
,
.
,
,
.
, .
( ) /
:

()

( )

(/ )
.

&

5.1.



.
, , >2m,
1620 C. ,
o

4042 C, 02 C [2].
o

,
,
, .
()
.



[3-8].

.
,
,
,
.

61

5. .

,
[9]. ,
, -
.

.
, .
, , ,
.
5.1.1.1.

,
,
,
[1].
:
1. .
2. .
3. (particle or true density).
4. (bulk density).
5. (porosity).
6. (soil moisture content).
7. (volumetric water content).
8. (specific heat capacity).
9. (thermal conductivity).
10. (thermal diffusivity).
5.1.1.2.
(mean specific heat capacity "C" (J/m /K))
3


. "ms", "mw", "ma", "m0" (kg) ,
, ,
[16]:

C = ms c s + m w c w + ma c a + m0 c 0

(5.1)

:
"cs"

(J/kg/K)

"cw"

(J/kg/K)

"ca"

(J/kg/K) ,

"c0"

(J/kg/K) .

62

5.1.1. .

, 0,73kJ/kg/K.
,
, ,
(, , , ,
, , , , , ,
, ). 5.1 c
(J/kg/K) .
5.1:

3
3
(*10 kg/m )
2,65
2,65
1,30
1,00
0,900.
0,0012

(J/kg/K)
733
733
1926
4186
2093
1005

3
3
(*10 J/m /K)
1942
1942
2503
4186
1883
1,20

(W/m/K)
8,4
2,9
0,25
0,6
2,5
0,026


.
, ,
, .
,
.
,

.
, (..
).
.
5.2 k (W/m/K)
(MJ/m /K).
3

100m
.
. .

63

"cs" ASHRAE [6,14],

3
C (MJ/m /K)

1,3
2,0
1,7
2,1
3,8
3,1

1,7
2,6
1,9
3,4
4,0
3,3

2,3
2,9
2,5
4,1
5,3
3,4

2,32,8
2,9
2,6
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2,7
2,1

1,9

2,9

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1,82,4

1,3

2,1

3,1

2,0


1
2
3
4
5
6

-
-

-
-
-

4
5

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2



/
/

1
2
3

5,8

2,1

1,5
1,5

2,0
2,1

3,1
2,1

2,2
2,22,5

2,5
1,5
3,6
5,3
1,3
1,1

2,8
2,1
8,0
5,4
2,3
2,2

4,0
3,5
6,8
6,4
5,1
3,5

2,12,4
2,22,3
2,12,2
1,2
1,62,8
2,12,4

0,4

0,4
1,8

0,5

1,41,6
2,4

1,0

2,0

2,5

1 52,5

0,3
1,7
0,4
0,9
0,2

0,4
2,4
0,5
1,7
0,4

0,8
5,0
1,0
2,3
0,7

1,31,6
2,22,9
1,51,6
1, 63,4
0,53,8

3
4
5
6
7
8

&
1

0,5

0,6

0,8

3,9

0,9

1,6

2,0

1,8

(-10c)

2,32

1,87

(pe)

0,39

(0-20 C),

0,02

0,0012

60

3,12

(+10c)

0,58

4,19

64

5.2
/


k
(W/m/K)


( , , ..)
( 5.3).
5.3
( DIN)

( ) (k<1,5W/mK)
( , k=1,5~3,0 W/mK)
(k>3,0 W/mK)
/:
, ,
, ,
,

, loam,
()

(.. )
(.. )
Gneiss


1800h
2400h

(W/m)
(W/m)
25
20
60
50
84
70
<25
6580
80100

<20
5565
80100

3550
5570
6580
6585
4065
7085

3040
4560
5565
5570
3555
6070

( U )
VDI 4640 part 2

5.4 DIN
(W/m/K)
. U.
5.4
( DIN)

W/m/K

U-tube

Utube (m)

(m)

0,952

16

60,67

970

1,211

15

57,32

860

1,471

14

57,01

798

1,730

12

61,59

739

2,076

12

57,32

688

2,336

12

54,88

659

2,595

10

64,63

646

65

5.1.2.

