Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 605

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2006

517(075.8)
22.173-2
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ISBN 581121778-1

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22.173-2

ISBN 5-8112-1778-1

517(075.8)

- ,

2005, 2006

....................................................

15

1.

1.

......................................................

1.1.
1.2.

2.

.......................................
................................

.................................................

2.1.
2.2.

................... . . . ....

.............
......
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. ... ....................................
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. .
...........................

-............................

4.3.

4.4.
4.5.

.......................................
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16
16
17
20
20
22
24
24
25
27
29
29
30
32
34
37

11.

5.

.......................................................

5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.

.......................... . .... . .......

5.5.

..........
.

...........
...............................

. .

6.

.............
......

............

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.

.. ................
......................

44
45
47
47
48

.......................................
......
7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1. ........... .......
.

6.4.

39
39
40
42

49
50
51
51

7.2.
7.3.

......................

.......................................
. .. . ..
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.4.

8.

8.1.

..............................
.... .. .. ..... ... .. . ..

55
55

8.4.

53
54
55

,
.

8.2 .
8.3.

52

... .. .... ... .... .... .. .... .. .. ... .... ..


.. .. ..

111.

56
57

9.

9.1 .
9.2.

............................

. .. .. .................. . ...............

.

9.3.

10.

. .... .. .. .... ... .. .. .. ...... ..... .. ... .. .. ..


..... .. .. ... ... . .. ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.1. .. ........ . ... . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . ...


10.2. . . .... .. ... . ............
10.3. . . . . . . . . . .

11.

58
58

..... ..... ..............

11 .1. ..... . ................ ... ..............


11 .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 .3. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .
11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 .5. ...... . .. .... . . ....... .. . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . ......
11 .6. . ..............

IV.

60
61
64
64
68
73
74
74
75
76
79
84
86

12.

.............

12.1. . .... ... ..... . . .. . . . . . .. .. . ............


12.2. . .. . .... .. ... . .. .. .
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4. ...... . . .. . .... ... .. ..
12.5. . . . . . . . .
12.6. .
. ... . . ............... .. . . .. ..............

12.7.

90
90
92
96
98
101

103
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104

12.8. . . . . . . . .
12.9.

106

......................... . ....... .. ... . ..

109

13.

. .

.. ... .... .. .. .... ... .... .

13.1.0 ......... . ........... . .. . ............ . .

13.2.

... ..... .. .. .. ........


13.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1. ..... .. ....... .. ....... . . .. . . . . ... . .. .. .
14.2. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3. ......... . .. ... . ... . .
14.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
14.5. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
14.6. .. . . . . . .
15. ................................... ...... .
15.1. .............. . ...... . . . . ..
15.2. ........... . .. . . .. .
15.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3. ~ 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
16.4. (...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17. (...) ....................... . .
17.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2. ,
..................... ......

17.3. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
17.5. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.6. ................... .. ......

18.

116
116

...... . ...... . ....

18.1. .... . .. . ........ ..


18.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5

117
119
120
120
120
122
123
124
124
127
127
128
130
130
132
132
134
135
135
136
136
140
141
144
145
146
148
148
149

18.3.

19.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . ... 153
... ........ .. .. . ........
153

19.1.
19.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
19.3. ..........
19.4. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5. , . . . . . . . . . . ..
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.1. , . . . . . . . . . . ..
20.2. ;

155
155
158
159
161
161

.
.

20.3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 164

... ..... .... ... .. .. ... ..... ..... .... .... .. .. .. ..

20.4.

, ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
20.5. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
20.6. . . . . . . . ..
20.7. . . . . . . . . . . .
20.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.

166
167
169
171
175
177

... .. ... ... .. .. .... ... .. . ..... ........ ... ..... ... ... .
21.1 . . ..... ...... .... ...... , . . . . . . ..
21 .2. , . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..
22. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
23.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
23.2. . . . .
23.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.4. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.1 . . .. .... . . . ............
24.2. . . . . . . .
24.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
6

179
179
180
181
182
182
183
183
184
185
185
186
187
188

24.5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

189
190
25. . . . . . . . . . . .. 192
25.1. ... 192
25.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
25.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 200
25.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
25.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 205
25.6. . iI. . . . . . . .. 207
25.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
25.8.
...................................
211
26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 213
26.1. ...................... 214
26.2. . . . . . . . . . . 215
24.6. ......................

27.

VI.

...............

27.1. .......................................
27.2. .. . . . ..
27.3. .......... '............
28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.1. ...........................
28.2. ................ ". . . . . . . ..
28.3. .........................
28.4. ...... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

218
218
218
219
221
221
221
222
223
224

29.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
29.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
29.2. ....................
29.3. . . . . . . . ..
30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
30.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
30.2.
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...
30.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
31. .....................
31.1. .....................

226
226
227
230
232
232
234
236
237
237

31.2. .....

31.3:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.1. . . . . . . .
32.2. sin m . cosn dx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.3. . . ..
33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
33.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
33.3. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.4. R(x; .../ 2 + + ) dx.... . ... . .... ...

33.5. r

34.

..........
..................

244
246
248
248
249
250
251
251
253
254
255
255
256

VIII.

35. . ..
36.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
37. -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39. .. . . . ... . . .. . .. . ........
39.1. -. . . . . . .. .... ................
39.2. ( ) . . .
39.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
39.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40.1.
( 1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
40.2.
( II ) .... .... ..... ..........
41.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
41.1. . . . . . ... . ..
41.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41.3. .. .... ..... . .. . .
41.4. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41.5 . . .. . . . . . . . ..
41 .6. ...
42 . .. . . . . ..
42 .1. ................ . . .. . . ........
8

259
261
263
265
269
269
269
271
272
273
273
276
278
278
279
283
287
289
291
298
298

42.2.
42.3.

IX.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

299
300

()

43.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
43.1. .......................................
43.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
43.4. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

44.

44.1.

......'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

307
308

44.2.

304
304
305
306

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

................

308
310

44.3.
.................................................

44.4.

311

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 312
313
44.6. . . . 314
44.7. ....... 316
44.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 317
45. .. . . . . . . . . .. 318
46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
46.1.0 .......................................
320
46.2. ....... 321
46.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 323
.

44.5. ......................

. "

47.

..........
47.1.0 .......................................

47.2. ,

...... ....... .... .. .... .... ..... ...... ........


. . . . . . . . . . ..
48.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48.2. ' . . . . . . . . . . ..
48.3. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
48.4. . . .. . . . . .. ..
48.5. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48.

325
325

325
327
327
330
332
334
338

48.6.

49.

50.

...........................

342
. . . . . . . . . .. 344
49.1. ....................................... 344
49.2. , . . . .. . . . . . 346
49.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
349
49.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 350
49.5. n- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 354
50.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
50.2. n-
........................
357

51.

()

....................................................... 358
51.1. .... 358
51.2. ............. 360
51.3.

.

51.4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
(n > 2)

362

n-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
....................
52.1. ..................'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
.

52.

365
367
367
369
372

XI.

53.

................. ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 378
53.1. ....................... 378
53.2.
................................................
379
53.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
53.4.
............ : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 382
53.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 386
53.6. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 388
54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 391
10

54.1. ..... ....................... ........... 391


54.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 392
54.3,. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 395
54.4. ' . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

55.

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55.2. 1 . . . . . . . . ..
55.3. '
1 ..... .. ....... .. . . ... ........ . . . ...... . .............

56.

. ..... ......... . . . .. . . ... . . ..


56.1.0 ....... ...... . ... .. .. ... . . ... .. . ... .. ..

56.2. 11 . . . . . . . ..
56.3. - ... . . ..... ..... ... . ......
56.4.
11 .........................
56.5.
11 ........... ........... ........ . ....................
57. 1 ..............................
57.1. :! .... .. . .. ..............................
57.2. - 1 . . . . . . . . . ..
57.3.
1 ........ . .' .. ..... . .. ................................
58. 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58.1. ......... ..............................
58.2: 11 . . . . . . . . ..
58.3. - .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ..
58.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58.5.
11 . . ..... . . .. .. ..... .......... .......................

59.

XHI.

402
402
404
405
407
407
410
412
414
418
420
420
422
425
427
427
429
431
433
437

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59.1. ... . ... .... .. ...... . ...................
59.2. r:' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59.3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

11

438
438
441
442

60.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
60.1. ..............................
60.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
60.4. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61.

449
451
.......... 451

...............
61.1. .

61.2.

61.3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 453

62.

444
444
446
448

XIV.

.................

454

457
457
63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 458
63.1. . ........................................ 458
63.2. . . . . . . .. 459
63.3. ...... , . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. 462
64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 463
64.1. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. 463
64.2.
() ............................. 465
65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
65.1. .......... 471
65.2. .. 473
65.3.
................................................. 475
62.1.

66.

XV.

.... ... .. .. .. .... .... ..... ...... .... ..

.......................................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
66.1. . . . . . .
66.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
67. 27r- . . . . . . ..
67.1. ........................................
67.2. ..
67.3.

478
478
480
483
483
486

..................................................

487

67.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

489

12

68.

67.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 491
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 493

69.
70.

XVI.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 499
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
70.1. ............................ 501
70.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
70.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 504
71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 506
71.1. .................................. 506
71.2. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. 507
71.3. . -...
510
71.4. ........................................ 513
71.5. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 515
72. ......................................... 518
72.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
518
72.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
519
73. . . . . 520
73.1. .................................... 520
73.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 521
73.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
.

II.

74.

..........................

525
74.1. ....................................... 525
74.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
74.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 527
74.4.
. -............... 532
74.5. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. 535
74.6.
. . . . .. 538
75. ....... '. 540
75.1.0,
.

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
13

540

75.2.

. - .

75.3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. . ....... .

76. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
76.1. .. .... . ......... . ..... . . . ... . .... . .... . . . .
76.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
76.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76.6. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77.1. ... .. .. . .
77.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

XVIII.

544
547
551
551
553
555
558
558
563
567
567
568

78.

.......... .. .... .. ...................

572
572
576
588
79. . .... ........ .. . .. ......... 590
79.1. ................... ......... . .. ... .. 590
79.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
80.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
78.1. ~ . . . . .. .... .. ....... ........
78.2. .... ... . ... . .. . ..... ..
78.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

.. .. .... .... .... ... .. .. ...... .... ..... ...... ... . ... .

599


, ,
- ;
,

. ,
, .
.

.

,


,
.

, ,
- , -

, - ( )
,

,
, .

,
,

.

Q -

, .

1.

....

....

1-3

1.

1.1.


11 ,

) .

= ( ~~~
l

= (aij), i = 1,
(. . j = 1,2,3, ... , n) -

, ,
,

= 1, n

(. .

= 1,2,3, ... ,) -

aij,

n .

, .

, , ,
.

Me;)ICiJy fi.,
, . .

= ,

aij

= bij ,

i =1,m, j

= 1,n.

, ,

tciJmfi..

n n

n- niJtc.
, ,

, , iJufi..
,

, iJuu'fi.. .
u,,

1.1.

~X3~ ~

3- .

nn ~ (~' ~
-

n- .

16

m.11.,
, ,

, , .11..
.

O~

( : . : .....: )

.
~

, ,

'/,, ( -, -
). :

A~ (~J

, . .
~

1,
(5)lXl 5.

,
, .n..

.11. . .

, = ~), = (~

()

1.2.

:),

= (~), =(1 ).

= .

. n

n
u,,

(~

= (Cij)

=
Cij

= (b ij )
= 1, , j = ,n).

(aij) n

= aij + bij

(i

1.2.
-3
5

3
-2

3
-5

..

17

-1
10

).

! n
(aij) ' k
= (b;j) , 'JTO bij = k aij (i = 1,, j = 1,n).

u. 1.3.

_( -1
-

) , k = 2,

k =

1~ ).

-2
8

= (-1) . nnOJlCi1 .

= + (-).

'J
:

1. + = +;
2.

+ ( + ) = ( + ) + ;

3.

= ;

4.

, ,

6. 0:.

7.

(:

8. 0:.

, : {

= ;

5. 1

+ )

+ ()
(()

+ :;
. = : + {;
=

= :

(0:{)

. ,

'J.


nu. :

'J, 'J
;


, 'J
.

1ua.tt'm''bt.u,
'J

rv


, 'J

, .
'1'r.i1,

(~ ~ 1~)
18

u.

1.4.

A~ ( ~1

:)

: ,

('1 ;) ~
-2

:
)
~~H
--------

C~l
2 -1

2)

3 2
2 1
4 1

~(~

2
-6

:5

:2

J) ~ ~(~

5
-15

5
-15

1
1
-3 -3

:3

l=.!.L1

-9

~ ~ ~)~ (~ ~

2
2
-6

,
"u ' nfJ. ,'"! " "u "/ fJ.

,' .

u"u, ,' n

Cik

ai] . b 1k

+ ai2

. b 2k

. . i-

= (aij)

" .m,u' n

= (b jk )

(Cik) ,

+ ... + ainbnk,

k-ro

i = 1, , k

= ,,

i-

k-ro

/1 Cik :

l~-:~:-:;

: : :)

. ,
. ,

u.

= = ,

1.5. (a l l

2]

19

u,,

1.6.

= (~ ~ ~),

(~ ~). '

(2).

(3)

, :

= ~).

2
1

1) = (11+6
+9

2+3
2+2

1 + ) = (10 5
1+0
7 4

n'',

= .

1.
2.

= ( ) . ;
( + ) = + ;
(

. )

+ ) . =

3.

4.

()

+ ;

= (),

2.
2.1.

IAI,

1. n

det

~), , :

= 1. = (l); detA = l.

2. n = 2. =

3. n =

( al1
, 21

12

22

12

21

22

) ; det

,,)
2

= I all 121 =
21

detA =

22

all .

22

all

12

21

22

12

21'

.
,

20

(.

23,

7). ,
(1, 2, 3)

2- :

1: :1
u.

2.1.

I~I-I/.I
cosa
( -sina

sina) .
cosa

~31 =

26 - 5 . (-3) = 12 - (-15) = 27;

cosa sin
-sina cosa

I = cos 2 + s
. 2
=

1.

3-

nu- ( ),
:

1: : :I~

I~I

I~I

CUl

u.

2.2.

-2
1

5
=

1
-4
-3

detA

= 5 1 (-3)

+ (-2) . (-4)6 + 3 01 - 6 11- 3 (-2) . (-3) -

(-4) 5=

= -15 + 48 - 6 - 18 = 48 - 39 = 9.
21

2.2.
,
D.
3- .

f1

< ) .

, , .

121

I all

22

12

all

12

21

22

all

21

12

22

n
...

f1

2.

,Ceof1cmeo 3. , ,
.

4.

f1

, ,L ,1\,

nn,, , n, ,

ma1\,of1 , ,.
,

all
k . all

12

12

f1

= k

all

12

all

12

= k . = .

5.

' ,
~ .

ll

12

21

22

f1

+
+
+ d
1
2

all

12

21

22

<

all

12

21

22

).

.
u,,

2.3.

~=

1l

12

all

1 2

21

22

2 1

22

22

+ k . 12
+ k 22
+ k . 2

: ,

all

12

+k

21

22

+ k . 22
+ k . 2

5, 4

3,

. 12

22

+ k

21

22

22

=.6.

+k . =

.6..


.
~

aij n-

n -1-

. mij.
,

2u-'/u nu aij
, ,

+j

, , .

A ij : A ij = (-1)] . mij.
A ll = +mll, 2 = -m2.
11m 7 <

).

3- .

:-a-;i --a12 --0,11


.6. = "'21--22---2-- = all . A ll
l

+ a12 . A 12 + l . 1

all

1 ~~~

= ll(22
=

all 22 -

~:: 1+ 12
2 2)

all 22 -

. (

-1

~~~ ~:: 1) + l 1 ~~~ ~~~ 1=

12(21
1221

+ l(212 + 122l +
+ l212 - l22l

23

2 l)

22 l) =

= .6..

u..

2.4.

5 7 8)
7

-1

7 4

: ,

, . .

)---.

: 3:
I

:-1: 7
: : 5
I

t_~J -1

7 4
701
578
578
=3 5 3 2 +1 5 3 2 +0 7 1 -1
-1 7 4
-1 7 4
-1 7 4
= 3 (734 + (-1) . . 2 + 5 . 7 . 1 - (-1) 3 1 - 772

578
7 1
5 3 2
- 5 . . 4)+

+ (534 + (-1) 7 2 + 57 8 - (-1) 38 - 574 - 5 72)- (5 02 + 71 5 + 73 8 - 5 08 - 315 - 77 2) = 122.

8.

, , allA 21

3.

+ 1222 + l2 = .

3.1.

n-

a ll

= ( ~~~
nl

HeLpo:ceHHo,

~
(~

= det

: ~

= det "1

= ) Lpo:ceHHo.
24

. , 3U 7 . ,

A ij

All

21

A 1n

2n

Anl)

~.l~ 22

~~~,
nn

aij

( ,
) .

-1 ,

. -1

= -

= ,

(3.1)

, .

- 1 , .

3.2.

3.1.

3- .

= (~~~ ~~~
1

det

f:.

* = (~~~

1)
2

. .

. * = det . .
7 8

25

(3.2)
(. .

2.2).

(3.2)

. = det . .

(3.3)

(3.3)

- - =
de~A

detA' = .

A- 1

= detA'

(3.1),

l)

- 1 = _1_.
detA

. .

ceoiJ.cea :

= de~A;

1. det(A- 1 )
2.

( )-1

3. (A-l)

-1

. - 1 ;

= (AT)-l .

u.

3.1 .

A- 1 , = (_~ ~).

detA: detA = I_~ ~ = 2 + 3 = 5 i- .


2) : A ll = 1, 21 = -3, A l2 = -(-1) = 1, 22 = 2,
= -~).

1)

3) A-I: - 1

=! ( 1

-32)

= (_5~l

- _5;3) .

. - 1 = (2 ) . (~-~)
-1 1

u.

3.2.

1
5

~
5

(~ + ~ -~ + ~) = (1 ) = .
_1
5

+ 15

;!
5

+ ~5

, :

26

Q : .
:

~A=

-2

3
1

=3 -

+ 2 -

+ 2

12 -

= 4 -

9.

4 - 9 f:. , . . f:. ~, ~A f:. , . . ,


.

u,,

3.3.

, ,

= (:

1
2
3

i) , = (~

-3
5
-2

~2)

: :

(~

(: ~)
1
2
3

~2) =

-3 + 5 - 2
-3 + 10 - 6

3-3+1
3-6+3
( 3-9+6

-3
5
-2

~ =~:~) = (~ ~ ~)1 = .

-3 + 15 - 12

= .

1-6+6

3.3.

n.

(k

min(mjn)).

, ,

k-ro .

' mu m''. 2-

. (, :;. C~ ,

C~ = k!(nn~ k)! - n k.)


27

~ '!;, ,

, Ii . , ()

rangA.
, ~

min(m; n),

min(m; n) -

n.

, ,
. .

u.

3.4.

2
3

(1

4
6

-3

: 3- . 2-

, I ~ _~ I = -15 i- . , () = 2.

cBoi1cmBa .:

1.

2.

,
.

3.

(. .

18).


. OGHOBaH .

3.5.

A~ (~ ~ ~1

1.4

:),

1.4.

A~ (~ ! )

~ (~ ~ ~ ~).

, ()

28

= 2.

4.
4.1.

'
CucmeMOU ."t': u,

+ a12x2 + ... + alnX n = b1 ,

al1Xl

~~~~~.~. ~~~~.2. ~ : : : .~.~~~~~. ~ .~2.'...


amlXl

aij,
bi -

+ 2 2 + ... + n n = ,

= 1, , j = 1, n

':''U.'U. ,

' "t. n .

.muit

'U.'U:

, u

(.~~.~ ~~~
=

...

(x~':n~)

.. .

~.~~.)

..... ...: ..

- Xj,

(I) -- . ;_
,

(n ).

u ,

a12 .

al n

~~~

22"

2n

2"


... , ,>

= ,

,2 )

l =Cl, 2 =2,

29

:= (~:)

coeoecmHoil,
, HecoeoecmHoil,

'.

n'/,
, ',n':,

. '',
'', .
',.
-

, , .

1>',',' (),
. ,
,

, .

, , ',
', n','I ,

',',,
:

{ ~~l.~~ .~.~~~~~.~.::: ~ .~l.~~~. ~" ~'


a,mlXl

+ 22 + ... + n

..

:= .

, l

= 2 = ... =

"

. ',
','.

4.2.

.
-

:m::l:X:l: ::::: ~ .:::::: ~::.: ..


+ 2 2 + ... + n = .

"


-;-n:u.

4.1.

.

.

4.2.

, .

4.3.

, .

1.

() -:j:. ), .
I
2. () = ) = , . -
(: ,
, ). ,
(

) . ,
, ,

n -

'

3.

4.

.
.

u.

4.1.

+
{ 3

= 1,

+ 3 =
31

-2.

<)

= (; ;), () = 1,

-_
(1 1 ~2)'
3

) = 2 (~ = I~

_; If ) .

, () f (), , .
1.l.,,

4.2.

...,..

+ + 4 = 1,
+ - 4 = -1,
22 + + 4 = .
22

l - 22
l -

= () = 2. :

<) : ()

{ l

22 +ri;+x~l = 1,
= -1.
+ 4 = 1 - ! + 22,
-4 = -1-! +22.

~ = 111

! - 22 +~~_-=.:r..!

~2 = I ~
,
, l

= ,

= -l
2

= ,

+ 22,

_11 1= -2 f ,

1-

-1 -

= 1 -

! + 221_
!

+ 22

-2

. ,

: !

= , = ; 4 = 1.

= ,

4.3. .


allX!

+ 12 2 + ... + alnX n

= b1 ,

~~l.~~ .~. ~~~~~.~. ~ .~~~~~. ~ ..2.'


:::

n l l

+ n22 + ... + nn n

. =

= n

32

n,, cucrneMbl.
, rn 'rote':.iJ..

D.

~ .

. = -1,
- 1 . = A- 1 . . -I .
= ,

(4.1)

(4.1)

,,'

' n,, .

(4.1)

(~::

..

~::

..........

2n

A 1n

..,

~::)
nn

n-

A ll 1

A 1n b1

+ 2n 2 + ... + nn n

+ 21 2 + ... + n1 n

D.

D.

D.l

=~
D. .
,

: 2

D." D.2
= tr'

D.

;
... , n --~
D. .

2 .

~" "

(4.2)
u .
,

4.3.

4.4.-

Q : 6.= 21

, l =

(4.1)

2l
l

(4.2) .

2 = ,

+ 32

= 7.

~ 1=14.

-13 1=7#0,

+= 1, 2 = 1/ =2.


, , - ,
, .


allXl

+ a12X2 + ... + alnX n = b1 ,

~~l.~~ .~.~~~~~.~.'.'.'. ~ ~2.~~~.~ ~~:

(4.3)

amlxl + 2 2+ ... +n n =

( ) n:,, (
, ,) .

allXl

+ a12X2 + ... + alkxk + ... + alnX n = b1 ,


222 + ... + a2k X k + ... + 2n = 2 ,
.. .... . ...... ..... . .. ... .......
akkxk

k ~ n, aii

, i

= .

+ .. . + aknXn = bk ,

(t! )
t! .

34

.
.
, all -: ( al1

= ,

, l

) .

(4.3),

, (

). -Qll
all

-~
all

. ,

a~?, b~l) (i,j

= 2,) -

, .

, a~~) -: ,
2 ,

, . , .

(4.3)

fj, . .

= bi ,

= , .

; -: ,

(. )
. , ,
. .

Xk

(Xk+l, . .. , ). Xk

Xk-l (Xk+l, ... , n);


Xk-2, ... , Xl (Xk+l, .. , n )

, .
3.',u :

, . .

1.

= n, .

n , n -l,

( n -2' . .. 'l).

2.

(4 .3),

35

. ,

all

, al1
u..

4.4.

{
Q

i- 1).

21

2 +3 -

l -

2 -

3l - 22 ' - 2
7l -

54 = 1,

52 -

= 2,

54

= 3,

104

= 8.

(~
- (~

-1
-1
-2
-5
-1
1
1
2

~) (~

-5
3
-5

-2 -5
-9 -10
.,...5

13 -5
13 -5
26 -10

~)
-3

-1
-1
-2
-5

(~

-6

-5
3
-2
-9

-5
-5
-10

-1
1

-5
13

-5

i)
i)

:
{ Xl -

+ 13

: 2
, ,

l
u.

4.5.

54

= 2,
= -3.

= 54 -13 -3; l = 54 -8 -1.

= , 4 = ,

= -1, 2 = -3, = , 4 = .

l
2l
3l
{

= 3,

+ 32 + 2 = 7,
+ 2 + = 5,

5l -

2 -

= 3.

Q :
:

31 )
-4
-12
36

(~:~~) (~~~:).
0112

0000

+ 2 + = 3,
2

= 1,
= 1.

; ,

= 1,

= 1,

= 1.

4.5.

allXl

+ a12X2 + ... + alnX n =

a~, ~' .+ ~'~~. ~ .+~~~X"

:0,

amlXl + 2 2+ +n n - .

, ( ()
r ()),
= 2 = .. ; = n = .

() l

4.4.

, , r

, . . r

< n.

.
, ,

n.

= n .

: Xi

~.

t: = , ~i =

, ~

f:-

. , , -

, . , ,

< n.
.

r < n.

, ,

. ,
, . . .

~." ~' ~~ ", .+ ~ ~'~.X~ :

{anlXl + n22 + ... + nnn 37

4'.5.

, ~ , . . ~

, ~

= .

= . ~

(, . ~

r < n.

i=

, . .

, , ()

u,,

4.6.

l - 22
{ 2Xl - 32

+ 4 = ,
+ 5 = .

_(1 -2 4) .

-3

<

5 '

() = 2

= 3.

n, .

Xl - 22 = -4,
{ 2Xl - 32 = -5.

~l

= I =:~: =~ I = 2, ~2 = 1; =:~: I = 3, , l
~
~
= 7t
= 2, 2 = 7f
= 3 - .
= , : l = , 2. = ,
= . = 1, : Xl = 2,
2

= 3, = 1 . .

. 11.

4-6

5.

5.1.

, :..':u.
: , , , , , .
, , , ,
, .
:':.
.

",

, . . -

, .

. ( ,
) nnlr.C':.. . ,
, -.
U'iJ. '

IABI.

, , '

: . .
, , U'U"L'

. ,
,

lfJ.

",', :
; 11 .

' (

= ), -

, .

. ,

. = (1; =1=1- . - , = -.
39

'.u.

fCn.ll...u,


, .

5.2.
~

3 .

= .

. ,
, cYMMOiJ. :
+ ( . . 2).

nu. Z.ll'.
n.ll
.IIO... ( . .

3).

y~

,,
.

,
,,

,,

4 , .

'1~ ~
.

40

.Q


+ = (. . 5).

= -

, ,

, ,

(. .

6).
------'

:-:
ii

,,

/'-

- = + (-),

. .

.
~

uu. : ?Ca.It ('u.lt)


( ), Il

Ial,

, , ).

, ).

< .

>

, -.-,

3 -2

. -~a

= ). .

1)
, 11 . , 11 , ( :::j:. 0),
). = ).;
2) !J = lal . ffJ, . .
.

4. ().1 + ).2) . = ).1 . + ).2


5. ).. ( + ) = ). . +).. .

1. + = + ,
2. ( + ) + = + ( + ),
3. ).1 . ().2 . ) = ).1 . ).2 . ,

. ,


, : -

41

, , ,

, .

5.3.

11

[, . . .
1 1


'/'u ','/u

M j

(. .

7) .

[,

f:. ).

l
A1B1.

'/'u. '/

IA1B11, A1B1 1
-IA1B11, A1B1 1
(. . 8). 1 ! (A1B 1 = 0),
.

: l .

= .ll, l = .
' -

Be'/'l,mopoM

9.

'=-J-,,

,,,

'

1 (

42

:::;

' :::; ?.

ocHoeHbte ceQucmea npoe~'u.

1. ;

; , . . / ;

= 10;1 . cosep.
Q

(a,L) <

I'

/ ; =

>

I
I

= 10;1 cosep

(. . 10).
I / ) -

..,..- 2I
2' / 0;=0= lal cosep .

I
I

( :::; 7), / ;

= -10;11 = -10;1 s(7 -

~
~

= +10;11 = 10;1 . cos .

.1

10

5.1.

), () , ,

5.2.

2.

Q , , d = ;++. / d = +ld11 = +10;11+Ib11-Ill,


. . /(; + + ) = t ; + t + t (. . 11)..

3.

, . .

/( . 0;)

> /(;)

= . li.il . cos = . /;.


< :

= t 0;.

= ll cosep =
(

1)

/(;) = I;ls(7-) =
- 10;1 . (- cosep)
0;. cos
/;.

= .

= .

, ,

=0.

(11:

b1

I:=~~~=::;+:---!
.

.. 1

11

,
.

5.4. .
.

Oxyz.

(),

l, }, k

Oz

(. . 12).

Mlr - - - - - - - - - "

12

= .

,
.

Ml ,

2 .

, .

= IOMll,

= IOM 2 1,

MlN =

2 ,

= Il.

= 1 + ! N + N .

NM =

= ! + 2 + .

(5.1)

! = IOMllI,

2 = IOM2 1},

, a z , . .

(5.1)

(5.2)

IOMll

= I l

k.

(5.2)

= , Oz
= , IOM2 = , I l = a z .
1

= . l + . } + a z . k1

(5.3)

;',u 7 7.', ocef1..

44

, ,

a z 1.:u 1 0:, . .

(5.3)

: :

= (; ; zz).
, = ( ; ; bz ) ,

l + . J + bz . k.
0:,

.
2
2
2

=
I I 2 ,
l 1
21

IOMI

IOM

+ IOM

. .

(5.4)

10:1
~

= Ja 2 + 2 + 2z'

. . . 1 1. 1 U ..

1 n1u{t 1.
: ,

/3,

Oz

'. ,

10:1 cosa,

10:1 cos/3,

az =

10:1 cos'Y.

(5.5)

, ,

cosa =

cos , cos /3, COS'Y

10:1'

az

cos/3=

10:1'

cos'y =

10:1'

n.'U.'U r;'U.u

0:.

(5.5)

(5.4),

10:12 = 10:12 . cos2 + 10:12 . cos 2/3 + 10:12 . cos 2'.


10:12 -:f. ,

I cos2 + cos2 /3 + cos2 ' = 1, I


~

. . .. 1 n..u 1

'lCffi .

cosa, cos/3, cos'Y, . . = (cosa; cos/3; cos'Y).

, ,
, . . .

5.5.

: = (; ; a z ) = ( ; ; bz )
, ,

: = . l

Oz

+ . J + a z . k,

= . l

45

+ . J + bz . k.



,
:

1.
( bx)i + ( )} + (a z bz)k, =
= ( ; ; a z bz ). u ('uu) ee1l:mopoe
oaHou..eHHbte

1I:OOpaUHamu

1l: (').

2. = I+ '; +),.azk = ( ; ; z ).

ee1l:mopa

1l:

ee1l:mopa

1l:.

, ,
ee1l:mopa ,
: = , = , a z = bz , . .

<===}

= ,

az

= bz .

,
.

11

= , -

. i

+ J + az . k = ( i + . J + bz . k)

. .

_
-

= ,

_
-

= ,

az _
bz -

az

= . I + . J + z . k.

= z ,
=

az
bz

'

, n1l:'UU 1I: ee1l:opoe nn''

Hbt.

: , -

, .

Oxy.z.

'lC ''lCU . -'IC

1'v1, , . . = . ,
- -
= (; ; z ) = . i + . J + z . k.

( ; ;

46

z).

= ,

ii

(l; l; Zl) (2; 2; Z2) . (, .

= -

= (2 . i + 2 . ] + Z2 . k) = (2 -

(l . i

13):

+ l

xl)i + (2 -

+ Zl
Yl)] + (Z2
.]

. k)

- zl)k.

, 'lC'.' 'IC '.' '.

'U lC'. lC'.' 'U '.-.:

= (2 -

l; 2 - l; Z2 - Zl).

--_ ...

13

14

6.

6.1.

7:., n', ii
-,

, ( (, )). , ,

(6.1)
t.p

= (,).

(6.1)

liilcost.p

= ii,

(. . 14), Ibl cos t.p = , :

I = lal . = Ibl . , I
. .

(6 .2)

, ,
.

47

6.2.
1. :
= .

= llIIs(, ), = I: lalcos(~). llII = IIll,


cos(a, ) = s(, ), = ~

2.

: () .

= ().

() = Ibl . = . Ibl . = ().

3.
: ( + ) = + .

( + ) = lal . ( + ) = lal . ( + ) = lal + lal . =


=~+~

4. : 2

:
~

-2

-2

i = j

-2

= k = 1.

, ,

= lal 2 .

lal,

. .

= lal (# =1- ).
u.. 6.1. = 3-4, lal = 2, II = 3,

(,) =

j.

ll = .;& = V(3a - 4)2 = V9a2 - 24 + 162 =


= )9.4 - 2423

~ + 169 =

)108 =

6v.

5. ' () ,
, . . ..1 , = .
: = =1- =1- , ..1 .
< = (, ) =

~, cos<p = cos ~ = . ,

= lal . Ibl . .Q..= . = lal =1- , Ibl =1- , cos(a, ) = .


<

= (, ) = 900, . . a..l . :
z.J = J . k = k . z= .
48

6.3.

k:

+ ",ll
+ azb",kZ

+ a",byz]
+ ]]
+ azbyk]

",",

. .

+ a",bzzk +
+ aybz]k +
+ azbzkk

z, ],

= ",", + + azbz1

, 7'i:.' nUfJ'u 7'i:m ' nu'u


''' ",'m.
u.

D(3; -2; 2),


Q

6.2.

, ,

( -4;

-4; 4),

( -3;

2; 2),

(2;

5; 1),

. :

BD,
= (6; 9; -3) BD
(6; -4; ).

BD

= 36 -

..1 BD.

36 -

= .

49

ABCD

6.4.

<

= ( ; ; bz ):
cOs<p=

//.//'

. .

cos<p=

= (; ; a z )

. / 2 + 2 + z2 ..V/ 2 + 2 + z2 .
V

:

,

= ---

. .

//

,
<
S ( . . 15) .

A=FScos<p . .

=.

15

u,, 6.3. , =(3; 2; 4),


(2;

4; 6)

(4;

2; 7).

Q :
=

S=

(2, -2 , 1) . ,

S = 32 +2 (-2) + 4 1 = 6

(. ) .

< F S cos<p = /
_ , . .

F//S/

6 6 2

cos<p= J9+4+16.J4+4+1

= J2 = J2'
50

<

2
= arccos 29
.
r;

7.


7.1.
,

6 , ,

mpo1J.x;y,

, , (. .

16).

16

Be1COpHL. nuu.

'm , :

1) , . . ..l .i 6;
2) , ,
6 (. . 17), . .
ll =

3) ,

lal . 161 sin <,

< = (, )j

.
z

17

18

[,

6] .

2 J = k,
, ,

2, J k

J k = 2, k i = J.
i J = k.

( . . 18):

1)

k -L i,I

2)

-L

J;

li JI

Ik/ = 1,

= lilIJI sin90 = 1;

i, J k

(. .

16).

7.2.
1.

= -( )

. .

.;:::bl~

(. . 19).

;.:.:.:-:.:.:.:-:-:.:-:.:.;.:-:-;.;.;.:.;.;.:.".1
:.:-:-:.;.:-:-:-:.;.;.:.:.:-:-:-:-:-:.:-:- ;

.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.:-;.;.;.;.:.;.:./

.;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:;:::::;

.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.;.:.;.;.;.;.;.:.;.;.,

. ),

.;;;:-;;:::;:::::;:::.;:::::: .. :.:.:.:.:::::

( , ,
, , ) .
,
-( ) .

2.

,
() ().

. . ( )

19

> . ( ) .
() ( ,
). , ( ) () .
, . :

/( ) 1 = l / = l/ . II . sin(a, )

= llIlsi(,).
= . < .

I() / = Il'II ' sin(,)

( )

.
,

11

{=:}

. .

= .

11 , 2..0 00 1800.

la I

= lal II . sin(a, ) = . , = .


. . 11 .

= , l//I sin < = . < = 00 < = 1800,

i i = J J = k k = .

4.
:

( + )

= + .

52

7.3.
.

l, } k:
z
i
j
k

j
k

-j

-k

-i

_0_

k~j

= axl + } + azk

= bxl + } + bzk.

( ):

= (axl + ) + azk)

(bxl

+ ) + bzk)

=~~~x~+~~~xn+~~~x~+~~ax~+~~axn+
+ k) + azbx(k l) + azby(k J) + azbz(k k) =

= 0+ axbyk - } - aybxk + + aybzl + } - azbyl + =

= ( -

azby)l - ( - ,,;)} + ( - aybx)k =

-Ia
~

ayl k

'

. .

- la

= . :

(7.1)

(7.1)

.
.

53

(7.2)

(7.2)

7.4.

11

= ( ), . .

",

az

",

bz

=0

{:::::>

",

",

la bl = lallbl sin<p, . . = la bl. , , I:; = !Ia bl


F
-
20).
, F

(. .

, :

1)
2)

, , , ;
'

--

IMI = IFI ON = IFI lfl sin<p = IFIIOAI sin(F, );


3)

, = .

"1
"""

F~.:/

,,

',,~'

,,

,/"

--

20

21

v ,
w ,

(. .

, f

21).

8.

8.1.

l1 ,

'


, ,
: ( ) . .
, .
?m-?...,

..,

.
.

( ) ..
,

, ,

Idl

d=

I
I

( . . 22).

I
I

: ( ) .

Idl . it ,
= la 61 = S, S -

, it

it


- ' , -

( ) . = S (), . . ( ) . =

= V,

V -

22

, .
,
, ,

, ,

, .

8.2.
1.

, . . ( ) .

= ( ) . = ( ) . .

,
, .

2.

= ( ).
, ( ) = V ( ) = ( ) = V.

, . . ( 6) .

, , , ,

.
55

, ( ) ( ).
( ) ,
.

3.

-, . .
= -.
,

= -, = -, =

,
.

4. ,
, .

= , , , -

, .

f:.

= V,
= . .

f:. . :

, , , - . d =
= , ,
, , , , d 1. . d . = , . . = .

8.3. '

= axz + ] + azk,
bxz + ] + bzk,
,

= cxz + ] + J.

( ) =

= (I~:

k
az . (cxz + ] + czk) =
bz

~: ~: 1] + 1~: ~: 1k) . (cxz + ] + czk) =


a
_1 az 1
1 bz 1 + 1~: 1 z (8.1)

az
bz 1z-1

.C

(8.1)-

,
, .

56

8.4.

0;,
. ; > , 0;, , - ;
; < , 0;, , - .

0;, ,
(; f- , f- , f- ):

= <==>

az
bz

Cz

= <==>

0;, , .


, ,

0;, V

100l,

, , V = il;l.
u.
(;

-1; 1),

8.1.
5; 2)

(2;

(l;

D(3; ; -2).

2; 3),

: 0;, , :
; = = (-1; -3; -2),

= = (1; 3; -1),

= AD = (2; -2; -5).

;:

-1
1

-3
3
-2

-2
-1 = -1 (-17) + 3 (-3) - 2 (-8) = 17 - 9 + 16 = 24.
-5

, V

i.

24

= 4.

111.

r;

Il

7-9

9.
9.1.
~

,,u 7\: ,
.

n,,.lt. (aer;;apmoBa) ,, 7\:0.



()

.: "',

'-n.: "'.
.

23

'U,u ( ), ~

' ( ) (.

23).

-u ( "'').

2 J (121

02)),

IJI

1,2 .L)).

, "''11 n.
r;;.

.
paauycom-r;;m .

,, -7\: (Oi))
- .

= (; ),

: (; ), 6u , -


, :

, .

58


","'m.

, n.1, , ,
, .
, .
:

<, (
, )
(. .

24).

~A1(T; ~)

24

25

< n'.. JCoopdUHamaMtL ,

(; <),

r n.. .., < -

n' ..

< (-; ] ( ~ <

[;

00).

<

2),

( )

<, .

. ,

25

<

{ =

c.os<p,

=rs< .

( ) :

Jx

2 + 2,
=
tg < = 11...

<, ( )
, , , -

59

< <

~ .

u. 9.1. (-l; -v).


.

r <:

r = J+ = 2,

-V
n
=- = v.
-1

tg<p

= J + 7n, n z. -,
= -1 < = J - 7 = - 2;. ,

<

= 2, < = -2;, . . (2; -~7).

9.2.

A(Xl; Yl)

(2; 2)

= (2 - Xl;Y2 - Yl), . .

IABI

d=

= J(X2 -

Xl)2

+ (2 -

Yl)2.

A(Xl;Yl)

(2;2)

> , . .

~B

(; ) ,

1/1 = (. .

26).

:
.

=.

= (X-l;-l),

26

(9.1)

..
(X-l)Z+(-l)J =
(2 - X)Z + (2 - y)J. (9.1)

= (2 - ; 2 - ), . .

( - Xl)Z + ( - Yl)J

= (2 -

X)Z + (2 - y)J.

, ,

Xl

= 2 -

. .

60

= Xl + 2
l+

(9.2)

(9.2)

= 2 -

u ' 1 '

(9.3)

. .

' ''uu. ,

= 11++ 2
.

- Yl

1! 2,

= 1, . .

Yl! 2

(9.3)

c.h

= ,

(; )

cepeauHoi1. : .
3''u:
,

<

= , ,

( =1-

~f

-1, . .

= -1, . . + = , . . = ).

A(X1iY1),

(2;2),

(i)
: , ,
1 , 1 , 1
( . .

27).

8 = 8AAtBtB

+ 8BtBCCt

- 8A tA CC t

= ~+~
2

= ~(X2Y1 -

XIYl

. (2 - Xl)

+ 22

~+~
+2 - . (

- I2

+ 2

~+~

- 2) - - 2 - . ( - Xl)

- 22

- 2 - 1

= ~((2 -

+ -

+ XIY1 -

Yl) - Xl(Y2 - Yl) - 2( - l)

= -21 ((2 - l)( - 1) - ( - l)(2 . .

8/:;

Xl))

+ l(

+ I)

- Yl))

= -21 1
- 1
- 1

= ~ . I - l
2

3..','u:

8 =

, , , , ,

, .

9.3.
-
n'u :'.

61


.

.


.
n''t n'

01 1 Yl,

,
.

/
/

/
I

:,

,-,
'1
\

--- ----------- ---

28

(; ) , . .

01
01 (; . ).

(; ), 0111 (/; /) (. .

28).

= :[ + yJ, O~ = :[ + YoJ, 01 = /:[ + /


= O~ + 01' :[ + } = :[ + } + /:[ + y/J, . .

. :[ + .

J=

+ ') . :[ + ( + ') . J.

= + ',
= + '.

' ' .

ocei1 :'.
, ,
.

62

01 1 1
(. .

29).
, (; )

('; ')

1 ( ). r
,
<, <

+ <

= r . cos(a + <),

. .

= r . sin(a +<),

r cos < =

'

r sin < =

{
~

= r cos < . c.os -

= r cos < . s + r s < . cos .

r s.in < . sin ,

'.

= ' cosa - ' sina,

= ' sin

+ ' cos .

/ ocefL.

(; )
('; ') , .

.' 30

29

01 Xl Yl

(. .

OlXY

30),

= ' . cos - ' . sin + ,


= ' . sin + ' . cos + ,

' '.

63

10.
10.1 ..

:. '{1,
.

,
,

'

( ).