( )

.
.
- .

.
.

5.2.1.
5.2.1.1.

.
. 1.05,0m
0,51m .
.
, .

. .
1m
1m 15W/m .
5.1
. ,
.

5.1 , ()
(), [8].

5.2.1.2.

, .

, .
68

66

5.2.


.

. , ..
,
.
. ,
7m .
30W/m
. 5.2 5.3
.

5.2 [8].

5.3 [24, 8]

67

120m. .


.
, .
.

50m. 5.4
.

5.4 [8]..

ON-OFF
P

5.5.
[8].

68

5.2.2.

( )
.

, .
, .
,
.
,

50 .
[Ingersoll
and Plass, 1948]. Eklof and Gehlin (1996):

k eff =

q
4 H K

(5.2)

: q (W), keff
(W/mK),
H (m).
,
, 1995 Lulea 1996
, .
,
. :
1.
2.
.
, (0)
(m ), z (m), :
2

E 0 = C

(5.3)

: C (J/m K) T (K)
3

(surf) (K) z (z).


,
.

T = Tmean Tamp e

Depth 365
a

Depth
2
cos
t now t shift

365
2

365

(5.4)

69

5.2.3.

amp
(K), Depth (m), tnow
() , tshift
, (m /s).
2

,

.

5.2.4.

,
,
(Thermal Response Test).
,

.

. 24 48

.
,
.

5.3.

.

.
,
.
, ,
, ,
- ().
, ..
,
, COP .
, ,

0 30 C ,
COP (EER) [1]. :

COP,
. COP,
.

70

: (K), mean (K),

SCOP (SEER),
, ,
.
,
SCOP (COPm) .
(Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, SEER),
.
(1)


.
, . ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
,
, .
.

(-), ,
, .
-
, ,
, .
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
60%,
.

COP ( ), EER ( ), o SEER (


- )
.
. ,
5kW 1kW , COP 5. ,
5kW 1kW EER 5.
COP EER, .
(1)

71


.

.
""
. ,
,
, .

( C)

, 24, .

()
5.6.
(env,max=36 C & 40 C).
o

5.6,
.
20 C
o

.
.
EER.
47 C EER 2.
o

EERg
10 , 5 C, 8.
o

,

.
. , 40 C
o

72

5.4.

2,8 5,5.
,

( C)

. 5.7.

()
5.7.
(env,max=-1 C & -2 C).
o

,
2,3 14
, 3 C
o

16 C. COP 3,2
o

10.

10% 5 C.
o


.
, ,
24 , ,
SEER 3,3 5,3.
SCOP 3,1 5,8.
,

. ,
,
,
( ) "" .

73

32 C. ,

.
,
.
, ,
, "thermal responce test".
"".

5.4.1.
,
10kW th.
,
( "th") .

, .. 1500h ( )
( , k=1,53,0W/m/K)
60W/md ( ,
5.3).
100%
() 167m.
, ,
16,2bar ,
(2x83,5m 8,08bar 3x55,7m 5,39bar).
,
1015%
, , 9,35bar.
PEXa,
.
6,2bar, HDPE,
.
.
, 100kW th
1490 65W,
1500 .
5.3 1800 2400
.
, (..
10kW th 8kW c) 1015%,
. 1500 800
, 68W/m
.

, 50
60 C.
o

,
.

74

480m ( ) 480m . 6
2

80m ( 5.8). 20W/m m .


2

( ), 5 400,
25W/m.

5.8. -



,
.
, , ..
( ). 5.9
. ,

COP 8 SCOP 5,05,5.

75

5.10
.

5.10. .
...

76

5.9.