(. .
, ).
'l.m ( )
(; )

= ,

, .

1u.

?CQ-

.
?'
.

, (; )
, (
),
.

u.
2 +

<)

+3=

10.1.

(-2;

1)

L(1; 1)

: ,

2 . (- 2) + 1 + 3 =
L

. ,
, . .

2 . 1 + 1 + 3 i-

1 (;)

= 2 (;) = ,

, . .
:

,
.

64

F(r; <)

= aaHHoi1. n

...Qi1. , ,
, , .

' :

= x(t),

= y(t),

(10.1)

(; ),

, ;

t -

(; ) .

, = t + 1, = t 2 , t = 2
(3; 4), . . = 2 + 1 = 3, = 22 = 4.

, .

n'':u,

(10.1) -

n'r;;

= , - t. , { = t;

F(x; )

= t ,

t = , = 2 ;
- 2 = , . . F(x; ) = . , ,
.
':

to

= f(t), t .

= f(to) .
t f = f(t)
(. . 31).
f

= f(t)

31

(10.1),

. .


bl. ,

bl u,

mpae'X:mopuei1.


.1

F(x; ) =

65

F(x; ) =

, ,

J, 6

( ,

- 2)2 + ( - )2 = ,
(2; 3); 2 + 2 + 5 =

. , (

).

. : ,

; : , .

32-40

Yl\a-

/""'---'--'----+-

= R

r =

2 cos<p

sin <

22

'2

,,

{X=Rcost,
= Rsin t

32. OJCp1PfCHOCmb R

/
/

~~a-~~,,'
33.

",
.JCm

34.

XJtnmJC

: ( 2

~ r

r=

>

+ 2) 2

_ 2 ( 2 _ 2) = ,

Jcos 2<.

66

= . <, > .

>--+---....

( >)

( <)
. 35. ~ ~a.tt

r =

+ cos <.

. 37.

. 36. ~'~

222
: + 3
;

2 =

{ = si

= . os t,

t.

. 39.

. 38.

r = (l +cos<p), > .
-
( = ).

67

r =

<,

>

40.

,//,

_ (
)
{ y-al-cost,

= a(t - sin t),

> .

, ,

10.2.

.

.


,
.

N(O;

(. .

41).

< 1)

( ~

YI---~r.:


'

41

(; ) ( . .

41).

N ',

Nx' . Nx'y
- .
tg = '!L:::...!!., . . :::: tg . + . tg = k,

(10.2)
(; ) .

, (; ),
,
~

k :::: tg

(10.2)

,//,. 7mo ,

(10.2) -

niL ,//,. 7

,
,

68

= ,

:::: kx.

, = , , k =
= tg = (10.2) = .
, = ~, (10.2) -

, . . k

= tg = tg ~

(10.3)

=,

. ,

(10.2)

(10.3)

+ +
, ,

= ,

(10.4)

(10.4)

=1 , . .

= , (10.4) + = ,
= - ~ . ,

(- ~ ; ) .
of , (10.4) = - ~ - ~.
k = tg
,

(10.4)

=- ~.

n.i1..

1)

= , ' =

~.

, ;

2)
3)

= , ;
= , + = .

0(0; ),

. iii

(; )

= kx + , -

k.

(; ),

69

= kxo + .

= -

kxo .

= kx + -

I - =

= kx

+ ,

kxa, . .
k(x -

). I

(10.5)

(10.5)

'U. n:; (; ).
, .

1 (l; l) 2 (2; 2).


, 1 ,

(10.6)

k-

2 (2;2),

(10.6): 2 -l = k(X2 -l).


k == 2 - l . k
2

(10.6),

, 1

. 2 :

(10.7)

, l =1- 2, l =1- 2

= l, , 1 (xI; l)

2 (2; 2), .
2

== YI,

= YI,

= l.

M 1M 2

1 (; ),

2 (0; ) (. .

42).

(10.7)

= -'

. .

---::o~-=====~~~~'--:;x

n..i1 m'/,
,

42

70

(; )

n = (; ).

(; )

= ( - - ; - ) (. . 43).

, :

n . =

1( - ) + ( - )

01

(10.8)

',',

(10.8) ',', n...11., nl1


mO't7CY nn',u7.', ',', 7.

't

= (; ), , ',

.',t 7 11. n11..

(10.8)


+ +

(.

= ,

(10.9)

(10.9)

= - -

(10.4).

o~~~

______~____P_

43

44-

[,

( . .

44).

(;<) :

l =.

71

IOMI . cos(a -

<)

).

= r . cos(<p -

(10.10)

(10.10

n..t1. n.I!.'

"0-

( . .

45) .

.
, .

r'cos(<p-)-=,

..

rs<s+rsi<si-=.

, ,

, :

r cos < =

r sin < =

. ,

(10.10)

1 . cos + . sin - = 0 1

(10.11)

(10.11)

.. n..t1..
,

(10.4)

(10.4)

(10.11).

45

::f.

OJDHO

(10.11).

:
.

= sin ,

= cos ,

-.

..

.
u.

10.2.

-3

+ 15 =

Q : =
=

1
- J(-)2

+ 42

-g. ,

: ~x

gy - 3 = .
72

10.3. .

L1

= k1 x + 1

L2

= k2.x + 2

(. .

46) .

<,

L1

= < + l

: 2

) <

= 2 -

Ql

tg(2

tg<p =

<

i,

f:.

L 2
=

tg2

tgl

1)= ----.::'---....:::....~
1 tg1 . tg2

tg 1 = k 1 , tg 2 = k 2 ,

46

(10.12)

, , .- ,

, . .

L1

(10.12)

L2

(10.12)

L1

L2

= tg < = . = , . . k 2 = k1 . ,

, <

k2 - k 1

k1

tg<p = 11 ~ ~ ~~21

=k

2 ,

tg <

= , . .

, n..
'lC':

k 1 = k2 .
L 1 L 2 , <

ctg <

( k 2

= 1:2 k- 1 k1k 2 = .

1 + k1

k2

= i. ,
= , . . k 1 . k 2 = -1

= -11)' . ,

nn'IC n'x

k 1 . k 2 = -1.


(;) (. .

47).

+ + =

L.
73

d L
M 1 (XljYl) - L,

1 ,

n=

(; ). ,

= -=----=---y-:~A'=:<=2=+=;B::::;2~----='=

47

1 (l j l)

VA2 + 2
IAxo + - l - 11

L
.

L,

+ l +

= , . .

= - l - 1.

d = IAxo

+ + CI

';2 +2

(10.13)

'

u.

(2;

10.3.

+ 4 -

22 =

-1)

(10.13)

_132+4(-1)-221_ 20_
d- - - 4.

';9 + 16

11.
11.1.

+ 2 + 2 + 2Dx + 2 + F

= .

(11.1)

, .

u.u.,u (;',) n.'/. ,


(11.1)

, ,

. , ,
.

74

11.2.
~

. -

, 'ICY3fCm

= R.

(;)

, ,

( . .

48).

(;)

= R -

J(x - )2

+ ( -

110)2

= R,

(11.2)

48

(; )
, .

'l:"..'U',;;'U .. ,;;:..

(11.2)

+ 2 -

(11.2)

,
= R2 .

+ 2

2 - 2 + 6 + 5 - R 2

(11.1)

= .

, :

1) 2 2 Me)j<y ;
2) ,

(11 .1)

=F ,
2

+ 2 + 2Dx + 2 + F

= .

+ +2 +2 +

. .

75

= ,

(11.3)

. .

D)2

}f2"
2

D -
F
}f2"

>

)2

= 2

(11.4)

2 -

(11.3)

01 ( - D.
' - )
'

R=

D2
F
2 -

~ + ~ - ~ = , (11.3) ~

01 ( - ~; - ~).
: (
).

}f2"

D2 - F
+ !
<

(11.4), ,

(11.3),
(11.4) ,

(: ).

11.3.

JtJl.Un. ,

, 'IC.u, , ,
.

F1

F2 ,

2,

(. .
.

49).

> 2,

. . > .

49

F1

F2

F1 (-; )

F 1 F 2 .
F 2 (Cj ).
76

(; )

. ,

, 1

+ 2

= 2, . .

J(x + )2 + 2 + J(x - )2 + 2

= 2.

(11.5)

, , .

(11.5)

J(x + )2 + 2 = 2 - J(x - )2 + 2,
+ 2 + 2 + 2 = 4 2 - 4 . J(x - )2 + 2 + 2 aJ(x - )2

+ 2 = 2

- ,
4 - 2 2
2 ( 2 - 2).

=
=

2 2 _ 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2
( 2 _ 2 ) 2 + 2 2

> ,

> .

+ 2 + 2,

+ 2 2 ,

2 = b2 1

2 2
2

~
~

+ 2 2

= 2 2

+ 2

(11.7)

= 1.

,
.

(11.6)

(11.7)

7I:u'7l:U

.lt-

.ltn.

,
.

1.

(11.7)

(; ) ,

(; -), (-; ), (-; -). , -

Bl(Ojb)

0(0; ),

2.

2( -; )

50

1 (; ) 2 ( -; ),
(. . 50).

(11 .7)

= ,

: 1 (; ) 2 (0; -).
A 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 . A 1 A 2

1 2 , 2 2
.
.

(11.7)

,
2
' 2

, . . ?
-

:(

:( -

:(

:( 1 ~ :( 1

:( . ,

= , = .
2

4. (11.7) ? ~
. ,

, . .

Ixl

lyl

.
, ,

50

( ).

Q. =

, (11.7) 2 + 2 =
2 .
.f..

7muumm.

JtJtun

; (<):

I; = ~, I

(11.8)

0< ; < 1, < < .

(11 .8)

(11.6)

= Ja'a- ' = Ja' :/ = Jl- (~)',


. .

c;=J1-(~)2

~=~.

, ,
j ;

F2

M(XjY) -
51). F 1 M = 1 F 2 M

(. .

'/'' . ,

+ 2 = 2.
78

= 2

F1

+ X

x.

=-!!
<

=!!.
<

51

52

= Q ,, .

11.1. r -

- ,

d-

, : = .

(11.7)

(11.6)

>

<

, 2

, 2

(. .

52).

1 (; ) 2 (; -),

= vb2 -

2 .

11.4.

j1

n,//,1J,

~M(X'Y)

,
,,,

,
.

79

H(~d;O)OF2(C:o)
.

53

1 2 , 2,

2. 2

< 2,

. .

< .


, 1 2 ,

F1 F2

(. .

53).

1 (-; ) 2 (; ) .
~

(; )

= 2 1 - 2 = 2,
= 2. ,

1 1 - 2 1

. . J(x

+ )2 + 2

- J(x - )2

+ 2

7I:aHOHu",eC7l:0e

un:

(11.9)

Ib 2 ::c2 -a2 1

(11.10)

.

,
.

1.

(11.9)

, ,

0(0; ),

n,'.

2.

= (11.9) ,
: A1(a;0) 2 (-;0). = (11.9),

2 = _2 , . ,
.

1 (; ) 2 ( -; ) u,u ,

= 2
~

= -

A 1 A2

2 -

iJi!mumi! , 1

iJi!umi! .

B 1 B 2 (B 1 B 2 = 2),

1 (; ) 2 (0; -)

MHUMOi! , -

MHUAtOi! .

2 2 . n.HU7l:0M un.

3. (11.9) , ~
2

, . . ~ ~ 1

Ixl

~ . ,

= ( )
= - ( ).
80

4.

54

(11.9)

lyl . ,

Ixl

,
2

~ - .

, .

, ,

54

(, ).

acuMnmomoi1 ,

55

.
2
2

,
~ ,

1Gb

= 1 :

(11.11)

(11.11)

(11.9)

,
, .

= Qx N ,

(;) = Qv'x 2

2 (. . 56),

N :

MN =

~x - ~vx2

~(x -

Vx 2 -

2 )

v'x 2 -

= --+-";=;;2;=_=::;;:2

1 (; )

.
.

55

56

, ;

. ,

N . N

, d . , = !2.

(11.9).

57

(11.9)

58

(. .

57),

A1

2 .

(11.9)

paBHocmopoH:,."eii.,

= ).
2 _ 2

(11.12)

= =-
, , .

'' (. .

58),

82

: = -~. (
.

63):

= ' cos : - ' sin 0:,


= ' sin : + ' cos 0:.

( ' cos ( - ~) - ' sin ( _ ~) ) 2

(' sin ( _ ~) + ' cos ( _ ~) ) 2 = 2 ,

')2 -"21 ( - , + ')2


"21 ('
+
. =
k

(11.12):

"
= "2'
2

' ,

2
= .

, = .

'ICu,',muumm

(11.9)

, .::

: :

> ,

' .
2
2
, (11.10) , -='I = -='I - 1, . .

> 1.

~=~:=J1+(~/.
, ,

12. , ,

: =

va

.:. =

J2a

,;2.

V2.

11t } = J(x + )2 + 2 2 = J(x - )2 + 2

= : + 2 = : - ,
= -( + ) 2 = -( - ).
= Q 1m. .

> 1,

<

. ,

,
.

83

J = ,

, ~ - ~ = 1, , 2 ,

59

59
2

, ~ - ~ = 1 ~ - ~ = 1
. n:'::.u.

11.5.


iJ. ,

, -:..,
, u-:muiJ..

n..m..

> ).

(. .

60).

F (~; ) = - ~,

+~

84

= .

(; )

F.

N .

N.

MF=J(x- +2, N=J(+ +(_)2.


,

J(

2 + 2 =

J( +

2.

,
2

2 - +

+ 2 = 2 + + ,

. .

(11.13)

(11.13)

m ,.;'U'1U n'. ~

N+---JL--+....;M (; )

F(~; )

60

61

1.

(11.13)

, ;

cu....ep .

2.

> ,

.
(11.13)

;:::

. ,

3.

= = . ,

4.

. 2 = 2 (),

=r

61.

0(0; )

'UiJ. ,

,.;' .

85

= -2,

= 2, = -2
2

>

62.

= -2

2 = -2
.

62

+ + ,

f=

= +
2

, ,

11.6.
,

01 (; ),

01

01 ' ',

01 '

01 '

(. .

63).


,2
,2

~+b2
'
.

62),

= -

, '

= -

= 1.

( , .

)2

)2

= 1.

01 (; )

(. .

64):

( - )2 _ ( - )2 = 1
2

, , ,
.

86

65,

'

'

yar-----~~~~------

63

'

'

64
'

'
yar-----------~~--

( _)2

= 2( -)

- )2

= -2( -

'

'

- )2

= 2( -

(
.

= -2( -

- )2

65

+ 2 + 2Dx + 2 + F =

, ,
- )2 ( - )2 R 2 ( ,

, )

+ 2 + 2Dx +

+F

= ,

(11.14)

(11 .14)

(, , , )
? .

87

11.2. (11.14) :

= ).

< ).

>

: () -

(). -

tJ..

11.1.

4 2

). (

= ).

+ 52 + 20 -

+ 10 =

: (

> ). ,
4 ( 2 +

= 45

>

5 + 21) + 5(2 - 6 + 9) - 25 - 45 + 10 = ,

( + ~) 2 ( _ )2

4(+ +5(-)2=60,

15

12

=1.

01 ( - ~; )

JI5 = V12.

=
u.

11.2.

+ 10 -

+ 11 =

: (

= ).

10

+ 25 ( + 5)2 = 2 + 14,

+ 11 - 25 = ,
( + 5)2 ::;: 2( + 7).

01(-5; -7) = 1.
u.

11.3.

4 2

- 2

+ 8 -

- 12 = ( = -4 < ).

: :

4( 2

+ 2 + 1) 4(

(2(

+ 1) +
(2

(2

+ 8 + 16) - 4 + 16 -12

+ 1)2 -

+ 4)2

= ,

+ 4)) . (2( + 1) -

+ + 6) (2 88

= ,

- 2)

+ 4)) = ,

= .

+ +6 =

2' - - 2 = .

2 + 2 + 2 + 2Dx + 2 + F

(11.14)

= .

(11.15)

( = ). ,
, ,
.

(.

= '

cos - ' sin ,

= '

63)
sin + ' cos ,

(' cos - ' sin )2 + 2(' cos - ' sin )(' sin

+ (' sina +

+ ' cos )+

' cosa)2 + 2D(x' cosa - ' sina)+

+ 2(' sina + ' cosa) + F = .


.

, '

. '

, . .

-2 cos sin + 2B(cos 2 - sin 2 ) + 2 sin cosa


. .

) sin2

+ 2Bcos2a =

cos 2 =

. .

= ,
(11.16)

sin 2.

(11.17)

tg2a = -'

, ,

(11.17),

(11.15)

(11.15)

(11.14).

( )
: , , , .

.'-'.u:

cos2a =

(.

= , (11.17) .
2 = 90, . . = 45. ,

(11.16)),

45.

IV.

10-121

12.

12.1.

Il
~

, ,
, -

. ,

01

01

R.

Oxyz

z -

. ,

, ,
.

aaHHoii.
Oxyz F(x,y,z) =

z,

, ,

, . . ,

7. 7.
.

. ,

, , 1 (1; 1;

Z1)

, 1

01 (; ; za).
z)

(; ;

01 (; ; za) R, . . 01 = R. 01 =
01
( - ; - ; z - za). ,

J(x - )2

+ ( -

)2
90

+ (z -

za)2

=R

101MI,

I ( - )2 + ( - )2 + (Z - ZO)2 = R 2 .1

.
,
.

01

.+ 2 + Z2 = R 2 .

(; ;

z)

= , , ,

(; ;

z) =

, ,

. ,
.

, 2 2 + 2 + z2 + 1 =
, , z. 2 + 2 + Z2 =
, (
:

= ,

= , -

).

. :

1.

2.

(; ;

= .

z)

(. .

66)

, .

F1 (xjYjz)

F2 (x;y;z) = -
L,

(12.1)
~

(12.1)

. ,

-,
{ z=o

(. .

67).

:m:. -

r = r(t)
91

(12.2)

z
z

66

67

n.;mu',,.;u,,u ',:,,

(12.2)

= x(t),
=

y(t),

= z(t)

{=

eunmoeoit

= Rcost,

Rsint,

-lLt
- 21r .


, ' ,

(. .

12.2.

68) .

Oxyz

(; ;

zo)

fi

(. .

69) .

Oxyz

= (; ; ),

(; ;

z)

= ( -

92

- YojZ - zo).

Q.

68

69

, . .

1( - ) + ( - ) + C(z - zo)

(12.3),

(12.3)

Q
Q,

= 01

(12.3)

n f:.

).

,, n-:m, n-

,u ' mo'-: (; ;

-:

n =

, z.
-:,,

zo)

nn-:.

(; ; ).

= (; ; ) ,,.

n-:m.

(12.3)

, ,

. ,

, ''it n.'m'it,

(12.3) -

,u n.'mi1.

z:

+ + Cz + D =

(12.4)

,. ,

f:.

(12.4)

( - ) + ( + ~) + C(z - ) = .

(12.4)

(12.5)

(12.5)

(12.3),

(12.5)
,

n = (; ; ), M 1 (; - ~; ).

(12.4)

.
,,

(12.4)

Oxyz

,,

n1m.

1. D = , + + Cz = .
0(0; ; ). ,

n; ' '. ;.

2.

= ,

+ + D = .

(; ; )

"

OZi

Oz.

, n

= 0- , = 0-

= D = , 0(0; ; )
Oz, . . + = ' Oz.
, + Cz = + z =

3.

, .

4.

. . z

= = , (12.4)

= - g.

Cz

+ D = ,

nII: . ,

+D

+D

= ,
Oyz Oxz.
5. = = D = , (12.4) Cz = , . .
z = . n; . : = -
Oxz; = - Oyz.
=

, ,

Q,

M1(Xl;Yl;Zl), M 2(X2iY2;Z2) (i;Z),


.

(; ;

z)

M1M
( - xl; - Yl; z - Zl), M 1M2
(2 - xli 2 -Yl; Z2 - Zl),
1
( - xl; - Yl; Z - Zl)' Q,

, .

( ),

94

(12.6)

Z -

Zl

2 - l

Z2 -

Zl

Zl

2 -

= .

(12.6)

, n.U ' -

'.

, Z

, , . . (; ; ), (; ; )
(; ; ) (. .

70).

+ abz =

(12.6),

= .
+ abz + = ,

- + - + - = 1.

. .

+ +
(12.7)

70

(12.7)

71

:u,, n?mu m

? . .

, ,
,

(. .

71) .
95

= ,

(3, "{ -

, z.

= (cos ; cos (3; cos "().

(; ;

z)

= = (; ; z).

Q
r = , . .

Ir. - = 01

(12.8)

(12.8)

. n.t;;m

.,.m11 .

(12.8)

1xcosa + ycos(3 + zcos"{ - = 01


~

(12.9)

(12.9)

t'bl. nJU)c-

KoopaUHamHo'it .
,

(12.4)

(12.9)

. :

(12.4)

J 1
,
2 + 2 +2

12.3.

A1x
2
~

Q1

Q2:

+ B1y + C1z + D 1 = ,
+ 2 + C2z + D 2 = .

-;

Q1

Q2

, .

<

= ( 2 ; 2 ; 2 )

. 72). cos < =

Ql

1 j2

Q2

In .
I
nl 1. n2

A1 A2

nl = (A 1;B1;C1 )

n2

(.

+ 1 2 + 1 2
v + B~ + C~ .

cos < = .
Ai + Bi + Ci .

Q2

, . .

nl

Ql

(. .

73,

.1 n2 ( ).
96

),

nl . n2

= ,

. .

72

A 1A 2 + B 1 B 2 + C 1 C 2

= .

n1!:..1tm n1!:mi1

Q1

73

Ql

Q2.

Q2 (. .

73, 6),

n1 n2 ( ). , ,
:
=
= ;.

%t

n.'m n1!:mi1

Q1

Q2.

(; ;

+D

= .

ZO)

d = IAxo

+ + Czo + DI.
JA2 +2 +2

+ + = (. . 73) .
d Q
M1Mo, 1 (X1; Y1; Zl) -
Q, n = (; ; ) (. . 74).
(;)

d=l - 1=1~nl=l(-1)+(-1)+(Z-Zl)I=
n

J 2+2+2

Inl

:=

M1(Xl;Y1;Zl)

IAxo+BYo+Czo-1-1-Z11

JA2+B2+C2

Q,

+ 1 + CZ 1 + D = , . . D = -1 - 1 - Cz 1.
IAxo.
+
Czo + .
DI , Q
d =
.+J

+
+

2
2
2
cos
cos {J
1

+ Z cos '

&eM8JtKe.

97

= ,

(; ;

Zo)

d = Ixo cos : + cos /3

+ Zo cos, - pl
L

12.4.

74

75

,
- ,

(; ;

nu. 7. n.tt.

zo)

5 = (; n;). L (; ; z).

- .

, ,

=+.

(12.10)

5,

L,
t5, t - ,

n.m.,

( . .

(12.10)

75).

I = + ts1

(12.11)
7.

n.tt.

(12.11)

= ( ; ; z ), = (; ; zo), t5 = (tm; tn; tp),

xl + ] + zk

= ( + tm)l + ( + tn)] + (zo + tp)k.


-98

= +mt,

+ nt,
+ pt.

=
z = Zo

(12.12)

n..mu'7UU :u n..
.

S=

(; ;

(;n;) -

, . ,

zo) -

(; ; z) L,
. =(-; -; z-zo)
S = (;n;) :

17=~=~ 1

(12.13)

7u7Utu tl.tu

(12.13)

ntil .

..'u:

1)

(12.13)

(12.12),

t.

(12.12)

--=--=-- =

2)

z - Zo

t.

(12.13)

, "3 2 = ~ 4 = z 1 , (2;

-4; 1) Oz (
Oz ). ,
z = 1, z - 1 = .

L 1 (l; Yl; ZI) 2 (2; 2; Z2).


S !vI1 2 =
= (2 - l; 2 - l; Z2 - ZI), . . S 2 (. . 76). ,
m
2 - l, n
2 - Yl,
Z2 - zl
M J (Xl;Y1;ZI), , (12.13),-

l
l

99

(12.14)

(12.14)

n..ii., n

ii. ' m'JC.

76

77

AIX+BIY+CIZ+Dl =0,
{ 2 + 2 + C2 Z + D 2 = .

(12.15)

( nl = (A 1 ; B 1 ; C 1 ) n2 =
= ( 2 ; 2 ; 2 ) ), (12.15)

(. .

(12.15)

77).

/ 'I n..i1.

(12.15)
(12.13). L
(12.15),

(, Z

).

nl n2,

S = nl

n2

A1

j
1

.',.u: ,
-

100

(12.14).

u.

12.1.

L,

{ +-
2

1 (-2;

1;0)

L,

+=-l,
2

= -5.

L. = {X-Z=-l,

2x-3z=-5.

2 (2; ;

+ 1 = ,
3z + 5 = .

3) L.

1 2 :
+2

-1

-1

=3

12.5. .
.

L1

L2

n2

m2

SI

= (m2; n2;2)

= (ml;nl;Pl)
(. .

S2 =
78). ,

. 78

cos<p -

1 2

IS11 . IS 21

(12.16)

L 1 L 2
(12.16) .
n.: L j L 2 nn.<;;.:,
coscp = . , (12.16)
, , . m1m2 + nln2 + I2 = .

101

n.

L1

L2

'u

n.''.,

BeKTopbCS\ $2. ,
,, . . ~ = & = 'El..
m2
n2
2
u.

Q
n2

12.2.

-2

z+2

-1

2X+Y-Z-1=0,
- + 3 + 5- = .

: , $1 = (2; -1; 3), $2 = n1 n2, n1 = (2; 1; -1),


= (2; -1; 3). , $2 = (2; -8; -4). $1 . $2 =

= 4 + 8 - 12 =

, <

= 900.

L1

L2

m1

n1

m2

QI~---------------

n2

(. .

Z - Z1
1

Z -:- Z2
2

79).

79

$1 = (m1; ;1) $2 = (m2; n2;2)

-,--

L1

1 (l; 1; Z1),

1'"1;

L2

2 (2; 2; Z2), -

1'"2.

1'"2 - 1'"1 = 1 2 = (2 - 1;2 - Y1;Z2 - Z1),


L 1 L 2 , $1' $2
1 2

= 1'"2 -1'"1 .
= ,

: (1'"2 - 1'"1)$1$2
. .

m1
m2

- 1
nl
n2

Z2 - Z1

L1

, , $2

$1

11

$2.
102

= .

L2

=f. >..$1,

12.6. .

.

L
~

= '!L.::::...JlJ!
=zn

+ + Cz + D = , .

Zo

. <

80).

sin<p

= sin(~ -

cosB =

I~:

n=

(;;)

S =

L,

(;n;) (.

&1' <, < ~ ~:

= cosB. sin<p ~ ,

sin<p

IAm

+ n + Cpl

J 2 + 2 + 2 . Jm 2 + n2 + r

(12.17)

L n..:'. n",mu Q,
(. . 81), S . n = , . .

n S

+n+=
~

u. nmu .

i'i

i'i

..

80

81

82

L nn'.u",'. n",mu Q,
82).

n S

(. .

m
~

=n =

u.u nniJu':mu
.

103

-
m

Z-Zo

+ + Cz + D

(12.18)

= .

(12.19)
(12.18) (12.19).
(12.18)


,
:

= +mt,

=
z = Zo

+ nt,

+ pt.

+ mt) +

+ nt) + C(zo + pt) + D

t(Am + n + ) + ( + + CZo + D)

=.

(12.19),

=
(12.20)

, . . + n +

(12.20)

i=

t:

+ + Zo + D
t - - -----,----=------,---

+n+'

, .

i=

+ n + = (L

11

Q):

) F = + + CZo + D
, L
( (12.20)

t + F = , F i= );
+ CZo + D = , (12 .20)

t . +

= ; t,

. :
. ,

/ { + n + = ,

12.7.
~

+ + Zo + D

u nufCu nil nu.

L,

, fj:

, v,uuu'il

UJI.u.

n.iil ,

L-

il ( . .

83).

,
,
, .

= .

F(x;y)

(12.21)

Oz

12.1.

Oz,

. .

(12.21),

...,...,

z.

HN ,....

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 .....

...............
.

83

(; ;

- .

N -

z)

84
(. .

84) .

. ,

N
(12.21).

,
(; ;

z),

(12.21)

,
,

(12.21)

F(x;z)

N.

z.

=
F(y; z) = - ,

, ,

.
. &
2

f]

+ 2 = 1

Jl.Jl,unu-,/\:u uu (. .

105

85).

85

86

","iJ.

''l.u, 2

+ 2 = R 2 .

= 2pz

nJl,u-","uiJ. 'JI, (. .

86).

-2- - =
1

2
~

unJl,u-","uiJ.

'UJI,u

(.

87).

'JI,. n
",", -

Z.

12.8. .
,
, ,

u.

Oyz.

F(Y;Z) = ,
{ = .

(12.22)

88).

Oz.

(; ;

z)

(.

Oz L
N. N (; 1; Zl).
01 OlN .
2 +2, OlN = IY11.
01 = OlN. 01 =
2 + 2 1 =
2 + 2. , , Zl =
, IY11 =
Oz,

Jx

01

Jx

Jx

106

z.

87

88

(12.22).

L,
F(Yl; Zl) = .
N,

l Zl

(12.23)

(12.23) - .


, .

(12.23)

VX2 + 2,
,

(12.22)

(12.22)

F(y; Vx2 + z2)


(Z =

= ;
)

F(x; ) =

, F(x;
~

Vy 2 + Z2) = .

, , = Z

Oz

( 2
2 + 2 = Z2). .
~

(. .

89),

+ 2

, ,

( ), 'lC'u''lCi:t n'
'lCoHycOM.

'n.tti:t ,

u'i:t, , ,

i:t.

107

89

Fl(X;Y;Z)
{ 2 (; ; z)
(; ;

90

= ,
= ,

(12.24)

. .

zo) -

KOtlyca (; ;
.

90).

z)

(.

, ,

N(Xl;Yl;Zl).

(12.24)

Fl(Xl;Yl;Zl) = ,
{ F 2 (Xl;Yl;Zl) = .

(12.25)

N,

Xl -

l, l Zl

Z -

Zl -

(12.25)

Zo

(12.26)

Zo

(12.26),

, , Z.

u.

12.3.

0(0;0; ), ~

= 1,

+ .

M(x;y;z) -

(; ; )

(Xl;Yl;Zl) L

108

= .JL =
l

= .L.
Xl, l
Zl
.

Zl

1
2

+ l

( (l; Yl; Zl) ),


l = ' ~
Z

(12.27),

Yl

= 1
Zl

(12.27)

= . : .l<.. = ~, JL = ~
l

2 . 2

2 . 2

z2 .

Z2

- - -2 + - -2

= 1

12.9.

= ' ... l l

(. .
,

)
.
-,ui1:

, .

(12.28)

(12.28)

. : Z

= h, h -

, ,
2

(12.28)

h2

~ + .

= 1-

"?"'

(12.29)

= h.

(12.29):

Ihl > , > ,

+ . < .

= h ~.
109

Ihl =

, . . h

= ,

22

+ . = . -

(12.29) (; ; ) (; ; -). z =

z =

- .

Ihl < ,

(12.29) :

(. .

l = 1- ~

91

Ihl, l

: l

b1 .

91)

= ~
1- ~.
h

= , b1 = . (12.29)

~ + . = 1,
{

h=

(12.28) = h = h.

, -

(12.28) .
(12.28) .:un. ,

. ,
peXOCH't.; - ,

u;

+ 2 + Z2 =

(12.30)

(12.30) z

h2

~ + . = 1+~,
{

= h,

= h,

l = aJ1 + ~
l

b1

Ihl

bJ1 + ~.

b1 =

: l

h =

b1 =

=h

(12.30)

= h,

. , ,

(12.30)

= .

Oyz,

{~

~=

1,

, (. .
~

92

92).

, ,

(12.30),
(12.30) nt.

.
.

.-,',u : ,

(12.30)

, .

(12.31)

Z2

+ 11- (! = -1.

(12.31)
z = h,

~ + .
{

h2
= (! -1,

(12.32)

z = h.

, :

)
)

Ihl < ,
Ihl = ,

z = h ;
z =

(; ; ) (; ; -) .
)

Ihl > ,

(12.32)

a2(~-1) + 2(~-1) =1,


{

z = h.
111

Ihl.

(12.31)

Oyz

= ) Oxz ( = ), ,

~ - ~ = -1


(. .

(12.31),

Oz. 93),

, ,

(12.31)

n'bl. nJt.

93

94


,
2

>

>

+ '!qL.. = 2z ,

(12.33)

(12.33)

= h.

h=
h >

L
{

h <

, z

z =

= h

+ '!qL.. = 2h ,
h.
;

(; ; );

1 2

2~h +
{

2qh = 1,

z = h.

h.
(12.33)

Oxz Oyz z = ~p z = ~.
h.I, ,

(12.33),
94).

, (. .

(12.33)

nm7l:UAt n,.

f- ~ ~2z,1

>

>

(12.34)

(12.34)

= h.

~-JL.::....-1

2ph
2qh - ,
{
z = h,
h i-

; ,h =

;L

Jp - -!}q

<

>

~ =
q

Jp + -!}q

= .

= h),
2

Oxz

2 (z + ~;),

{ = h,

. .

= 2pz,

2
~

= - 2q ( z -

(12.34)

Oz.
= h, -

~;), .

(. .

95).

n7I:U, n,.

11

(12.34)

95

96

z2

(12.35)

~+ll- ~ =0.

2

h2

+ 1Gb = -::2"", z = h.

h =f:.

(12.35)

= h.

(; ; ).

~
2

a2h2

--cr
z

= h.

= 1,

b2 h 2

cr

(12.35)

{2~ -?-2= ,

Oyz

Ihl.

= ).

- ~ =

(12.35)

~ + ~ = .

=0,
114

=0,

- - -z =

+ - = .

(12.35),

, ,

96.

, , .ltuHeiL-u. ,

,
.

v.

I 13-221
13. .
13.1.
~


. ;

(, , ... ) ,
- . '

, ,

+ 2 + 2 = ,

. .

, ,
.
, ,

,,

... , , , ... ,

... ,,, ...


, ;

~ ,
.

, ,, n

ct.; 0.
,

( ),
, .

1, 3

15;

= {1, 3, 15} ,

{:

~ ~

2}

( )
, ~ ~

2.

n.;. ,
.

< i )

J < ).

, ,

= , . , ,

, .

l}. ( ) , ,

. ()

AuB

( +).

}.

116

AuB =

{:

'u. ( )
, ,

. ()
( ).

= { :

}.
7
' riI :

==>(3

(3

- (3)>;
{:::=}(3 - (3 , . .
(3 ;
, ;

V3:~

, ;
, ;

Hanpu.ep:

1)

Vx

: :

2)

u )

{:::=}

);

13.2. .

, ,
':u6u . :

N = {1; 2; 3; ... ; n; ... } Zo = {; 1; 2; ... ; n; ... } -

;
-

Z=

{;

Q=

{r;::

IR -

1; 2; ... ; n; ... } -

Z, n N} - .

IR

Zo

Q IR.

. , ~

3"1 -_ 0,333 ... -

= 0,5

(= 0,500 ... ),

, ,
'.

117

13,1.
2.

, ,

, 2. :

(:)2

..m 2 ==2n2 .

==2,

, m 2 ( , ) - , . . == 2k.
== 2k m 2 == 2n 2 , 4k 2
2n 2 , . .
2
2
2k == n , n - , . . n
2l. -

r:; = ~7

=
=

. ,

r:;

. ,
,

2.

. ,

.j2

= 1,4142356 ... , 7 =

3,1415926 ... -

. : <;

1R={x:

=,Cl:1Cl:21:" , },

IR

Z,Cl:i{,1,

... ,9}.

1.

n'.:

2.

IR

< - < .

, . . ,

< < .

, < ,
( < ~

2 <

+
+ < 2 ~ 2 < + < 2 ~ < -2< ) .

3. IR nt. IR
,

<

. ( )

, :::;

(Va

Vb

:::;

) . .

(
), (
).

118

. ,

IR

() ,
, ()
.

13.3.

< .

. n,m':. ()
, :

[; ]

= {:

:::; :::; }

(, -

);
(;)

= {:

< < } -

( );

[;)={: :::;<};
(; ]

= {:

< :::;

( -

);

(-;]={: :::;};

[, +(0)
(, +(0)

(-;)={: <};
{:

(-00,00) =

-00 <

<

+}

= IR -

= {:
= {:

? };
> };

( ).
':':,

-00

+00

'

11

( -

). 'IC (; ),

. , (

+ ),

> ,

e-'IC .
,

,.

< +,

, ,

97

+ ), - < <

Ix-xol < .

- (. .

119

97).

14.

14.1.


. (

) .

f,

, JCut1

f : -+

. ,

= f(x),

m;m

98

g, 98 ,

98

.
.

D(f).

'.uiJ.

14.2. . .


~

f : -+

(. .

IR

IR),

'ut1

ut1. ( ) ,

= f(x).
ti

v,uiJ. uuiJ.

120

nepeMeHHoiJ.

( ). -

, '1
v,uo.:il uu..u.

= (),

(1)

.u

, ~ f(x) = 2 2
u'1,, '1v,uu

f(x) =
3, f(O) = -3, f(2) = 5.
f(x) -

f(a).

.
,

= ~

0(0; )

(. .

R = 1

99

99) .

f(x),

, , .

:
, , .
uu"t'1uil :

.
n,,:

2)

= { + 1
-4

< 2,

2;

f(x)

) 2 - 4

= .

, ,

. ,

= Jl"=X2 [-1; 1].


, ,

= f(x) .

u"t'1uil : .

.
,

: ,

.
,

U"t'til :

. ,

121

,
. .


~, .

14.3.

1.

',il,

= f(x);

= f(x), ,
Vx D - D f( -) =

',il,

Vx D - D

f(-x) = '-f(x).
,

= sinx, =

= V1 + 2 , = ln Ixl - ;
; = - 1, = JX -

, , . .

2, = f(x)
D 1 .

<

D
xl, 2

2 :

D 1
f(Xl) < f(X2),

il

D 1 ; j(Xl)

f(X2),

wil

D 1 ; f(Xl) > f(X2),

'bLil

f(Xl)

f(X2),

D1;

il

-2

1
.

100

D1 .
, ,

(. .

(1; 5),

(- 2; 1),

100) ,

(3; 5).

! .OHOOHHL.
, 1

.OHOOHHL..

, , u.

. .. ()

(-2; 1) (3; 5); (1; 3).


3. = f(x), ,
u',il ,

> , D If(x)1 ~ (
:
f(x), , ,

> : Vx D ===>
If(x)1 ~ ). ,

-
(.

101).
122

4.

f(x),

D,

n'-;f.t ,

> ,

D (

+ )

D f(x

+ ) = f(x).

, . ,

= 1; 2, ...

...

= sin

21; 41; 61,

( )

= 21.

f(x

+ ) = f(x).

_______________ __
=-

101

102

14.4.
~

:~J

= f(x)

D -

D, = '()
D (. . 102).

'() mf.t

= '() = f-l(y).

f(x)

= f(x)

= '()

, .

= '(), = f(x),

f(x) =

( ).

u.':

1.

!.
-- 2

2. = 2 , (; 1],
= ..fij; , = 2 , (-1; 1],
, . . -

(,

= i, l = !' 2 = -!).
123

= f(x)

J(x)

, . " .

. (), ().
,

= ()

= J(x)

, . .
.
, , ,

(. . )
, -

,-

= f(x) = ().
,,
~ , 1 (; )
/
= f(x) . 2 (; ) 11
().
. 103
1 2 = (. . 103).
" . ' "il = f(x) = ()

..'' '

"' .

14.5.

= f(u)

D,

= () D 1 , Vx D 1

= () D. D 1
= f(rp(x)), OOlCil "il (

nnil , il ").

() n'::

= sin

= sin 2

2.

14.6.

1)

lC.

= ,

> ,

=f. 1.

104

,
.

124

2)

104

= "',

mn':..

JR.

, ,
.

105.

o~

.. ---

105

125

--- ---

) u.u-,1':

= loga , >

=j; 1;

, ,
.

106.

4)

106

u,.u-,'ICu

= sin , = cos , = tg , =

= ctg ;

107.

y=sinx

5)

,'

= arccosx,

107

u,.u-,'ICu

= arctgx,

arcctgx.

108

= arcsinx,

, ,

(, , ,
) ,
mu ueu.

. 1
rs

- - 8

126

tgx

+ 3;

y=arcsinx

y=arccosx
-1

-----------~--------------

--------------~-----------

2"

______________

7r

~1

_________ _

108

'.'m''L

= signx =
3

1,

> ,

-1,

< ;

2 + 1,

~ ,

> ;

2n + 1

= 1 - 3! . 3 + 5! 5 - 7!. 7 + ... + (_1)n (2n + 1)! . (2n + 1) + ...

15.
15.1.
~

'uJtfL nJtJt-

I = f(n), I
n

(15.1)

{ n } n ,

N_

Xl -

() , 2 n -

, ___

u, n-, 'Jt, n.

(15.1)
n,

_ ,

Zn = (_1)n. n,

127

1
=-,
n

n-1
n =--,

nEN

VN

= {2, 5,10, . . . , n 2 + 1, . .. };

zn

= {1,~,~,~, ... ,~, ... };


~

= {-1, 2, -3,4, ... , (_1). n, ... };

= {o,~,~,~,~,~, ... ,

n: 1, ... }.

{ } u't1,

>

, , V N

zn -

{ } t1 (t1),

+l

>

( +1 ;;:: ). ()
.

MOHOmoHH'bl.
. V n , ,
.

Zn -

{ } QMY
, . .

n.

"

) n-

(n -

l)-;

, 2

= J(Xl),

= !(Xn-l)

= 2)

. .

100-

99

15.2.
,
1. ,

1.

nu { },

N,

n >N

t:

(15.2)

lim

n-too

= lim =

-t

{ } ( , Xl, 2, , ... ) , (

). , { } u ".

128

I (VE ;

3N:

Vn > N

===}

Ix n

al < )

{:::::::}

nl~~ n =

a1

u. 15.1. , lim n - 1 = 1.
n-+
n

Q : , 1
n = n - 1, n N, VE > .i1m. N,
n

, n > N 1n ~ 1 - 11 < ,
. . 1n < . n >

1, . . n > N = [1],

[~] - ~ ( , [],
[3]

= 3, [5,2] = 5).

> 1, N [~] + 1.
, VE > N.

, ;

, m n - 1 = 1.
n-+
n

, N . , =

=[26] =[8~] =8;


N =[ ~ ] =[100] =100.

N=

= 0,01,

236'

[2~]

100

= N ().

<

(15.2)

< + ,

< N -

<

, n

- .

1 1111111 . . 1111

-;

)
+;

109

{ n }, -

N,

n ,

- (. .
5

109).

ll.

129

n > N,

, ,

N,

-
, .

liI

, ,, n u.ee
n. , ,

,il,. , ,
V N (. .

128).

N = , n N ,
, . . lim = . , 'VE

>

(15.2).

Ix n

cl = Ic - cl =

< .

15.3.
{ n }, {n} {Zn}.

15.1.

lim

n-400

= ,

lim

n-}-()

= ,

, n .~ n, ~ .

n > N(E)

> .

>

lim
n---+

= lim n = ,
n-...?

N (),

Ix n- al < Iyn - bl < ,

. . - < N < + - < n < + . = 2 . :


n > - = - -
- + -
2 --!!.
2 '
n >!!.
2 n < + -2 = +
2'
. . n < at b . , n
n ~ n. , ~ .

15.2.

lim
n---+

n ~

= ,

> n.

lim
n---+

Zn ~ n ( ), lim zn = .
n-+

( .)

15.4.

. .

.
.

130

15.3

().

= (1

+ k) n,

N.

( + )n = n +

"1 .

-1 +

n(n - 1) n 2 2
1 . 2 . - + ...
2) ... (n - (n - 1)) . N
1 23 .... n

'" + n(n - 1)(n = 1, = 1 ,


n

1+

.!.)n = 1 + :: . .!. + n(n n

1 n

1) . ~ + n(n ,- 1)(n - 2) . ~+ . . .
1.2
n2
1.2.3
n3
1
... + n(n - 1)(n - 2) ... (n - (n - 1)) ._=
1 23 n
nn

1+ 1 + _1
(1 _ .!.) + _1_ (1 - .!.) (1 _ ~) + ...
12
n
123
n
n
1 . (1)(
2) (1 -n-1)
... +
1-- 1--123 .... n
n
n'"
n

(1+ .!.)
n

.!.) + _1_
(1 - .!.)
(1 _ ~) + ...
123
n
n
1 (1)
(1 -n-1)
... +
1--(15 .3)
123 .... n
n'"
n'

=1+ 1+

(15.3)

_1 (1 _
12
n

. ,

k, (1- k), (1- ~), .. . .

{ n }

,; {(1+ k) n} -

m.,

(15.4)
, .

(15.3)

; ,

1
1
1
- + - - + .. +
.
(1+-n1)n < 1 + 11 +
2 1 23
1 23 .... n
131

, 2:

3, 4, 5, ... ,

'

< 1+ (1 + ~ + 2- + ... + _1_).


(1+ .!.)n
n
2 22
2
n- 1

1+

1
-21 + -221 + ... + -=
2

l(l-(.!)
2
1_ 1

= 2(1 -

1)
-
2

< 2.

(15 .5)
, u', n N -

(15.4)

(15.5):

2 < (1

+ ~) n < 3.

= (1

+ ~) ,

n N, , -

lim (1
n~oo

+ .!.)
n

(15.6)

n6bI. . ,

2,72

= 2,718281828459045 ... ).

ln ,

. .

lnx = loge .
.
e1n .

10:

19x = Ig(e 1nx ),

. . 19x = lnx lge.

19 ~ 0,4343. ;;L,
19 ~ 0,4343 ln . , ln ~ 0,4143 19 , . .
ln

2,30261g .

16.
16.1.

'U

= f(x)

6 :i1. :

':u , :, :;, catoi1. ':u .

132

, ,

.
~

( ii,

). 7'UU = f(x) m' ( --+ ),

1I:e
; n , n N ( n . i ), (. .
lim n = ), -

n-+

f(x n ), n

N,

(. .

= ).

lim f(x n )

n-+

lim f(x)
-+

f(x) --+

lim f(x)
-+

--+

, ,

~ 2 ( -, )'. 7'UU m'7 ( --+ ),


,

If(x) - AI < .
lim f(x) = .

Ix - xol <

-+

(VE > 3 > Vx:

Jx...: xol

<8, i ,

< Ix -

===> If(x) - AI <

<
{::=>

{::=>

lim f(x)

x-txo

= lim f(x),

= .

x-+..:to

- - ,

f(x)

- . ,

= f(x) 2,
+ , = - (. . 110) .. ,
, = ().
=

16.1.

lim(2x -1) = 5.

-+

>

1(2x-1)-51

< , .

. Ix-31

<

= () >

Ix - 31 <

~. = ~, ,

, Ix - 31 < ( = ~),

1(2x - 1) - 51 < .

133

lim (2 - 1)

-+

= 5.

u,,

i-

, ,

16.2.
.

'tJe >

Ij(x) -

cl

Ic - cl

16.2.

I
I
I
I
I

lim

-+

Ix - xol < 8,

, lim == .

--+

2 ~__________ ~X)

:~: .~!~~~~~~~i~I;~~1~I~jf
I
I
I
I
I

'tJ8 >

< .

y=f(x)

I
I
I
I
I

f(x) =

I
I

---7

I
I
I

111

110

lim j(x)

-+

: , (
), , ( ), .
,

.
.

1 ~uu

,
, (

<

>

;),

. :

j(xo -

= j(x)

= ()

lim

-+-

f(x)

>

Ij(x) - A11 <

1 :

= 1 ( ) (. . 111) .

'UU ,
:

('tJe > :J = () 'tJx (;

+ ) ~ If(x) - 2 1 < )
{:::::::::>

lim

-++

j(x() + ) =

134

2 .

{:::::::::>

j(x) =

. ,

lim f(x)
---+

= , -

= 1 = 2 .

f(xo

-)

f(xo+O)

= z-tzo
li f(x)

).

16:3.

-:f. 2 ,

li
z-tzo

f(x)

---? 00

= f(x) (-00; 00).


': f(x) ~ 00,

() > ,

, Ixl >
If(x) - I < .
:-

________________________________________________--.

lim f(x)=A.
( y>03M>Oyx: Ixl>M ==> If(x)-AI<) -<==> z-too
-t

lim f(x), -t -00, - =


z-t+oo
:

+00,

f(x).
z-t-oo
3

y >

> , - (-00; -) (; +00)


f(x) -OKpeCTHOCTb ,
. .

=-

(. .

2,

112).

112

16.4. (...)
~


f(x) ':' 'ii ~ ,
> 6
6() > ,

135

0< Ix-xol < 6,

HepaeHcTBolf(x)1

> .

lim J(x) =

00

x-tQ

f(x) -t

00

-t . :

("1> 38 > Vx: ' - l < 8, f. ==> If(x)1 > ) {::::::}


{::::::} lim f () = 00.
-+

, = ~2 ... -t 2.
-

f(x)

-t

lim f(x) =

+00;

x-tQ

= f(x),

lim f(x) =

-00.

-4

':','', .11. -t 00, >

'l

> N,

= N(M) > , ,

lJ(x)1

("1> 3N > Vx : 'l > N =>


,

lJ(x)1

> )

> .

{:: : :}

m f(x)

x-too

= 00.

... -t 00.

, , (~ ,
, . '.

N,

...

. ,

VN

= n2

+ 1, n

N,

. , ... '
..II. ''u'''i1 .

: . .. (,

= xsinx.)
,

lim f(x) =

'lC''' 'u, 1J,

-4

f(x)

'u'' .
, ,

If(x) - I < 6 . , - 6 <


- 6; + 6), ,

-t

< f(x) <


f(x)

+6

17.
17.1.
~

(...)

= f(x) ':','', .11. -t ,

1}~n; f(x)
136

= 01

(17.1)

>

(17.1)

Ij(x)1 < .
... -t

+00,

-t

-t

> , ,
< Ix - xol < ,

-00:

j(x) -t

+ ,

-t -

;
, j . .

. . .
-t 2;
sin -t nk, k Z.

: n

= ~, n , -

-t ;

= -

17.1.

() j()

= ,

lim ()
----+

< I -

61 >

.. -t . ,

. .

>

, , f

>

, ,

I < 61,

la(x)1 < 2
'

j()

lim
X---i'Q

= , . .

(V~ >

362 >

Vx: 0< Ix - xol < 02) => Ij()1 < ~.

6-

(17.2)

(17.2)

(17.3).

61

< Ix - xol <

62.

(17.3)

Io:(x) + j()1 ~ la(x)1 + Ij()1 < 2 + 2 = .


,

VE>O 30 > 0 Vx: O<lx-xol<o =>


,

lim
X-J-Xo

(()

+ j(

l()+j()I<.

= , . . ()

+ j()

. ..

-t .


.. .

17.2.

> ,

f () --+

If(x)1 :::;

(17.4)

8 1 - . ()

--+

< Ix -

82 >

I < 82,

>

, ,

...

, ,

81

82.

< Ix - xal < 8,

(17.4) (17.5) . ,

If(x) a(x)1

= If(x)Ila(x) I <

, f() . ()

--+

(17.2)

<

(17.5)

k . =

>

la(x)1 <

<

17.1.

.. . ,

: . . .

17.2.

...

17.3.

, ,
.

lim

-+

()

lim f(x) =

-+

=j:. . af~x))

... () -

1 ).

= () . 1 )

(17.2)

, f~~~ =

, f(X) .

, ,

If(x) -

al < .

< Ix - xal < 8,

>

< lal

> If(x) - al = la - f(x)1

lal-lf(x)l,

'l ..., I)1

< ,

. . Ij(x)1

> lal- > .

1 1
1
1j(x) = Ij(x)1 <

lal-

. . ~) - .

17.4. ()

~ (

-:f

),

~ :
\;

j(x) - , 1 ) - .

() ... --t , . .

(v >

30>

vx:

0<

lim

x-txo

' - l < )

()

===}

= .
l()1 <

. .1 a(~) 1 > ~, . 1 () 1 > , = ~. ,


,(l ) .

.',u : ,

--t

, ,

--t

00 .

17.1.

j(x) = ( - 1)2 . sin3 _1_


-1

--t

= , <() = ( - 1)2
--t 1. g(x) = sin 3 ~1' -:f 1,

lim ( - 1)2

-+l

ISin

~ 11 ~

j(x)

1.

= ( -

1)2 . sin 3 ~1 ,
(g(x (<(. ,
j(x) - --t 1.

139

17.2. ,

17.5.

J(x)

, ,

(), . . lim

f(x)

%--+%0

lim
%--+%0

f( x ) = .

(Vc: > 38>


. .

If(x) -

= ,

= + ().

f(x)

Vx: 0< ' - l < 8) ==> If(x) - I < ,

01 <

:. ,

f(x) -

, , . . . ..,

():

f(x) -

17.6

() .

f(x) =

+ ().

().

f(x)

() ,

lim f(x)

x---tQ

= .

f(x)

f(x),

= +(), () -

. .

f(x) =

+ () ,

. . . --t , . . lim () =
%--+%0

(VC: > 38>

Vx: 0< ' - l < 8) ==> l()1 < .

f(x) =

+ (), ()

= f(x) - .

(Vc > 38> Vx: 0< ' - l < 8) ==> If(x) - I < :.
,

lim f(x)
-+

u.

17.2.

lim (5
%--+2

= .
+ )

5 + 7
2), . . 5 + = 7 + ( - 2).
17.6 lim(5 + ) = 7.

...

- 2

( --t

= 7.

%--+2

140

17.3.
,
. ,
~ ~ 00, . ,

lim f(x), lim <() .


-+

'

-+

()

17.7.

() :

()

-+

lim f(x) =

<())

-+

lim

= lim f(x)
-+

<()

<().

-+

= . 17.5 -

-+

f(x) = + :()
= + + (:() + {3()).

, . ..

<()

= + (().

, f(x)

+ {3()

:()

+ <()

... . . .

17.6

, ... li ()+<())
-+

. .

lim

()

-+

+ <())

= lim f(x)
-+

= + ,

<().
-+

.

.

17.3.

~ .

lim f(x)
"-+"0

= "-+"0
lim f(x)

17.7 :

'

0= () - f(x)) = lim f(x) - lim f(x) = -.


-+"

"-+ " 0

= , . .

17.8.

-+"

= .

lim () . <())
-f-Q

lim f(x) lim <().


-+

141

-t

= ,

lim f(x)

-t

= + (),

f(x)
() (3()

= ,

= + (3(),

ip(x)

. .. ,

f(x) . ip(x) =
. .

lim ip(x)

-+

f(x) . ip(x)

+ ()) . ( + (3()),

= + ( (3() + () + ()(3()).

...

lim f(x) ip(X)

x-txo
. .

= . ,

lim (1(x)ip(x)) = lim f(x) lim ip(x).


x-txo

-t

x-txo

,
.

17.4.

li
~

lim

--+

f(x))
.

17.5.

lim

lim f(x)

-+

2: -+%0

f(x) =

lim

-t

Q lim

-+%

= x~, n N.

(1())n

-t

lim J(x).

-+%

: lim (1())n
n

lim f(x) .

-+

= lim

(1()

-t,

(lim f(x))n.
x-txo

=
,

f(X) ... f(x))

..

..

lim f(x) ... lim f(x)

-t

-+

= ( lim f(x ))n.


-t

17.9.

f()
.

11
--

ip(X)

lim f(x)

-t_xo,,---.,.....,..
=-:-_lim
ip(x)
-+

( lim ip(X) =1- ).


--+

lim

....... Q

f() =

f()

f(x) = +:() =
J()

+ (()

lim

2:'-7

+ :()

J() = =1-

J()

(+:() _ ) =

+ (()

+ (().

:() -f()

+ . (()

... ...
, .

-+
lim f((x))
9

,
=

. .

lim f(x)

lim f((x)) =

-+

ip

().
;
1 ip
--+

n':.

u. 17.3. lim( 2 - 2
-+l

<)

+ 7).

lim ( 2 - 2

-+1

+ 7)

= lim 2 - lim 2
-+1

-+1

= 3 (lim

-+1

) 2 -

+ lim 7 =
x-+l

' + 7 =

2 lim

-+1

3 . 1 - 2 + 7 = 8.

u. 17.4. lim / 14 - 32

-+2

<)

+8

: , . .

-t 2, . ,

. , '.n'.'.m

8.

- 2 =1-

( -t

2,

=1-

2):

. 2 + 14 - 32
1. ( - 2)( + 16)
= 1 ~--~7---~
11
2 - 6 + 8
-+2 ( - 2)( - 4)

-+2

= lim

-+2

+ 16
---- - 4

lim (

= -+2

+ 16)

lim ( - 4)

-+2

2 + 16

= -- =
2- 4

-9.

u. 17.5. lim 2 2 + 3 + 1.
-+ 4 + 2 + 5
<) : '.n'.'.m

00.
00

143

. 22
11
2

x-too 4

+ 3 + 1
+ 2 + 5

2+ 1 +

x-too

1im (2 + ~ + ~)
= =-x-t....:....::.oo=---_....,,-_

1im

,2

_=__

4 + 2 + ~

1im (4 + + ~)
-+
:z:

2 + ~ + 2 ...,

x-too

(2

+ ~ + ~)

= 2;

. (4
1

x-too

+ -2 +

5 ) = 4.
2"

17.4.
, , . ,

= sin

-+

00 .


. .
.

17.10 ( \ ).
) <()

g(x},

, . .

= ,

'()

1im

x-tQ

'() ~

X~XO

1im g(x)

x-tQ

= ,

(17.6)

f(x) ~ g(x),
f(x)

(17.7)

= .

(17.6) BreKaeT,

>

l 2 ,

1'P(x) -

A.I < ,

. .
-<'()-<,

Ig(x) - AI

< ,

. .
-

(17.8)

< g(x) -

< .

(17.9)

l 2. -

(17.7)
'()

(17.8)

(17.9).

f(x) -

g(x) -

(17.10)

(17.8) (17.9) (17.10)


< f(x) - < If(x) - AI < .

Vc > 38> Vx:


1im f(x) =

Ix - xol

0<

< 8

If(x) - AI <

===}

:1:4:1:0

17.10

. !()

g(x),

) .

f(x)

17.11

( ).

<

>

f(x) =

J(

- )

:1:4:1:0-0

:1:4:1:0+0

= + ).

17.5.

N.

17.6.

, -

si
- 1
--- ,
1l m

:1:40

n'

(17.11)

..'m''

n...

1,

( . . 113).

<

<

<

SceKTopa

<

(17.11) .

~. IAMI

S6MOB

IBel = tg .

= sinx,

S6COB

~ sin < ~ < ~ tg '. -21 sinx >- , 1 < -l2- < _1_ cosx < sinx < 1.
s
cosx

14

x-t

cosx = 1

1im 1 = 1,

x-t

( )

sinx
x-t

= 1.

(17.12)

(>)

< . sin =

= sin( -) , - > .
-

sinx
1
11 - - = .

113

(17.12)

x-t

(17.13)

(17.13)

(<)

(17.11).

u,, 17.6. 1im sin 3 .


x-t

Q :
. 3

lim sin 3

x-t

8. '

= t; -t t -t ,

= lim sin t = 1im ~ . sin t


t-t 2 . t
t-t 2
t

~ ~ lim sin t
2 t-t , t

= ~ . 1 = ~.
2

. 17.7. 1im tg .
x-t

1
.
.
Q : 1im t gx = 1im s . _ _ = lim s.
x-t

x-t

COS

x-t

1im 1
1
x-t
= 1.lim cos
1

= 1.

x-t

17.6.

, n
n

N,

, (.

lim

n-too

IR) :
1im

x-too

(1 + ~)

n,

(15.6)):

(1 + .!.)n
= .
n

, n =
(

(1 + .!.) = .

146

(17.14)

(1 + ~) -t

00

(17.15)

-+

1.

+00.

< n + 1,

n =

[]

. ~1 < 1 ~ 1,1+ +1 1 < 1+1 ~ 1+1,

(1 +

-+ +00,

n:

n+

1) n < (1 +

n -+ 00.

~) ~

(1 +

~) n+ 1 .

(17.14),

1)n
lim (1 + n~1 )n+l

lim ( 1 + - - ' = n-+


= - =
n-+
n+ 1
lim (1 + -+11)
1
'
n-+

.!.)n+1
=
n

lim (1 +
n-+

(1 +

n-+

.!.)n.
m
n

n-+

1 = .

(1 +.!.) =
n

( )

m (l+.!.)=.

-++

2.
m

-+ -00

-+

(17.16)

-00. -

= t,

1) = lim (1-1 ) -t = lim ( -t- ) t = lim (


11
+ - -) 't =
( 1+
t-++oo
t
t-++oo t - 1
t-++oo
t - 1
= lim

t-++oo

- t-l . lim ( 1 + -1)


- 1=
(1 + -t -1)
1
t-++oo
t - 1

.1=

(17.17)

(17.16) (17.17) (17.15).


(17.15) 1 = ( -+ -+ 00),

I~-o(1 + a)~ = e1

(17.15)

(17.18)

opt.. .-.m'-

(17.18)

Ht.. n..
.
.

'ICnu

a.It'bHoit, = ().

u. 17.8. -+
(1 + ~)X.

lim (1 +

-+

~)X

t-+oo

= 2t,

(1 +

.!.)2t

t -+ 00

-+ 00.

= lim(1+.!.)t. lim (1+.!.)t=e.e=e 2


t-+oo
t
t-+oo
t
147

18.

18.1.

, , ...
. ...
: ,
,
.

... .

=0

lim

= () ( = (() ... -t , . .

(()

()

lim
-+

=0.

-+

1. lim -(
-+

::j:. ( IR), ( ?'

.'U n.?.

2. lim Q:(
-+

= ,

?' .il '

? n.?, (.

3. lim -(
-+

= 00,

?'

? n.?, ( .

4. lim Q:( , (
-+

?' .'U.

, .. .

-t

-t ,

u.. 18.1.
-t 00.

= 3

= 14

: -t ... ,

lim

-+ (

= lim

-+ 14 2

~ ::j:. .
14

, ... (
.

u.. 18.2.

= 4 ( = 7 ...

-t

148

Jii: Jii ~ ... ,

(3, Q(3
-+

= 37 = lim 37 = .
-+

-+

...

(3.

'

t.L.. 18.3.

= tgx

X~O.

(3

11
-+

(3

. tg
. sin
1
1
= x-+O;Z;2
11 - - = 11 - - . - - . - = 00
-+
cos
'

... ,

(3.

pu.. 18.4.

= sin 1

(3

~ ?

= . sin 1

(3

. . ., 1im Q(3
-+

= 1im

. sin!.

-+

= lim sin 1
-+

18.2.

1im _(3

r:;J

-+

'.

= 1, (3 ?uJtm'.u

?-

MaJt1>tMU ( ~ ); : ", (3.

, sin '" ~ , . . sin = 1; tg '"


-+

,.

1
-+

=.1

18.1.
,

11

-+

- =
(3

'"

11

-+

'

(3 '" (3'

~ .

(
- . -/ . -(3' ) =
(3 ' (3'

11

-.

-+ '

149

11

-+

(3'
.
'
.
'
_. 11 - = 1 . 1 11 (3 -+ (3'
-+ (3' '

. . 11 -( =
X-

'

11 ('.

X-i-XQ

, 11 -(
-'Q

18.2.

'

11 -(

-+

= 11
7J'.
X~XO

,
.

'" (

lim
0:-+0:0

-+

- ( =

lim

a-f.i

~(

-+

lim (1 -

~) = 1

0:-+0:0

~ =1-

. lim

0:-+0:0

1 = ,

= .

n11. 1.1. '. '.11.: ...

j3

, (, (

, lim - ( = , lim

0:-+0:0

1-

lim

Il. = .

0:-+0:0

.~

11

-+

lim

Il. =

0:-+0:0

0:-+0:0

. .

1,

'"

(1 ~ Il.)

= , . .

(. ,

= , '" (.
18.3.

-+ , ( -+
-+ , - ... , (, . . lim -(

= .

0:-+0:0

lim

x---t:z::o

+( ( =

lim
X~XO

+ ( '" (

(-( + 1) =

-+

lim
-+

-( + 1 = + 1 = 1.

, ,
'.iJ. ' iJ. .

... '.11.
'IC'.''. n.'IC.
2

u. 18.5. lim .+ 7 .
0:-.0

150

s2

Q : lim 3. 7
-+

'"

lim

s 2

lim 3

-+ s 2

3 sin 2 '" 2

3
2'

-+ 2

-+

18.3. '

sin '"

-+

tg '"

-+

...
'U.

18.6.

Q : 11

1 - cos
2

x-+:L

= lim

1 - cos '" 2

2 sin 2 ~
2 2

lim

x-+:L

-+

(~-+O)

sin

-+

sin

~.~=1.1=1.
-

'U. 18.7. lim arcsin .


-+

arcsinx = t.

t-+O s

arcsin '"

'U. 18.8. ,

t-+o Sl

-+

V'1+X -

1 '" ~ -+ .

lim

V'1+X -

-+

1 = lim
-+

(V'1+X - 1)(v'1+X 1)
~ (V'1+X 1)

= lim

x-+~(v'1+Xl)

= sin t t -+ -+ .

arcsin _- 11 -.t -_ 11 -.1 -_ -1 -- 1.


11

-+

V'1+X -

1 '" ~ -+ .

= lim
2
= ~ = 1
x-+0v'1+Xl
2
'

'. :'.m'.m,
:

6.

1 '" ( -+ );
7. - 1 '" Ina ( -+ );
8. In(l + ) '" ( -+ );
9. loga(l + ) '" Iog a ( -+

sinx '" -+ ;
tgx '" ' ( -+ );
arcsinx '" ( -+ );
arctgx '" ( -+ );

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.1- cosx '" ~ ( -+ );

10. (1

+ x)k

>

- 1 '" k . , k

JI+X -

);

( -+ );

1 '" ~.

~
u. 18.9. ~S
11
. 3 .

<)

tg 2 '" 2, sin 3 '" 3 -+ ,

= lim

lim tg2x
sin 3

-+

2 = ~.

-+ 3

u. 18.10. lim ( 1 /

1).

-+

<) : 1

lim

-+

( 1 /

= t, -+ 00 t -+ .

1) = lim

t-+O

u. 18.11.
<)

~(et
t

lim

-+l

: arcsin(x -

lim arcsin(x - 1)
+4

-+I 2 - 5

- 1) = lim

t-+O

~t . t = t-+O
lim 1 =

1.

ar~sin~x - ~)'.
+

1) '" ( - 1) -+ 1,

= lim

-+l (

( - 1)
= lim _1_
- l)( - 4)
-+l - 4

= _~.

+ (: . . :

'"

(, , :

= ( +

() ,

(, : ~ (.

.

, , .

= tg

(.
.

114),

= sin'x

152

tg :::::

114.
(-+)

(.

115).

116-118

Ii ,
.

~---------

115. sinx

~ (

-+

116.

ln(l+x)~x (-+)

y=cosx

1- 2

117. cosx

u.

1- 2

18.12.

-+

-2 -1

y=l+~

. 118. J+X ~ 1 + ~ ( -+ )

ln 1,032 = In(l

+ 0,032)

ln 1,032.

0,032
ln 1,032 = 0,031498...

19. HErlPEPbIBHOCTb
19.1.

= f(x)
= f(x) ~n6-.1J.

m',; ,

, . .

m
-+

f(x)

= f(xa).

153

(19.1)

(19.1) :
1) : f(x) ;
2) f(x) -+ ;

)
, . .

lim

x-txo

(19.1).

= , (19.1)
lim f(x)

-4

= f(

lim

-4

= f(xo).

f(x)
f(x)

nepeiJ.mu 1

(19.2)

Henpep'b/.BHoiJ.

'.1v,

1 1v,,

n' n' 3Ha'Leoue .


.

ainz

, 11 --40

= lim-+ !l.n...!.

(.

(19.2))

u,, 19.1.
Q

= lim

-40

In(l + ).

11

In(l+x)

-40

= lim - ln(l + )
-40

= li In(l + );1

-40

= In (lim (1 + ) ~) = In = 1.

-40

In(l +

,....,

-+

,
.

y=f(x)

(; ) .
(;). (;)

:}~y

--------,

f(xo)

,
,,:

'

< ):

box=X-. =+.

mO'L1Ce

: f(x)
,

f(x)- f(xo)

'/

. 119
( !
.

f(x) mO'L1Ce
D.f(xo)): D.y=f(x)- f(xo) D.y=f(xo+D.x)- f(xo) (.

119).
, ,

154

(19.1)

-t - -t , (19.1)
li ()

-+

- f(xo)) =

(19.3)
~

(19.3) :
f(x)

n'it m'1 ,

(19.3),

. . .

.
,

(19.1)),

u.

19.2.

(19.3))

= sinx.

= sin IR.

~y:

~y = sin(x + ~x) lim ~y


-+

sin

= 2 ( + ~x)

lim 2 (

-+

+ ~2X)

. sin ~2X

. sin

~x.

= ,

.. . . . .

(1~.3),

= sin -

19.2.

= f(x)

n''iJ, u (, ),

= f(x) n''iJ, ! [, ],
(, )
n'' -

(. . lim f(x)
x-++

= f(a)),

n'' (. .

lim f(x) = f(b)).

-+-

19.3.
~

, ,

m'1.u 'bl8 mit 1UU.


= f(x),

155

: ,
:

1.

, = ~2 = 2 (.
-

120).

IL

,:2
,,,
,,,

2.

120

121

f(x)

~ .

f(x) =

{ -

1,

2-

- 1 :::; < 2,
2:::; :::; 5,


2 (2)
),
2
(. . 121), . . ~ 2:
li

x~2-0

f(x)

= 1,

li

x~2+0

= .

f(x)

3.

li

f(x),

X~XO

lim f(x) ::J. f(xo).

-+

,
.

211"
.

122

g(xo)

= {Si~X,
2,

= .
. sinx
11 g(x) = 11 - - = 1,

x~o

g(x)

x~o

= g(O) = 2.
156

(.

122)

x::J.


. '~iL '

= f(x),

( ), . .

li

-+-

f(x)

= A1
A1 =
A1

; )

lim

-++

f(x) =

2 :

2 , ',':i1.

f:.

2 , ',':i1. ':',

IA 1 -

2 1 ':',': ':'UU

'~iL '

= f(x),

( ) .
, (. .

1.

= X~2' =

2.

f(x) =

{ - 1,
2-

11 - 01 =

1.

SinX

g(x) = { ;

- 1 ::;; < 2,
2::;; ::;; 5,

= 2

3.

120).

2-

f:.

g(x) = 1

g(x) = 2)

= , ,

u,,

19.3.

f(x)

= I~ =: ~I.

, .

:
,

li

-++

f(x)

1 > 3,
{ -1 < 3.
lim f(x) = -1. = 3

= 3. , f(x) =

f(x) = 1,

-+-

1 - (-1)

= 2.

157

19.4. .


.

19.1.

(
, ) .

f(x)

<()

Q . , ,

F(x) = f(x) . <().

, :

lim F(x)=;:: lim ()<())= lim f(x) lim <p(x)=f(xo)'P(xo)=F(xo).

-+

-+

lim F(x) = F(xo),

X-i'

-+

f(x) . <()

19.2. u = <() ,
= f(u) = '().
f(<p(X)), ,

u =

<(),

lim

<() = <() = ,

-+

. .

--+ u --+
= f(u) :
lim f(<p(X))

-+

lim f(u)

u-+u

= f(uo) = f(<p(xo)).

= f(<p(X))

19.3.

= f(x)

[; ] ,

= <()

[; d] (
) .

158

tgx

sinx
cosx'

19.1,

(: , ,

cosx = , . . = ~ + 1n, n
arcsinx, arctgx, arccosx, arcctgx,

z.

19.3,

, .

Ii

, 7I:
-u , Jt 7I:

.
~

, ,,,m,i1. ,
,

(
) .
: 7l: 7I:U
7I:a:;caoii. '7I:, 7I:Omopoii. .
, ,
, .

19.4.

lim 2ctgx .

x~"i

Q : 2ctg
lim 2ctgx

x~-i

19.5.

= ~,

= 2ctg ~ = 21 = 2.

.
, .

19.4 ().
,
.

123

= f(x)

[; ], 1,
- 2. [; ]
m :::; f(x) :::; .
\ 19.1. ,
.

159

19.5

(-).

= f(x)

[; )

f(a)

f(b)

= ,

(. .

124).

, ,

f(c)

= .

19.2.

= f(x)

[; )

[; ) ,
:

f(c) =

f(x)

,
(. . 125).
19.2 . n.u'.
'. .',u,

f(x)

= .

19.4

19.5,

, - :

[; ), (; ), [; )
.

126

160

19.5:

Y=/i

L/

)<

u.

125

19.5.

126
= 0,00001

5 = , [; 1],

1. < = f(a) 1/J


2. = ! .

= f(x).

= f(b),

f(x)

J(x) .

= , = 1.

= , -

4.

f(x)

, <

=1 . < < , =

1/J =

- - : < .
( :) = ! .

5.

[; ] ,

2.

20.
20.1.

= 0,29589.

.
, , ,
.

( )
.

=S

.
.

161

t,

. .

= S(t).

""" u,."u. '."u.


.

t+~t (~t

Il

S(t)

+ ~S

= S

S(t+At)
.

(. .

(~S

127).

M1,

~t ~S

127

=S(t + ~t) -

S(t).

if ,." "

~t:

~S

/5:t.

Vcp . =

~t: ~t,

t.

.
~t " u,."u. '.1U a,.",."iJ.

,." ,." ( ).

V,

~S
li -,

t-40

ut

S(t + ~t)' - S(t) .


t-40

~t

(20.1)

1 (. .

128).

M 1 , , "i1.

M1,

L,

. , ,
.

.~

m.:ti .JC aaHHoti JCpueoti aaHHoti m'JC


M 1 ,

, 1
M1 .

= f(x),

(; ) .

= tga,

1

~x (. . 129). < -

1 . ,

_
-

_ ~y_f(x+~x)-f(x)
tg < - .
~x

~x

162

128

129

~X -? ~y
; 1
, 1 , ,

. -? 0:, . .
,

li

,.-+

tg

= tg 0:.

li

,.-+

0:.

k = tg : =

11

,.-+

tg =

.
~y
11 :uX

,.-+

11

f(x

+ ~x) - f(x)
~

,.-+

(20.1)

(20.2)

(20.2)

. , :

Q = Q(t) -

',

lim ~Q

c,.t-+O ~t

N = N (t) -


',

t,

? ',

lim Q(t + ~t) - Q(t) ;


c,.t-+o

(20.3)

~t

t,

1 u.u"? ? ',

V = lim ~N

c,.t-+o ~t

li N(t + ~t) - N(t) ;

(20.4)

~t

c,.t-+o

- = () 0(0; ) (; ), u',',

S = lim ~
,.-+ ~x

(20.1)-(20.5)

n. '. "?

lim (
,.-+

+ ~x)

-' () .

(20.5)

~x

nu',. :

(
. .).

V = s;; tg : = y~;
V S

1 = Q~;

v = N;;

= ~

t, :

20.2. ;
.

= f(x) (; ).

- (; ) ~x: + ~x (; );
- : ~y = f(x+~x)- f(x);
- -

: ~;
- ~x --+ : lim ~ .

uX

, -

d
f(x) f~, (); '; '!:JL
; y~.
.
d

it 1

= f(x) m'1

,
.

==

,.

f(xo

+ ~x) - f(xo)

Llx-t

f(x)

f '()

~x

,.

f(x) - f(xo)

x-tQ

(), n'U

= f(x),

(; ), it ;
,
.

: (),

20.1.

= f(x)

y'lx=XQ

'() .

==

= const.

~x;

~y: ~y

= - =0;
-

, ~ = '~x = ;

, '

'im

Llx-t

~
uX

= lim

164

Llx-t

= f(x

+ ~x) - f(x)

= , . . ()' = .

20.2. = 2 .

u..
:

- ~x;
- ~y: ~y = ( + ~x)2 - 2 = 2 ~x + (~x)2;
~1/ ~1/
2 . ~x + (~x)2
- =.it...: =.it... =
= 2
~x ~x
~x
- :

~y

lim

",-+

= lim

",-+

+ ~x,

(2 + ~x) = 2.

, ( 2 )' = 2.

1
~S
= Al~o ~t

V =

s:,

. .

C?i:OPOCmb

n..u

il:/-I, u'U. ,ui1, '?i:U ,, .ut n


u. n

t.

,u'?i:Ui1,

,' nui1,.

liI

, ,

= f(x) m

- , nu / ?
n?u n. uu'.?uil

nuil.

liI

()

tga

= tg =

lim

~.

",-+

k, . . nu () '.?

./l, ?uum ?./l, ? u? ?UU

= f(x) m'.?, u ?'" .

u'.?CUii './I, nuii.


~

(; ) (. .

130),
k

= ().

(- = k(x-xo)),
?Cacame./l,bHoil: - = () . ( - ).
~

..

130

?CpuBoil.
,

k . =

1
--k.

165

1
f'(xo) .

= - /)

. ( - )

( () ~ ).

20.3.

20.1.

f(x)

,
,

17.5
~

, ?

lim

~x->o

~
= ().
ux

,
,

= () + , ~ ~x ~ ,

= () . + ~x.
, ~ ,

, .

= .

= f(x) .

lim

~x->o

= I I = { -,,

= 1(0 +

) -

f(O) =

f(~x)


3..',u.:

< .
131

=
Il

= {

1,
-1,

> ,
< .

!:JlL
, . . = Ixl
ux
' = , -

, . lim

131

~ ,

~x->o

0(0; ).
1. ,

lim

~x->o-o

~
ux

= -1,

lim

~X->O+O

~
ux

= 1.

= Ix/

, . ': nu.te (

),

166

f'- ()

f~ ().

: f~(x)

f;

f~(x), .

2. ' = f'(x) = J(x)


.

= f(x) ' = f'(x)

(; ), .~tJ..

20.4. , ,


.
.

'.','

= () v = v(x) - '.v,.:.

'.!. '. (; ) '.','.

20.2.

()

() : (

u v.

v)'

= '

v'.

1.
(( + ~x) v(x + ~x)) = Ax~O
~x
1

= 1im ((
Ax~O

'

(()

v(x))

+ ~x)- () v(x + ~x) - v(x)) =


~x

~x

~
1
~v
,
,
= 11 - 1 - = u v ,
Ax~O

. . (

v)'

ux

Ax~O

ux

= ' v'.

20.3.

167

(uv)'=u'v+v'u.

= uv.

'

lim D..y
D..x

lim u(

+ D..x) . v(x + D..x) -

lim (u()

+ D..u) . (v(x) + D..v)

lim v(x) u()

11

6.",-+0

+ u() . D..v + v(x)

. D..u + D..u D..v - u() . v(x) =


D..x

6.-+

- u() . v(x)

D..x

6.",-+0

u() . v(x)

D..x

6.",-+0

6.",-+0

(D..U
v(x) - + u() -D..v + ~v' -D..U) =
~x

~x

~U
()
l'1 ~v +

=v ()
. 11 - +
6.",-+0 ux
6.",-+0 ux

~x

l'1 uV'

l'1 ~U

6.-+

6.-+

ux

= ' . v + . v' + . ' = ' . v + . v',


. . (

v)' =

'

. v + u v'.

= v(x)

u()

, , ~v ~

~U ~ ~x ~ .
, :

= ', = const;
( v . w)' = ' . v . w + . v' . w + . v . w'.

) ( )'

6)

20.4. ufX
, v(x) =j:.
vx

=j:. ,

,

(;)'

= ' . v;;; . v' , v =j:. .

= 1!.

lim u() v(x)


6.-+

+ v(x) . ~U ~x

(v(x)
168

u()

. v(x) - u() . ~v

+ ~v)v(x)

v. _ . v
v . - . L\v
~
~ =
=
lim
. (V 2 + v L\V)
~ ....
V 2 + V L\v

li
~ ....

v
=
. .

v
( )

u'V - UV'

v2

- .

....

u'v - uv'

....

--~~--~~~~~-

V2

+ V lim

~-}

V2

L\ v

20.1. (~)' = ~ . '.

20.5.

(~)' = - ~i = const.

20.2.

= f(u) = <(), = <( -

20.5.

= <().

= f(u)

= <() ~

y~

= f(<p(X

. y~

lim

L\

!f11-

~.... O

y~

= y~ . ~ .
.

= y~. , ,

, ~ = y~ +
= y~ . + . ,
(20.6)

-+

-+

= <()

: ~~o ~~

= ~ .

+ f . ,

-+

-+

~,

(20.6),
= y~(~ . + f ) + a(~ . + (. ),

. .

= y~ . ~ .

+ y~ . f . + ~ . . + . (J . .

y~

= y~ . ~.

-+

169

liI

, 'nu
iJ

iJaHHoit nv,uu n..:m'.. ..

..: nuiJ n..:' ..


uu.... ...

. , = f(u), = 'P(V), V = (), y~ = y~ . ~ v~.



f(x) '() - .

20.6.

= f(x)

(; ) ()
,

= '()

''() , -

'( ) _

'

, _ 1

- f'(x)

11:'

= '() .

i:- . . ,
. i:- = f(x), .

1
.

-+

-+

(20.7)

~'

,
",
, -

-+
11' ~x

lim

.1I

= () i:-

.z.

"'-+

1
lim ~

1
= f'(x)'

'( )
. , '

(20.7)

1
= f'xj'

"'-+ .

liI

nuiJ

it

it Jtu'u nuiJit

nv,uu

iJaHHoit nv,UU.

= -,

dy

dx

= (['
dy

u.. 20 ..3.

= log~ tgx 4

: ,

:
, = log2 Z,
z
tgq, q
4 ,
(y~
y~ '~ . z~ , q~) :

y~

= 3 ' log~ tg

1
, ---:;----,-4

tgx ,ln 2
170

u.

20.4.

= Vx -

, Y~

1.

= + 1 x~ = 3

20.6.

= x~ = 3 2 = 3.

V(x - 1)2 .

n , n

.6..

+ .6.)n -

.6. = (

.6. = ( n + n . x n- 1 .6. + n(n2~ 1) n - 2 . .6. 2 + ... + (.6.)n)

= n x n- 1 .6. + n(n2.-,

1)

n - 2 .6. 2

+ .. . +

_ n

(.6.)n.

n x n - 1 .6.

+ ~xn-2.6.x2 +. + ()n

.6. =

.6.

= N. x n- 1 + n(n 2!

1) . n - 2 . .6.

+ ... + (.6.x)n-l.

.6. -t :

lim

.6.

-+ .6.

lim

-+

(n.xn-l+~n,(n-1).xn-2.6.X+ "
2

, ( )'

.+(.6.x)n-l)

= n x n- 1 .

= n . xn - 1 .
)' = 2, ' = 1.

( n ),

, (

(. .

175)

IR

) .

= , > , #:- 1

.6., .6.:

--

(
.6.

lim -

-+

- 1) . , ~ -- %(%-l)
.6.

=-+
lim

- 1

lim

- 1

-+.6.

171

= +_

.6.

= eX lim -

-+.6.

= eXl


"

- 1 '"

, '

,,

--t .

= ", . .

("')' = "'.

", JR. "

= " ln ,

(")'

= (e"lna)' = e"lna. ( lna)' = e"lna Ina = " Ina.

, (")'

= " In .

u. 20.5.

<)

= 7"2-4,,.

= (7,,2-4,,), = 7"2-4,, .ln 7. ( 2 - 4)' = 7"2-4,, In 7 (2 = 10& , > , =F 1


'

4).

= In .

6._
_

In(x

+ 6.)

-Inx

= In(1 + ~")

In("~")

6.
6.
6.
6.
6. --t -

'" ~x 6. --t , :

In ( 1 + ~x)
6.
.
11 -

~,,-+O 6.

. . '

.
In(1 + ~")
= ~,,-+O
11
"
6.

= 1 (Inx)' =

(log

= lnx

''
)' =

~"
-L

~,,-+O 6.

1
= ~,,-+O
lim - =

- ,

1.

log

lim

= loga .

(Inx)' = _1_. (Inx)'


In
In

, (Iog a )'

= _1_ .~.
In

= -11-.

u. 20. . = In(x 4 - 2 2

<)

: '

1
- 2 2
4

+6

. ( 4

2 2 + 6)'

4.

- 2 2
= loga
4

.
:

(10

ga

)' _ _1_ _
1
= 1
- ()' - In In
172

+6

+ 6).

= sinx

11 = sinx, 11

= , 11 = tgx, 11 = ctgx

6. _ sin(x + 6.) - sin _ 2 sin ~ cos(x + ~) _ sin ~'"


(
6.)
6.
6.
~ + 2 .

6. -

6. -+ ~

li si~ 6. = 1,
~~

uX

6.
sin ~
(
6. )
lim -= li ~.cos +- =lcosx,
~~

~~ uX

. . '

= cosx

(sinx)' = cosx.

y=cosx,

(cosx)' = (sin(% -))' =cos(% -). (% -)' =(% -).( -1)=- sinx,
. .

(cosx)'=- sinx.

y=tgx

y=ctgx

:
2

' (Sinx)' (sinx)'cosx-sinx(cosx)' cos2 x+sin x


1
- -2( tg ) - - - - 2
cos 2
- cos '

. . (tgx)'=~.
cqs

(ctgx)'

= __._1_.
s 2

----;;~----:-

2(~ - )

u.. 20~ 7.

: (2)'

= - sin2x (2)' =

= arctg , 11 = arcctg

1
=- -.
sin 2

2.

-2sin2x.

11

. (-1)

11

= arcsinx,

= arccosx,

11

= arcsin . = sin ,

[- ~ j ~]. ( - ~ j ~) '

= 11 :j:. .

(arcsin )

1
(sin )'

= - - - = - .-

173

1
sin 2 -

---==::;;==

J1 -

.J'1"'=X2'

, cos > (- ~ j ~ ) .
, (arcsinx)' = /

1- 2

, (arccosx)' = - '

2
1-

. : arccos + arcsin = ~, . . arccos =

~ -arcsinx, (arccosx)'

(~~arcsinx)' =

'

= arctgx.

= tg , ( - ~ j ~)
, ~, ,

'
1
1
2
1
1
(arctgx ) = (tgy)' = ~ =cos\y= 1+tg2 y -1+ 2 '
cos

, (arctgx)' = ~.
l+

arctg

arcctg

arctg + arcctg =

'2'

. .

arcctgx =

'2 -

arctgx.

(arcctgx)' =

(~ -

arctgx)' = -(arctgx)' = -1:

2 '

. . (arcctgx)' = -~.
l+

'U. 20.8. : 1) y=arccosx 2 j 2) =

=xarctgxj 3) =(1+5- 3 )4 j 4) y=arccosJXj 5) y=log~(3+2-X).