:
1. ,
.. , . , , 1, (1998), pp. 1-18.
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Santamouris, M. and Asimakopoulos, D. (1992) Energy and Buildings, 19 (1-9). Elsevier
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(1994) Berichte der St. Gallishen Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, 87. Band.
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. 4
, .
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,5 .
RENES, 2005, .
18. . & . .,
,5 . RENES, 2005, .
:

77

-
1. EN 15450; however, due to the large climatic and geological differences, this standard can
hardly give more than a general minimum framework for design and installation, with many
items to be filled in regionally.
2. EN 791 has been adopted meanwhile in all EU member states. Further standards can be
found nationally e.g. in Germany and Poland, as table 2 shows
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DK, NL heat pumps in general, testing and rating 2001
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pumps, economic calculations 1989-09, (DE)
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annual effort figure of heat pumps - Electric heat pumps for room heating heat pumps,
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6. DIN 8901, Refrigerating systems and heat pumps - Protection of soil, ground and surface
water heat pumps, protection of groundwater and soil against pollution, 2002-12, (DE)
7. VDI 4640, Blatt 1-4 Thermal use of the underground - part 1-4 design and installation of
geothermal heat pump systems, 2000-2004, (DE)
8. VDI 4640 Richtlinien, part 1 & 2, 2000
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11. (groundwater, rock, soil) 2000-09, (AT)
12. WAV RB 207 Systems for the exploitation of geothermal heat geothermal, avoiding risks to
underground and groundwater 1993, (AT)
13. Normbrunn- 97 Energy well standard (Energibrunnsnorm) correct installation of geothermal
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17. zu Planung, Bau und Betrieb Energy piles 2005, (CH)
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exchangers, ground collectors, groundwater, etc. 2007, (CH)
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, .. , 2002, .
2. . , . , , 2005 , .
3. .,

, , , ...
4. .., , , , 2005
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1996
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: www.teihal.gr
- : www.tee.gr
: www.ypeka.gr
: www.elot.gr
& : www.cres.gr
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20. DVGW W 110, Investigations in bore holes and wells sunk to tap ground water; compilation of
methods investigations for geological reconnaissance inside a borehole 2005-06
21. DVGW W 115 Boreholes for exploration, capture and observation of groundwater well drilling
2001-03
22. DVGW W 116 Use of mud additives in drilling fluids for drilling in groundwater selection of
drilling fluids in order to protect the groundwater 1998-04
23. PN-G-01201 Drilling - Terminology drilling terminology 1992-12
24. PN-G-01215 Drilling engineering - Designation of drilling tools drilling tools 1998-01
25. PN-G-02305 Structure and water well drillings - Drilling rigs - Requirements drilling rigs 199411
26. PN-G-08611 Drilling - Drilling machinery - Requirements of safety and ergonomy work safety
1999-07

6.1.


.
, , , , ,
2 .. .
(/) ,
,
.

, /

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). , /
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), 23 Beaufort,
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.
,
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.
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.
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84

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a=0.30

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15
3%
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,
(power law):

h
V(h)

=
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"a" "V(ho)" "h".
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,

,
.
, "f"
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85

a=0.45
a=0.15



. , ,
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Weibull
100 . "Weibull"
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. "Weibull" :

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k V

CC

k 1

V k
exp
C

(6.8)

"C" (C1.1 V )
"k"
(k=1.52.0).
/,
/
, "k" "C"
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86

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k=1.0

20000

k=1.5

(kWh)

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k=2.0

16000

k=2.5

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
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.

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/ (k=1.5).




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87

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:
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b + Nox

+ c( t )

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5

kW. :

c( t ) = 700 1 + 0.7 e 0.125t

(6.10)

"t" 1990.
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.
6.9, /
16 Watt /
/ 2/W.

(Euros/Watt)


18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

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6.9:

, / /
.
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:

88

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,
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*


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,

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,
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89

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) .
, (zero energy buildings)
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.

1. .., ., .., .., 2010, "


", 4
o

, (RENES),
2010, .

91

6.11: / .

.
3. .., .., 2001, " ",
. , .
4. .., .., 2005, "
( )", . , .
5. .., ., ., ., / ., 2002, "

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2002, .
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-4 e, .
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8. .K., .A., .., 2002, "

", 7
, ', .41-48, 2002, .


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