: 1) (arccosx 2 )' = -

1
/1 -

( 2 )2

. ( 2 )'

2
= - ~;
4

1-

2) ( arctgx)' = ' arctgx + (arctgx)' = arctgx + ~;


l+

..''.u:

lIt

> .

ea -1n .

-,

()'

= (e a -1nx ), = ea -1nx . ( lnx)' = ea -1nx . - = - = . x a- 1 ,

. . ()'

= . x a- 1 .

< ,

f:.

, = 22 + ~ +
. ' + 1 = .
20.9.

: ':

. . '

= -

1 ( )-3
= 2 . 2 + 2
-2 + ,

,1

~. ' :

"-

3 . ( -

:3) + 1 = 4 ,

. . 4 -

1+1=

4 , = .

20.7.

, ,

unu''u '.''uu,
:

sh = -2

chx

i -

h
th = ~
ch

< );

= +-

cth

132-135

h
=~
sh

+
-

175

132

133

134

135

ch - sh = 1;
sh(x ) = shx chy chx shYj
ch(x ) = chx chy shx shYj
- th th .
t h( ) - 1 th . th ,
2

sh 2

= 2 sh . ch ;

ch 2

= ch2 + sh 2 .

.
,

h 2 -

h2

+ -
2

)2 -

= _( 2
4

(
-

- )2

+ 2 + - 2
176

- 2

+ 2-

1
4

- 2 ) = - 4= 1.

(.

. 137) (.
.

136).

136.

cos t

= sin t
+ 2 = 1, = t,
2

= sint

. .137.

= t

= sht

= t
= 1, = ch t,

( -2 - )' = + - =chx,T.e.
2
+ -)'

-
= ( 2
= -;
= shx, . .

(shx)'=
(chx)'

(shx)'=chx;
(chx)' = shx;

h x )' = (shx)'chx-;shx(chx)'
(thx)' = (sch

=~, . . (thx)'
ch

ch x-sh 2 x
~x

= ~h1
;

(th),=()'=Sh -h
=_ 12 ,T.e.(cthx),=- 12 .
2
2

sh

shx

20.8.

sh

sh

,
,
.

.

1.
2.

= ' v';

( v)'
( v)' =

u'v + uv',

, ()' = ';

177

3. (.)' = u'v -2 uv' (~)' = _cv'.


'
, v
v
.v
V'
4. y~ = y~ . ~, = f(u), = /()j
5. y~ =
= f(x) = /().

J-"

1. ()'

= ;
= "'-l . ' " (
), = lna ', , (

2. ("')'

fu" = _1_
. " ,
2V

"')

3. (
)' = , ';
4. (log )' = _1_ . ' (ln )' = 1 . "

lna'
,
'
5. (sinu)' = cosuu'j
6. (cosu)' = -siU'U'j
7. (tgu)' =
1 . ';
8. (ctgu)' = - .12 . ';
cos 2
sm
9. (arcsinu)'=
1
.'; 10.(arccosu)'=1
';

11. (arctgu)' = ~ . ';

12. (arcctgu)' = -~ . ';

13. (shu)' = chu ';


15. (thu)' = ~ ';
ch

14. (chu)' = shu ';


16. (cthu)' =
'.
sh

l+

l+

-+

, .

u,, 20.10.

3 3 + 2 - 1.

'

= (

3 3

+ 2 - 1)' = ( 4 )' -

=4

( 3 )'
3

- 3( )'

+ (2)' - (1)' =

+ 2()' -

0= 4 3 - 9 2

+ 2.

u,,

20.11.

= t2gx
X .
3

3
3
3
,(2
= __ )' = 2. (x )'.tgx-x .(tgx)'
tg
(tg )2

= 2.

3X2tgx-x3.~
cos
(tg )2

2,3

2,7.

u,, 20.12. = cos(ln1 2 2).


178

Q : : ' = -sin(ln 12 2) . 121n 11 2 21 2.


.

: =

cos , = t 12 , t = l z, z = 2.
= y~ . ~ . t~ . z~ (

y~
):

, = - sm
2
2,
.1
1 .1
t 1
. _.

. .

. t 12 . 12 . (1 n z )11 . 2
1 2,
= - sm

,
. .

y~

. .

21.

= - sin(ln z)12 . 12 ln l l z .

2:.,

y~

= - sin(ln 12 2) . 12 ln l1

2 2:..

y~

= -12 sin(ln 12 2) ln ll

2 2:..

21.1.

= f(x),

, , . ( ).
~

F(x; )

= ,

= f ()
= , .

f(x) -

(,
~

+ 2 + cosy - 1 =

2 -

F(x; ) =

+ =

).

, -

:
, 77 7 ,

: '.

.

21.1.
- 3 = .

179

: .

+ -

3 = .
2

, 2 '

21.2.

+ 3 . 2 . ' -

3(1 .

+ . ') =

- ' = - 2 , . . ' = ~.

x(t),
{ = y(t),

(21.1)

t-

, .

y~, ,

= x(t)

(21.1)

= ip(x).

t~

(21.1),
t = ip(x).

= f(x),

~.
x

(21.2)

= y(t),

: y~

=y~ . t~.

(21.2)

1
xt

= Yt l '

. .

y~

= 1

xt

y~

,
.

u. 21.2. { = t2 , y~.
3

: x~

_ 2

'

= t .

t 2 , y~

= 2t.

, y~

..

3t

2t

3?'

, ,
.

, t =

V'X.

_ 2

3t
180

VX2.

y~ = 3

Vx, . .

22.


.'. n'.
. '.'IC
.

pu.

22.1.

( 2

1)3 . '"

+ 2) V(x ( + 5)3

: '
. .
. :

lny

= ln(x 2 + 2) + ~ ln(x -

1)

+ - l( + 5) .

1,

- . = - . 2
2

+2

3
4

+ - . - - + 1 - 3
-

--

+5

':

(2

3 )

= 2 + 2 + 4( - 1) + 1 - + 5 '
. .

'= ( 2 + 2) V(x - 1)3 . '" . (~ +

( + 5)3
2 + 2 4( ~

3_).

+ 1 __
+5

1)

, .

cmeneHHO-nJCm.ll. JCU

= v(x) -

=u

= ()

ln

= v . ln ,

-1 . " = v . ln + v . -1
. ,,

==}

==}

==}

= ( v , . ln + v . ;,1 . ') ,

. .

,
V
,=

1( V )'

,
1n+v ;,1
v

') ,

= V ln v' + v v - 1 . 11.' . 1
181

(22.1)

(22.1):

-t! t!
t! ,
,

= const,

t! t!

v = const.

u.. 22.2. t! = (sin 2) +1.

: t!

(22.1),

' = (sin2xy2+1 lnsin2x 2 + ( 2


,

+ 1)(sin2x)X

(22.1)

. cos2x 2.

23.
23.1.

UJ

'

= ()

= f(x)

n7iiJ. n.ihc.
() , -

n7iiJ. n.': " (

f"(x),

f!x,

.
(~) ~). ' " = (')'.
dxdx'dx
t! , -

, n7iiJ. n.ihc ylll .(


flll(x),

~:~,

... ).

, ylll = (")'.

t! n- ( n- t!)

t!

(n - 1)

n7i,
n.':.
t! ,

( v (5) -

).
u..

23.1.

t! 13-

= sinx.
182

Q . :

' = (sin )' = cos = sin ( + ~) ,

.2),
= (_ sin )' = - cos = sin ( + ~ . 3) ,
= (_
= sinx = sin( + ~. 4),

" = (')' = (cos )' = - sin = sin ( + ~


ylll

cosx)'

yIV

y(13)

23.2.

= sin (

+~.

13) .

, B~

S = f(t).

: B~

= V.

, nu n

u'u '/'U n.ui1 u'U 'ICU, . . :,

= .

t V,
t + 6..t - V + 6.. V, . . 6..t
6.. v.

i~
6..t. 6..t ~
t : l}~o i~ =:= ,
. .

V' =

= ;. = (B~)', . . = B~'

23.3.

F(x;y)

= .

f(x)

', (
). ,
. ,

183

'. '
, " .

(
) .

u..

23.2. ylll, 2

+ 2

= 1.

; 2
2
2 '
. '
-- ; "

"

=-

- . (- ~ )

, ylll

=-

=-

=-

+ 2

= -

-1 . 3 2 . '
6

= 4

( 2

; 2

1 - '

2 ' . .

+ 2 = 1),

= - 5 .

23.4. ,

= f( x )
= x(t),

= y(t).

, y~

yf

= , .

(23.1)

(23.1)

" = (')'
= (' )'t . t' = (y~)~

"

. .

" = (y~)~!

(23.2)

,.

ylll

u..

23.3.

t
/1

)'

x~'

/V

t
111

)'

= ~'

(23.1)
(sin t)~
(cost)~

cos t

= -sint = -ctgt.
184

= cost,
.
= st.

/1

(23.2)

ctgt)~
=..;..,--=.,...:..::.

Si~2 t

(-

(COS

t)~

1
- sin 3 t"

- sin t

, Y~x

(Y~)~

/1

(~)~

= --; = --; =

(23.2):

Y~'X~-X~'Y~
(x~)3

24.
24.1.

= J(x)

= f'(x) f= . , ,
, ~ = f'(x) +,

Q:

lim

6.-+0

-t ~x -t , ~y = f'(x) . ~x

+ ~x .

, ~Y

f'(x)

~x ~x,

~x -t . -

~x,

lim

6.-+0

f'(~ ~x = f'(x) f= ,

~x:

Q:

lim

6.-+

~x

----

lim

6.-+

f'(x) . ~x

Q:

= .

.-(j '

nuu ~y.

uu 'uu

= f(x)

dy

dy = f'(x) . ~x.

dy

df(x)):

(24.1)

uu

. , . .

'

= ' = 1, , (24.1), dy = dx =

= ~x, . .
:

dx

= ~x.

(24.1)

Idy = f'(x)dx, I
185

(24.2)

, u'-v,u. v,uu'- nu'-u

. nU80'-u mu '-?v,uu '- u'-v,u. 'H-uu.U


nepe.me'H-'-U.

(24.2)


dy

24.1.

f(x)

= (

u.

Q
.

24.2.

dy

sin(l

+ 2).

= () dx
sin(l + 2))' dx = (6 - 2 cos(l + 2)) dx.

dy

= (). -

dx.

u.

dy

= In(l + e 10X ) +
= , dx = 0,1.

Vx2+l,

10e
= (In(l + e 10X ) + Vx2+l)' dx = ( 1+e
+ )
. dx.
10x
~
= dx = 0,1,
10x

dy

=,

dyl

2 + ) 0,1 =

0,5.

dx=O,l

24.2.

:::;: f(x)

(; )

+ .6.

= .6.,

(. .

138).

IAM11 =

.6..

IAMI

tg

= IABI
.6. '

. . IABI

= tg . .6..

tga

= () . .6..

y+!J..y
!J..y

= ().

186

x+!J..x
138

Ii

dy =

, . . '. '::'

(24.1),
= f(x) ''h:

'h:.il 'h: 'h: 'h:'


il ''h:, 'h: n.' nue .6..
.

24.3.

(dy

= () dx)

, = ,

paB~H :

24.1.

dy=c' dx=O dx=O.

d(u + v) = du + dv,
d(uv) =vdu+udv,
d (~)
v

= vdu -2 udv

(v

f= ).

, , .
:

d(uv) = (uv)'dx = (u'v + uv')dx

24.2.

= V u'dx + v'dx =

vdu + udv .

= f(u) = 1() ,

= f(1p(X)).


y~

dx = dy

dx = du.

dx,

y~dx=y~u~dx.

dy = y~ . du.
187

dy =

y~

. dx

= )

dy =

y~

:,

. du,

,
.

(
) .: a.tt.

dy

= y~ . du,

y~

dy =

. dx

:
, ,

dx = D-x,
du

, , ,

=/:

=/:

D-u.

24.4.

= (cosu)~ . du = - sinu

d(cosu)

du.

1. d(u

v)

= du dVj
+ udv,

2. d(u v) = vdu

d(cu)

3. d(:!f) = vdu - 2 udv d(f.)


'
v
v
'v
4. dy = y~ dx, = f(x)j
5. dy = y~ . du,

6. dc

= rC

dUj

= _cdv.
7'

= ), = <();

= ;

7. d(u a ) =

- 1

dUj

= In du, , d(e = . dUj


9. d(log a ) = -11- . du, , d(ln ) = 1. dUj

8. d(a

tl

10. d(sinu)

= ~1
1 dUj
+
17. d(arcctgu) = -~1
1 dUj
+

= cosudti;
= -siudUj

16. d(arctgu)

11. d(cosu)
12. d(tgu) =

1 du;
cos 2
13. d(ctgu) = -~ dti;

14. d(arcsin ) =

Slll

J ' 1 dUj
1-
15. d(arccosu) = - du;
1-
2

188

18. d(shu) = chudUj


19. d(chu) = shuduj
20. d(th )

= ~h1u dUj

21. d(cthu) =

~~h1 du .
s

24.5.
'

, !1
!1
!1

--r

, !1

= dy

= () . !1

+ . !1.

= f(x)

!1,

--r

!1

, !1,
!1 ~

(24.3)

dy,

, !1.

Ii

. ii ". u"u
u nuu:c.. nu.u ii u.u

.. .tcuu.
,

(24.3)

u..

24.3.
- 2 + 1 = 2 !1 = 0,001.

: (24.3):!1 ~ dy
= ( 2 - 2) . !1.

dyl
, !1 ~

=2

=,l

= (34 -

2) 0,001

= (

-2+l)'!1 =

= 100,001 = 0,01.

0,01.

, ,
. !1:

!1 = ((

+ !1)3 - 2( + !1) + 1)
= + . !1 + 3 (!1)2 + (!1)3
2

( 3 - 2

+ 1)

- 2 - 2!1

=;=

+1-

+ 2 -

= !1( + 3 . !1 + (!1)2 2

!1yl

=2

=,l

2);
= 0,001(34 + 320,001 + 0,0012 - 2) = 0,010006.

l!1

- dyl

= 10,010006 -

(24.3)

,!1

f(x + !1) - f(x)

I f(x + !1) ~

(24.4)

0,011 = 0,000006.
dy,

~ () !1

f(x) +f'(x) . !1x1

24.4.

(24.4)

6'it

'it v,it.
u..

189

arctg 1,05.

arctg(x

+ ~x)

f(x)

arctgx

= arctgx.

+ ~x =

1,05,

arctg 1,05

arctgx

= 1

~x

~x

+ --2'
=

0,05
7
arctg 1 + - - = -4
1+1

l+
0,05 :

+ 0,025 ~ 0,810.

(~x)2, [;

+ ~x]

(. .

24.5.
10,04 .
t2

- 1, 6 /
. -- ~
2 ' 9 -

(24.4)

If"(x)1

196).

u,,

(24.4)

+ (arctgx)' . ~x,

. .

arctg(x + ~x)

: (10,04).

(~H ~

dH)
H(t

H(t)

+ H'(t)

. ~t.

D.,t =

dt = 0,04 , H'(t) = 9t,


1,6 100
(10,04) ~
2
+ 1,6 100,04 = 80 + 0,64 = 80,64 ().

t = 10

+ ~t)

( ).

m =

= 20 v = 10,02 /.
~ ( = ~2 ; (10,02) ~ 1004 ().
24.6.

= }() , -

'.. '.'...

dy

= () dx

; .

= f(x)

/ '. ( )

d 2 y ~ f(x).
, ~y = d(dy).
~

d2 y

dx

dx =

f(x).

~x ,

= d(dy) = d(f' () dx) = ' () dx)' . dx = 1" () dx . dx = f" (x)(dx)2,


190

. .

d2 y = j"(x)dx 2 .
2
dx (dx)2.

(24.5)

, , n-

= d(dn-1y) = j(nJ(x)(dx)n.
= fxM. , n = 1, 2,

(n - l)- :

, j(nJ(X)

dny

j'(x)

= ~~,

j"(X)

='~;,

j"'(x)

= ~:;,

. .

.

liI

, ,

::'U

om 1i:a1i:oi1.-mo

= j(x),

i1. uu.i1. nepeMeHHot'i,


.
.

= vdu

d2y

+ udv),

(d(u v)

'

= d(f'(x) dx) = d(f'(x)) dx + j'(x) d(dx) = j"(X) dx dx + j'(x) . d2x,

. .

d2 y = j"(X) dx 2 + j'(x) . d2x.


(24.5) (24.6), ,

(24.6)

: f'(x) . ~x.
,

~x

(24.6)

= d(dx) = d(l . dx) = dx . d(l) = dx . =


(24.5).

u. 24.6. ~y, = 3

: ' = 3 , " = 9 3 ,
~y
9 3 dx 2

(24.5)

u. 24.7. ~y, = 2 = t 3
.

191

+1

t -

' = 2,

" = 2,

(24.6):
dx = 3t2 dt, d 2x = 6tdt 2 ,

d 2 y = 2dx 2

+ 2(t 3 + 1)6t dt2 =


= 18t dt2 + 12t4 dt 2 + 12t dt 2 = (30t 4 + 12t) dt 2
= , = t 3 + 1. , = (t + 1)2.

+ 2 . 6t dt 2

= 2(3t 2 dt)2
4

(24.5)

. .

25.

25.1.

,
.

25.1

().

f(x)

[; ), (; )
1()

= f(b),

(; ), () , . .

()

= .

f(x)

[; ],

, . = ,

f(x)

[; ) ,

, () = [; ].

=J.

6HypeH:HeiJ. (; ),

f(a) = f(b).

, ,

= (; ), . . f(c)

1() ~

f(x).

()

f'(c)

. (; )

lim f(c
-+

= :

+ ~x) - f(c).
~x

192

(25.1)

jJ~

>

139

(25.1)

6.

f(c) :::;

+~;

140

(. . 6. ~

f(c

f(c

141

+ 6.) - f(c) :::;

= ),

!,():::; .

< ,

f(c+~; - ) ~ !,() ~ .
, !,()
,

= .
f(c) =

, .

f(x)

( . .

25.2

139

140).

14 .

(). ) ~(x)

[; ], (; ), ~'(x)

::j;

(; ), (; ) ,

f(b) - f(a) = f'(c) .


~(b) - ~(a)

, () -()

::j;

~'(c)

, , '()

= ,

F(x)

= f(x)

f(b) - f(a)
- f(a) - () _ () (~(x) - ()).

[; ] (; ),
7 R lt 8l.

193

<();

f(x)

'i (}

= .

= ()

TO'iKa = (; )
'iTO '() = . '() = () - ~ ~ ::::~(:)<p'(x), ,

'() = () - f(b) - ) <'() = .


<()

<()

f(b) - f(a) <'()


- <()

()

f'(c)

25.3

().

<()

f(b) - f(a)
- <() .

<()

<' ()

f(x)

[; ], (; ),
(; ) ,

f(b) - f(a)

= f'(c)(b -

).

(25.2)

: 'i
'i . , <()

<()

<()

=-

, <'()

'i f(b) - f(a)


<()

f(b&

- <()

= f'(c)

<'()

=~(a) = () f(b) - f(a) = ()( - ).

'i

= ,

= 1, <'() = 1.

..!tU

'i

:;

..!tU '/.'.. nu.uu:


[; ] ,
'i

TO'iKe

'i .

y=f(x)

(25.2)

f(b) - f(a) =(),


-

: f(b) - f(a)

<<. f(b)-f(a)

142

, 'i ()

TO'iKe
194

= .

, :

= f(x)

(;

f(c))

(. .

142),

.
!

25.1.

, .

f'(x) =

( ; ) I

<

Vx

(; ). Xl 2

2. 3 (Xl;X2) ,

f(X2) - f(Xl) = f'(C)(X2 - Xl). f'(x) = , ,


f'(c) = , 1 < < 2 . f(X2) - f(Xl) = , . .
f(X2) = f(X1). 1 2 -
(; ), Vx (; ) f(x) = .

25.2.

,
.

!{() = () (;). (() - f2(X))'


!{()
- () = . , 25 .1, () - f2(X) , . . () - f2(X) = Vx (;).

u. 25.1. , arcsinx+arccosx

f'(x) =

f(x)

= arcsinx +

arccosx.

= ~,
Vx

(-1; 1)

[-1; 1].

= . , f(x) = , . .
1- 2
arcsin + arccosx = . = , ? + ~ = , . . = ~.

1 - 2

arcsin + arccos

= ~.

= 1 (!).

, arctg + arcctg

~.

[;

f(x

+ ~x] (~x > ),


+ ~x) - f(x) = f'(c)~x.

(;

~x)

(25 .3)

= + ()~x,

< () < 1 (, < < + ~x => < - < ~x =>


=> 0< ;;' < 1; ;;. = () => = x+()~x) . (25.3)

f(x

+ ~x) - f(x)

= f'(x

< () < 1.
195

+ ()~x)~x,

6. ~

dy.

, , )

6.

- dy

= ( + 6.) -

f(x -

()

f"(x):

= f'(c)flx -

() =

= '() - ( = f"(cJ)(c - )6.,


Cl (; ) ( .

, 6.

- dy

143).

= f"(Cl)(C -

Ic-xl < 6.; f"(Cl)

)6..

~ ,

25.2.

1f"(x)l.
l6.y-dyl ~ MI6.xI 2 .

[;+)

x+!lx

!lx
.

143

144

8 ~,

25.4 (

8>.

f(x) <()

TO'fKe :

f(xo)

= <() = .

<'()

1"1

=j:. "
f;(x)
() = l . 1"1 ful
() = 11
'() = l .

ilil

'-+ <

f(x)

X-IXO <

X-I <

<() [; ],

" f ( - f = f; ((,
<

(.

(25.4)

-+

144).

f(x)

()

<()

<'()

"

<

f(xo)

<

<()

(25.4)

, ;

lim f(x)
-+ <()

lim () .

C-IXO

196

<'()

()
11
,( )

x--txo

t.p

11 fJE
l
11 ful
l
= l , c--txo
t.p, ( ) =. x--txo
t.p () = .

:
,
.

.'.u.:

1.

25.4

f(x)

= , x--txo
li f(x) = lim <() = .
x--txo
= x--txo
lim f(x) = <() = li <() = .
x--txo

<()

2.

25.4

f(xo)

= lim f(~) = lim (~))' = lim f'(~)(--f.z:) =

lim f(x)
x--too

<()

<p(~)

f(x)

--+

00 .

= 1,

z
(t.p(~))'

f' ()

<'()

x--too

<' () ,

<(),

25.4 :

li f(x) = lim f'(x)


x--txo <()

lim f'(x).

z--t t.p'(~)(--f.z:)

x--txo <'()

lim f"(x)
x--t:to <"()

..

25.2. lim 1- 1.
x--tl

'\
: 11 ---- 1 =
~
x--tl l

[~] = li ( -

1)' =

-+l ( l )'

x--tl

In

+1

= 1.

25.3. lim 1 - cos6x


x--t
2 2

lim 1- cos6x

x--t

2 2

= [Q] = lim

25.4

x--t

6sin6x
4

= [Q]

~ lim 6cos6x
2 x--t

= 9.

. 00

- .
00

197

25.5 (

QQ).
00

f(x)

'()

(, , ),

lim f(x)

-+

'()

lim
-+

00, ''()

=1

lim f;(x) , lim f(X~ = lim f;(x) .

-+ < ()

-+ '(

-+ < ()

tg3x
u 254 11
t 5 .
x-+~
g
:

[~]
= ~ lim -10 sin 10 = lim sin 10 =
5 -+ ~ - 6 sin 6
-+ ~ sin 6

[Q]

2- :

lim tg 3 = [0000] [
tg 5

-+ ~

-t i

= lim

..,

0= t ] =

tg(~1 + 3t) = lim ctg 3t = lim tg 5t = ~.


+ 5t) ctg 5t tg t 3

tg( ~1

~, 1i61i'U.

. 00, 00 - 00, 100, 000, 00

1.

f(x)

~ , <() ~ 00 ~ .

. ()'())
11
-+

. -1f(x)
11
X -+:l: ' ()

= [00 . ] =

00] =

= []

( 11
.

<() =
-1-

-+ 7

[00])
.
00

11
:1:-+2

1 tg -(2
4

2- =
11
------;rx

-+2

ctg "4
198

[00] = lim
-+2 -

-1
I

-11"

sin 2 ""
4

4"

= 1

2. f(x) -+ 00, tp(X) -+ 00

-+

lim

()

-:

- tp(x)) = [00 - 00] =


= lim
-+

(_1 __1) =
'()

j(lx )

lim ;;; - fXj =


-+

;;; fXj

[~] .

, ,

( 1 1) = 100 - 00] = ;~ ' - .1(-lnx


- 1) =

lim - - - -

-+l

'

-1

1- 1.

= lim

-+l -l

+lnx

[]

= []
_ = lim

-+l

__ _

1
~

+ 1.

= _.
2

f(x) -+ 1 tp(x) -+ 00, f(x) -+ 00 tp(x) -+ ,


tp(x) -+ -+ .

f(x) -+
lim f(x)<P(X)

-+

u.

= f(x)'P(X).
1

lim(cos2x)~.

25.5.

-+

:
1

= (cos 2) ~, : ' =

100. -

fr ' cos 2. -

lim

-+

' =

lim

-+

lncos 2
.2

Q] = lim coh-x( - sin 2)2


[ -+
2

-2lim tg2x =
-+

=-2,. . ' lim =-2 . lim =- , lim(cos2x)~=e-2.


-+

-+

-+

f(x)'P ( ) =

lim '() ln j(x)

'-'

= lim tp(x) ' )

--+

( : f'P = e1nj"').
u. 25.6.

lim(1.)t g x.

-+

lim

-+

(~)tgx = [000] = (lim tgxln.!)

-+

lim

( -::\-))
:

-+ - sin2

199

= eXP(lim

-+

' ~)

ctg

u.

25.7.

f(x)

i- ,

f'(x). (: f(n)(o).)

i-

= -

()

= { ~_x-2

-2

(--

2) = 21

-2

3.

= :
f l(O) -- 11 f(O
40

= fr

+ ) - f(O) -_ 11

40

--&!
lim - = lim -.jY = lim

40

e-~

400

400

1
=
2.jY .

i- ,

, f(n) () = .

25.3.

.

25. (

(; )

(f'(x) :::;

).

f(x)

().

f'(x)

) \l (; ).

f(x)

(; ).

+ ~x

(; ) -

~ = f(x + ~;l- f(x) . f(x) ,


~x > , + ~x > f(x + ~x) > f(x}; ~x < , + ~x <
f(x + ~x) < f(x). ~ = f(x + ~x) - f(x) >
~x

200

~x

'

f(x)

. ,

f'(x)

f(x

f(x)

- f(x) ~ .

+ .)

-+

(; ).

25.6

145

) .

25.7

( ).

(; )

f'(x) >

'()

< )

145

f(x)
Vx

(; ),

() (; ).

< 2

f'(x) > .

l 2 (; ),

[l;2] :

= f'(C)(X2 - l), (l; 2). f'(c)


, f(X2) - J(Xl) >
(; ) .

25.6

f(X2) > f(Xl)'

25.7

f(X2)- f(Xl) =

>

, 2 - l
. .

>

f(x)

. Hano-'-,

~'-'-'- (. .

'U. 25.8.

f(x)

122).

- 4

JR.= (-00; 00).

f'(x) = 2 -3=3(-1)(+ 1);


f'(xO (-;-1)1;);
f'(x)<O xE(-l;l).
:

(1; 00); (-1; 1).

(-00; -1)

25.4.
~

m'?u .?u..

- ,

f(x),

i:

f(x) < f(xa).

'.

315 >
Vx : < Ix - xal < => f(x) >
> f(xa). 146 Xl -
: ' ,

,
,
,,,

min'

= f().

146

()

: (')

. () 7 .

''' '.! .
.

25.8

( ).

f(x)

: ()
, ,

= .

. ,

f(xa)

> f(xa + .6.).

~ = f(xa + .6.) - f(xa) < .6. > ~ >


.6.

< .

.6.
.6.
'

f '( ) --

l'

f(xa

~x-+a

.6.

.'

+ .6.) - f(xa)
.6.

. , .6. --+ , () ~ ,
.6. < , () :::; , .6. > . ()
.

25.8,

f(x) .

()

(. .

= ,
= f(x)

147).

, , . . ()
,

= ,

. ,

202

'

= 3

(. .

= ,

148).

147

148

149

. ,
,

= -

JxJ

(. .

149).

, '
. 1Cpumu-1tL.u.

25.9

( ).

= f(x)

( ) n

'.11.

j' () ...m .'/ ,

; ,

- . :

()

> Vx

f(x)

< Vx

; ) ()

(;

+ ) .

; ), (;

+ )

. ,

; )

U (; + ).

+ ),

f(x)
. . f(x) < f(xa)
-

25.9

150.

Vx ( - ;) ()

25.9

> 'r/x

(;

203

+ ) .

, ()

<

I~>'I
'<
I
I
I
I

I
I

\~'<O

1'>0/

I
I

150

25.8 25.9

1)
2)

f(x);

3)

()

4)

25.9

) ( ) J
.

u. 25.9.
\. :
'-.1

, D ()

= Ilt

=i

,_1
- 3

- w.
2
~'
. . ' -

_~-2

-3

{'

xl

= 8.

(-00; ),

(;

8), (8; 00).

151

____

____

, l

=8 -

Ymin

8 ____

151

= (8) = -~ .

= () = ,


,
.

25.10.

'()

(JI/(xo) =1-

f'(xo

fl/(xo) <
fl/(xo) > .

).

f "()

f"(XO) > .

l'
f'(xo + ) = --?
1

f'(xo)

l'
f'(xo + )

= --?
1
> '

+ ) >
( + ) < ; > , ( + ) > .

< ,

J(x)

= ).

. ,

25.9,

f"(XO) < ,

25.5.

= f(x) [; ].

,
.

[; ], , . .

= = .

(; ),
(. .

152).

[; ]:

1)
2)

(; );
;

) , . .

4)

3'u.:

1.

= f(x) [; ] .

':m'': m'': (

), ()
.
) .

2.

152 f(xo)

= )

= f = fmax

[;]

, ,

. , ()

, () -

25.10.

/() = 3 4

152

153

+ 4 + 1
3

[-2; 1].

: :

= 12 + 12 = 12 ( + 1);
() = Xl = [-2; 1] 2 = -1 [-2; 1]. /(0) = 1,
/(-1) = 3-4+ 1 = 0,1(-2) = 48-32+.1 = 17, /(1) = 8. , / = 17
= -2, / = = -1.

/'()

, , .
:
,

, ,

-,.

25.11.

. ?

: . ,

153, =

V
[;

J 4R2 -

= V () = 1 ( 4R

2R].
2

2 ,

1
= 1 R 2 - 4'

[; 2R]: V' () = 7 R
, V"(x)

iJrx2, V' ()

-~7x < .

V = V(x)

= = 2~Y3,

2~J

Ka~ ,

Vmax )

= 2~J;

J4 - (2R3/)2 = 2~V.

, , 2~J,

, 2~V.

25.6. .
~

= f(x)

'#,n-

'lC'#,, u (; ),
. -

= f(x) <: '#,-

n'IC'bt (; ),
-

.:

= f (),

, ','J(;U n

u6.

'

154

= f(x)

(; ),
(; ), (;

f ()) -

154

25.11. ~

= f(x)

(; ) , . .

f"(x) < ,
f"(x) >

Vx (; )

f"(x) <

Vx (; ).

(; )
(. .

155).

207

. (; )

= J(x) . ,

f(xo) = ()( - ), . . = J(xo) + f'(xo)(x - ).


= J(x) - f(xo) - ()( - ). ,
f(x) - f(xo) = ()( - ), .
-

- =

f'(c)(x - ) - f'(xo)(x - ),

. .

= '() -

()

())( - ).

()

f'(c) - f'(xo)

= f//(Cl)( -

),

l . ,

155

= f//(Cl)(C -

)(

- ).

> , - > , - > f//(Cl) < . ,


< , . . < : -? ~l
~;;

2) < , - < , - < f//(Cl) < . ,


.
.
.
< , . . < :
1)

----

, , (; )
, . .

. ,

f//(x) >

25.12

).

f//(x)

, ,

f//(x) <

<

f//(x) >

> .

, (;

f(xo))

,
.

< > , (; J(xo)) =

f(x).

f//(x) >

<

f//(x) <

208

u.

25.12.

= 5

+ 5.

: , ' = 5 4 -1, " = 20 .


; "

>

, "

> ;

= = .

<

"

, =

(-00; ) (;

, (;

00) -

< .

5)

25.7.

,
.

(. .

81).

, nmiJ.
,

y=f(x)

, ,

(.

156).

,
.

,
u;,,iJ.

= f(x),

= 00,

lim f(x)

-+

acuMnmomoiJ.

= 00,

lim

-+-

156

lim f(x) = 00.

x-++

, (; )

Ix -

al

-+

d -+

156 -

. ,

= = f(x).

f(x)

. 157) = -1,

=L
+ 1
lim

(.

x-+-l+

+2 1 = +00,

lim

x-+-l-O

+2 1 = -00.

,1,,iJ.

= kx

+ .

(25.5)

=)

-1

(; )

157

-+

158

y=j(x)

(d =

(. .

158).

1,;:2B;OB~ 1)

(25.5): d =

k#-!. 1
k2 + 1

, . .

lim(kx-+)=.

(25.6)

X~OO

-+

-+

kx -

= , = () :
= + kx -

00.

-+

lim

00, :

= lim

X~OO

Q -+

.Q.

X~OO

(~ + k - ~) .

-+ ,
(25.7)

(25.6)

I =

}~ ( -

(25.8)

kx)1

(25.7)

= kx

+ ,

(25.8).

(25.7)

(25.8),

(25.5)

,
.

210

(25.7)

= j(x)

(25.8)

= , =

U1im1iiJ. acv...nmom.

lim ) . iJ

-/

.',1iu :

-00

-t

(25.7)

= f(x)

+00

--7

(25.8)
--7

= -

u.

+00

, --7

-00.
25.13.

: lim = lim = +00,


-/+

-/ +00
-+ +00 .

-00

--7

lim

( ) =

-/-

-/-

lim

-/-

, --7

lim -

' =

lim = ,

-/-

lim

-/-

~ = [00]
00 =

lim _1_

-/- --

= .

-00

=0.

25.8.

= f(x)

1.
2.

( ) .

3.

(,

4.

f(x) >

f(x) < ).

, ,

5.
6.
7.
8.

.
.
.

ro

. ,
.

1, 2, 7.

211

,
.
.

u,, 25.14. = ~
l-

:
.

1. = 1 = -1.
(-00; -1), (-1; 1), (1; +(0) ,

2.

= , = . 0(0; );

= , = . 0(0; ).
3. ( > ) (-00; -1)
1); - (-1; ) (1; +(0).
4. = ~ , . .


(;

1-

( -)

= 1-

)2

= --1- 2 =
-

-().

,
. ~ .

5.

= 1 = -1 -

. :

(k

1~x2
1- =
= -+
1 - = l' -
-+ 1 -
1

= -+ .+00 -+ -(0),
.
= 11 (--2 - ) =
-+ 1 -

11

--2
-+ 1 -

= .

, ,

6.

1i =

= .

-+ -00.

'

= (__)' = 1(1-
1 - 2

'

-+ .+00 ,

>

- (-2) =

(1 - 2 )2

+1 ,
(1 - 2 )2

7.

. ' = (lX~ ~2\2 '

= 1 2

= -1

('

), .
.

212

8.

. ":

"= (

2 + 1 )'= 2(1- 2 )2
(1 - 2 )2

( 2 + 1)2(1- 2 )(-2)
(1 - 2 )4

= 2( + 3).
(1 - 2 )3

=-

l- 2

y'~O
-1

= ,

159

160

Xl

= -1, = 1.

159

0(0,0) -

( -1; ) (1; (0);


(-00; -1)

(;

1).

160.

26.

= f(x) ,

. ,

5 - 5 + 7,

, ,

= sin ,

= ln(l + )

() ?
,

n()

n,

= f(x),

.
.

213

26.1.

f(x)

n()

) = n() =

+ alX + 2 + ... + n

n:
n

-,

, . . n()

(26.1)
,

P~(x)

= 1

+ 2 2 ( -

:;() = 2 2
:;'() =

A 1 , ... , n

(26.1):
)

+ 2 3 ( -

2 3

+ 3 ( )

+ ... + nn( - Xa)n-l,

+ ... + n(n -1) n ( -

+ 23 4 4 ( -

. . . + n(n -

)2

)n-2,

+ ...

1)(n - 2) n ( - )n-,

p~n)(x) = n(n - 1)(n - 2) ... 2 1 n .


= (26.1), :

n()

= ,

= n(),

. .

_ P~(xa)

. .

. .

A 1 , ... , n

'

_ :;()
21

2 -

. .

11

1 -

'

:;'()

31

'

(26.1),

n- n() (

P~(Xa)

( ) =n( ) +-1-1-(-)+
n

:;()

21

(-)

... +
214

p~n)(xa)
I

n.

):

+ ...
(

)n

. (26.2)

(26.2)

' ' iJ. iJ. . .:-

"n()

n,

= -4 + 3
3

26.1. ()

+ 1.

"'()

P III (-I)

+1

= -1, '() = -12 + 6 - 2, "() = -24 + 6,


( -1)
10, '( -1) = -20, "( -1) = 30,
2

= -24.
= -24. ,
()

-20

30

-24

= 10 + -1-( + 1) + 2!( + 1)2 + !( + 1)3,

. .

-4 3

+ 1 = 10 -

20(

+ 1) + 15( + 1)2 -

4(

+ 1)3.

26.2.

= f(x) . .,

f(x)

26.1.

f(x)

(n

l)-

(; ) ,

f(x)

f'(XO}
= J(xo) + -,-(
1.

.. . +

f(x).

+ .. .

f(n)(xo)
n f(n+l)(c)
n+l
,( - ) + (
)'
( - )
n.
n+ 1 .
(

f"(xo)

+ -2-'. -( -

(26.3)

= + ( -

),

< < 1). (26.3)

iJ. iJ.. ?

f(x)

= n() + Rn(x) ,

+ ... +

f(n) ()
n
, (-)
n.

()

. f'(xo)

Pn (x)=f(x o )+--,-(- )+-2-'-(- )

1.

iJ.,

()

f(n+l)(e)
.
(n+1)!
215

)n+l

mm.. '. , .

f(x)

Rr,(x)

~ n(). ,

= f(x)

= n()

Rn(x).

= -

. 7:

= f(O)

+ 1'(0) + f"(O) 2 +
1!

2!

...

+ f(n) () n + f(n+l) () x n+1 (264)


n!

(n

+ 1)!

'

= , < < 1).

= j(XO) +
= f'(c)(x-XO), . .

n = (26.3) f(x)

+ f'(c)(x-xo)

f(x)- f(xo)

f(x)

~ )

+ f'(xo)(x

) (.

f(x)

u.

f(xo) +

26.2.

f'(xo)

-,-(

1.

+ ... +

f(n) ()

n.

0,001.

f(x)=e x .
: f'(x)=e , f"(x)=e , , f(n+l)(x)=
= )= =l, f'(O)=e o=l, ... , f(n)(O)=l, f(n+l)(c)=e c,
(26.4) :

2
3
n
ecx n+ 1
X
e =1+-1)'
(
. + . . .+
n., +
n+.
1.'+-2'.+-3'
= 1:
1
1
1
1

= 1 + -1'. + -2'.+.
3' + ... + In. + (n+.
1)'
0,001 n ,
(n ~ 1)! 0,001. < < 1, < 3.
n = 6

3
7! < 5040 = 0,0006 < 0,001.

:
X

,
~

1
2!

1
3!

1
4!

'1
5!

1
6!

1 + 1 + - + - + - + -+ 2 + 0,5
2,718.

. . ~

+ 0,1667 + 0,0417 + 0,0083 + 0,0014 = 2,7181

2,718,

216

sinx

= -

cosx = 1- 2

+ 5 4

. cosc,

2n + 2

2n

+ 4 -: ... + (_1)n (2n)! + (_l)n (2n + 2)!


2

In(l

2n + 3

2n + 1

... + (_1)n (2n + 1)! + (_1)n+l (2n + 3)!

. cosc,

n+ 1

+ ) = -"2 +"3 + ... + (_1)n-l-;;:- + (_1)n (n + 1)(1 + )n+l'

J.t
( l+ )

=1++

(-

- 1)
I

2.

1) ... (- n)(1
(n + 1)!

+ ... +

+ c)J.t-n-l

- 1) ... ( - n

n.
n

+ 1) n

VI.

I 23-241
27.

I4

27.1.
~

n1:,; 'U

z = x+iy,

i -

, i 2 = -1.
~

= ,

+ iy

= iy 'u .';

= , + iO =

, ,

JR

, . .

JRCc.
~

i1.ui1. '

= Rez, -

= Imz.

(Zl = Z2)

+ iYl

Zl = l

= =

Z2 = 2

+ iY2

z,

: l

= + iy

MHUMOi1. '

= 2, l = 2. ,

z =

+ iy

= - iy,

, n.:u.

27.2.
z

= + iy

(; )
,

= Rez, = Imz. ,

, (; )

z
~

+ iy

(. .

161).

1n

161

1.i1. n1. i1.u.i1.


,

z =

+ Oi

MHUMOi1. ,

z = 0+ iy.
218

r=

Izl

= + iy = (; ). ,

~ z

z,

, ,

Arg z

<.

z#

arg z -

(-; 1), . . -1

z =

. -

2Jrk (k =

-.u

< arg z

-1, 1, -2, 2 . . . ): Arg z = argz+2Jrk,

~ 1 (

, [; 21)).

27.3.

= + iy u-.tct1

.
~

<

= r sin <.

= + iy

( . .

161).

= ,

= r cos < + ir sin <


z = r (cos < + i sin <) .

z =

+ iy

= r cos<p,

uu-.tct1
.

= Izl
r = Izl = vx2 + 2.
lil = )02 + '12 = 1. <
.
= -, tg<p = ~.
cos<p = -,
r

S<

<

cos<p

= Arg z =, argz + 2kJr,

= cos(argz + 2kJr) = cos(argz),

sin<p

= sin(argz).

z,

.219

. . <

= arg z .

.-

< argz ~ , tgif' =


arctg ...

1, IV

z=i

zl=2

arg z =

arctg ... + 7r

11
arctg ...

11..
,

7r

111

z
, arg z
( . . 162). , arg zl = z l = 2;
argz2 = . Z2 = -3; g z = . ~ z = i;

Z4=-8i
.

162

argz4 = -~

= -8i.

Z4

I ei.p = cos if' + i sin <, I


~

= r( cos if' + i sin <)

n?mJt'f:t ( 7n'''u'i:t) .

z = rei.p, r = Iz l -

= argz + 2k7r (k =

, if' = Arg z

-1, 1, -2, 2, ... ).

, ':;'u. ei.p n'U'U'':a.R 6'.


n, 2. z ,
, . .

if' ::

arg z .

u.

27.1.

Zl

= -l+i

z2

=-1

zl

Izl = r = J(-1)2 + 12 =../2,

. . if' =

3:.

argz =

arctg(~l) + = -~ + =

3;,

n (32
-1+i=v2
cos
+isin 3)

n 3w

=2'.

z2

r =

J( -1)2 + 02 = 1,

argz

. . if' = . -1 = cos 7r + i sin 7r =

220

= arg( -1) =
ei7r .

28. I1
28.1;
CYMMoi1

= l + iYl

Zl

Z2

= 2 + iY2

Zl

+ Z2 = (Xl + 2) + i(Yl + Y2)1

(28.1)

n.u"

() co-L () :

(Zl

(28.1)

Zl + Z2 = Z2 + Zl,
+ Z2) + Z = Zl + (Z2 + Z ).

(. .

163).

IZl

+ Z21

IZll

+ IZ21.

..m. m:..

163

164

28.2.
~

, .

Zl

Z2

Z, , Z2,
Z

= Zl -

Z2, Z

Zl =

+ Z2 = Zl.
+ iYl, Z2 =

+ iY2,

Zl,

. .

Z:

(28.2)
(28.2 ,
(. . 164).

,
,

IZl - z21 ;;:: IZII-IZ21.

IZl - z21
J(Xl - 2)2
(Yl - 2)2 d,
. .
d

, .

, ,

Zo

= 2i , . .

Iz - 2il = 1
z, 1
Zo = 2i 1.
221

28.3.
~

21

+ iY1

22

+ iY2

= 21 z2 = (1 2 - 12) + i(X1Y2 + Y1 x 2)1

(28.3)

, ,

(28.4)
, i

= ii = ( + 1i)(0 + 1i)

(28.4)

+ iY1

= ( -

(28.3)
2

1) + i(O + ) = -1.

+ iY2:

(1 + iY1)(X2 + iY2) = XIX2 + X1 i Y2 + iY1X2 + iY1 i Y2


= 12 + i 2Y1Y2 + i(X1Y2 + 1 2) XIX2 - 12 + i(X1Y2 + 1 2)'

= - io + 8i + 15i - 12i2 = -10 + 23i + 12 = 2 + 23i.


2 = ( + iy)(x - iy) = + 2 - .

(2 - 3i)( -5 + 4i)
,

() :

2122
(Z122)23
21 (Z2

= Z2Z1,

21

(Z223),

+ 23) = 2122 +

21Z

(28.3).

21
1 (os '1
i sin '1)
Z2
2 (cos '2 + i sin '2), , :

21 Z2 = 1 (COS'Pl

+ i sin '1 )2 (cos '2 + i sin '2) =


+ i sin '1 cos '2 + i cos '1 sin '2

= Tl 2 (cos '1 cos '2


= 1 2

cos '1 cos 'Pi -

- sin '1 sin '2) =

sin '1 sin '2 ~ + i (sin '1 cos '2 + cos '1 sin '2))

='T1T2(COS('P1 + ' '2) + isin('P1 + '2)),

..
~

I Z 1 Z2

= TIT2(COS('P1

+'P2)+isin('P1 +'P2)).1

, : 7n7' 'uJt
n:, 7Jt.


. ,

1Zn =
~

(( cos ' + i sin '))n = n (cos n' + i sin n') .1

(28.5)

Jtff. .

u 28.1. (1

+ Vi)9.
222

(28.5)

= 1 + Vi

= j 1 + (V3)2 = 2;
==> argz

arg Z

= arctg 1v3 ==>

3'

= 2( cos

37 + ZSlD
37) .

Z9

= (1 + V3i)9 = 29 (cos 9~ + i sin 9~)

=2
28.4.
~

(s37 +isi37)

= 29(-1) = -512 .

, . m

HL. 7COMnJte7CCHtX 'uJt

Zl

Z2

f:.

Z, , Z2,

. . ~
Z2

Zl,

= Z, Z2Z = Zl.

Zl = l + iYl, Z2 :::::: 2 + iY2


(2 + iY2)(X + iy) = l + iYl

f:.

, Z

= + iy,

{ 2 + 2 == Yl
-

Xl,

, :

< ).

u. 28.2. 12 ~ ~i.
:

1 + 3i

2+i

(1 + 3i)(2 - i)
(2+i)(2-i)

223

2 - i + 6i
4+1

+3

5 + 5i
5

1 + i.

1 (cos 1
2 (COS 2

+ i"
sin 1)
+ Z Slll )
2

1 ( (
= - cos 1 -

<2

)' . (

+ Z Slllep1

<2

))

, 7.n,7 ",, .,

, .., ., , ",
.

28.5.

n- ,
.

n-u

1.1.3

7.n7? ",

W, W

'{IZ

= W, w n = Z.
z

= r(cos + i sin ),

Z) . .

= p(cos () + i sin ()),

z = w n = pn(cosn()
n

() =

= , n() =

+ i sin n()) =
+ 2Jrk, k

r(cos + i sin ).
= , -1, 1, -2,2, ...

+ 2Jrk = / ( ).
n

'{IZ =

)
Slll =
'Vr (cos + Z"

n(
ep+2Jrk
V r cos
n

+ Z..Slll ep+2Jrk)
n
'

k = 0,1, ... , n - 1.

k,

, ,

. ,

wn

=n

= vr ( cos +n21n + i sin +n21n) =

vr (cos ( ; + 21) + i sin ( ; + 21 )) = vr (cos ;

+ i sin ; ) = Wo
(k

z =1-

n-

. 28.3. )
224

= Wj )

= ).

= w.

: )

: i = 1 (cos ~ + i sin ~). ,


3.

2=

7
Vcos "27 + 2.S
"2 =

3r:1 (
1 COS

3/

k =

= 0,1,2.

Wo

t+ 27k .. t+ 27k )
3
+ z s
3
'

k = 1

..

'3

.1

= cos 6" + 2S 6" = ""2 + z2;

t + 27 .. t + 27
57. . 57
Wl = COS --3- + z s --3- = cos (; + 2 S (; =

k = 2

v. 1

-""2 + z2;

W2

9".

9".

""2
.. ""2
= cos+2S-

37.. 37
.
= cos- +zs- = -2.
2

)
:

-1 = COS 7 + i sin 7 .

R=vcosJr+isinJr=cos

+ 2Jrk
2

+isin

+ 2Jrk
2

'

k=O,l.

k = Wo = cos ~ + i sin ~ = i, k = 1

Wl = COS 3; + i sin 3; = -i. , = i

= -i.

~II.

I 25-281
29.
29.1.

'1'U,

f(x)

:.i1

Hai1u nU60 ( ).

: Hai1u 1'U, (),


n60 '()

= f(x)

( ).

() J(x) .
() n'ii.

f(x)

(; ), (; )

'() =

f(x)

dF(x) = f(x) dx).

, = 2 , ~,

()

= ~ ,

'() = (~)' = 2 =

f(x).

()

= + ,

'() = (~ + )' = 2 =

29.1.

f(x)

( IR).

()

(; ),
, - .

f(x)

()

()

f(x)

J(x).

(()
)'
'()
f(x).
() - , (),
f(x), . . '()
f(x). (; )

(()

- (' = '() - '() = f(x) - f(x) = .


( . 25 .1),
() - () = ,

. , ()

226

= () + .

F(x)

f(x)
f(x)

n::, ,

/ f(x) dx.
, .[I

1/ f(x)dx = F(x) +c1


~

f(x)

ntii. ii.,

ntt, tpa:ceHe,,

f(x) dx -

nepeMeHHoii. -

1, n .


u'mu,u- .

= F(x)

) (.
.

165).

()

ii. 1CpueOii..

~y=F(X)+Cl

~y=F(x)

~y=F(X)+C2
~=F()+

~
.

165

?
~

, ,

(; ) ,
, .

29.2.
,
.

1.

d(/ f(x) dx)

= f(x) dx,
227

(/ f(x) dx) I

= f(x).

d(/ f(x) dx) = d(F(x)

+ )

(/ f(x) dx)' =

+ d(C)

= dF(x)

(() + )'

'() dx = f(x) dx

'() + 0= f(x).

nu n

. ,

/ ( 2 + 4) dx
, ( 3

2.

+ 4 + )'

= 3 + 4 +
+ 4.

/ dF(x) = () + .

, / dF(x) = / '() dx = / f(x) dx = () + .

. :

/ af(x) dx = / f(x) dx,

i - .

/ af(x)dx = / aF'(x)dx = /(())' dx = / d(aF(x)) =

=() +1 = (() + ~1) =(()+) = /


(
4.

f(x)dx

%- = ).

/ () g(x)) dx
'()

=/

f(x) dx / g(x) dx.

= f(x) '() = g(x).

/() g(x))dx = /('() G'(x))dx =


= /(() ())' dx = / d(F(x) ()) = () ()
= (() + 1 ) (() + 2 )

=/

+ =

f(x) dx / g(x) dx,

228

5. ( ). j f(x) dx

= F(x) + ,

j f(u) du

= F(u) + ,

= <()

, .

f(x) -

F(x) - . j f(x) dx = F(x) + .

= <(),

<()

- .

F(u)

= F(<p(x)).

(. .

188)

dF(u) = F'(u) du = f(u) du.

j f(u) du = j d(F(u)) = F(u) + .

,
,

,
.

j 2 dx =

+ ( = <())

j 2 du = 3 +. ,
sin
+, ,
j s. d(Si) = -33

ln 3
2
jln xd(lnx) = -3-

+,

tg3

u,, 29.1.
<)

4 -

+-

5) dx.

(2 4

2 + -

= 2+ 1 5

=2j

5) dx

4 dx -

3j

3- + 2 + - + - 5 + 4
3

u,,

<)

j tg2 d(tg ) = -3- + .


j (2
3

29.2.
j

: 1 dx =

j (1

2 dx + j dx 2
= _
5

X+1

--

5 +

'

dx.

+ ~) dx = + ln Ixl + .
229

1
2

+ -,

5 j dx =

29.3.

~n

, ,
,

( )
.

d(sinu) = cosu du,

Jcosudu= Jd(sinu) =sinu+C.

m-,''.
.

, .

(. . )
, () .

,
.

,
,

(
~ ).
,
,
.

, ,
2. 1 .

, .

> , l lul

= ln ,

d ln lul

= d ln

= du

Jd: = l + = ln lul + > .


< , lnlul = ln(-u). dln(-u)

Jd: = ln( -) + = ln lul + < .


,

-du
-

15:

(-1 arctg '!.: + )

1+(~)2

230

~ du =

du

2 +u 2

du ,

1 . /uadu=~:~ +
2. /

ci:::

(af-1)

(/du=U+C);

' lul + ;

./Udu= " +
'

4. /

" du

'

" + ;

= - cos u +

5. / sin u du

6. / cos u du = sin u

(/ sh u du

= u + ) ;

(/ u du = sh u +

) ;

7. /tgudu= -llsul+;
8. / ctg u du
9. /

= ' Isin ul + ;

= tg u +

du

cos 2 u

(/ du2 u = th u

10. /~ = -tgu+

11. /

su

12. / ~
cosu

= ' Itg(1f2 + 1I.)


4 I + '

du
Va2 - 2

14./

Vu 2 + 2

15. /

du

= arcsin 1f + ;

=lnlu+Ju 2 +a 2 1+C;

du

+ 2

= 1 arctg 1f + ;

du

= l2 . ' I +- uu I+ ;

2 _ 2

17. / Ja 2

+ ) ;

= ' Itg 1f1


+
2
'

13. /

16. /

(/ shdu2 u = _ cth u

+ ) ;

2 du = ~ . Ja 2 - 2 + ~2 arcsin ~ + ;

18. / Ju 2 2 du

= ~ . Ju 2 2 ~2 ln lu + Ju 2 21 + .
231

30.
30.1.
~

, -

(
)
,

( n.'U.
-1l: u-'u.):

du

= d(u + ),
1

=j:.

du = -d(au),

1
2
= -d(u
),
2
cos u du = d(sin ),

u . du

sinudu = -d(cosu),
1

- du = d(ln ),
u
1
-2-

cos u
() du = d(J(u)),

du = d(tgu).

u.u:

J dx Jd(x + 3)
J
2)
dx =:3
J
~3 =

1)

);

(3 ~ 1)

+3

24

= ln Ix

+ 31 +

(3 - 1)

24

( 2 -

d(3x - 1)

- 1)25
= :31 . (3 25
+

( 1);

3)

-f dx
4)

ctg 2 dx

= - ctgx -

JV4 dx-

1 - . sin
2
s

dx =

J.(

1-.-2
s

1) dx

1 dx = -.-2s

+ ( 10 1);
1

3 2

J3

d(J3 )
V(2)2_(J3.X)2

13);
232

_.

J3

. J3

rs--

2
5). 1 sin 6xdx = ~ 1(1 - cos 12) dx = ~ 1 dx - ~ 1 cos12xdx =
1
11
1
1
1
= "2 -"2 cos 12xd(12x) . 12 = "2 - 24 sin 12 + ( 1 6);

1
-~ 1
6)

dx

(-1)(+2)

1(
+ ~1
3

- _~

+ 2)

( - l)(

dx

1 1 d(x + 2)
1 1 d(x - 1)
+2 + 3
_ 1

=1

tgudu

7);
du

8) 1 - sin u

=1

sinudu
cosu

.Sl~ "2 u
s "2 cos "2

- InlCOS

du

=-1

d(cosu)
cosu

COS 2 :!! + sin 2 :!!


2
2 du
2 sin ~ cos ~

=1

dx -

dx

= - 1 Ix + 21 +

1
1 Ix - 11 + ;

= -In 1cosul +

Inltg

= In/Sin ~/2

~ I + (

11);

9) 1 ( + 2)9 dx

=1

( + 2 - 2)( + 2)9 dx

= 1 ( + 2)10 dx -

- 2 1 ( + 2)9 dx = 1 ( + 2)10 d(x + 2) - 2 1 ( + 2)9 d(x + 2)


( + 2)11
( + 2)10
= 11 - 2 10 + ( 1)''
10)
4

1ctg

1
4
ctg

11) 1

- 1

9,3);

dx

= - 1 (ctgx)-s d(ctgx) = - ctg-4

( 1);

dx
- 1
dx
- 1
d(x - 1)
v3-2x+x 2 )2+(-1)2 V(V2)2+(x-1)2

= Inlx - 1 +

12)

COS 2 :!!
2
du +
2 sin ~ cos ~

ctg ~ d(~2) + ltg ~ d(~)


2
2 2

=l

~ I + = In I:~: ; I + =

+2

. 2 u

+1 2

+ 2)
+ 2)

(-1)(+2)

= -3

7)

- 1) - (

( - l)(

)3 - 2 + 21 + ( 14);

1(43

- d(l - )

_5_
cos 2 2

+ 3 1 - ) dx
5
-

=
1-

41 dx - ~

1cos

d(2x) 2 2

tg2x - -1- + ( 1,
3

1) / 3 . \/1 + 2 dx =

/(1 + 2 )! d(l + 2 )

/(1 + ) k . . ( + 1 - 1) dx =
~ /(1 + x )k d(l + 2 ) =
2

2'
= 14 (1 + 27
) 3" - 8(1 + ) 3" + .
,
, ,

30.2.

( )

(. . ). !
,

( ).
.
.

/ f(x) dx.

= <p(t),

<p(t) -

dx = <p'(t) dt


tmu'u. nm'':1J,

1/ f(x) dx = / f(<p(t)) . <p'(t) dt1

(.1 )

(.1)
.

t = <(), <(). ,

/ f(<p(X)) . <'() dx

=/

f(t) dt, t

(.1) .

u,, 30.1. / e t dx.


Q

= 4t, dx = 4 dt. ,

t dx = 4 / et dt = 4 l + = 4 t + .
234

f vx - 3dx.

u. 30.2.

Q : ,;=- = t, = t 2 + 3, dx = 2t dt.
J xVx-3d= J(t2+ 3).t.2tdt=

(t + t ) dt =
4

t dt + 6

f2

2
t dt =

= 5( u.

30.3.

3)5/2

"5 + 6 "3 + =
+ 2( -

+ .

3)3/2

du
=lnlu+Ju2+a21+C.
vu 2 + 2

t = vu 2 + 2

dt =

t3

t5

2vu 2 + 2

du

( ).

+u

+ d,

2
2
dt = Vu t + u d.
2
vu + 2

. .

du

dt

dt

= J dt = ln Itl +
du
J vu 2 + 2
t

J . ( +

u. 30.4.
:

J . (

+ 2 = t.

+ 2)100 dx = J

=
u.

(t -

Q :
dx

2) .

tjJ.

+ 1 = J t ~ 1 = J

2)100

t 102
tl 01
102 - 2 101

30.5.

= ln lu +

t 100 dt

+ =

=J
(

t 101 dt -

+ 2)102
102

J t 100 dt =

2(

+ 2)101
101

+ .

dx

--

+1

= t. = ln t, dx = ~t. ,
dt
dt
t(t + 1) = J t 2 + t =
1)

1
1 24

dx.

= t - 2, dx = dt.

dt
d(t +
- J(t+_)2_- J(_)2_(t+_)2
-

Ju 2 + 2 1 +

1
2

1
2

1
-

lnl

12

+t+

21 + --

---1
1
2-2 2- t - -21

_lnl -t+ 11 lnl_t_1


.t +
t

16

ln~ +.
+

1
.

30.3.
U

= ()

v = V(X) ,
d( uv) = U . dv + v . du. ,

/-d-(U-V-)-=-/-U-d-V-+-/-V-d-U------/-U-d-V-=-U-V---/--V-d-u--'I

'1

,,.i1.
',,. -

dv / v du,

, .
,
-

(, ,

dv

); ,

du,

,
.

1. / P(x)e kx dx, / P(x)sinkxdx, / P(x)coskxdx,


()

k-

= (), dv

2.

/ P(x)arcsinxdx,

/ P(x)arccosxdx,

/ P(x)lnxdx, / P(x)arctgxdx, / P(x)arcctgxdx.


()

dx = dv, u .
3. / . sin dx, / . cos dx, . u u = .

,, 30.6. / (2 + 1) 3 dx.

=_2X3~d1

[ u
dv -

::
-,r

=/2d~ d

dU_

v-

_ 1

= ). ,

/ (2+1)

3 dx ==

(2+ 1) ~e3X - / ~2 dx = ~(2+l)- ~e3X+C.


3

236

'/.L, 30.7.
Q

Jln

dx

dx.

= ln

===}

du =

dv = dx

===}

v =

= . ln -

u, 30.8.

Jln

J '"
2

= '" d

v=e

1 dx

~ dx = . ln - + .

dx.
===}

du = 2xdx ]

===}

e~

J '" dx '" 2 J'" .


J"'
=
=
=
=
J'" = '" J'" '" '" + .
(30.3)
(. (30.2 J '"
= '" 2( '" - '" + ).

u, 30.9. J
2

dx.

(30.2)

dx

'"

dv

dx

dx

===}

du

dx =

dx

"'. ,

dx, v

arctgxdx.

arctg dx

= arctg

===}

du =

dv = dx

===}

v =

= . arctg -

~ dx

1 + 2 dx = . arctg - "2

= xarctgx 31.

1+

"21n(1

d(l + )
1 + 2

+ ) + .
2

31.1.

( )

n() = n
~

n-

+ alx n - 1 + ... + an-l + n ,

, ;

(i = 0,1, ... , n) -

(31.1)

, ,'., ( .il u.il

1uil).

237

(31.1)

, ) ,
, . . n()

31.1.

= .

l n(),

- Xl, . .

n() = (

Pn-1(X) -

Xl)

(31.2)

Pn-1(X),

(n - 1).

: ?
.

31.2

(n

( ). n-

> )

.
,
.

31.3.

n()

(31.3)
Xl, 2,

. .. , n -

n .

(31.1).

31.2

Xl.

n - 1 ()

(31.2).

, .

2. n - 1 ()

= (X-2)'n - 2 (), n - 2 () - (n-2)-


= ( - Xl)(X - X2)Pn - 2 ().

. , n()

, :

- Xi)

(31.3)

uf1.'bl.U

:umu.

u 31.1. () = - 2 2
.

238

+ 2

: () = - 2 2
=
= 1, = 2. ,

-1;

- 2 2
u. 31.2.

+ 2

+ 2 = ( + 1)( -

1)( - 2).

- 2

+ 4 -

: ,

- 2

4 = ( - 1)( - 2i)(x + 2i).

+ 4 -

(31.3)

, '/\,',. '/\,',u

k.

= 1 (. .

) n..

(31.3)

(31.4)
I

k1

2 -

k1 ,

+ k2 + ... + kr = n,

k2

r-

()

+ 1)( -

= ( - 3)(

4)(

3)(

3)(

4)(

- 3)

()

= ( -

3)4. (

31.3,

+ 1) . ( -

4)2. .

I -

31.4. n() = n

+ alXn-1 + ... + n

~ , .

31.5.

, 3

+ + + d ==
2

d = 1.
239

3 2

+ 1, = 1, = -3,

31.6. n()

+ ib,

- ib.

(31.3)

+ ib)) . ( -

- ib)),

+ + q.
( - (

+ ib))(x -

( -

= (

= - 2, q = +
2

+ ib) =
+ = + + q,

ib)) = (( - ) - ib)((x - )
)2

= - 2

, ,
,

31.7.

, . . n()

n() = ( - Xl)k 1 ( - X2)k 2

( - Xr )k r

+ I + ql)8 1 . .. ( + + qm)S~. (31.5)


k 1 + k 2 + .. . + k r + 2(81 + 82 + ... + 8 ) = n,
( 2

(31.5):

1 = ( - l)( + 1)( 2 + 1);


2
- 16 = ( - 16) = ( - 4)( + 4);
5
4
3
3) - 6 + 9 - 2 + 6 - 9 = 3 ( 2 - 6 + 9) - ( 2 - 6
= ( 2 - 6 + 9)( 3 - 1) = ( - )2 . ( - 1)( 2 + + 1).
1) 4
2) 3

+ 9) =

-v,uJtU

'lCuu

uJtU

) , -

, . .

f(x)

= ~:f~~, () - , Qn(x)

n.
240

nJ/:"fL, -

. .

- ,

< n;

( ~ n) nfL.

~ '/' n ~f~~ Mcr.co,


'Jt ,

'

L(x)

nfL fL

!!: . .
Q[X)'
()

Q(x)

, ~~~~

R(x)

= L(x) + Q(x)"

~X2+ 9

4 -2 3

+9

4 2 -5

+9

2 3 -4 2

L(x)

5 + 9

-2

~x"3~+--2-x~2-+--4-x-+--3

-5

2 3

5 + 91 - 2

4 2 -8
3

+9

- 6
15 .

= + 2 + 4 + 3 R(x) = 15 .

3 + 2 2 + 4 + 3 + .......1L
.
-2

(1) .

-L.
-'

() . ( )k (k ~ 2, k N);
-

(III).

~x+N ( , . . p2-4q<); .

+px+q

(IV). ( 2 + N )k (k ~ 2, ),
+px+q

, , ,

N,

q -

, n

fL

241

1, 11, 111

l .

nu'' ~~~~.

31.8.

Q(x)

= ( -

1 )k 1 ( -

X2)k 2

( 2

+ 1 + q1 )81

( 2

+ + qm)8 m

( )
:

()

=-

Q(x)

A k1

1 + ( - 1)2 + ... + ( -

+~+

( - 2)2

. ..

X1)k 1

B k2

( -

X2)k 2

+ ...

1 + D 1
2 + D 2
C81 X + D 81
... + 2 + 1 + q1 + ( 2 + 1 + q1)2 + ... + ( 2 + 1 + q1)8 1 + ...
1 + N 1
2 + N 2
8 + N
... + 2 + + qm + ( 2 + + qm )2 + ... + ( 2 + + qm ) ,
8m

(31.6)
1 2 ... 1 2 ... 1

D1

... 1

N1

... -

1)

+4

+1

2)

_~+~+

- 2)( - 3)3 -

2 ( 2

+ 1)

=:! +

- 3

- 3)2

D
.
- 3)3 '

+ + D

+1

7 + 8 + 9
= ~ + ~ + + D +
- 2)( 2 + + 1)2
- 1
- 2
2 + + 1

3)

( -l)(

Mx+N

+ ( 2 + + 1)2
1 , 2 , ... , 1 ,

2 , ...

(31.6)

. '' ':

''. :

1.

Q(x);

(31.6)

~~~~

gt~),

S(x) -

2.

, . .

()

== S(x).
242

(31.7)

3.

31.5 ) (31.7),
,

A1,

2 , ,

B 1 , .
2'

u. 31.3. ( _2~)(~23': 23+ 5) .

3 -

~--~~--~--~

- 1)( 2

31.8

+ 5)

+
= ----+
,
- 1
- 2 + 5
2

. .

2 2 - 3 - 3
(

1)(

( 2

2 + 5) + ( - l)( + )

+ 5)

1)( 2 - 2

+ 5)

2 2

3 - 3 == 2

2 + 5 + 2

+ - ,

. .

2 2

3 - 3 == ( + ) 2 + (-2 - + ) + (5 - ).

2 , x 1 , ,

2=+,
-3= -2-+,
-3 = 5 - .

, ,

= -1,

= 3,

2 - 3 - 3
..,---..,...,...-:--------,- --1- +
2
(-1)( -2+5) - -1

= -2.

3 - 2

2 -2+5'


' ,ui1 :

(31.7)

u. 314

Q(x)).

( _ 2)(

- 4

+ 1)

-4

: : ( _ 2)( + 1) - + _ 2 + + l'

3 _

4 ==

( - 2)( +

1) +
243

( +

1) +

( -

2).

= 6,

= , -4 = -2, . . = 2; = 2,
= i; = -1, -7 = , . . = -~ .

. .

- 4

_7.
+ _ 3.!. _ + __
3_ .
- 2
+1

---:-_----:--:--_-,- = _
(

31.2.

2)(

+ 1)

~ dx = J

1. J

d(x -

);

2.

) = A-ln '-l + ( (2)

( _ a)k dx -

J (1;

( - )

-k

d(x - ) - .

(x_a)-k+l
_ k+1

3. J = J

t!x + N dx .
+px+q

, :

J =

+ N

dx,

(x+~)2+q-T

q - > .

+~

= t. = t - ~ ,

dx = dt. q - = 2 . , (2)

(15)
J

= J . + N
2

+ + q

dx

= J (t 2- ~) + N
t + 2

dt =

-MJ~+(NMP)J~t2 + 2
2
t2 + 2 -

= -2 ln(t2 + 2 ) + ( N

) 1
t
- . - arctg 2

+ ,

. ., ,

J =

Mx+NM
N-!:!..J!.
+ 2
2
2
dx = -ln(x +px+q)+
arctg
+.
2
2

+ + q

u. 31 .5.

q-'4

+ 1
dx.
+ 2 + 10
244

q-'4

: 2

+ 2 + 10

3 + 1

+ 2 + 10

dx

= ( + 1)2 + 9. +1 = t.

= t - 1, dx = dt

J3(tt- +1)9+
2

1 dt

=3 ~
2

t + 9

- 2 J~
=
t +9
2

t
3
2
+l
= -2 ln(t 2 + 9) - 3
- arctg - + = -ln(x 2 + 2 + 10) - -3 arctg -3- + .
32
"
3

4.

J( 2+px+q
+ N )k dx,

+~

k ~ 2, q -

~42 > .

= t

(t 2

t dt

+ a2)k

N -

J(t2 +adt 2)k '

.
a2 =q __
4

J(t2 t+dta2)k = '12 J(t

+ )

-k

d(t + )

= 2(1 _ k)(t2 + a2)k-l

+ .

= t,
v

dv

t dt
(t 2 + a 2 )k '

du

= dt,

= '12 J(t 2 + )2 -k d(t 2 + 2 ) = 2(1 _ k)(t21 + a2)k-l '

t2 dt

J(t 2 + a2)k = 2(1 - k)(t

t
2

1
dt
+ a2 )k-l - 2(1 - k)
(t 2 + a2)k-l =
t
1
2(1 - k)(t 2 + a2 )k-l
2(1 _ k) . Jk-l'

Jk

= 2 (Jk- 1 -

t
2(1- k)(t2

(31.8),

+ a2)k-l + 2(1

245

_ k) Jk-l),

t
)
+ 2)k-l .

. .

Jk

1 (2k - 3 Jk
2k _ 2 - 1 + 2(k _ 1)(t2

= 2

u.

31.6.

Jk

> 1.

= J(t2 ~ 1)3'

J
= 1, k = 3.
J1

Jt

(l

dt
2

+ 1 = arctg t + ,

J 2 -

2 2-3
J(t2 dt+ 1)2 .,- 22
- 2

J1

+ 2 (2 -

1)(t2

+ 1) =
t

J = 4J2 +

4(t2

t
t
+ 1)2 = 4(t 2 + 1)2 +

= 2 arctgt + 2(t2 + 1)

3(1

4 2 al'ctgt +

2(t2

t)
+
+ .
1)

+ ,

31.3.

31.1-31.2

'!m:u,. t .

1.

2.

3.

'U.

31.7.

J ++22t +4 -f;- 4
5

2x Z

dx.

: ;
:

- 5

+ 2 3
+ 2 4 + 2 3

- 2 4
- - 2 4

+ 4 + 4

+ 2 3 + 2 2
2

+ 4 + 4
- 4.1;3 - 4 2

4 3

+ 4 2 + 4 + 4 () .
246

5 + 2 3 + 4 + 4
-...,.----=------:-=
4
2

2 3

2+

4 + 4 + 4 + 4
---,------:----,-4

2 3

2 2

4 3 +4 2 +4+4
4 + 2 3 + 2 2

4 +4 +4+4
Cx+D
---;:-:----;:------,--- - + -2 + ----;::---2
2
2
(

+ 2 + 2)

+ 2 + 2'

4 3 + 4 2 + 4 + 4 == ( 2 + 2 + '2) + ( 2 + 2 + 2) + ( + D)x 2 ,
. .

4 3 + 4 2 + 4 + 4 == ( + ) 3 + (2 + + D)x 2 + (2 + 2) + 2.
,

+=4,

2A+B+D = 4,
2 + 2 = 4,

2
4.
= 2, = , = 4, D = 2. ,

4 + 4 + 4 + 4
2
4 + 2
--,--------:----,-= '-+ --:---4

2 3

2 2

+ 2 + 4 + 4
4 + 2 3 + 2 2

= _

4 + 2 .
+ 2 + 2

2+ ~ +
2

+2

5 + 2 + 4 + 4 d
4 + 23 + 22
=

J(

2
-

2
4 + 2 ) d
+ 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 =

=2

+1=

4 + 2 dx
+ 1)2 + 1

t,

2 - :; +

J ( 4+ 1)2+ + 1
2

= t - 1 dx =dt. ,

- J~
=
+1

4t - 4 + 2 dt = 4 ~ 2
t2 + 1
t2 + 1
1
= 4 . "2 ln(t 2 + 1) - 2 arctg t + =

dx.

= 2 ln(x 2 + 2 + 2) -

t2

2arctg(x + 1) + .

2 3

+4
2
2
2 2 dx = -2 -2--+21( 2 +2+2)-2rtg(+1)+.

4
3
++

,
.

247

32.

32.1.

sin

cos ,

(, ,
)

R(sinx; cosx),

R -

~ ! R(sinx; cosx) dx

tg ~ =

t,

',u.'b'lU.

s =

= 2 arctg t, dx = 1 + t 2 dt.
!

.
R(s;s)

R 1 (t) -

2 tg ~
2t
- -1 + tg 2 ~ 1 + t 2 '

cosx=

1 - tg 2

;t

1 - t2

2 _ __

1 + tg ~
2

1 + t2 '

1 -- 2
t )
dx= ! R (2t
--2; -

l+t

l+t

t.

22
. --

l+t

dt= ! R 1 (t) dt,

, .
, ,

( ) .
, :

1) R(sinx;cosx) ' sinx, . .


R(-sinx;cosx) = -R(sinx;cosx), cosx = t
;

2) R(sin ; cos ) ' cos , . .


R(sinx; - cosx) = -R(sinx; cosx), sinx = t;
3) R(sinx; cosx) ' sinx cosx
R( - sinx; - cosx) = R(sin ; cosx),
tg = t. ,
! R(tgx) dx.

u. 32.1. ! 3 + s
. dx+ cosx .
:
248

t=

tg~. dx

2 d t' SJll = ~,
2t
= ~1
+t
l+t

1 - t . ,
= ~1
+t
2

cos

dx
!
2dt
!
! 3+sinx+cosx
= (1+t )(3+ 1~~2 + ~+~~) = t
2

d(t +

! (t +

1 )2

'2

t)

t+ i
arctg . r.;
v7
v 7/2

=
+"4

+ = vr.;7 . arctg

r.;

u. 32.2. 1 =
Q

! 1 +SJll
d~

dt
+t+2 =

1 + 2tg ~

..fi7

+ .

R(-sinx;-cosx)

tg

= 1 + (1.
)2
- SJllX

1 + SJll

= R(sin ; cos ),

= t.

= arctgt,

dx=~2
1+t

sin 2

tg
= --=---;;-1 + tg 2
2

t2
-

1 + t2

-!
dt
(1 + t )(1 +
2

1~2t2)
=

_! ~
_2..! (V2t)2
d(V2t) =
2t + 1 - J2
+ 1

J2 arctg ../2t + = J2 arctg( ../2 tg ) + .

32.2.

f sin

. cosn dx

1)

sinx

= t, n

'.

cos

= t, -

'.

2)
;

3) : cos 2

= !(1 +

= !(1 - cos 2), sin . cosx = ! sin 2, :n -

cos2x), sin 2

'

'. ;

4)

tg

= t,

+n

sin 4 cos 5 dx.

u. 32.3. 1 =
249

Q
=

sin

2 dt, = v-=t2

= arcsin t,

dx =

1- t

u. 32.4. 1 =

= t.

1sin dx.
2

1~ sin2 2 ~(1- 2) dx =
2
= ~ 1sin 2xdx - ~ 1sin 2xcos2xdx = ~ 1~(1- 4) dx-

1 = l(sinxcosx)2 sin 2 xdx =


2

~ Isin2 2xd(sin2x)
16

u.

32.5.

dx.

dt

1+t2"'

sin

~x - ~sin4x - ~si 2 + .
16

64

'48

/=1 cosx
Q
dx

+n
t

=lcos-l'Si-d.

= -4. tgx
1

v'l+t2'

= t. =

arctgt,

- J 1 + t2

32.3.

sinax cosbxdx,

1cosax cosbxdx,

1sin sin dx
:

sin : cos /3

= ~ (sin( : - /3) + sin(o: + (3)),


250

1
cosa.cos{3 = 2" (cos(a. - {3)
sina.sin{3

= 2" (cos(a. -

'U. 32.6.

+ cos(a. + {3)),

+ {3)).

{3) - cos(a.

sin 8 cos 2 dx.

[= /

sin 8 cos 2 dx

[= /

~/

(sin

10 + sin 6) dx =
=

!2 (-~
cos 10 - ! COS6X) + .
10
6.

33.

33.1.

,
Ha.:rbHbIe .

dx
/ Jax 2 +

+ '

/ Jax2

+ + cdx,

+n

Jax2

+ +

. :

+ + =
)
= ( +-+ 2

)
= ( ( +2

+ 2

)
+--2

: 4 2 + 2 + 1 =
[_/.

j4((x

'U. 33.1.

4 - )
+----;;--2
2

= t.

)
= ( ( +-

[= /

4 (2 +

dx

+ i)2 + 136)
251

dx

+ 2 + 1

! + i) = 4 ( ( + i)

_!/

4 2

dx

j(x

+ i)2 +

136

+ 136)'

i = t, = t - i, dx = dt.

<;: +

v +

u. 33.2. 1 = !

4
-

6-

dx.
.

: 6 - 2 - 2
_( 2 + 2 - 6)
-(( + 1)2 - 7)
7 - ( + 1)2, + 1 t,
t - 1, dx
dt.

1 - ! t - 1 + 4 dt _ !
~

1!

=- -

+3!

t dt

dt

2 _12 d(7 - t 2 ) + 3
(7 - t)

~ + 3 . arcsin _t_ + =

= -

n,

!J

~-

3 arcsin

dt

)(-./7)2 _ t2

+1

V6 -

n()
dx, n()
+ +

n()
2

+ +

Qn-l () -

./
dx = Qn-l () . 2

!J

dx
2

+ +

'

(33.1)

+ + +

2 - 2 + .

n - 1

n()
J 2 + +

=(Qn_l(x)Vax2+bx+c)/+ J

(33.1):

+ +

u.
Q

33.3.

1 =

1=

! J1 - ~

2 - 2

(33.1)

1-

dx.

dx=(AX+B)Vl-2-2+.
252

! J1 - ~

2 - 2

, :
~2

-2-2

2 +(+).
~:::::::::==::::;;::::.)1-2-
+
,
v'1-2x-x 2
2v'1-2x-x 2 v'1-2x-x 2
. .

:::

(l - 2 - 2 ) + ( + )( -1 - ) +~,

::: - 2 - 2 - - - 2 -

+ ~.

1=- -
= - 2 - -
{
= - +~

x1 ,

-!, = ~, ~ = 2. ,

I=(-~+~))1-2-2+2J
2

2 ,

dx
)2 - ( + 1)2

13)

= ( -"2

=
.

+1

+"2 Vl-2-2+2s.,fi +.

33.2. -

,

JR (

+ )j( , .... , (
+ b)fJj'Y) dx, , ,
+ d
+ d
(

, ,

d -

/3, ... ,

, ' -

+ db

= t k ,

k -

73, , "1.
,

dx

, = ~
et -

ax++db =t k

-dktk-1(ct k - ) - ( - dtk)ckt k- 1
(k)2
dt, . . dx
ct -

t.

~: :~ t.

u. 334 1 =

Jv

dx

+ 2)2 -

JX+2.
+2

Q : ~
6. + 2 = t 6 , = t 6 - 2, dx = 6t 5 dt, t = Vx + 2.
253

,.

=6

6t dt
t4 - t3

=6

(t

=6

t dt
t- 1

(t

33.5.

- 1) + 1 dt =
t- 1

?=

+ 2 + 6 Vx + 2 + 61 1Vx + 2 - 11 + .

-1 V + 1

y'X-1

12 -

2' _ dx,

11 =

+ 1+ t ~ 1) dt = t 2 + 6t + 61n 1t - 11 +
= 3 \!

u.

Q : 11

dx

--':1(1-)2

= t 2 , 12 + 11 = t 3 .
-

..

R(x; ) 2

x 2 )dx,

R(x; ) 2

+ x 2 )dx,

R(x; ) 2

a2 )dx

,
, u'..u'

': n'.':: = . sin t ; = . tg t


; = ~ .
s

u.

33.6.

Q :
1=

1=

I ~ dx.
~

= 2 sin t, dx = 2 cos t dt, t = arcsin ~.

- 4 sin t 2
4 cos t
. cos t t = 1-- t =
1)44sin
t
4sin
1dt = - ctg t- t +
= 1 . sin dt = 1-.
t
t
2

1-

= )1 - sin 2 t
ctgt=
--(
sint

dt

-2- -

()

arcsin - - ctg arcsin 2


2

)1-: (~)2 =

= -

J4=X2).

2"
254

";4 - 2

arcsin - - - - 2

33.4~ ! R(x; vax 2 + + ) dx


Vax 2 +

+ .

+ 2

= t,

, . .

/ R(t; va 2 - t 2) dt, / R(t;va 2 + t 2) dt, / R(t; vt 2 - 2 ) dt.



.

= dt.

= (+1)2 -S;TO +1 = t, = t-1, dx=


~
dt. t = ..::11-, dt = -4' cosz dz,
t
SZ
s z

: 2 +2-4

1 =

= arcsin

1- /
-

4.

Jd-z -

(-V5) cosz d _
1 /
2 d _
sin2 z
z - - v5 cos z z-

5,/5'
~

= __1_ .

J5

! /(1 + cos2z) dz = - J5 (z + ! sin 2z) + =


10

v5 (cs
. -tJ5 + "21.s (2 cs
. -tJ5)) + =
= -10
= -

J5 (s
. -J5- + -21.s (2 s
. -J5)
- ) + =

+1

__ J5 (

+1

. J5

10 s

+1 +

3-,: /
=
33.5.

J5 . v + 2 2

t.

dx

+ 1)2

+ +

4) +.

/ . ( + n) dx (
), ,

; ,

n,

, , . . ,

255

, , m.....l m + 1
.
n
n

1) -

, =

2) m

t k , k -

+ 1 - , + n = t s , s -

3) m + 1 + n

, + n

s - .

= n . t

J( + n)

dx

, . .
.

u. 33.8. 1 =

J VVX+
.jX

dx:

!.,

= i, = : 1 = 2.
vx + 1 = t , = (t - 1)4, dx = 4(t3 - 1)3 . 3t2 dt, t = V vx + 1.

-~, n

34.

,
.
,

, .
.
, ,

. ,

J~
, cos

tg

cos6

='/ (cos cos+ sin )2 dx =


2

1
( cos

=/

= t, :

--2

tg 2

tg 4 )

+ 2cos
--2- + --2cos

dx

= tgx + -2 tg 3 + -51 tg5 + .

2
/ ( 2

+ 4 + 1 dx
+ 2 + 1) ,

+ 4 + 1
2 + 4 + 1

=
--;------:-:-;;-= - + -- +
2
(
+
1)2

+1
( + 2 + 1)
2

+ 1)2

, 2 + 4 + 1
( 2 + 2 + 1)
3 + 2 2 + , :

2 + 4 + 1 d = / d(x + 2 + )
2
3
2
3

/ (

+ 2 + 1)

+ 2 +

= 1n I 3'+ 2 2 + I + .


,
. , .(I

. . .

, . . afi
.

, ~ ~'u 'tI.ee n.
,

f(x) , , / f(x) dx
, . .

( ).
, , (
).

,' , /

vx .cos dx,

vx cos

. ,

/ /

,~Xx

9 nt

dx -

( ),

( ),

M8eM81f1Ce. R :

257

Jcos dx, Jsin dx - (),


JSi~X dx, J; dx - ,
J~ dx - .
2

- 2 , cos 2 , -11

' .

..,

VIII.,

I 29-33

35. I

= f(x)

[ ; ],

<

1. = , Xl, 2, . .. , n = ( < l < .. . < n )


[, ] n ~mu-': m'IC [; Xl]' [Xl; 2], ...
.. . ,[Xn-l' n ] (. . 166).
;

l'

= n

Xi-l

166

2. [Xi-l; Xi], i
1,2, ... , n
Ci [Xi-l; Xi]
, . . f(Ci).
3.

j(Ci)

D.Xi

= ; - Xi-l : f(Ci) . D.xi

4.

Sn = f(Cl)D. Xl

Sn

:
n

+ f(C2)D. X2 + ... + f(cn)D.x n =

L f(Ci)D.Xi '

(35.1)

i=1

= f(x)

u.:1:t cYMMo1:t

(35.1)

[; ].

= D.Xi

5.

~

(i = 1,2, ... , n).

-*

(35.1),

n -*

00 ,

Sn

1,

[; ]
, ,

u,,

1 n'bl.
= f(x) [ ; ]

Jf(x) dx. ,

f(x) dx

= n-too
Iim

'"'
L.-J f(Ci)D.xi'

(-+) i=1

259

(35.2)

u;:. ,,

n,,
tJ,

f(x) dx -

f(x)

noiJ'btHmezpaJtbHotJ

n.. :,"

MeHHotJ , [; ] -

(7,,)

umutL.

= 1(), [; ]

Jf(x) dx,

UHmezpupyeMotJ

35.1

().

= f(x)

J1() dx .

[; ].

,
.

,
,
.

1.

(35.2).

Jf(x) dx = Jf(t) dt = Jf(z) dz.

,
,

(35.2)

(35.1),

2.

Jf(x)dx

3. :

Jcdx

260

= ( - ).

3.

[; ] =
,

f(x) ~ .

= f(x),

= = , 7Jl.

Hev:Ho/j mnu/j. .

"

,,
,
,,,
,,
,,
'

= l 2

Xi-l

n-l

= n

167

[;] = ,1,"" = n ( <


n [; 1), [1; 2)" ..
, [ n -1; n ]. (. . 167). [Xi-1; Xi]

< 1 < ... < n )


...
(i = 1,2, ... , n)

, . .

f(Ci),

f(Ci)

D.Xi = ; - Xi-1
f(Ci)' D.Xi
f(Ci).

D.Xi

i=l

;=1

D.Xi

= D.x; -t :

Sn,

S,

= Jf(x) dx.

, n:.tf. u u'tf. m'u'U. ",

1tf.tf. n''U.'U..
.

bl
1 L

F = F(x),

1.

F L

< ). . [; ]
< Xl <.... < n ) n



(

, Xl, . .. ,
n (

[; Xl]' [1; 2], ... , [xn-l; n ]. , L


[Xi-l; Xi], .

.6.;

; - Xi-1 ,

F = F(x)
[Xi-l; xJ ,
[Xi-1; Xi], F(Ci) .6.Xi. (
F(Ci) [Xi-1; Xi] .)

= ;

[; ]

~ F(C1).6.X1

+ F(C2).6.X2 + .. . + F(c n ).6.x n =

(36.1)

F(e;).6.xi.

i=l
,

.6.Xi.
(36.1)

,
:

= lim

-t

L F(Ci).6.Xi = JF(x) dx.


i=l

, nepeMeHHotf. U' , 'u 1COmOPOtf. n'.


1'1.L. F
F(x), tf.tf. 1 [; ], n

,, 't'

Ut, ,, ,," [; ].

F(x)

S,

= t = ,

v(t):

= Jv(t)dt;

Heo~()pOHOO [; ]

,(): =

J,() dx .

262

37., . -
=

F(x) -

f(x) [; ].

37.1.

= f(x) [; ]
(F'(x) = f(x)),

- [; ]

Jf(x) dx = F(b) - F(a).

(37.1)

Q [; ]
... < n ) n
.

= , 1, ... , = n

168.

1.

< 1 < ...

[XO;Xl]'[Xl;X2]'''''[X n -l; n ]'

Xi-!

1'.

= n

168

F(b) - F(a) = F(x n ) - F(xo) = (F(x n ) - F(X n-l))+


+ (F(X n-l) - F(X n-2))

+ ... + (F(X2) - F(X1)) + (F(Xl) - F(xo)).

= f'(c) . ( -

f(b) - f(a)

).

F(b) - F(a) = F'(c n ) . ( n - n '-1)

. .

+ F'(Cn-l) . ( n -1 -

n -2)

+ ...

i=1

i=1

F(b) - F(a)

=L

f(Ci)~Xi,

(37.2)

i=1

Ci (Xi-l; Xi),
= f(x) [; ], [; ].
,

f(x) [;].

(37.2)

= ~X; -+ , -

F(b) - F(a)

= L
'x-t

263

i=1

f(Ci)~Xi,

. .

F(b) - F(a) =

JJ(x) dx.

11

..'//'iJ. m-iJ.u.

(37.1)

F(b) - F(a) = F(x)ll1' -

(37.1)

Jf(x) dx

= F(x)I:

-
.

F(x)

f(x)

[; ],

F(b) - F(a)

[; ].

J dx = ~ '~ = 9 - = 9,
3

dx

-larctg~12
-l(zr. - (_))
2
2 -2 - 2 4
4

4 + 2 -

-- zr.4 '

-2

u.. 37.1.

j )1 + ~os2xdx.

--;;-xdx = J" Icosxl dx =


2 2 dx = J" vcos
J" / 1 + cos
2

"
'2

= Jcosxdx + J(-cosx)dx = sinxlJ + (-si)I~= 1 + 1 =


"

2.

u. 37.2.

J r~ '

dx
2
- - = ln 11nxll = ln2 -ln 1 = ln 2.
xlnx

264

38.

[; ).

-.

1.

[ajb],

n'' ' '7'U

' '

f(x)

J f() dx

J) dx,

(38.1)

. .
.

;=1

;=1

L f(;)6.; = L
n

lim
n-+

L: .

f(x)6.x;

i=1

n-+

L:

f(e;)"6.x;.

lim

f(x).

f(e;)

i=1

Jf(x) dx.

f(x)

(38.1).

'7' ()

2.

[; )

'?>1 ' [; ], '

f2(X)

' [; ]

J(11 () + f2(X)) dx J () dx + Jf2(X) dx,


=

(38.2)

. . .

J( () + f2(X)) dx = nl~~ L(ll (ei) + f2(e;))6. x i


(ei)6. x +
f2(ei)6. x i Jf1(X) dx + Jf2(X) dx.
=

i=1

= n-too
lim "L.-J

n4() ~

Jf(x) dx = - Jf(x) dx.

i=1

3.

lim "

;=1

265

.
-.

Jf(x) dx

= F(b) - F(a)

= -(F(a) -

=-

F(b

4.

J) dx.

':;'u.

f(x)

[; ]

< < ,

Jf(x) dx = Jf(x) dx + Jf(x) dx,

(38.3)

. .

( ).

[; ]
(
[; ] ).

= m ,

[; ], [; ] [; ].

n -t

00 (

-t ), (38.3).

4 , , (
f(x)

) .
, ,

< < ,

Jf(x) dx = Jf(x) dx + Jf(x) dx.

Jf(x) dx Jf(x) dx - Jf(x).dx J) dx + Jf(x) dx


=

5.

3).

. ':;'u.

f(x)

",

[; ), ':; [; ] ",, -

Jf(x) dx

= f(c) . ( - ).

266

! f(x) dx = F(X)I: = F(b) - F(a),


G

F'(x)

= f(x).

F(b) - F(a)

( ),

F(b) - F(a)

f()

;;;:

= F'(c) . ( -

(<< )

) =

f(c) . ( -

).

, (; ),

(. .

f(c)

f(c)

169).

= _ ! f(x) dx

6.

:v,u

f(x)

f(x)

169

[; ].

.. ': ' : [; ],

<

! f() dx ':, ' ':v,u. ,


f(x) ;;;: [; ], ! f(x) dx ;;;: .

'

5)

! f(x) dx

= f(c) . ( -

),

[; ].

f(x) ;;;:

[; ],

f(c) ;;;:

> .

f() . ( - ) ;;;: , . .

! f() dx ;;;: .

7.
(

<

' 'nt'' :v,'U. ' : [; ],

) ' '. ,

! !I () dx : : :; ! f2(X) dx.
G

267

f1 () : : :; f2(X)

[; ],

< ,

() ~ ,

J2(X) -

6,

J2() - fI ()) dx ~ .

2,

JJ2(x)dx - JfI(x)dx ~ ,

JfI () dx ~ JJ2(X) dx .

. .

, .

8.

. /l.

/l. '"U ':

= J(x)

u..

[; ], (

< ),

( - ) ~

JJ(x) dx ~ ( - ).

(38.4)

[; ] ~

7,

J(x)

~ , ,

Jdx ~ JJ(x)dx ~ JMdx.

(-) ~

5,

JJ(x) dx ~ (-) .

J~x) ~ , 8

170

, [; ],
(. .

9.

170).

/l. n/l. /l. n /l.

,.... nm/l.i1. '::

li ) dxl ,;

IJ(x)l,

1/(')1

; < .

7 -IJ()1 ~ J(x) ~

-JIJ(x)1 dx ~ JJ(x) dx ~ JIJ(x)1 dx.

li

J(x) dxl

IJ(x)1 dx.

10.

u. u n

nil. uu,

"omopoil.

n.

uuu. , . .

(f

f(t) d}

~ f(x).

- :
z

Jf(t) dt = F(t)l: = F(x) - F(a).

(f )

d}

~ (F(x) - F(a~ ~ F'(x) - ~ f(x).

, n'iI. u n.'
u n n'il."v,uu.

39.
39.1.

Jf(x) dx

f(x) dx = F(x)l: = F(b) - F(a).

F(x)

f(x).

sinxdx = -cosxl~ = -(SJr

cosO) = 2.

39.2.

( )

JJ(x) dx

= <p(t).

39.1.

1) = ,<p(t) ~ l = <pl(t)
. t [aj,8];
2)
<p(t) t [,,8]

[; ];

<() = <(,8) = ,

3)

f(x) dx =

f(<p(t)) . <pl(t) dt.

(39.1)

F(x) f(x) [; ].

Jf(x) dx

F(b) - F(a).

(F(<p(t)Y = f(<p(t)) .<pl(t), F(<p(t)) f(<p(t)) . <pl(t), t [; ,8]. -

Jf(<p(t)) <pl(t) dt = F(<p(t))I~ = F(<p(,8)) - F(<p(a)) =

= F(b) - F(a) =

Jf(x) dx.

(39.1)

11 n11

u.

, :

1)

2)

= <p(t)

= g(x)j

3)

!
2

u,, 39.1.

Jx J4 - dx.
2

<)

t = ; = 2,

= 2 sin t, dx = 2 cos t dt. = ,


~.

1/2

Jx J4-

t=

d=

J 4si tJ4-4si t.2stdt=


2

270

~/2

= 16

~/2

~/2

J sin tcos tdt = 16 J ~ sin 2tdt = 4 J ~(1- cos4t) dt =


2

= 2 (tl~/2 - ~ sin 4tl~/2) = 2 (~ - ) = ?.

39.3.

39.2.

u=

()

= v(x)

[; ].

Judv

= uvl: -

Jvdu.

[; ]

,u'v + uv'.

uv

(39.2)

= u'v + uv'.

(uv)'

- :

J(u'v + uv') dx = uvl:

Jv . ' dx + Juv' dx

= uv

1:

===>

===>

Jvdu + Judv = uvl: ===> Judv = uvl: - Jvdu.

(39.2) u'mu:u '

/I n'' tmm.

'

Jxlnxdx .

u. 39.2.

= lnx
dv = xdx

u
[

~dx

du =
V -

271

]
.

(39.2),

xlnxdx = ~ .lnxle - / ~. -dx


2
1
2
/

1 21

= 2 - - "2 . "2 1 = 2 - 4 + 4" = 4" ( + 1).

11"

u. 39.3. / xsinxdx.

<)

: .

[ dv==sin

dx

= d3;

===}

du

===}

v = - cos

11"

= -xcosxl~ + /

= -1. (-1) + + sinxl~ = 1.

cosxdx

39.4.

f(x) [-; ],
= . ,

f(x)dx =

j 1(;)

{2.

f(x) - ,

dx,

(39.3)

f(x) -

[-; ] [-; ] [; ].

f(x) dx = /

/
-

f(x) dx

+/

f(x)dx

=- /

(39.4)

f(x) dx.

-t.

f(-t)dt

=/

f(-t)dt

=/

f(-x)dx

( :
).

(39.4),

/
-

f(x) dx

=/

f( -) dx

+/

f(x) dx

= / ( -) + f(x)) dx.

272

(39.5)

f(x) (-) = f(x, f(-x) + f(x) = 2f(x);


f(x) ( -) = - f(x, f( -) + f(x) = .

(39.5)

(39.3).

, , ,
, ,

J cos sin xdx

J -

1(

sinx dx = .

-3

-1(

40.

Jf(x) dx,

[; ] ,

f(x)

[; ], 'lm..
~

mu uma.ltu, . .
,

, ,
.

40.1.

( I )

f(x)

[;

+00).

Jf(x) dx, J f(x) dx.

lim

~+OO

+00

+00

f(x) dx

lim

~+OO

Jf(x) dx.

+00

J f(x) dx

. ,

+00

J f(x) dx .

273

("':'00; ]:

J f(x) dx

aE~oo

Jf(x) dx.

-00

+00

/
:':':':-:':':':-:':':~-:'~.'.-'.'-.'.-.-.

f(x) dx =

) dx + /

-00

+00

-00

f(x) dx,

171

. ,

+00

f(x) ~ [; +00) /

f(x) dx -

, -

(. .
u..

171).
-

40.1.

J cosxdx; 3) J d:

+00

: 1) /

~; 2)

00

-00

+00

: 1) /

! =

lim /

-++

= --'

lim

11

-++

2)

- 2 dx

= -( -

1)

= 1,

cosxdx

lim /cosxdx

-+-

-00

lim sinxlo

-+-

= 0-

m sina,

-+-

-+ -00

lim sin

-+-

J dx = lim Jdx = lim ln = 00, .


00

3)

-+

-+

;
, .

274

40.1

( ). (;

f(x)

ip(X)

+00)
f(x) ~

J ip(X) dx ~
J f(x) dx, J f(x) dx J ip(x) dx.
+00

~ ip(x) ,

+00

+00

+00

u.

40.2.

J 4..-.
00

\.
'1
'O..J
?

1
1
< -".
.
2(l + 3"')
--<

..,<

= 1

00

. ,

J X2(1d~ 3"') (
1

1).

40.2. lim ful = k, < k <


"'-+00

() > ip(x) > ),

00

J f(x) dx Jip(x) dx 00

00

(. .
).

u. 4. 3.

J ln

+00

1
+00

ln 2

+ 2 dx.
+1

+ 2 dx ,
+1

+00

J ~

1
2

lim

-++

I +2
n

=
~

lim

-++

1)

1(

n 1 +1 x2.+l
2

275

lim

-++

2 +1
~

= 1.

40.2.
( 11 )

f(x)

[; )

J f(x) dx, t.
Jf(x) dx.
lim

0-+0

, ,

J f(x) dx.

f(x) dx = lim

0-+0

! f(x) dx .

, , ! f(x) dx .

J(x)

f(x) dx = lim

0-+0

J J(x) dx.

............
....
......
....... ..... .........
......
..... ..
............
- , ................... .
...... .... ..... . - .. , - .
.::::::::::::::: :::: ::::: ::::: :::~:: ::::::::::

0.0

0.0

0.0.

b-
.

f(x)

[; ],

172

! f(x) dx

=!

J(x) dx

+!

J(x) dx.

,
, , .

f(x) >

Jf(x) dx (

= )

(. .
1

u,, 404

J;.

276

172).

Q : == == ;
.

1
/

/1

.
-dx2 == 11

c---t

dx =

111

( . -1) ==

.
-11 .
c---t 0+<:

== - 1-

11
.. ---t0

00,

0+<:

40.3. [; )
,

==

f(x)

<()

J<() dx -

::::; f(x) ::::; <().

/ f(x) dx,

/ f(x) dx

<() dx.

40.4.

[; )

==

f(x)

<()

~ == k, < k < 00,


x---tb <\)
lim

/ f(x) dx

<() dx

u. 40.5. /

~x ?

Q : f(x) == _._1_ [; 1]
s

== . <()
1

= 1.

Jdx = lim

dx = limlnxll =O-limlne

c---t

c---t

<:

<:---t0

0+ ..

11

f(x)
-. )

x---t <(

J ~x

= x---t
11 - - == 1,
sin

277

41.

41.1.

( , ,

. .), [; ]
. ,

, . . , [; ]
(; ) [; ] [; ] ,
[; ], , [ ; ]

[;].

( : )

11

v,).
.
.

1.

= , Xl, . . . , n = [; ] n .

...

(i = 1, ... , n):

= l

+ ...

+ n

2.

( ),
:

i ~ !(i )i.
;
: ,
;

. .

~ !(l)1

+ ... + !(n) n = L

!(i)i.

i=1
. , . .

lim '~
"
n-+

(-+)

f(;)i

i=1

= J!() dx .

, ,
:7 .. IC' 'u IC' u


278

'
1
:

1)

[; ]

[; ].
:

= (), . . ,
-

(), [; ]
;

6.

2)

6.

= dx, . . dA
= (): dA = f(x) dx, f(x), ,

( );
,

3)

dA ;:::: 6. 6. -+ ,
dA

() = =

f(x) dx.

41.2.

(.

), ,

() ~ ), -

8=!f(x)dx

8 =

ydx. (41.1)

As

S(x)

(41.1) 1 - . (41.1), .

-=o+-...L.a---L---L..----L..-

:~;:

= , = , = (. . 173).

173
f(x)
8

x+dx

~ ,

,:

1. [; ] , 8 ~ 8().
2. 6. = dx ( + 6. [; ]).
8 = 8() 6.8,

( ).

6.

dx

-+

d8

6.8

, , ,

d8

= . dx.
279

3.

= = ,

dx.

(f()

< ),

=-

(41.2)

ydx.

(41.1)

(41.2)

174
,

~ (

f2(X)

fl(X)

(. .

f2(X),
174),

! f2(X)dx - ! !I(x)dx = !(f2() - !I(xdx.

d .:-.-:-:.:.:-..... .

d
.

=<()

. .... .......
.... .
.......
.

175

176

(. .

175),

, , ,
.

= = d,
= <() ~ (. . 176),
d

S =

280

dy.

, , 'ICpueoi1, -

aaHHoi1' n..mu'.':u

x(t),
{ == y(t),

[]

; /

~ 1I (') -X'(')d+

/ () = (/) = .

u.

177

41.1.

178

= 2 - 2 [; ].

: ,

177.

:
2

S = - j(x 2

2x)dx

= -

+ j(x 2 -

2x)dx

312
12 313
13
8
27 8
8
2
3" + + 3" 2 - 2 = - 3" + 4+ 3" - 3" - 9+ 4= 3" = 23".
2

u.

41.2.

= acost, = bsint.

Q :
, ,

i .

t ~ (. . 178). :

~B= j

sin t . (- sin t) dt = -

7/2

7/2

281

sin 2 t dt =

J (1-cos2t)dt="2 (~
tl o -"21.
, iS 1~b . , S= 1.

="2

",/2

s2t

"
12)
1
=4

~u...u.iJ:. 7, . . ,

r.p

= (3

< (3),

r.p -

= ( ')

(. .

r.p =
179).

II - . u.':u,u....
1. 5 /,
5 = 5(r.p) , ~ r.p ~ (3 ( r.p = , 5() = , r.p = (3,

. .

5((3)

= 5).

2.

6.5

r.p

6.r.p

= dr.p,

6.5

dr.p --t

dS

dS

dr.p.

= ~T2 . dr.p.
.

r.p

= r.p = (3,

u.

179

41.3. ,
r = cos r.p (. . 180).

282

180

, . . ~ :
,,/6

,,/6

J (acos3tp)2dtp;:::: ~a2 J ~(1+COS6tp)dtp;::::

1.
,,/6
2 7
7 2
+ 6s6tpl );:::: 4("6 +0);:::: 24'

,,/6

;: : 4(tplo
. .

7 2

7 2

68;:::: 24' , 8;::::


, , ,
,

. , ,

JT~ dtp - "2 Jri dtp - "2 JT~ dtp.

l'

8 ;:::: "2

181,

113

l'

13

181

41.3.

,

;::::
~

f(x),

~ ~ .

.,ut'i ,
, ,

,
.

'

;:::: f(x)

;::::

()

[; ], ,

l;::::

J1

+ '())2 dx.

(41.3)

1.

( ).

;::::

, 1, . , N

[; ] n (. .

;::::

;::::

182).

<

< ... <

n )

, 1 , .. , n ;:::: .

1 ,

M 1 M 2 , . , n - 1 n ,
6.L!, 6.L 2 , ... , 6.L n . M oM 1 M 2 ... Mn-1M n ,
n

Ln

;::::

6.L 1 + 6.L 2 + ... + 6.L n

;::::

2:: 6.L i
i=l

y=f(x)

n -!

=!

182

6.L i
6.Xi 6.Yi:
6.L i = J(6.Xi)2 + (6.Yi)2,
6.Xi = ; - Xi-l, 6.; = j(Xi) - !(Xi-l).
6.; = f'(Ci) . 6.Xi, ; (Xi-l; Xi).
2.

( )

6.L i = }(6.Xi)2

+ (f1(Ci) . 6.Xi)2 = J1 + (f1(e;,))2 . 6.Xi,

! ... n
n
n

=L

Ln

6.L i

= L }1 + (f1(e;,))2

i=l

3.

(41.4)

. 6.Xi

i=l

, ,

= lim
Ln
6.Li--t

lim

6.L i --t

L
6.L
i=l

, 6.Li~O 6.Xi~O (6.L i = J(6.Xi)2 + (6.Yi)2 ,


, I6.Xil <6.L i ). }1 + (f1(x))2
[; ], , , ().
,

(41.4),

max6.xi~O:

l =

lim

6.li ~ .
(n--too)
>=1

J1

+ (f1(Ci))26.Xi = /

}1 + (f1(x))2 dx.

, l =

=/

J1

+ (y~)2 dx.

JJ1 + (f1(X))2 dx,


.

284

x(t)

()

= x(t),
= y(t),

:::;

t :::;

{,

y(t) -

= , ({) = , l
(:J

l=

J}(xl (t))2 + (yl(t))2 dt.

(41 .5)

(41.5) (41.3)

x(t), dx = xl(t) dt,


u.

41.4.

() = ~;~:~ .

R.

Q : ~
(;

R) (R; ) ( . . 183).

= .jR2 1

"4 1 =

2 ,

Jv1 + _ 2 dx = R arcsin Rlo = R 2


R . /

l =

21 R.

( ~

= R cos t, =

183

R sin t

~ 21),
211"

1=

J }(-Rsint)2 + (Rcost)2dt

Rtl~11" = 2nR.

. ,

II

(41.3),

( ).

1. [; ]
l , . .
1 = l(x) (l(a) = l(b) = l).
2. dl l = l(x)
.
dx: dl = l'(x) dx. l'(x), N"" .l, (. . 184):
[; ].

ll(X) = lim

.l

--+ .

lim
--+

}(.)2 + (.)2
.

= lim

,.-_ __

/1 +

--+ V

, dl

= }1 + (y~)2 dx.
285

(.. )2 = }1 + (y~)2.

3.

dl , 1 =

f )1 + Y~

dx.

~ dl = )1 + Y~ 2 dx
.

,1:JL.
= dx'

dl = J(dx)2

+ (dy)2.

(. .

185).

_N_----.B

!::>.

184

x+dx

185

(3. , (') '(')


[0:; (3].
= r cos ', = r sin ',

r =

('), : ~ ' ~

, Q ',

x~
y~

= (') cos ',


.

= (') s '.

= '(') cos'P - (') sin'P,


= ' (') sin ' + ( ') cos '.

)(X~)2 + (y~)2

= .;.-(-'-:-('P"""'")-c-os-'P---r--;-('P-')'-s-in-'P-):-::2-+---;-(-'(-:-'P"""'")-si-n-'P-+-r-:-('P-")--S-'--:)'"""2 =

= v(r'('P))2 + (('))2.
286

(41.5),

(3

l=

! Vr 2 + r,2 d/.{J.
>

41.5.

186.

r =

(l

+ COS/.{J)

r =

(l

+ COS/.{J).

.,..

.,..

'2l=! V(a(1+COS/.{J))2+(a(-Si/.{J))2 d/.{J=! V2+2cos/.{Jd/.{J=

!v
.,..

.,..

2 . 2 cos2

~ d/.{J = 2 ! cos ~ d/.{J = 4 . sin ~ 1: = 4.

!l = 4. , l = 8.

41.4.

186

187

, ,

= S(x), ~ ~ .

: S

II ( ).
1. i [; ] ,
(. . 187). S(x)
287

S(X)

. v(x)
, . , [; ]

2.

v , . . v v(x) (v(a)
, v(b)
V).
dV v v(x).

, x+~x,

S(x)
dx . dV
S(x) dx.
. V dA

(41.6)

S(x)dx.

t1. l5
nt 't1..
2

41.6. ~

+ '!f;b + ~

= 1.

: ,
(- :::;; :::;; ), (.

Oyz
.

188):

z2

r::--;2
( 1 - ~)2

r::--;2
( 1 - ~)2

= 1.

S(x)

= 1( 1 - ~). ,
(41.6),
.

188

V =

J (1 - :2)

dx

= 1 .

= f(x) ~ , :::;; :::;;


= = ( . . 189).

,. . ,
,

( [;]),

(41 .6)

= f(x).

, S(x)

= 12.

V'" = 1

J2

288 -

dx.

(41.7)

= , = , = d ( < d),
, ,
. = <() ~

(41.7),

Vy = 1

(41.8)

dy.

y=f(x)

u,,

189

41.7.

<)

190

,
.

= "'22, = , = 22 (.

190).

(41.8)

= 1

Vy

2V2

2 dy = ny21~V2 = 81.

41.5.

= f(x) ~ ,
= f'(x)

[ ; ),

= f(x)

'

II

( ).

1.

[; ) ,

= f(x) (. . 191). S

, ,

, . .
I

s = s(x) (s(a)

8 M8eMantKe. n

289

= s(b) =

).

2.

~x

= .

+ dx

[; ] . , .
~s,

s = s(x)
.

ds,

+ dy.

dl,

paBHads = Jr(y+y+dy)dl = 2Jrydl+Jrdydl.


dy dl

ds,
ds = 27 dl, , dl =
= )1 + (y~)2 dx, ds = 27)1 + (y~)2 dx.
3.

191

50; = 27

J. )1 + (y~)2 dx.

(41.9)

= x(t), =
= y(t), t 1 :( t :( t2, (41.9)

Jy(t) . )(X'(t))2 + (y'(t))2 dt.


t2

= 27

50;

tl

41.8.

R.

: ,

= VR2 - 2 , -R :( :( R, .

(41.9)

5= 27 1) - 2 . /1 + (,;R~~ 2 )
V

-R

27

J )-

dx =

+ 2 dx = 2JrR xl~R = 4JrR 2 .

-R
u

41.9.

= a(t - sin t),

= (l- cost),
290

:( t ~ 27.

1
"2Sx

J(l cos t) .
cos t))2 + ( sin t)2 dt =
21 J 2sin ~ /1 - 2cost + cos t + sin tdt
J
t
= 41 Jsin !.
22 sin
dt = 81 Jsin ! .sin ! dt =
2
2
2
2
11"

= 21

v(a(l -

11"

11"

= -81

1r (

1r

t) = -161 (t

2
1 - cos "2t ) d ( COS"2

COS"2

cos i 111")
-

111"

= -161 2(0- 1 . . !Sx


41.6.

= ;1 2 .

1) = -161 2( -32) =

0+3"

, Sx

321

--'

= 64 12.

() , ,

. ,

= = ( < ),

(. .

(41 .10)

F(x)dx

36) .

u..

41.10. ,
0,05 , 100 0,01 ?

: , ,

. , . .

= kx,

k -

= 0,01

; ,

= 10000; , F = 10000.

F = 100
100 = kO,Ol,

. ,

(41.10)

0,05

J 10000xdx

= 5000X21~,05 = 12,5 ().

u.

, ,

41.11.

a.i

: ,

h,

. h.

( )
.

11

). ,

1.

192.

(::;;

::;;

= (),
() = .40).

. .

2.

), ,

::;;

::;;

(()

= ,

.6.

.6.

192

= dx,

. .

dA

().

dx '.., ' .','1J. 1J. ;


OaH01J. ( ) (. . 192).
dA = dp , dp - ; g. ' dv, 9 -
, ' - , dv -
( ), . . dp = g'Ydv.
, , 7 R 2 dx, dx -
(), 7R 2 - , . . dv = 7R 2 dx.
, dp = g'Y. 7R 2 dx dA = g'Y7R2 dx .
3) = = ,

Jg'Y 7 R dx = 2.1g'Y7 R 2
2

().

IlYTb.

v = v(t).

tl

S,

t2.

292

: ,
-

, . . v(t) = ~f.
,

dS

= v(t) dt.


t2

tl t2, S = J v(t) dt.

t1

, ,

1 11

u..

41.12.

,
:

v(t) = 10t + 2

(/).

= 10t + 2 (/), ,'


= ) 4- ,

v(t)
(t

S= J(10t+2)dt=5t21~+2tl~=80+8=88 ().


, ,

, . .
' -

= 9 . ' . S . h,

S -

9 -

h -


, ~

.
,

= ,

= ,

Yl = il() 2 = f2(X);
193.
II ( ).

1.
. .

= () -

= (),

[; ] , [; ] (() = , () = ).

2.

6.

6. (

dp

= dx.

()

- dx). Ii

dx

, ',u '..

'. '.1J. u'. , . . nu'.

dp

u'.'.a.R.

= 9 . ' '(2- v
- l) . dx .
- - ' '-v-"
S

293

3.

= = ,

= 9 . '

J(2 - Yl)X dx

g"(

J2() - !I ()) . dx.

al--...,..,.~.,....,...,...,.,...:------

I---b':";':";:";"';";":''*"1-----'+,:.;.:.:.,;.:.;.:,"""""""'-...

+dx

u.

41.13.

193

194

, ,

(. .

R,

194).

:
.

l = -JR2 - 2 , 2 = JR2 - 2 , = ,

= R.

= g/ J(J - 2 -

(-

J - 2 ) ) dx =

=2g/ J

J- 2 d=2g/'

(-'2) J(R

- 2 )1/2d(R 2 - 2 ) =

_
2J( - )
2
3
- - 9/ .
3
- - '3 g/ ( - R )
R _
I

= '23 g/ R 3 .

M1(Xl;Yl), 2 (2;2),""
ml,m2, ,m n

n(n;n)

294

u',-;u

Sx


n
(. . ): Sx
m; . Yi.
;=1
u',-;ui1 Sy
n

=L

: Sy

=L

m; . Xi.

i=1


,
.

= f ()

:::;

) ~

:::;

, (, = const).

=/()

[; ]

(; ).

dl

-------

dl,

(; ).
,

dl.

"

dl ',-;,

x+dx
.

f{

dS x

195

< )

,dl .
195).

, . .

Sx = ,

(.

J dl J
= ,

J1 + (y~)2 dx.

Sy ~

Sy

Sx

= ,dl .

dS x

=,

J . J1 + (y~)2 dx.

Sx Sy
( ).
m.

= f(x),

[; ] ,

: ,

= f(x)

. ( ; ) .
.

. = Sx ,l . = Sy ,l . = Sx =

295

::;t, =

= Sy

J xdl .J /1 + (y~)2dx
_

u.

2
.

--l-- -

J . /1 + (y~)2 dx

Jydl
_
_
- --l--

~-------------

-=---------------

J /1 + (y~)2 dx

J /1 + (Y~)2 dx

41.14.

= R 2, (.

196).

..

- ------ ;;~::

196

x+dx

197

Q : , 1:-,

. . 1 = 1:-. .

=, J/ -
R

= VR2 -

2 .

2 y~

VR2 _

dx

= J R2--

= ,R

, (,

Jdx =,RxIR

= const)

= ,R

,R2

Sx

2R

= -= ,. = -.
,l
1
---

2R. ,
1

(2;;; 2;;).

(),

= f(x)

296

= , =

= ( . . 197).

([' = const) . paBHa!,"S, . . = ['! f(x) dx.

[' . dx.
.

~y, (;

+ ~ ~x).

dS x

1
= ['. ydx 21 = 2["

dx

dSy

, Sx

= [' . ydx = ['xydx.

= ~[' 2 dx, Sy = [' dx.

()
.

= Sy, . = .

S - -1L
S
_ . ......!!.
- ['S

Sx

= -

Sx

=['S

~ J 2 dx

Jxydx

( ; ),

Jydx

Jydx

41.15.
R2, ~ ([' = const) (. . 198).

u..

2 +2:::;

),

= "/- 2

= .

1 ~2.

Sx

1
= -['
2

-R
R

! (J - )2
2

dx =

198

1
2
IR
1
3
3
R
R
2 3
= 2['(R
- 3) - = 2['(R + R - 3 - 3) = ['. R .
3

297

2,R 3

Sx

= ,S = ,~2 =:3';'

, ( ; ~~) .

42.

Jf(x) dx

f(x).

()

-:

f(x),

Jf(x) dx

() - ().

;
, ,
.
(,

= f(x)

) ,
.

, , (),
.

42.1.

[; ],

<

f(x).

Jf(x) dx,

, . . [; ], n ()

'~

= xi
l, 2,, N = .
n

(. .

199).

Ci

'

Yi = f(Ci)

- xi-] ( u':u.)
,

= >- 12+ >

xi

= + h i , i = 1,2, ... , n

= f(x).
h . fj;.

298

,,
,,,I ,
'I

'2

=I

'

Xi-I

199

- + - + ... + -

J () dx

~ h(Y1

(42.1)

-" (Xi-l+i)

n) = --:;;:- L

(42.1)

i=1

,.U n,,Jt"

?.

. n.

(42.1)

r:

2 -

( - ) . 2
'
24n 2

I~

-...:::

IJ//(X) I

IRnI ~

f(x) dx -

t,

[; ],

f(X'-'2

+') I

, ()

= kx + )

J//(x) =

42.2.

(42.1)

[; ]


1,

... ,n -

= ,

1, 2, ... ,

= n

(.

= -n .

200) .

299

n-l n

n-l

h
.

= n

200

+ h i,

i = 0,1,2, ... , n; h = - .

= f(xi),

= f(x) ,
; Yi+l (i = 0,1,2, ... , n).

Yi, l h = -n :

Jf(x) dx ~ +2 l

.h

+ l + 2

.h

+ ... + n-l + n

.h

Jf(x) dx

- ( + n
----:;;2

+ l + 2 + ... + n-l ) .

(42.2)

(42.2) ..ii. mpanev,uii..


n
,

Rn

,
2

42.3.

a~x~b

(42.2) -

If"(x)l.

)3

= kx

IRnI:::;

1;n 2

2 ,

()

f(x)

[Xi-l; Xi] ,
, ,

JJ(x) dx.

300

, -

= 2 ++,

= -h, = h -

[-h; h].

M 1(-h;yo), 2 (0;1), (h;2), =


= ah2 - bh + -

= - h; 1 = -
= ; 2 = ah2 + bh + -

= h (. . 201). S

>:2

,.
:> ...

-h

,','<

YI:::: .:.:.,
.,
.. ': .. :.

'.>,

= / ( 2 + + ) dx =

201

-h

(42.3)

, = 1,

h, , 1, 2. Yi
= ~(Yo - 2Yl +2).

(42.3),

/f() dx.

[; ]

2n ()
+ ih (i = 0,1,2, ... , 2n).

= ~ xi =
= , xl, 2, ... , X2n-Z,

X2n-l, XZ n

f(x): , 1, 2,, YZn-2, YZn-l, YZn,

Yi = 4) (. . 202).
lx
,

h,

(; ),

(42.4),

2h. [; XZ]
(xl; 1), (2; 2).

"'2

S1 = /

h
f(x) dx = (

"'

301

+ 41 + yz).

'

..................

...

0.0

2n-2 2n-l

,.

2n =

202

:1:'21'1_2

Jf(x) dx ~ ( + 4l + 22 + ... + 22n-2 + 42n-l + 2n)

_
Jf(x) dx ~ ~
(( + 2n) + 4(Yl + + ... + Y2n-l)+

+
~

(42.5)

2(2 + 4 + ... + 2n-2)) .

(42.5)

,,./ti1. n./t ( ).

m'.. n'.m

(42.5)

, (42.5)

Jf(x) dx

( fJV

f(x) -

= ).

302

J dx,

u. 42.1.

[;

2]

4 .

Q : : f(x)

-
= = ; = 4 = 2, h = -n

= ,

(. .

= ;

= 2'

= 2'

= 8;

27

= 8;

= 4 = 2'

= 1,

= 8;

= 2,

= 1;

203)

) :

= 4'
5

2
J

dx ~

= 4'

= 64;

125

= 4'
7

= 64;

1(127125343)
64 + 64 + 64 + 64

= 4'

27

= 64;

343

= 3,875,

! 1 :! 2
2

= 6'
J2
. .

. 203

dx ~ 3,875;

) :
2

1(0+8
1
27)
dx ~ 2 -2- + 8" + 1 + 8
= 4,25,

J
2

J dx ~ 4,25;

. .

) :

3 dx ~

~ ( + 8 + 4 (~ + 2;) + 2 . 1) = 4,

6 2

. .

J dx ~ 4.

J dx = 4 1 =
2

4.

0,125;

0,25;

) .

IX.

I 34-3 I

, .

.
.

,

.

. ,
.

43.
43.1.
~

f,

(; ). -

(; )

D
z IR, 7t1 n

.,

= f(xjY)

D IR,
f : D -t IR.

'Uu.','U n,', (,) , z -

'Uu.i1. n

MeHHoiJ. (>:''UiJ.).

= ) nWI .

'U,WI , (!) .

, :

,11 {(; )

> ,
~

> }.

= .

I >

z = f(x; ), (; ) D .--- (-

) (; ) .
,
, . ,

, t1 . ,
, . ,
,

Offl7Cpumot1 .

.7t1,
.

304

D.

z = f(x; ) (; ) Zo
= f(xfJ; ) Zo = f(M o) ' '.'.u 'I(;'UU.

. (; )

Oxyz

(; ;

zo),

Zo = f(xo;

nnU'l(;

.
,

z = f(x; ).
, z =
2 - 2
2
+ 2 ::;; 1
0(0; ; ) R = 1 (. . 204).

-/1-

, ,
: , ,

. , :
.

43.2.

204

205

( )
,
. .

(; ) ,

-/( - )2

+ ( -

)2

< ,

-'l(; '.7U

(; ). , -

(. .

z = f(x;

205).

(; ), , , .
'lCUU

, (; )

>

--+

z = f(x;

--+

--+

(,

(; ,

305

=j:.

=j:.

>

+ ( -

J(x - )2

If(x;Y) - AI < (.

)2

<

-----~----------------------~

lim f(x; ) =

~~~~

lim f(M).

M--t

, ,

, (
;

-+

: !)

> ,

. t

(; ), (; ), ,

z = f(x;

, (.

u.

43.1.

lim

x--t
y--t

22.

0(0; )

= kx,

k -

.
2 _ 2

lim

x--t
y--t

= lim

_ k 2 2

--n---,;-"
2
2 2

x--t

+k

1 - k2
1 - k2
lim - - -2 = ---
x--t 1 + k
1 + k2

2 _ 2
0(0; ) , . .
. z = x~"
+"
y~
k (
).

(. .

, :

f(M) g(M), f(M) . g(M),

~(~~

17.3).
f(M) g(M)

i:- ) ,
, . , ~ ( i:- ).
(g(M)

43.3.
~

z = f(x; ) ( f(M
7I:e (; ), :

,n,1J "'/.-

) ,

lim

M--t

f(M),
306

M---t

= f(Mo)

f(M)

, . .

lim f(x; )

x---txo

= f(xo; ).

y---t

, ,
t'i1 . ,

(
), '.1.. .

z = f(x; )
z = _2_ = .

. ,

, ,

z = f(x; ) . ~x = -,
~y = - , ~z = f(x; ) - f(xo; ) ~x ~y
u , ~z - 1
' f(x; ) '.1 (; ).
~ z = f(x; ) (; )

D,

~z

---t
y---t

, . '.

,
.

,
,

(. .

43.4.

19.4).

. .

19.5).

,
.

1:
.

'i1 :
, .

N a

(. .

D,

.u',.U ','lCU

D,

206) .

307

uv,il

D.

:lil ,

~<
:.: .: .:.' / ".' .... ....
'

R.

206

u'il.

,.

No

75.

u'il,

- (; ).

43.1.

z = f(N)

, : ) , . .

R > , N
If(N)1 < R; ) ,

; )
,
.

44.

44.1.

= f(x; ) .

, ,

D.x,

. z ,

-.m:. nu.u.

D.", z

= f(x + D.x; ) -

D.z

D.z = f(x

+ D.y) z

f(x; ).

+ D.x;y + D.y)

- f(x ;y).

D.",z _ 1
f(x+D.x;y)-f(;)

11 - - 1
,
.6."'-40

D.x

f( x; ).

D.y z = f(x;

D.", z.

D.x

.6."'-40

308

'm'.i1 nu'.i1

z = f(x;

(; ) , :

, 8z

, 8!

Zx, 8x,fx,{)x'
(; ) -

f~(xo;Yo), f~1

z = f(x;

) :

z' = lim D..yZ = lim f(x;y+D..Y)-f(;).

Lly-+O

Lly-+O

, (,
)

f(x;

(
).
u,,

44.1.

z = 2

+ "

+ 1.

z~ = (2

+ ,,2_ + 1)~
= 0+

+ (ex2_y)~ + (1)~ =

= (2y)~

2,
- )

+ = ,,2 -.
z~ = 2 + - . (-1).

-. (

z= f(x;

12.1).

(.

z=f(x;yo)

= .

(.

20.2),

f~(xo;Yo)=tga,

,
z

(; ;

f(xo;

f(x; )
)) (. . 207).

, f~(xo; )

= tg JJ.

309

2 " -;

207

44.2.

8 1~; ) 8 1~~ ) '.u,,u n


u..u n.':.

(; )

D.

'. .u,,u nu..u n.':.


:
2

8 (8Z)
8 z = Zxx
"" = 12(;);
"
8
8 = 8
2
2

'

8 Z = Zxy
"
8 (8z ) =
8
8
8 (8Z)

= 1" ( ; ) ;

Z
"
= 828
= Zyx
= 1" (; );
2

8 (8z
8 z2
8
8 ) == 8

" = 1"
= Zyy
2 ( ; ) .

- , 4- . . -

z)

111 = 8
8
, Zxxy

(82
82'

8 (

'8

z)

8 8 8

84 Z

= 8 8 82

(111)'
Zxyx

= Z~i=2) . .

'-i ,
M , ,,fJ. 'mfJ.

nu

-'<
.

u,,

<:

44.2.
4

, ,

z~y
z~x

83 Z 2' Zxyx'
111

88

- 2 2

+ 5 + 1.

~ Z~ = 4 3

"
Zxy'

= (4

- 4 3 Z~

= (_6

= -6 2 + 5 4,
2

= -12 2,

4xy3)~

+ 5y4)~

= -12 2 .

Zxy
Zyx'
"="

. ,
.

44.1

().

, ,

, . .

z=

1(; ) : ~2Y
310

8~2x '

44.3.

z = f(x;

(;). :
z

= f(x

z = f(x;

+ ; + )

).

- f(x;

) u'uii

(; ),

= + + 0:. + (3. ,

(44.1)

= :(, ) -+ (3 = (3(, ) -+ -+ , -+ .

(44.1)

' nu'tL. ':'uu.

z = f(x;

),

, ', u'u,

dz:

= + . .

dz

(44.2)

'',u u'u.u.

(44.2)

dz

= dy.

= . dx + . dy.

44.2

).

= dx

f(x;

(44.3)

(; ), ,

az az az = az =

'

(44.1).

lim

6x-t
6y-t

= . ,

~xz
ux

(44.1),

: z

+ :

f:.

+:. -+ , lim ~xz


6x-t

. . g~

ux

= ,

= . , f~(x; ) = . ,
f~(x; ) = ~~ = .

311

(44.1)

6.z = 6.

"( =

6.

+ j . 6. -t

+ 6. + ,,(,

(44.4)

6. -t , 6. -t .

, , . .

2
. , =
2

z Jx

(; ).

(44.3)

dz = -dx+ -dy

(44.5)

Idz = dxz + dyz, I

dxz

= g~ dx,

z = f(x;

).

44.3

dyz

g; dy -

).

z = f(x; )

z~ z~ (; ),

(44 .5) .

iI

, = f(x)
()

= f(x;y)

, , ,
.

tl:
( ) .

44.4.

z = f(x;

) ,

'6.l l6.l

6.z

312

dz.

(44 .6)

(44.6)

f(x

Llz = f(x

+ Llx; + 6.)

- f(x;

),

+ Llx; + 6.)
(44.7)

u.

~ f(x; )

+ f~(x; )6. + f~(x; )6..

( 44.7)

44.3.

1,02 ,01 .

Q : z=x Y. 1,023,01 = (+ 6.)+6 ,


=l,

Llx=0,o2,

=, 6.=,l.

(44.7),

z~ z~: z~=()~= - l, z~=(xY)~=xY lnx .


, 1 ,023,01 ~ 13 + 13-1 0,02 + 13 ln 1 0,01, . . 1 ,023,01 ~
~1,06.

: , :

1 , 2 ~ 1,061418168.

, :

;
. .

44.5.

(44.5))

z = f(x;

. u':u n..r;;

J2z = d(dz). :

2
d z

= d (~= dx + ~: dY )

= (az dx + az dY )

dx

(~:~ dx + ~2;x dY)


2

: J2 z = Z2 dx 2 + 2.

(az dx

. dx

dx . dy

az dY )

dy2.

) 2 z.
-dy
( -dx+

313

dy =

(~2;y dx + ~:~dY) . dy .

u':u
n.'l(;:

dy
. z,
(88dx + 88)3

d z = d(d z) =

8
8)
-dy
( -dx+
8
8

83

= -d
8

82

82

83

2
+-d
-d+-d-d2+-d3.
8 2
8
8
8 2
8 3

~z

8)n . z,

= ( 8 dx + 8 dy

n N.

, ,
z

u
3
2.

44.4.

= f(x; )

(. ..: u.) ~ z,

3 .

44.6.

= f(x; ) -

z = f(x(t); y(t))

t;

t:

= x(t), = y(t).

n.'.u

n..

(; )

= f(x; )
= x(t)

44.4. z
D

t,

= y(t)

z(t) = f(x(t); y(t))

dz
8z dx
8z dy
-=_.-+-.-.
dt

= x(t)

= y(t)

dt

(44.8)

dt

D..z

D..x

D..y

D..t.

. ,

z.

= f(x; )

(; ),

8z

D..z = -

. D..x

8z

+ - . D..y + aD..x + fD..,


8

314

-+

{3 -+

-+

~x

, ~y

-+

(. .

. ~z ~t ~t

~y

-+

~z

. ~x

= x(t) = y(t)

44.3).

-+

-+

). :

az

~x

az

~y.

~x.

~y

[1 -=-[1 -+-[1 - + [1 lI - + [1 {3[1 - ,


At-t ~t
At-t ~t
At-t ~t
At-t
At-t ~t
At-t At-t ~t
. .

dz
az dx
az dy
dx
dy
- = _ . - + - . - +0 - +0dt
dt
dt
dt
dt '

dz
az dx
az dy
-=_._+-.dt

dt

dt .
m'::i1 '.iJ.:

= f(x; ),

(), . .

z = f(x;

())

(44.8)

dz
az dx
az dy
-=-.-+_.dx
dx
dx

(44.9)

I dz

az
az dy
-=-+-.-.
dx

dx

(44.9)

n'.iJ. nuiJ..

uiJ. '.iJ.: z
f(x(u; v); (u; v))

=
-

f(x; ), = (u; v),

(u; v).

v. g~ g~ , (44.8) . v, ~:'
dx CJ:JJ..
az QJJ...
dt' dt u' u' u
az
az
az
-=_._+-.-.
u

: az

av

(44.10)

=
az . + az . QJJ...
av
av

,
(

(z)

v)

(z)

)
(

v).

u. 44.5. az az z
u

av'

= 11.

315

= I( 2 + 2),

= . v,

: ~ g~ (g~
(44.10):

az

),

. 2 . v

+ 2

1
. 2 . -.

+ 2

( .v

+ J{)

2
. (uv . v
(UV)2+(;)2

- u

(V

VV
(v 4

2v 2
2

+ ~)

+ 1)

+ 1)

44.7.

,
,

ceoiJ.cmeoM

= f(x;y)

z = f(x;y),

(1- )

az
dz = - . dx

+ -az . dy

(44.5.

= y(u;v), . . z

z = f(x;y), = x(u;v), =
f(x(u;v);y(u;v = F(u;v), v -

. :

dz = -

. du

+ - . dv =
av

az

. du

az
av

+ - . dv =

= (az . + az . ) du + (az . + az . ) dv =

= az. (

.du+

av

'dV)

av

+ az (

av

.du+

av

'dV).

dy

dx

= ( ; v) = ( ; v) . , ,
az
az
dz = - . dx + - . dy.

316

44.8.

z =

f(x; ) '.'11 , -

(; ;

z)

= ,

(44.11)

z . ~ g~

z,

(44.11).

f(x;y),
(; ; f(x; ))
.

, ,
:

az = ( az .

az
(; ; f(x; )) = + az . = (

(;;f(;))

az

=-

.''u. .

p~
'

),

),

(44.12)

(44.11)

. , 2 + 2 + Z2 - 4 =
zl
4 - 2 - 2 Z2
4 - 2 - 2,

=J

=-J

2 + 2 ~ 4, z =
4 - 2 - 2,
2 + 2 ~ 4 ~ . . , cos(x + 2 + 3z) - 4 =
.

u 'l'UU

:
F~(x; ;

z),

F(x; ; z) F~(x; ; z),


z)
Mo(xo;yo;zo), F(xo;yo;zo) = , F:(xo;yo;zo) f; ,
p~ (; ;


, (44.11)
z = f(;)"

(; ) , f(xo; ) = Zo.
)
f(x)
(; )
. , ,

(
, ),

y~ = - ~~

(F~ f; ).

e Z

44.6.
+z-

+ 1=

317

z,

: (; ;

p~

= e

Z)

+ 1.

u. 44.7.

+ 2 =

2.

+Z

= eZ

(44.12)

*'

+ 1,

: g~

p~ = -2, ; = _ 2 ,

+ ;11' g~

= eZx: 1 .

= f(x)

Q : (; ) = + 2 - 2, p~ = -2, ; = 2
1_
-2
!!:JJ.. _
2
, - - 2 + 2' . . dx - 2 + 2

45.

+ 2.


Il

. Z

= f(x;y)

(; ) D 1R2 .

S,

Z,

(. .

208).

=
=

Za (),

= f(x; )

. (; ; f(xa; ))
Za ().

za(Y)

= .
.

l2

= Za ()

208

za(x)

= .

l1.

= ,

l1

l2

, r.;m.i1 nr.;m1

(; ;

zo),

+ ( -

+ C(z - za)

= ,

(45.1)
318

( - _
1 1
[1

l2

= 1 ,

!!

= 1 ).

Z - Za = 1~(xa; ) . ( - ),

= ;

Z - Za = 1~(xa; ) . ( - ),

, ,

II

[1

(45.1).

Z - Za = 1~(xa; )( - ),
{

Z - Za

= 1 ( -

+ 1 ( -

).

1 ,

= 1~(xa; ).
[2,

= 1~(xa; ).

, 1

! 1

(45.1),

I Z - Za =
~

1~(xa; ) . ( - ) + 1~(xa; ) . - Ya)1

(45.2)

,
, ,

..

(.
.

103),

1~(xa; )

(45.2)

(45.3),

Z - Za

1~(xa; )

(45.3)

-1

F(x; ; z)

= ,

l ' (; ) =
(.

z ,

(44.12,

F~(xa; ) . ( - )

F~(xa; )

- F' (

),

'(

1 ; ::

F;(xa;Ya)
F' ( . )
z ,

+ F;(xa; ) . (

F~ (; )

-
F;(xa; )

319

+ F~(xa; ) . (z - za)
Z - Za
F~(xa; )'

,,'u.
, . . , .
11 ,
.

.
.

45.1.

= +

(l; -1; 2).

= 2, f~(l;-l) = 2,
(45.2) (45.3)
: z - 2 = 2 ( - 1) - 2 . ( + 1)
2 - 2 - z - 2 = : -2 1 -- lL.!
- 2

-2 -- z -1'

: z~
f~(l;

-1) = -2.

f~(x;y)

2, f~(x;y)

46.
46.1.

, ,

(. .

N(xo;yo)

25.4).

= f(x; ) D,

D.

(;) m'?tt .?..

= f(x; ),

z =

- (; ),

(; ), (; ),

~

f(x; ) < f(xo; ).

m'?

...

(; ), (; ),

n~y-,~:-

- (; )

f(x;

>

J~ , }:

209: N 1 -

N2 z = f(x;

::
Or-____~rl--------71,'----

> f(xo; ).
,

:f(Xj )

@2~

).

209

()
.?... (....) .
?m....

liI

, , ,
;

'/(;Jl:71 () :

320

(; ) ,
(; ). D
.

46.2.
.

46.1

N(xo; )

( ).

z = f(x;

) ,

: f~(xo;YO)

=-0,

f~(xo;Yo) = .
. , , = .

f(x; ) = <() ,
= . ,
(. . 25.4), <'() = , . .

f~(xo; ) = .
, f~(xo; )
f~(xo; )

= .

f~(xo; ) = ,
z = f(x; )
,

f(x;

),

, . .

Zo (. -

(45.2)).
.-,u.

. , z = 1 -

- Jx

+ 2

210),

0(0; ) (.

210

z = f(x; )

, . . f~ = , f~ = ,

''lC z.
~

,
, 'lCuu''ICU.u ''lC.u.

,
. , .

, ,

( z~
11

= .

0(0; )

= z~ = ).

321

III

0(0; )

z <

, . .

z =

II

IV

z>

).

,

.

46.2

( ).

( ; )

f(x;y)

. (; ) = f~/X(Xo; ),

= f~/y(XO; ),

= f~/y(XO; ).

= I ~ ~ I = - 2
:

>

1)

2)

< ,

< ;

f(x;

) (; ) :

f(x; )

> ;

( ; ) .

= ( ; ) , .

u.. 46.1. z = 3 2 - 3

<) : Z~ = 6 - 2 , Z~ = 2

4 .

4 3 . ,

, .

, :

6 - 2
2

- 4

M 1 (6; 3)

= ,
= .

2 (0; ).

"
Z xx

" = 6,
= 6 - 6, Zxy

M 1 (6 ;3)

"
Z yy

- 2
. .

= -18 (-108) -

362

= 648,

> .


Zmax

2
= - 12.
= -18, = 36, = -108,

= z(6; 3)

< , 1

= 3 363 -

t! :

63 - 4 = 324 - 216 - 81 = 27.


322

2 (0; ):

= ,

= ,

, ,

; .

= .

: z(O; )
. , z
_4 <
, =/: ;
- 3 > < ,
. , 2 (0; )

Z ,

. , 2 .

46.3.

= f(x; )

.
D (. . .:il.
7'm). ,

, , .
.:u.

1.

z = f(x; ) :

-D,

'j ;

2. z = f(x; )
- ;
3.
m.
u,,

46.2.

z = 2 + 2

, :

='.1-, = 1, = 2, = -1,5

(. .

: z~ = 2 + 2

+ ,

211).

z~ = 2

+ 2 + .
1.

=~

{ (2++ ++ 1)1) == ,
(

____ .__ .

211

(0;0), (-1;0), (; -1),

(-i; -

- .

2.

, , (.

211).
323

2 + 2 = ,

= -1.

= 1, z = 2 + 2, [-~; 1], z~ = 2 + 2,
z(-l) = -1, z( -~) = -~,

z(l) = 3.

: = !' z =
1 - ~ = ,

Xl

= 1,

= -1

+ ! + 1
'

[1', 2] , z' = 1 -

~ [1; 2]. z(l)

...l

,.)

= 3,

z(2) = 3,5.

= 2 2 + 6, [-~;!], z~ = 4 + 6,
4 + 6 = , = -~: z( -~) = -4,5, z(!) = 3,5.
: = -~, z = _3~2 + ~x, [1;2], z~ = -3 +~,
-3 + ~ = , = i ~ [1; 2]. z(l) = -~, z(2) = -4,5.
:

3.

= 2,

, :

= +3,5'= Z(2;~)
m

= -4,5

= z(2; -~) = z(E).

= z(C);

I 37-43
47.

47.1.
~

, ,

, ,

. ''

( . ,

1676 .).

,
.

, l

= f(x)

= () -

f(x).

().
()
, 'j j

' nu.

.
, , no~
1 .

, ylll - /l + 2
-
, 2 l + 5 = 2 - ; . z~

= . z~ -

uiJ. 1CPUeoiJ..

,
.

47.2.


, -

325

V. .
3 , V(O) = 100 /,

V(l)

t,

=50 /.

t,

. .

V = V(t).

V(t)

(
):

= F, = V'(t) -

F-

, .
F
k V 2 , k -

=-

>

( , ).
,

V = V(t) m V' = -k . V 2 V' = _.li. v 2 . -

.
1
( 48.5), V = k
' m t+c
const. ,
3 .

.li. . ,

V(O)

= i = 100

V(l)

.!.

~ = 50. = 160' ~ = 160 '

, V = t l~Ol ' V()

= 25 /.

(4; 1),

, ,
.

: (; )

(. .

f(x).

212).

212

, tg(L- )
tg(L- )

tg

; ( ; ) ', . . '

= tg(180 -

= . =

= 'iJg.

= - tg ,

, ,

326

= tga.

= = .

= _11.. . = .1

(). .

48.2

n,
- tga
.
r

= 11..

'

48.4).


, :

<

~7 = -k . , k > m(t) -

t;

, . .

, ~~ =k(T - to),

T(t) -

to -

t, k -

);

~~ = k . , k - ;
(

t)

m~

= k . , k

> ;

= -k . ,

h, k

p(h)

> .

48.

48.1.

F(x; ; ') =
327

(48.1)

~I ,
'.

(48.1)

',
'

= f(x; )

(48.2)

nihc, ':: m'umtO nu

' . .

(48.2)

() -

(; ) '
, . ,

'

= f(x; ) ( 'n'ui1.)

.
.

, ,
u~u'i1..
.

, '
u..

48.1.

= , . .

f(x;

= .

'
2.
Q :
2

= , . .
( = ~).

,
,
.

= = , tga = ,
= ;
= 1 = !'
tg = 1 = 450;
' = -1: = -!, tg = -1,
= -450;
= 2: = 1, tg = 2, = arctg 2 ~ 630
,

213

. .

, (. .

213),

. , ,

,
, u''U,u'i1. :

(; )

dx

+ Q(x; ) dy
328

= ,

(48.3)

(; )

Q(x; ) -

(48.3)

, , . .

. ,
.

(
). , '

= 2 , = 2

+ 1,

= 2 -

= 2
= 2 + ,

-12

const.

,
.

,
, . .

'"t't. .

()
~

ylx=xo =

(48.4)

= <(; ),
:

1.

<(; )

2.

(48.4),

= , = <(; )

m'

= <(; ),

= .

= <(; )

, . .

(; ; )

= , '
= "{ac'bt. '

. (; ; )
.


<(; ) -
; = <(; ) , (; ).
~ (48.3),
(48.4),
'ii .

48.1

).

(48.2)

f(x; )
D,

f~(x; )

(; ),

329

= <()

(48.4).

( ).
,
,

(; ).

.

48.2.

()

. dx

+ Q(y) . dy =

(48.5)

1t:, nepe,,eHH'bl...
, :

() . dx + j

Q(y) . dy

u,,

48.2.

xdx+ydy

= .

: .

j dx 2

- 2 =

. dy

22 - ~ =

Cl.

Cl.

..,,. n
,,"u,

11 () . Ql () . dx + 2 () . Q2(y)

. dy

= 01

(48.6)

(48.6) , dx
dy (),
,

(48.6)

(48.5)

Ql(y) . 2 () =1= . :

P1(x) .dx+ Q2(y) .dy=O


jP1(x) .dX+jQ2(y) dy=c
Ql(y)
'2 ()
Ql(y)

2 ()

,,',1t'U..

1.

Ql ()

2 () .

Ql () . 2 () =

., ,
.

330

'bt

= () . f2(Y)

2. '

,r . '

=~
dx

. . ' = f(ax + + ), , , - ,
+ + = .

, :

du
dx =

dy
dx'

du
dx = + f(u),

. .

du
a+bf(u)

= dx.

+ + ,

u.

48.3.

. dx +

= .

. dy

: :
.

(48.6).

(1 + ) . dx +

. (1 -

1 - dy

+ -

= .

= .

ln Ixyl

. dy

::j:. :

1 + dx

+ ln Ixl + ln lyl -

= .

= , =

Ql () . 2 () ==

= .

= ,

. .

. ,

= , = .

48.4. ' = - '!J.. ,


(4)

= 1.

. 47.2 .

: !!:1l.
dx

= - '!J..

d
gj1

=~

= - dx .

'

ln lyl
. .

= ln Icl -ln Ixl,

, ,
. ,

(4; 1).

= 4 = 1 : 1 = ~. = 4.
: = 1. - ' = - '!J...

'U. 48.5. V'

= -k V 2

dV
2
- = -kV
&'

:
V

= - k1- -'- ' -

. dV

+ kV 2 dt

J~ + ~ J

47.2.

(48.5):
=

dV

-2

+ -k

dt =

-, . . -~ + ~ t + = .

dt =

ffit +

48.3.

.

f(x;

) r;;v, n- n.r;; (

u),

>.

/(>..
,

;)..

. ) = >.n . f(x;

).. n,

. .

).

f(x; ) = - 2
2

f(>. . ;).. ) = (>.)2 - 2(>')(>.) =

)..2 . ( 2

- 2) =

)..2 /(; ).

' =
]

f(x;y)

(48.7)

o.opo''bL.,

f(x;

(48.7)

(48.8)

f(x; ) - ,
, f(x; ) = f(>'x; >.). >. = 1, :

(48.8)

()

~ = I , , I = U x1
332

(48.9)

'

+ (48.8),

'

'+ = <() x.~~ = <()-, . .


. ( ),

'11.. ()

1P(XiY)' dx + Q(XiY)' dy

(48.10)

P(XiY)

01

Q(XiY) -

(48.10)

d1' = - Q
p~X'
Y~
(48.10) dx
;

' = <p(~).

liI

(48.10)

( )

(48.9)

(48.10)

(48.8):

u.

48.6.

( 2

2 ) dx

+ 2 . dy

= .

: , . . (; )

= 2

2 Q(Xi ) = 2

- .
dy = du + . dx.

( 2

+ 2 . . . du + 2 . . . dx,
(1 - + 2 ) . dx + 2 . du = ,
(1 + ) . dx + 2 . du = ,

2 2 ) . dx

-::::-

. -

dx
2
-+--du=
2

1+

l Ixl

+ l(1 +

= e Cl ,

) =

Cl,

> .

ln(lxl' (1 + 2 )) =

Ixl(l

) = eCl

Ixl . (1
'11., :

Cl,

) = .

= -

333

, -,.
(48.8):
.
2 _ 2

dy
dx

= 2'
= , ' = ' + u . .
3ame-.',u. ' = f ( :; : /
alx
lY

1 , l -

), , , , al,

= v+(3, (3 -

v,

+,

. ,

u.

. .

48.7.

( + 2 + 1) . dx +
2 + 1
=2
l'

+ - 1) . dy

= ,

+-

(2

dy

u + + 2v + 2(3 + 1
2u + 2 + v + (3 - 1

dv
du

= dx
(3

= u + , = v + (3, ~:
dx = du, dy = dVj
u

+ 2v + ( + 2(3 + 1)

= 2 + v + (2 + (3 -

1)'

{
,

+2 f +1=0,
2

+ f -

= .

= 1, (3 = -1 .

dv
du

+ 2v

= 2 + v

. ,

,
,

(-+2)3

= tu.

= (+) -

, ,

- 1

+ 1.

u.

48.4. . .
~

Jl.

t:t.,

'

+ () . == g(x),

(48.11)

() g(x) - , - .
(48.11): '
, .

. .

334

(48.11) -

(48.11)

= . v,

, . .

= u()

v = v(x) -

()

()

() = v(x) . v(x) = u() . v(x),

v(x)

i:-

+ u v'. '
. v + U v' + () . u v = g(x)
' . v + u (v' + () . v) = g(x).
(48 .12)

). '

(48.11),

= ' . v

: '

v = v(x) ,

, . . v' +p(x) v = . , ~~ +p(x)v = , . .


dv

= -() . dx.

, :

Ivl

ln

()

= - /

v =

. dx

+ ln IcI-

v(x),

= 1.

-'-f().d.

(48.12),

' e-f()d = g(x).


. :

du . - f p(x)dx = g(x),
dx

du = g(x) . + f p(x) .dxdx,

= / g(x) . efp(x).dxdx

+ .

y=U'v=

'U.

Q
'

(/g().f()'dd+) e-f().d

(48.11).
48.8.

'

+ U

(v'

+ 2xv)

-dvv = - 2

- = 2 .

1n 1v 1 = - 2 ,

d,

'

du
dx

. -

du

V = - 2

+ u 0= 2,
2

'

dx,

,
. .

+ 2 = 2.

U v. ' . v + U v' + 2 UV
2, . .
= 2. v' + 2 v = :

.v

(48.13)

= 1 + . _2 .

. .

= 2 + .
U V

+ ) . -

335

( )

(48.11)

, . .

'

+ () .

. u1J-

n'/. :

dy

= -() dx

ln lyl

=-

()

dx

+ ln ICll.

It I = - J p(X)'dx, . .

Y=Cle-J().d

y=ce-Jp(x).dx,

=l.

(), . .

= (). (48.11)
= () . - J () dx.

(48.14)

:
1

'

'() ( -1 () dx) + () ( -1 () dx) . (-()).

'

(48.11):

'() ( -1 () dx) - ()() ( -1 () dx) +


+ ()() (-1 () dx)

= g(x).

'() ( -1 () dx)

= g(x).

dc(x) =g(x)exp(1 p(x)dx) dx.


, :

()

=1

g(x) . (1 ()

()

dx) .dx + .

(48.14),

(48.11):

= [jg(x).exp(lp(:r;)dx) .dx+c] .exp(-Ip(x)dx).


, (.

(48.13)).
u,,

48.9.

48.8

l () =

exp(F(x)).

: ' + 2,:;:::: . 1:J!.


.
2
= - (), . . di '
= () . - 2

' = '() . -

+ () . -

-2 dx,

+ 2 = 2

(-2).

'

'() . -

() =

2() . -

J2

= 1 + . -

+ 2() . -

dx, () =

= 2,

'() -

= 2,

+ . = ( + ) . - 2 ;

3a.e"taHue. (. ()

Q(y), R(y) =f.

. .

+ Q(y)) . ' = R(y),

(),

, ,

= (). , -

y~ = :' P(Y~,+ Q(y) = R(y), . . ' - ~f~~ '. =


=

~~~~

= u v, = u(), v = v(y) -

u,,

48.10.

: , ' =
'

1"

+ ) . '

= 1.

= + .
= u v. ' = ' . v + u v'. :

'

. v + u(v' - v) = .
v: v' - v = , dv = dy, v =

v + u v'

= u v + ,

'

: '

+ .

= , . . '

-,

J. - dy. , : = -. - - - + .
, :

= u v = (-. - -

+ ) .

- 1 + .

y'+p(X)y=g(X)Yn, nE~ n=f.O, n=f.1


~

,,

(48.15)

.n..n.. ,

= , (48.15) -

337

=1-

-n

-n+l

. '

(48.15)

::j:.

, :

+ () . y~n+l = g(x).

(48.16)

= z. z' = ddz = (1-n) .-n. ,.

-n. ' = -z1 . (48.16)

-n

_1_. z'

1-n

+ (). z

= g(x).

z.

z = -n+l
(48.15)

. ,

(48.15)

= v

( ).

48.5. .

(; )
~

dx

+ Q(x; ) dy

(48.17)

n'' ,

(; ), . .
(; )

dx

+ Q(x; ) dy

(48.17)

= du(x; ).

du(x; ) =

(; )

= .

(48.18)

, ,

= (; ) dx + Q(x; y}dy

48.2.

= (; ) dx+Q(x; ) dy,

(; ) Q(x; ) ~; ~

, 6

338

(48.19)

D.

, . .
(; )

, du(x; )

dx

+ Q(x; ) dy =

= g~ dx + g~ dy
u

= ;

( ; )

du(x; ).

(. . 44.3), :

Q(x;y)

2 u

-=---

BQ
2 u
-=---

2 u

2 u

. .
( . .

44.2),

(48.19).

u(; )

du(x ;)

(48.19).

= (; ) dx +
Q(x; ) dy .
,

. :

= ( ; )

(48.20)

= Q(x;y).

(48.20)

, :

u(; )

J(; ) dx + ().

(48.21)

= () (
).

(48.21)

().

~~

= (]

Q(x ;y)

'()
(48.22)

(48.21)

P(X;Y)dX)~ +'() .

(48.20},

= (] P(X;Y)dX)~ +'().

= Q(x;y) -

(] P(x;y)dX

(48.22)

. , .

339

,
. ,

: (Q(x;y) - : (] (;) dx))

~(~(Jp(x;Y)dX).)

= aQ _

(48.19).
(48.22)

<() =

~~ - : (~ (] (;) dx))
= aQ _

~(P)

= aQ

J(Q(x;y)-

~(Jp(X;Y)dX))dY+C, -

<()

du(x; ) =

(; )

(48.19).

dx

const.

(48.21),

+ Q(x; ) dy.

(48.17)

u(; ).

(48.20),

(48.18).

2x~
48.11. ' = 5 -2

u.

<():

u(; ) ,
~

: :

+ ( 2 + ) dy
Q(x; ) = 2 + .

(2 - 5) dx
(; ) = 2

- 5,

= .

(48.19):

-=2;

aQ

aQ

-=2;

(48.20)
u

= 2 -

5, =

+ .

u(; ) = J (2 - 5) dx = 2 - 5 + <();

~~

( 2 - 5 + <p(y))~ = 2 + <'().

+ =
+ Cl,

<() =

+ <'(),

<'() = 2,

u(; ) = 2 - 5

+ + Cl.

-5++ 1 = 2, x 2 y-5+
2

Cz -

Cl.

= ,

340

(48.19)

(48.17)

t(X; ),

,;...

t(x; ) .

(; )

dx + t(x; ) . Q(x; ) dy

(t(x; ) . (; ))

=
(t(x; ) . Q(x; )).

. + . t
,

Q + aQ . t

at ._ at .Q=t(aQ _ ).

t(x; )

(48.23)

'

. .
,

, ,

= t(x).

_ dt . Q = t .
dx

(a Q _ ),

t(x)

(48.23)

dt
t

_~

1 Q ~ dx
_

. dx.

(48.24)

_~

t(y)

= ,

t = t(y) (t

),

(1 ;

dY ),

u 48.12. ( 2
\.

'J

_
- -1,. J
-

+ 1,

) . dx + ( 2 2

. .

-2

341

:1

+ ) . dy

= .

qQ

, ,
,

(48.24).

t(x)

= ( -

J~dx) =

exp(-21nlxl)

:2'

t = ~, :

(1- :2)dx + (2 + ~)dY = ,


. .

ypaBHeHl;ie ! , ,

48.6.

+-

= .

,
. , ,
.

= . (') + '(') ,

~ 'I/J - '

(48.25)

~,

-;.

, '

(48.25)

= .

= . () + '().

(48.26)

, :

dy
( )
'() . dx
dp
'() . dx'
dp
dx =. +
+'I/J

. . - () = ( '() + ''()) .
( - ()) . ~;

(48.27)

= ().

*'
-

. '() = ''() .

(48.27)

, :

= (i ).

342

(48.28)

(48.25)

(48.26)

= ,( ; ).

(48.28) ,

, , (48.27), !!1!.dd
,

= ,

. .

= = const . - '() =

( .

(48.27 .

= ''()+() - (48.25)

(. .

48.2).

'(')

(48.25)

I
~

==

'.

= . ' + (') I

(48.29)

.. .,.

'

= , :
= + ().

(48.30)

, :

=+ .

dp
dx

+'() .

, = . ,

(+'(

p
d ,
dx

+ '()

(48.30),

ddP =0.
x

(48.29)

= + ().

(48.31)

= ,

= -'(),

= + ().

(48.32)

.. 48.13. = '

: ,

+ ,2.

(48.31) ,

.
_
_
2
.
_
2
2
(48.32) ~ - -2, - + . . - - 2 + 4' . .

y=-~.

343

49.

49.1.


n..':.

F(x; ; '; ")

(49.1)

, , , ':/1,. t.O i1

ni1:

" =

f(x;y;y').

(49.2)

(49.2):

(49.1).
(49.2)

= '(),

, ,

Cl

(49.2)

= '(; l; 2),

1. '(;

Cl; 2)

2.

2.

yl

=
=

'1

=
==

(49.3)

'

= cg

l
c~ 2
,
= '(; c~; cg) (49.2)

~ '(; c~;

Cl

= C~, 2

= cg,

(49.3).

cg) (49.2),

= '(; l; 2)
m. ,.

(49.2),
(; ;


Cl;

2) = ,

(; ; c~; c~) = ,

. ' .

i1 ':.
;

(49.2)

, (; )
L( '()

(49.1)

F(xyy'

"

'(

l+

'2)3/2

. (1

+'2)3/2)

= '

= '.

, -

(; ) , k
'
"

2 3/2 (; ).

(1

+ '

.
,

(49.3),

(49.2),

'tu .

( ~ ).

49.1

(49.2)

f(x ; ; ')

f~ f~, D
, ', (XO ; Yo ; y~) D

= <() (49 .2),

(49.3).

n-20
n.r;,,

('"
, , "
" 0'.(n) -- ,

(n)

= f(x ;y;y';y"; . . . ;y<n-l}) = ,

(49.4)

1 --

'1

-'
"1
,

=Q

(49.4)

-"
-

... ,

(n-l}1

-- (n-l) .

(49.5)

n-

, .

(49.4),

l = ?, 2 =

cg, ... ,

= c~,

'tacHblM .

3aOa'ta n- : (49.4),

(49.5).

() n- :
() ,
.

n- ,
. .

345

49.2.


. n''U;'u. n..r.. ,

() ,
.

,
.

1.

I" = J(x)1

(49.6)

, (), '

= () .

"

= '()

: '

= (),

, . .

'

f(x).

= ().

(49.6).

:
.

"

dy'

' =

d'
= (')' = 7fx,

= f(x) dx.

(49.6) -

, "

Jf(x) dx, '

= f(x), :

= <l () +l , -

, : =

(<fJl ()

+ Cl) dx, . . 'f

<2() + CIX + 2

= f(x),

(n)

: = <n()

n-l
Cl . ( : _ 1)!

+ 2

. (: _

u. 49.1. yIV

<)

,
n-2

2)!

+ ... +

= sin 2.

ylll

= Jsin 2 dx = - ~ cos 2 + l ,

"= J- 21 cos
'

2 dx

dx

= - 4"1 s. 2 + l + 2,

= 8" cos 2 + l 2" + 2 + ,

1
=;= 16 sin 2

+ l "6 + 22" + + 4
346

I " ::::: f(x;

'), I

(49.7)

' .' uCX:OMoi1 ':v,uu .

'

:::::

" ::::: '


::::: J(; Cl) -

::::: () - .
(49.7) ' ::::: f(x;p).

', : ':::::

tp(X;CJ).

(49.6).

(49.7) :::::

I "

(49.7)

::::: f(y'),

*.

JJ(;

Cl)

dx + 2

(49.8)

: '

::::: (),

"

::::: ' :::::

' ::::: f(P)


"

I (; y(k); y(k+l); ... ; (n))

= , I

(49.9)

k , y(k) ::::: () . y(k+l) ::::: ';


(n) ::::: p(n-k)

(49.9) (;;'; ... ;p(n-k))


(49.9)

... ;

::::: .

(; y(n-l); (n)) ::::: ,

I(n)

:::::

f(x; y(n-l)).1

y(n-l) ::::: (), (n) ::::: '


.

u. 49.2. " - '!L ::::: .

: '

::::: , = (), " ::::: '.


' - .. ::::: .

:
ln 'l

d
!!E. :::::
d

..,
!!:
:::::

dx .

: : : ln /clxl, ::::: CIX.

' ::::: l , :::::

Cl

+ 2

, ln 'l : : : ln 'l + ln IC11,

.
347

I .

I "

= j(y; '), I

(49.10)

' :;'/J,m ''/J,'/J,.i1 nepeMeHHoi1 .


= (),

, '

, ,

"

d(y')

dp(y)

= .

= ((:

dp(y)

dy

dp(y)

=~=~=dYdX=dY P,

. . " =p . ~. (49.10) p. ~ =;) .


= (; Cl)

. () ', '

(; }) -

. ,

(49.10):

dy
=
(
; Cl )

I "

+ 2.

(49.10)

= j(y)1

: '

= (), " = . ~.

(; '; "; . . . ; (n = .
, '

= , = ().

"
-

ylll

= .(
. ')
= .(. ') .1:JJ.. = ((')2
dx
11
dy
11
dx
11

3a.e'taH'/J,e .

'

(49.8)

+ . "1111 ) . .

= , = ().

49.3.

= ,
: () = 2, '() = 2.
<) : (49.10). ' = (),
"

P~ .

- (')2

+ '( _

1)

p.~, :
.

dp
dy

+ ( -1) = .
34

" =

:j:. ( l ::::; , ,
d
l = 2), o~ -+-1 = - .

(.

48.4).
u1v + u(v l - v) = 1 -

. v.

+ uv l - uv + -

u1v

1 =

iI v , v l - v = . dv = dy, v = .
v

u l .

+ U =

1-

. .

du = (1 -

, ,

-(1 -

. - dy.
)

. - +

+ ].

p=uv=((-l+)- +- +])+ ,

yl,

: '

= .

+ .

=]+.

= 2= 2

Cl:

2
l

= ]

= ] + 2,
2

= 2.

= .

2 :

2 = 2, 2 = 2. , = 2 -

49.3.


, ,

.

()(n)
~

()

:j:.

+ b1(x)y(n-]) + ... + n()

b1(x), ... ,bn(x),g(x) -

= g(X),

(49.11)

( ),

uii:. n- n.n.

. (), ] (),

... , n() 7'U:u


(49.11), g(x) - ',' '',.
~ g(x) == , (49.i1)
uii.. . ; g(x) :j:. ,
(49.11) 'bl..
(49.11) () :j:.
',mu

]()

n()

g(x)

() = ] (), ... , () = n(), () = f(x),


349

I (n)

(49.11)

nu,:

+ l()(n-l) + 2()(n-2) + ... + n()

= j(x).1

(49.12)

(49.12) ,
(49.12)

i ( (; )).
>

(49.12)

(.

49.1).

49.4.

() :

I "

+ l ()' + 2()

01

(49.13)

49.2.

l = l() 2 = 2()

'

(49.13).

(49.14)
l

(Il

(49.13).

= l l + 22

+ 22)" + l()

. (Il

+ 22)' + 2()' (Il + 22) =


"

= CIY~ +C2Y~ +l()' (CIY~


= l (y~'

+ l ()

. y~

l 2

+ 2()
-

+C2Y~) +2()' (Il +22) =

. )

+ C2(Y~ + l (x)y~ + 2()2) =


= l . + 2 . = ,

(49.13)

, ,

= Il + 22

(49.13).

49.2, , , l 2 (49.13),
= l + 2 = . ! .
(49.14)
(49.13).
(49.13)?

350

l = Yl(X) 2 = 2() Jtutl uu


(; ),

(}:lYl
(}:l, (}:2
~

IR,

+ (}:22

= ,

, (}:l

(49.15)
= (}:2 = .

(}:l (}:2

l 2 Jtutl

(49.15),

uuu (; ).

, l 2
, , . . (; )

1I.l.
2

= ,

= 2, = const.

=
1
= 3 = constj l = 2 - : 1I.l.
=~ =
y2
= 3- f:. constj 4 = sin 5 = cos
, l = 3 2 = : 1I.l.
2

IR

(}:l

(}:l

= (}:2 =

sin + (}:2 cos =


( '!ii = tgx f:. const).

n.:'

'/

'/

(. ~ ),

l = Yl(X) 2 = 2()

W(X)

= Y~
l
1

49.3. l () 2 ()
(; ),

l 2 ,

(}:l

(}:2

(}:l

f:.

(; )

-1- ~Y2

W( )

49.4.

Q2.1
"'1 2

(49.13)

(}:l

21_

1-

l () 2 ()

(49.15)
, l = -Q2.Y2;

(; ),

351

.
.

49.3

49.4

, 'r;;' ' ' ' '

' ': ' (; ) r;; , r;; ''


' '' '...

(; ) l () 2()

ii :

= a:lYl(X) + :22()'

49.4.
5 cosx (

= cos -

= sin 2 = cos , = 2 sin


+ =
; 5 =

!) "

~ (49.13).

49.5

(49.14)

( "

). l =

Yl(X)

2 = 2()

(49.13)

(; ) .

(49.16)
l

(49.13) .

49.2,

(49.16)

, , . .

=,

(49.17)

(; ).

(49.17)

{ == CIYl(XO) ++ 22(),

C~Y~(XO)

C2Y~(XO),

= (), = '(), l

"

}() ;()

IYl(XO)

2()

W(x)

1= W(xo)

= .

352

(49.14),

Yl () 2 ()
(; ) (; ), ,

49.4, W(xo)

:J

= C~Yl () + 42()

, )

(49.17).

(49.13),

pu.

49.5.

49.5. 49.5
y lI += (. 49.4) =l sin +2 .
-

.
n- ,

(49.18)

1. l = Yl(X),Y2 = 2(), ... ,n = n()


(49.18),

2.

= CIYl + 22 + ... + Cnn

Yl, 2, ... ,n it u.;

+ 22 + ... + nn =

(; ), Q:IYl

, ;

(i

= 1,2, ... , n);

( Q:i ) Yl , 2, ... ,n it u..

3.

W(x) =

Yl

y~
y~'

y~
y~

y~
y~

(n-l)

4.

(n-l)

(n-l)

!, 2, ... , n

(49.18)

i1 (; ),

, . .

W(x)

:J

(; ).

5. (49.18) = CIYl +22+ . +Cnn,


(i = 1, .. . , n) - , ; -
(49.18) , .
;

12 8 . nRdi

353

u.. 49.6. Q, Yl=~"', 2="', = 2 '"


;

(: ).

W(x) =

W(x):

'"

'"

'"

+ 1)'"
+ 2)'"

(
(

"'"

1
= '" 1
1

2 '"
( + 2)'"
2

( 2

+ 2 = '"
+ 4 + 2

+1

+2

+ 4 + 2)'"

1
2

2
2

= 3 '" . (4
,

W(x) ::j:.

IR.

+2

+2-

4) = 2 "'.


. :

+ l ()" + 2()' + () =

y lII

Yl , 2,

al (), 2(), (). ,


y

lII

"

+ ' -

= ; :

50.

50.1.

nm'/::..u :
u'u'm..u.

I "

+ . ' + q .

= , I

(50.1)

(50.1)

(.

49.5).

= e

354

"',

(50.1)

k - ( . ).
~ , ' "
(50.1), : k 2 . e kx + . k . e kx + q. e kx = , . .

e kx (k 2
~

+ pk + q)

= ,

k2

+ pk + q =

(e kx

i- ).

(50.2)

(50.2) 'll:mumu''ll:U.
(50.1) ( (50.1)
", ' k 2 , k 1).
(50.2)
.

'iJ.

k1

1.

i- k2

k2

(D = ~ -

k1

> )

(50.2)

(50.1)
l

= ek1X

= ek2X

( ), . .

(49.16),

(50.1),

(50.3)
u. 50.1. "

5'

+ 6 =

Q : : k 2 - 5k + 6 = .
: k1 = 2, k 2 = 3.
: = l 2

+ 2,

l 2

(50.3)).

'iJ.

2.

k1

k2

k! = k 2

(D = ~ -

q=

, k!

= k2 =

(50.2)

-~).

l = e k1
, l

(50.1)

= xe k1X
, 2

y~
=

+ py~ + qY2

(50.1).

+ p(xe k1X )' + q(xe k1X ) =


= (2k 1 e k1X + xk;e k1X ) + p(e k1X + xk!e k1X ) + q(xe k1X ) =
e k1X (2k! + k;x + + pxk 1 + qx) = e k1X (x(ki + pk 1 + q) + ( + 2k 1 )).
= (xe k1X )"

355

k~+pkl +q = ,. K.k 1 (50.2); p+2k 1 = ,


. . k 1 = k 2 = -~.
.

y~

+ py~ + qY2

= , . . 2 = xe k1Z

(50.1).

l
k1 2
xe k1Z
: W(x) = e2k1Z i- . ,

(50.1)

(50.4)
'.i13.

k2 = -

k1

k2

(50.2)

: k 1

= +(i,

(i (D = ~ - q < , = -~, ( = Jq - ~ > ).

(50.1)

= (+iJ3) 2 = e(a-i,)z. (. . 27.3)


ei<p = cos + i sin , e-i<p = cos - i sin

l
2

. i, = cos (

+ ie az sin (,

. e-i, = cos ( - i sin (.

Yl

+2 2

cos

= Yl

l - 2

2i

' (
s

Yl

(50.1).

2:

Yl

2 (50.1),
(. 49.2).
l 2 ,

W(x)

i-

(50.1)

( !).

I
u..

50.2.

= l

s(

+ 2 sin (,

(l s( + 2 si() 1

y lI

6'

+ 25 =

Q : : -k 2 - 6k + 25 = , k 1 = 3 + 4i, k2
(50.5) :

= (l cos 4 + 2 sin 4).

(50.5)
.

3 - 4i.

(50.3)-(50.5)

(50.1)
(50.2)

).

356

50.2. n-'

n- n,'IC (n

> 2)

n,':.tU 'lCu'uu

+ Ply(n-l) + 2(n-2) + ... + n =

(n)
Pi, i

= ,n, -

(50.)

.
(50.) = e kx ,

k-

(50.)
n-

+ P1k n - 1 + P2k n - 2 + ... + Pn-lk + n = .

(50.7)
n (
). k1 , k 2 , .. , k n .
'u. (50.7) . , , (k - )2 = ~
: k1 = k 2 = 3. ,
(k = 3) ic mk = 2.
k

(50.7)

, ,

liI

: mk

= 1,

'fi.

n.

1.

(50.7)


e knx

(). l = ek\x, 2 = e k2X , ... , n

(50.)
( ).

(50.)
1

u.

= Clek\X + C2 ek2X + ... + cne knx .1

50.3.

ylll - 2" - '

+ 2 =

: k
k1
-1, k 2 1, k 2. ,

2k 2

+ 2 =

= cle- x +2

+2 -

.
'fi.

2.

()I() \

, ( , ~

m > 1).

k
e kx , k m
1 m

>

: e kx , xe kx , x 2 e kx ... , - 1 e kx .
u. 50.4. yIV - ylll - 3"

357

+ 5' -

2 = .

1.4 - k - 3k 2+ 5k - 2 = (k + 2)(k - l) =
k 1 = -2, k2 = 1, k = 1, k4 = 1. ,

= cje- 2x + 2 + + 4 2

'.iJ.

3.

(50.7)

/i -

<
<

sin /,

/i

cos /

> 1

< /,

. < cos /, ... , - 1 . < cos /j

< si/,. < si/, ... , - 1

. < si/.

, ,
.

,,

k5

+ k 4 + 2k + 2k 2 + k + 1 = (k + 1)(k 4 + 2k 2 + 1) =

50.5. yV +ylV +2y /ll +2'! +' + = .

k1

= -1,

k2

= i, k = -i,

k4

= i,

k5

= -i.

= cje- + 2 cos~ + . sinx + 4 cosx + 5 sinx


X

51.
()

51.1.

I" + l ()' + 2() = f(x), I


! (), 2 (),

f () -

(51 .1)

, (; ) . -

"

+ l()' + 2() = ,

(51.2)
(51.1),

,, '.',, ,,.

358

( ).

51.1

(51.1)
*

fj

= CIYl + 22

(51.2), . .

,
*

(*)"

= *

+ .

(51.3)

(51.3) - (51.1).
(51.1), fj - (51.2),

+ l ()(*)' + 2()* = f(x)

("

+ l ()(' + 2() =

(*

+ " + al(x)(y* + ' + 2()(* + =


= ((*)" + al(x)(y*)' + 2()*) + ((" + al(x)(fj)' + 2())

= f(x) + =
, (* +

=
f(x).
(51.1).

(51.4)

(51.4)

(51.1).

() = ,

(51.5)

(51.4)

'() =

(51.4)

(51.5)

yc~

, -

+ 22() = - *(),
CIY~ () + 22() = - (*)'(),

CIYl(XO)
{

(),

'(), l 2.

Yl(X)

2()

= .

Yl(X)

W(xo)

2()

( ), . .

, : l

(51.5).

(51.1),

+ C?Yl () + cgY2 ()

W(xo) -:j:.

= ? 2 = cg.

51.2.

(51.3),

(51.1).

. .

= *

fj

+ .

(51.1)

(51.2),

1UU nu' ( ),

(51.2).

fj

= ll ()+22() -

Cl 2

Cl () 2() ,

' = l ()

(')' = C~ ()l ()

. l ()

(51.1).

+ 2() . 2()

(51.6)

+ Cl(X)Y~ () + ;()2() + C2(X)Y~(X)'

l () 2() ,

C~ () . l ()

+ ;() . 2()

= .

(51.7)

. y~ () + 2() . y~(x),
(')" = C~ () . y~ () + Cl(X) . y~'(x) + C~(X) . y~(x) + 2() . y~(x).
(')' = l ()

', (')' (')"

(51.1),

C~(X)' y~(x)

+ Cl(X)' y~'(x) + C~(X)' y~(x) + 2()' y~(x)+

+al(x)[Cl(X)Y~(X)+C2(X)Y~(x)] +2() [Cl(X)Yl(X)+C2(X)Y2(X)] = f(x),

Cl

() . [y~'(x)

+ l () . y~(x) + 2() . l ()] +

+2 () [y~ () +l ( )y~ () +2 ( )2 ()] +C~ ( )y~ () +; ( )y~ ()


l () 2()

(51.2),

= f(x).

C~ ()

. y~ ()

(51.1),
(51.7) (51.8):

+ C~(X) . y~(x)

(51.6)

= f(x).

(51.8)

'

l () 2()

C~ () . l () + ~(x) . 2()
C~ () . y~ () + ~(x) . 2()
360

= ,
= f(x).

(51.9)

1~~~~~ ~~~~~ 1# ,
l ()
2()

(51.2).

(51.9)
-

: c~(x) = <l() c~(x) = <2(), <l() <2()

. , l () 2(),

(51.6) (51.1).

u,, 51.1. " +


Q

= _1_.
cosx

" + = . : k 2 + 1 = , k 1 = i, k 2 = -i. ,

= l

cos

+ 2

sin .

(51.6): *

= l () cos + 2() sin .

l () 2()

~(x). cosx

+ ~(x) sinx =

(51.9):

{ c~ () . (- sin ) +~(x) . cos = cosx

_1_.

..6. =cos
.
- s
I

sin
cos

_1_

sin 1 = cos 2
cosx

= _ t g,

.6. 2

. 2
+ s
=

= I _co~

_1_

cos

c~(x) = ~1

= - tgx,

;()

J(- tgx) dx
2() J1 dx

l() =

= -; = 1,

: *

+ . sin .

1,
I

= 1'

= ln I cosxl;

.
= ln Icosxl . cosx

= ( + *) = l . cos

+ 2 . sin + cos . ln Icos xl + . sin .

51.2

( ).

(51.1) : l() = () +
+ 12(), ; ;' - " + l () . ' +
+ 2() . = 11 () " + l () . ' + 2() = 12() ,
* = ; + ;' .

361

(;

+ ;)" + l()'

(;

+ ;)' + 2()' (; + ;) =
+ ((;)" +l()' (;)' +2() .;) =
= () + f2(X) = f(x).

= ((;)" +l()' (;)' +2() n

51.3.


n~ n:L.:U ~uu
, . .

Iyll + . ' +q . y = f(x),


q-

(51.10)

51.1,

(51.10)


* .

(51.10)

(.

Ha~eHO

51.2).

(51.10)

*,

(51.10)
I. f(x) =

f(x)

:
n()

f(x) =

. (n()

. cos{3x + Q(x) . sin{3x).

, ,, n:' ~uu

, :

f(x)

(51.10)

(51.10)

1. (51.10) f(x) = n() . ,


IR, n() - n. (51.10)

"ti1
Q

" + ' ' + q. = n() . 1

(51.11)

* :

Iy* =

r -

Qn(x) ,

(51.12)

+ pk + q

= (. . r - , ,
k 2 + pk + q
), Qn(x)
n +
n 1
+ 1 - + ... + n - n, ~l

k2

A i (i

= 1,2, ... , n).


362

k2

f:.

. .

k 1 ,2.

= ,

+ pk + q = ,

= Qn(X) . ""',

(*)" = Q~(x)

. ""'

= Q~(X) . ""' + Qn(X) . " . ,

(*)'

+ 2Q~(x)

. " .

+ Qn(x) . ""'

. 2 .

(51.11),

""', :

Q~(x)

+ (2 + p)Q~(x) + ( + + q) . Qn(x) = n().


2

(51.13)

n ,
n, .

(n + 1)
Ao,A1, ... ,A n .

) ()

+ pk + q =

, . . = k 1 f:. k2 .
= Qn(x)e""'x , . .
2 + + q = , (51.13)
k 2

Q~(x)

+ (2 + ) . Q~(x)

(n - 1),

n. *,

= n().

= 1).

(n

+ 1).

= . Qn(x)e"X

(51.12)

+pa+q =
= , (51.13) Q~(x) = n().

k 2 +pk+q
2+

= , . . = k 1 = k 2 .

n,

n - 2.

= x 2 Qn(x)e""'x
r = 2).
*

(
'i1

(51.12)
2.

f(x)
n()
(

(51.10)

= " . (n () . cos ( + Qm () sin (),

Qm(x) -

"

+ ' + qy = ""'

n ,
(51.10)

. (n() . s(

363

+ Qm(x) . si().

(51.14)

, *

(51.14)

I * = x r . .

(MI(X) cos(Jx

+ Nl(x) sin(Jx), I

(51.15)

r - , + (Ji
k 2 + pk + q
, MI(X) NI(X) - 1

l-

n()

Qm(x),

. .

1=

(n,).

3..':u.

1.

(51.15)

(51.14)

,
.

2. (51.15) , n() ==
Qm(x) == .
3. (51.10)
1 , * 51.2
.

u.

51.2.

yll ~ 2' +

k 2
,

fj

Cl .

+ 2

2k + 1

fj

yll - 2'

+ =

= k 1 =

= - 4.

1 2.

- 4=

- 4) . .

. . , = ,
: f:. k 1 . , (51.12),
* * = Ql(X) . . , . . * = + ,

1 ()

. (*)'

= ,

(*)1I = .

*, (*)', (*)1I , -2++

+ (-2 + ) = -

= -4,

4.

, :

= 1,
-2

+ = -4.

= 1, = -2.
= (+*) = Cle x +2 +-2 .

* = -2. ,

u.

51.3.

yll - 4'

+ 13 =

: =

: yll - 4'

+ 13 = .

k 2 - 4k + 13 = k 1 = 2
, fj = 2 . (l cos 3 + 2 . sin 3).

364

fj

40 cos3x.

+ *.

+ 3i,

k 2 = 2 - 3i.

*.

(40cos3x + sin3x) . = , / = 3,
+ /i = 3i ,
r = . (51 .15),
* = s + si . * . :
(*)' = -3si+s , (*)1I = -9s-9si3 . :
f(x)

cos 3 -

sin - 4( -3Asin +

3 s)+

+ 13( cos 3 + sin 3)

= 40 cos3x,

(-9 -12+ 13) cos3x+ (-9+ 12+ 13)


:

(l

= 1,

. COS

4 - 12
12

= -3.

3 + 2

sin3x = 40s3+0 si.

= 40,

+ 4 =

= cos3x sin 3) + cos 3 - 3 sin 3 -

si3 .

u.

51.4. ( 'v...) -

+ 2 = 5 +
2' + = 2;

) yll - 3'
) yll ) yll

= sin 2 + cos 7 ;
sin 2;
) yll - ' = 2 - 1 + cos .
) yll

+
+

= 5 cos 2 -

+ . . ; ) ; ) ( cos 2 + sin 2) + cos 7 +


+ Dsin7x; ) ( + B)cos2x + ( + D)sin2x; ) ( 2 + + ) +
+ Dcosx + Esinx.
: )

51.4. n-

(n>

2)

,

n-

(n > 2)

(n) + , () . (n-') + 2() . (n-2) + .,. + n() .


, (), 2(),' "

,n(),

f(x) -

= f(x),

(; ).

(n) + , () . (n-') + ... + n() .

= .

( n- ).

51.3

n-
*

, . .

fj

= * + .

' n- ,

fj

= Cl(X) . l () + 2() . 2() + ... + n() . n(),


Yi(X), i = ~, - ,
*

, .

;()

+ ~Y2 + d + ... + C~Yn = ,


c~y~ + c~y~ + c~y~ + ... + c~y~ = ,
c~y~' + c~y~ + ~y~ + ... + c~y~ = ,
C~Yl

c~yin-l)

+ c~y~n-l) + ~y~n-l) + ... + c~y~n-l) = f(x).

n- nu 'lCu'u..u,
, .

.
'

(n)

+ Ply(n-l) + ... + n = f(x),

Pi - ,
51.3 n

= 2,

f ()

> 2.

u. 51.5. yJV - ' = 2.

: :

k4

k1
fj

= ,

= ,

= ,
V3 i
2'

k(k - 1) . (k 2 + k + 1)
k2

= 1, k 4, = _!2

v3 + 4 sin 2
v3 ) .
= l + 2 + _l2 ( 2

*: f(x)

= 2 (= eO'x p1(x)), r = 1,* = (+) = 2 +,

(*)'

= 2 + ,

(*)"

= 2 ,
366

(y*)1II

= ,

(y*)IV

= .

, -(2

+ )

= 2. = -1, = *

= _

52.

tJ.

52.1.

, , (
;
; ,

; )
.
, .

CucmeMoii

,
.

l, 2, ... , n, :

,
, . .

1:JJJ.
' ,. n ) ,
dx -- f 1 ( ,' 1 ., 2,

~
dx -- f 2 ( ,' 1 ,. 2 ,' ,. n ) ,
dyn
dx -~

f n (', I . 2 '
1

. )

1 ,

11

(52.1)
,

'.'.1J. cucmeMo1J. .
, .

.',nu.

367

(52.1).

d x - F1
(' "
' z"t "
" " z') ,
2

-;]j'2

~
dt =

. (' '

Z' t " " z')


2"
"",

.3 (', ', Z'" t " , " , z') ,

--

Z
"""(ii'

: ~~ = ,

!fif = v,

~: = w,

dx - u
dt - ,

~dt - v,
dz -w
dt -

~~

= F1 (x;y;z;t;u;v;w),

~~

~~

= F(; ; z; t; ; v; w).

2 (; ; z; t; ; v; w),

"'

= j(x; ; '; ")

'

= , " = ' = q

' =,

= q,
q' = j(x;y;p;q).

'

,, ,,

Yl, 2, ... ,n,

(52.1)

(52.1)

(52.2)

(52.1),

(52.1)

(52.2).

, .

368

52.1

(). (52.1)

fi(x; Yl; ... , n)

Yi

D ((n + 1)- ),
(; ?; Y~; ... ; Y~) ,

, l = 'Pl(X), 2 ='2(), .... n = 'n() ,


(52.2) .

D (. . ),

,
,

(52.2)

l, 2, . . . ,

{ ~.1.(~;.~1.;.~2.;.'.'.'.;.~~ .~.~~:

'Pn(X;Cj;C2;" .; n ) = Y~

L."{ l, 2"

"

, , '

(52.1).

52.2.

7.L " n.':.

. ) .

(52.1).

, , :

d Yl
8
dYl
dY2
2 =-+_.-+-.-+
2

dx

dx

dx

...

8fl dyn
+_
.8n

dx'


1:JJ.J.1 , ~d2 , ... , ddYn
.
d

(52 .1) ,
2
d Yl
8
8fl
- 2 = -8 + - . fl
dx
.
Yl

8fl

8fl

+ -8
. f2 + .. . + -8 . fn ,
2
n
369

, ,

Yl

--2 = 2 (; Yl; 2;"'; ).


dx
-

rJJn.
dx ' ... , dyn
dx

d Yl
--3

(52 . ])
. ,

= F (;l;2; ... ;)'

dx

), :

(52.3)

d"Yl
dxn -- Fn ( ,' 1,. '
2,,. n ) .

... ,

(n -1)

(52.3).

- ( ' ./.

'l

(52.4)

. . . ,

, ...

,I(n -l)

= 'l (; Cl; 2;"


(n - 1)

.;

).

(524)
.,

2 = '2(; CI; 2;" '; cn), . . . , = '( ; Cl; 2;" ' ; ).

52.1.

{ ~~ = 2

~ = 4 - 3z

dx

, :

'U,,

'y(n-l))

( ; Yl; Yl;
/ ... ; l(n-l)) .
l

2,"

, ...

1
)),

-- .1.
. y(n-l))
'l-'n (', 1,. /'
1"'"
1
.


!11

...

n-

Yl: d"YI
dx

/
YI'

/
Yl'

. ~ .~ .... . .' .. ~ '.. ~ '..... '. '.. ~ ..... :

2, ;
11
(n-l)

= 2(; Yl; y~; ... ; yi

2, ,

(52.3)

'

- 3z.

<)
"

= 4' = 4' - 3(2 -

: : "

4'

= 2 -

z'

+ 6 =

9z.

: "

3z

'

= 4 -

"

4'

3z,

+ 6 = 9z.

':

4 - '
z= --3-.

. . "

'

= .

3z'.
3z),

(52.5)

" _

4' + 6

= 9( 4 - ')
3

'

=-

: k 2 - k - 6
, k j
2, k 2
3
l - 2 + 2 -
2x
. z. '
(Cle+ 2 )' =
2x
-2cje- + 32 z ' (

(52.5)).

,
= l - 2 2, z 2l - 2 !2.

3aMe"taHue.

(52.1)

',ii. ,

,

. .

.
.

u,

52.2.

~~

{ QJL
dt =

<)

+ 1,

+ 1.

= ++2,
= (+)+2. + = z. z' = z+2.

: : ' +'

(+)'

dz 2 = dt, ln(z
z+
t
z + 2 = l e , + = l et - 2.
nepBuii

+ 2)

- ln l = t, z

+2

= et

. ,

- 2-

= l et -

x'=cle t -2-x+1,

x'+x=cle t -1.

..

(,

= v),

: '

'

- , . . ( - )'

= , : ' = -, .!:. = -dt,

-(

lnp -lnc2

).

-t,

= C2e- t , - = C2e- t . , . .
+ = l e t - 2 - = C2e- t , ( -

),

= ~clet + !c2e- t -

1,

= !Clet -

!c 2e- t -1 .

52.3.

, .I1

(52.1)

Hei1.Hblx n.tU ?\'u'uu, . .

:
{

:~HY' +", +

dx - n ll

,n.,

+ n 22 + .. . + n'

Yl, 2 :

= allYl

+ a12Y2 + l,

~
dx = a21Yl + 222 + 2,
~
dx =

aij

Il

(i, j

+ 22 + ,

= 1,2, )

l
0:,

(3, /, k -

(52.7)

= : . e kX ,

(52.6)

= (3 . e kX ,

(52.6)

= / . e kX ,

52.7)

, () ,

(52.6).
(52.6)

e kx ::j:. , :

O:k = allO: + l2f + l/,


(3k = a210: + 22, + 2/,
{
,k = I Q + 2(3 + /,

+ 12/3 + 1' = ,
21 + (22 - k)/3 + 2' = ,
{
a31Q: + 2/3 + ( - k)'Y = .
(all - k)a

(52.8)

(52.8)

/3,

'-

, ,
:

(52.9)
~

(52.9) ?mumu'?u
(52.6). ,
k. .
't1 1. t
: k\, k 2 , k . k i (i = 1,2,)
(52.8) ai, /3i, 'Yi (

). , :

k\ (52.6): y~1)

= 1 ek1X,

y~1) =

-/3
e k1X ' 3
y(l) --"",1 ek1X.,
1

k 2 k -

;2)

;)

= a2ek2X, y~2) = /32ek2X, y~2) = 'Y2ek2X;


= k , ~) = /3k, ) = ' k .

I
2

52.3.

(52 .6)

= Clalek1X +C2D2ek2X +k,

= CI/3leklX + C2/32ek2X + /3
= C1'Y1ek1x + C2'Y2ek2X + '

{*

k
k

,
.

(52.10)

=I -2,

~dx - -4I

+ 2

(52.9)

1- k
-4

-1
1- k

= , k 1 = -1, k 2 = .
) = at eklX , y~l) = /3l ek1X ;2) = 2 k2 ,
y~2) = /32ek2X. (xi /31 (i = 1,2).
1-2k+k 2 -4

, k 2 -2k-

373

k1

= -1 (52.8)

(1 - (-1l - f1 = ,
-4l + (1- (-1f1 =

. .

21

f1 = ,

+ 2f1 = .

-4l

. l
f1

= 2.

yi 1)

k2 = 3

= -

= 2-

y~l)

(52.8)

-22 - f2
-42

= ,
2f2 = .

= 1, f2 = -2.

= 1,

k2

= 3

yi 2) = Z

y~2)

= _2 Z .

: l = l -
',tJ.

2.

+ 2Z,

2 = 2l -

(52.10),

22 Z .

= + ib,

k\

= -

k2

ib,

k .

1.

.''u.
(.

50.1,

3),

; ,

cos ,

sin .

( ,

). ,

k2

=-

ib

u..

52.4.

rf:1Jl

dx

= l + 2,
= - l + 2

Q1&
dx = 2 + ,

Yl(O)

= 7, 2(0) = 2, () = 1.

: :

1-k

-1
1- k

1-=-\ 1-

1 1

(1 _ k)

(1 - k)(k 2

.11 ; k

k1

= 1,

(52 .8)) .

k2

~l

1-=-\

(1 - k)(k 2

= 1 + 2i,

=1-

1=

2k + 5)

= ,

2i.

, 1

+ /31 + '/'1 = ,
-1 + . /31 - /'1 = ,
. 1 + 3/31 + . /'1 =

: )
k 2

=0,

= 1 :

{
(.

= ,

2k + 4) - (k - 1)
k1

1
1-k
3

-1

= 1 + 2i
-2iD2
{

: 2

/31

(.

y~1)

1 (), /'1

= , y~1) = -"'.

-1.

(52.8)):

+ /32 = ,

-2 - ~i/32

3/32 - 2Z/'2

=1

, 1

- /'2

= ,

= .

() ,

/32 = 2i, /'2

= 3.

y~2)

= e(1+2i)"',

y~2)

= 2ie(1+2i)X,

y~2)'

= 3e(1+2i)"'.

(Re)

(1) :

y~ 2 )

= e(1+2i)'" = e"'(cos2x + isin2x),


Re y~2) = '" cos 2,

y~2)
y~2 )

= 2ie (1+2i)'" = e"'(2icos2x - 2sin2x) ,


Rey~2) = -2e"'sin2x , Imy~2) = 2excos2x;
= 3e(1+2i)'" = e"'(3cos2x + i3sin2x),
Re y~2) = 3'" cos 2, 1 y~2) = 3'" sin 2.

, k =
.

1 y~2) = '" sin 2;

1 - 2i

I
2

Cl

\ .

= -\

+ 2 2 + sin 2,
22 sin 2 + 2 2,
+ 2 cos 2 + sin 2.

I\.j .
l , 2, :

7 = l + 2 + ,
2 = - + 2,
{
1 = -l + 32 + ,

===>

= 5,

= 2,

= 1.

l = 5

+ 2

= -5 + 6

2 = -4 in 2

cos 2

'.i1.

sin 2,

3.
= 2,3). ,

+ 3

+ 2

2,

sin 2.

= (E+Fx)e

kx

2, \

+ Bx)e kX , 2

+ Dx)e kX ,

) = 3, l = (
= ( + + Nx 2 )e kx .

+ + Cx 2 )e kX , 2 = (D + + Fx 2 )e kX ,

.
, , ,

... , N

,
, .


u.

52.5.

(52.6).

dx" =

+ 2

d1/2

2 + ,
-

~ = -2 + 2

1-k
1

-1
1-k
-1
376

-1
2-k

(1- k)(2 - 2k - k + k 2 -1) -1( -2 + k + 1) = , k1 = 2, k 2


k1 = 2 (. (52.8)) :

- 1
l

- (31 + 1'1 = ,
- (31 - 1'1 = ,

= ,

-(31

= 1.

{(31 =
==}

= k

= .

-1'1

1'1 = 1, l = 1.
: y~I) = 2 , y~I) = , y~l) = 2.
k = k 2 = k = 1 ( = 2)
;2,) = ( + ) , ~2,) = ( + Dx)e X , ~2,) = ( + Fx)e x .
() :

+ ( + ) = ( + ) - ( + Dx)e + ( + Fx)e
D . + ( + Dx)e = ( + ) + ( + Dx)e
( + Fx)e
X
X
X
F + ( + Fx)e = -( + Dx)e + 2( + Fx)e ,

,
,

:::1

= ,
= ,
= .

(D - F)x + + -
( - F)x + - D -

(D - F)x + + F -

D - F

- F

= ,
= ,

+-= ,

- D -

= ,

+F-

= .

(
.

= .

= 2),

D = .
= -. : = - , . .

- D, .
= - - ,

= 1,

= ,

= -

2.

= , :
= 1, :

= 1, D = , = 1, F = .

= -2, D

= 1, = -1, F = 1.

(2) _
1-'

) = ,

= 1:

(2) _
2-'

;3) = (-2+) ,

(2) -
3-

~)

= (-l+) .

l = l 2

+ 2 + , 2 = 2 + ( = Cle 2x + 2 + ( - l)

2) ,

4t

XI . .t:~

I 44-46

53.
53.1.
.

f(x ; ).

D i (i

= ,n),

6..5i,

(
)

6..5i

d i (.

Di

214).

Mi(Xi; Yi),
f(Xi; Yi)

214

:
n

i=l

(53 .1)
'i1 cYMMoi1

f(x;

D.

(53.1), n
d i -+ .
D

, ,

f (x; ) D

!!

j(x ;Y)d5) .

aBOi1HblM ',,

!!

f(x;

) dx dy (

, 1J:. .n,

!!

j(x ; ) dx dy

= ,,1~-tIIJo


.n,

D; D -

(53.2)

(maxd;--t) ;=1

L j(Xi ;Yi) 6..5

f(x;

) .

.n, ;

. ;

dx dy

d5) -

.n,. n.n, .

f(x;

) ?

53.1 ( ).

z = f(x;

D,

3,,"t:u.

'/

;'

......

!::.;

. ,

, (. .

D..Si = D..x; . D..Yi,

,/

\
!

r--...

!::.Si

2.

1.

(53.2)

215

215).


11

JJ f(x ;) dx dy =

1IIJo

n1

L !(Xi; Yi) . D..x; . D..Yi

(maxd.->O) i=1

53.2.

, .

,
~ ,

z = f(x; ) ~
-

(. .

'uu'u"t''U,, .

216).

Oz,

v.

D ( z = f(x ; ) )
n D i , D..S; (i =
= ,n). D i ,
z = f(x; ) ( . 216
379

).

Di

V.

.6. V;,

V=L.6.V;

;=1

z=!(X;Y)

Mi(Xi; Yi)

D;

Di

Zi

= j(Xi; Yi).

!(Xi; Yi)

, . .

.6. V;

.6. V;
~

!(Xi; Yi) . .6.Si .

V = L.6. V; ~

i=1

L !(Xi; Yi).6.S

i.

(53.3)

i=1

, .

216

D i .
(53.3) , D i
(n -t 00),
( d i -t ), 11 , . .

li
n-}-

(maxd;-t)

""'
~ !(Xi; Yi).6.S i ,
i=l

(53.2),
V =

JJ! (; ) dx dy.

(53.4)

D
,

u'.u aeoil:Hozo u uv,i1. :v,uu

15. v,uuu'.: .
.

= ,(; )

D,

(; ).

D n D i
(i = ,n), .6.Si .
D i Mi(Xi; Yi) :
'(Xi; Yi).
D i ,
(; ) D; 'Y(Xi; Yi).
D i , 'Y(Xi; Yi),

mi:

; ~ ,( xi;

Yi) . 6oSi .

= L mi,
i=1

(53.5)
i=1

n -t

00

maxdi -t

(53.5)

m =

lim
n->

'~
" ,(Xi; Yi)6oSi ,

(maxd;->O) i=1

(53.2),
m

= 11,(x;y)dxdy.

(53.6)

, ,(; )
, ,(; )
(; ).
.

53.3.
,

(. .

35).

,
.

111 f(x;y)dxdy = 11 f(x;y)dxdy, - const.


11(11 (; ) f2(X; )) dx dy = 11 f1 (; ) dx dy 11 f2(X; ) dx dy.
D

2.

3. D
D 1 D 2 , D 1 U D 2 = D,
D 1 D 2 ,
(. . 217),

11 f(x; ) dx dy =

11 f(x; ) dx dy + 11 f(x; ) dx dy.

D,

D2

381

217

11

4.

f( ; )

~ ,

f(x;y)dxdy ~ . D f(x;y) !(;)

11

f(x;

) ~ !(; ),

f(x; ) dx dy ~

11 !(; ) dx dy.

5.

11 d5 = 5 , t 6.5 = 5.
i

6.

.=1

f(x;

5, 5 ~

11 f(x; ) dxdy ~ 5, -

D,

D.

f(x; ) D,
5, (; ),
f(x; ) dx dy = f(xo; ) 5.
7.

11

f(xo;yo)

=~.

11 f(x ;y)dxdy
D

53.4.

f(x;

D.

,
.

J1f(x; ) dx dy,
D

f(x;

) ~

53.2,

D.

z = f(x;

).

, . (.

(41.6))

1S(x)dx,

5()

, ,

= , = -

, .

= 4?l(X)

= 4?2(),

4?l(X)

4?l(X) 4?2()

~ 4?2 () [;] ( . .

218).

nui1 : ,

,
.

= const,

[; ].

,,.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:,'
... . .... . . . . ,
. . . ',',',' . .

..1

'. .. .. . ... . ..1

0:-:-:-: ':-:-:-:':-:-:-:-1

1..... .......'
,,1............'
....... ................. ,
........ .......... .... ,

'-:.:-> .. .. . .-:':-: '

::<~:i:(:;;}.>:: ; ~2 (X)

218

219

D,


(. .

= f(x; ),

const, z

= ,

= CPl () = 2()

219) .

S(x)

'l'2()

S(x)

f(x; ) dy.

'l'1(X)
, ,
:

= JS () dx =

, .

J ( 'l'2()
J f (; ) dy

53.2

dx.

'l' 1(X)

J( ; )

D.

v=

!! f(x;y) dxdy = J( 'PJX) f(x; ) d

Y ) dx.

'.()

!! f(x;y)dxdy = !

dx

'2()

(5.7)

f(x;y)dy.

'.()

(53.7)

(53.7)

. ( )

f (; )

'2()

D.

f(x; ) dy -


, , ,
. .

= 'l () = '2(), 'l ()

. .

=d

<

~ '2() [;

d),

d],

n , ,

D -

= const, :
d2()

!!f(x;y)dxdy=!dy.

f(x;y)dx.

(53.8)

1/Jl(Y)

, , .
.-u..

1.

< ,

(;)

2.

(53.7)

(53.8)

(53.8).
3.

f(x;y) <

D.

(53.7),

, ,

, l> .

4.

, , , .

u., 53.1. JJ(X + 2y)dxdy, D


= , + -

= .

220
D.
.

(53.8):
1

JJ(x

2-

+ 2y)dxdy = J dy J (x+2y)dx=

VY

j dy(~2 + 2 ) /2- = j 2 ~ )2 + 4 _ 2 2

~ 2Y~)dY =

VY

220

(( - 2)3 + 7 2 _ 2 . 3 _ 2 . 2 . "2 ) /1 =

22

1
= --6

8
6

+ +

7
4

2
3

- -

4
29
= 5
20

= 145.
'

J J (

D1

(53.7).
D 2 . :

+ 2) dx dy = J J ( + 2) dx dy + J J ( + 2) dx dy =

Dl

D2

= J dx J (

2-

+ 2) dy + J dx J ( + 2) dy =

j dX'(Xy+y2)lx2 +] dX'(Xy+y2)12-=

= J ( 3

+ 4 ) dx + J (2 - 2 + (2 - )2) dx =

)/l + (2

(-2)3)/2_
-_(-+ --+
4
5
3
3
1
4

= (~4 + ~)
+ (4 5

1-

~3 + ~3 + + ~)
=~
+33
20

, , .
l -r lt ~ .

2 = 145.
'

53.5.

), . .
,.

(
)

= 'P(U;v)

(53.9)

= '(; ').

D*

(53.9)
Ouv

I(u; v)

~~ ~~

=
I

f(x;

i2JL

(53.10)

i2JL '

) D, .

.' n.'' aeoi1HOM ':

!!

!!

f(x;y)dxdy =

(53.11)

f('P(U;v);'Ij;(u;v)) II(u;v)ldudv.

D'

': .':'. (.

(53.11)

(53.10)

n.

).

,
,

'.

r
r cos ',

'.

r sin '

(.

.9.1).

I(r; ')

= ~~ ~~ I = I .s ' -rsi' I =
s 1/"
r cos
r
I i2JL i2JL

!!
D

D* D

f(x; ) dx dy

!!

(53.11)

'

<

(53.10)

f(r cos '; r sin ') . r . dr d'P,

(53.12)

D"

,
.


. ,

D* , 221 (
= : < = (3, : < (3, r = [ (<) r = 2(<),
l (<) :( 2(<), . . D* nu'..: , ,
<

),

(53.12)


2("")

(3

11

f(r cos <; r sin <) dr d<p

1 1
d<p

>

D'

f(r cos <; r sin <) dr. (53.13)

("")

<.

221

222

."t.u..

1.

f(x 2

+ 2);

D ,

2.

= r cos <,

= r sin <, dx dy = r dr d<p;


D,
D D* ,

,
.

, ,

< ( 1"

< (; <) (; )

u,, 53.2.

+ 2

:::; 9.

11

2 dx dy, D -

11 }9 -

}9 - 2

D).

2 - y 2 dxdy

(53.12),

11 }9 -

(rcos<p)2 - (rsin<p)2. rdrd<p

11 ~drd<p.
D

(. .

222)

:(

< :::; 27,

:( r :( 3.

D -

(53.13),

D* -

. ,

:
21

JJr,~drdcp= J dcp Jr.~dr=


D

=-

1 21
3
2' J dcp J (9

) 2"

. d(9 -

) =-

1 21
(9 _ 2 ) 2" . 2
2' J dcp (
3
)

10

= -3

21

! (O-27)d=9I0" =
2

187r.

53..

.

(.

53.2),

v=

!! f (; ) dx dy,
D

z = f(x; ) -

, .

(53.4) f(x;

1,

= 1.
S D.
S D:
, ,

s=

!! dxdy,
D

, ,

(.
,

53.2),

= ,(; )
m

!! ,(x;y)dxdy.
D

D (.

41.6)

Sx

= // y,(x;y)dxdy

Sy

= // x,(x;y)dxdy;

Sy

= -

Sx

=-.


' ul1 -,r.;u

1 d
, . . /1/ = m .
:

= // 2

= // 2

.,(x;y)dxdy,

.,(x;y)dxdy.

= + 1 .

3-,u.
.

(.
u

53.3.


2 + 2 + 3z - 7 = .

(. .

+ 2

2 + 2

+ 2

+1=

223).

=Z -

1,

+ 2 = -3z + 7,

= 1, z = 2.

57.3).

+ 2

223

~ 1)

!(7 - 2 - 2) Z

= 1 + 2 + 2.

(53.4),

= V1 -

V2

== // ~(7-x2
D

-y2)dxdy -

//(1 + 2 +y2)dxdy.
D

, :

u.

Sx

Sy

53.4.

, , -

~
.

224).

+ 2

= 1 ( .

224

: (53.6) . . ,
, = ,(; ) = k . , k - .

1--

11

kxy dx dy

=k

dx

dy = 2 dx . 21

112

/I-~
4

k
X )1
2
. 4 (4 - ) dx = 'k(
8 2 -"'4

k
= 2'

Sx

11

l
- T
V~

. kxy dx dy = k

dx

dy

= ... =

15 k,

/1_ 4

Sy

11

. kxy dx dy

= k 2 dx

dy = ... = 185 k.

~
--~
. - 16

m' - 15'

~
15'

54.

54.1.


. .

= f(x; ; z).

n vi (i

= ,n)

Mi(Xi; Yi; Zi),

f(x;

Z)

Oxyz

( . vi

2:

f(xi; Yi; Zi)!::. vi

i=1

Vi).

vi

, . .

(. .

di ---+

= f(x; ; z)

111

d;

), mpoil:/i'blM unm

f(x;y;z) dxdydz

111

f(x;

; z) dv).

, , :

111 f(x;

; z) . dx dy dz

dv

L f(xi; Yi; Zi)!::. vi =

(maxd;--40) ;=1

n1~+moo

= dx dy dz -

54.1

111
f (; ;
v

(54.1)

z) dv.

().

= f(x; ; z)

V,

(54.1)

n ---+

00

maxdi ---+

Mi(Xi; Yi; zi)

,
:

1. 111c'f(x;y;z)dv=c'111 f(x;y;z)dv,c-const.
v

111((;;z) f2(X;y;z))dv

2.

111 (;;z)dv 111 f2(X;y;z))dv.


111 f(x; ; z) dv = 111 f(x; ; z) dv + 111 f(x; ; z) dv, V
v

3.

v
;:::: V1 U V2 ,

4.

V1

V2

, .

111 f(x; ; z) dv ? ,
v

111 f(x;
v

V2

f(x;

; z) dv ?

z) ?

V f(x; ; z) ? .
<(; ;

z),

111
<(; ; z) dv.
v

5.111 dv = V, f(x;y;z) = 1
v
n
L: 6. vi = V .
i=l

6.

m V ::;;
1

f(x;
7.

111
f(x; ;
v

-
z) V.

(; ;

za),

V,

V -

f(x;

z)

111 f(x; ; z) dv
v

z) dv ::;; . V,

= f(xa; ; Za) . V,

54.2.

V ,
z = Zl (; ), - z = Z2(X; ),
Z2(X;y) (Zl(X;Y)::;; Z2(X;Y)) -

Zl(X;Y)

D,

(. .

225). V - nu.''.11 '.n.


Oz: , Oz,

'.

; ;

z)


Z2(X;Y)

!!! f(x; ; z) dv = !! ( !
V

f(x;

; z) dz) ds,

(54.2)

z,(x;y)

).

(54.2)

Oz
-

V,

. .

z =

z.

Zl (; );

V,

. . z

= z2 (; ).

:
.

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::':

225

226

= , = ( < ), = lPl ()
[, ] ,

= lP2 (), lP! () lP2 () -

lPl () :::; lP2(X) (. . 226), ,


D ,

!!! f(x;y;z)dxdydz ! dx
=

Z2(X;Y)

f(x; ; z) dz,

(54.3)

z,(x;y)

',u..

1.

, ,

(),

(54.3).

2.
(54.3),

54.1.
///

( + z) dx dy dz,

= 1, + + z = 2 (.

227).
.

V
Oz (, , -

227

).
( ).

(54.3),

\/

1 l/-X (. + 2z2) 1 2 - - =
/
dx

dy

1
/

dx

I/-X( 2 -

2 - -

dx - -

{(
/

- -

.2

(2--)2
2

1) dy =

'2

=/
=

xz

- 2.

; + :4

2-

x(l -

)2

1
- 6"
3

- '2

_~ (~2 _2 .
3

1 )II-X

(2--)

(2 -

+ ) _ ~ . _

= 4 - "3 + 4 -

1)

'2 + '2

1
24 -

"3 -

(2
16

dx =

;4 )4) 1: =
1

24 + 24 = 4

54.3. .


, ,
, . .
.

= (; v; w), = (u; v; w), z =


(; v; w). V*

Ouvw

l(', v', w)

Bv

Bw

~
Bv

E1L
Bw

Bz

Bz

Bv

Bw

. .t nepe.eHHtX :

111
j(x;y;z)dxdydz =
v
111 j((u;v;w);(u;v;w);(u;v;w)) II(u;v;w)ldudvdw.
=

(54.4)

l(;

v; w) -

( ).

(; ;

Oxyz

, ,

z)

z,

z-

(; ;

M(x;y;z)
z)
z

lv! (.

228).
(, , z) 1,{

uu''ICU.u 'lC .

228

I = . cos ,

= . sin ,

z=

(? , [; 27], Z .

~ , V, W

r,

',

I(ro,u,,z)
r

<

~
<

~
az

cos '
sin '

-r sin '
r cos<p

az

az

az

az

~ .

= r

<
az
(54.4)

!!!

j(x;y;z)dxdydz

!!!

(54.5)

j(rcos'P;rsin'P;z)rdrd'Pdz.

r,

'

.-.1tu.
,
.

u. 54.2.

!!!
v

+ 2 = z2

: .

zdxdydz,

V -

= 1.

V.

229

= r cos<p, = r sin'P, z = z.

dxdydz = r drd'Pdz.
r 2 cos 2 'P+r2 sin 2 ' = z2, . . z = r.
2

+ 2 = 1

z - r
D,

21,

z dx dy dz

!!!
v

2".

z = r

d'P

d'P

1r

2".

2".

r dr

z dz

d'P

r2

z = 1).

! ! r . (2 - r2 )

d'P' ( "4

'

! ! !

dr . z2

Oz,

1,

(54.5),

z . r . dr d'P dz
2


2".

! !r

r -

(,

!v!!

= 1.

( D) : r

dr =

r4' 1

- 8" ) 10 = 8

, , , :

!J!
v

V'!-X2

z dxdydz

!
-1

dx

-v'!-X2

dz.

M(xyz)

z=l

: (; <'; )
,
I
I

229

u'."uu ".m. (; ;
, <, (),
, < -

z) Oxyz

, -

230

() -

Oz (. . 230).
, <, ()

, ,

= cos < sin (),

= sin < sin (),

z =

( ~ ,

cos () I
~ < ~

27[,

()

7[).

, .

(54.4).

I(r;<p;z) =

cos < sin ()


sin<psin()
cos ()

sin < sin ()

cos <

sin ()

cos <

. < s
. () I sincos
< sin ()
= s
()

sin < cos () I

. ()

-s

cos ()
()
- sin ()

sin < cos

: () . I cos < sin


() cos < cos ()
+ cos < s
()
-psin()
cos

= sin < sin ()( - sin < sin 2 () -

I=

sin < cos 2 ()) +

+ cos < sin ()( - cos < sin 2 () -

cos < cos 2

())

= - 2 sin 2 < sin () . 1 _ 2 cos 2 < sin () . 1 = _ 2 sin () . 1 = _ 2 sin (),

111
v

j(x;y;z)dxdydz

111

f(p cos ({! sin 8; sin ({! sil1 8; cos 8) . 2 sil1 8 dp d({! d8.

(54.)

."t'u. ,

V ( 2

+ Z2

= R)

= R 2

f(x 2 + 2


u.

+ z2).

54.3.

111

dx . dy . dz
1 + (

+ 2 +

I '

+ 2 + z2)2

V - + 2 + z2 ~ 1.
2

Q :
: = pcos({!sin8, = psil1({!siI18, z = pcos8.
dV

= dx dy dz = 2 sil1 8 dp d({! d8.


.

V -

= 1,

12 3/2'
1 + ( )

. . ~. : l+

n 1,

({! -

2,

8-

. ,

(54.),

111 1+ 3
=1
1 d({!(
=3 1
1

1 11: 3
11 + 1) 10 = 1
13
= '3
1
11'

. / sin 8 dp d({! d8

11'

11'

211'

sil1 8 d8

In

211'

1112d({! =

11'

sil1 8 d8 =

In 2

dp

sil18d8

1211'

11'

sin 8 d8 . ({!

In 2

d({!

211'

sil18d8

2
111'
= -ln2(-cos8)

= -ln2 .

54.4.

11 V
V

111
v

111
v

dx dy dz -

dv

J J J r dr dVJ dz - ,
v
V = J J J 2 sin dp dcp dB - .

v=

'

= JJJ 'Y (x; y; z )dx dydz,

v
' ; ; z) -

(; ;

z ).

Sxy, Sx z, Syz
Oxz, Oyz

Sxy = JJJ Z

'( ; ; z) dv ,

Sy z = JJJ . '; ; z ) dv,

= JJJ Y 'Y (x;y;z)dv.

Sxz

Syz

Siz

=-,

=-,

Sxy

zc=-'

= JJ! z2 ''Y(x ;y; z )dv,

lyz

= J J J 2 . '(; ; z) dv,

lx z

= J J J 2 . '(; ; z) dv,
v

l= JJJCy2+z 2)''YCX;y; z )dv ,


v

l= JJJCx2+ z2)''YCX ;y;z)dv,


v

lz

= JJJCx +2 ) . 'Y (~;y;z)dv.


v

z = 2

+ 2

54.4.
= 1.

z = 1, -

+2 (. . 231). ,

= JJJr . dr d<p dz =
v

2"

2"

J d<p Jr . dr J dz =

r2

2"

u.,

2'

2"

J d<p J(1 - ) dr = J (2 - 4)d<p = 4</

231

54.5. 2

232

+ 2 + Z2

~ 2Rz,

(:

).

: 2 + 2 + z2
2Rz :
+ 2 + (z - R)2 R 2. 01 (; ; R)

(. .

232) .

(; ;

z) -

. ,

, ,

, (X ; y ;z ) = JX 2 +y2+ 2'
z
k -

J 2 + 2 + z 2 -

, m = J'fJ,(x;y;z)dv = J'fJ
J.
J.
V
V

J 2 +k2 + z2 dv.

+ 2 + z2 = 2Rz

= 2Rp OS(}, . . =

2Rcos(}.

: -

2RcosB; -

~; t.p -

27. -

~ = !s..
v 2

27"2

2RcosO

JvJJ-.
2 sin dp dt.p dB = k J dt.p J sin dB J

27"2

=k

J dt.p J

1
27
sinBdB."2.4R2cos2B=-2R2k
dt.p

"2

= ,

= 15 R.

JIJ z J
V

.
2

J Jcos Bd(cosB)

.l .

dp =

+ 2 + z2

(; ; gR).

dv,

Zc

= ;

XII.

"'"

I 47-50 I
,
,
.

55. I
55.1.
(

[.

f(x ; ) ,

L)

= , M 1 , 2 ,
... ,n = n M i - 1 M i 6.l i (i = 1,
2, ... , n)(. . 233). Mi-1Mi
(Xi; Yi)
n

(55.1)

f(Xi ;Yi)6.l i .

;:1

u'H-m''-iJ.

233

cYMMOiJ.

'-':v,uu

f(x;

) 1

iJ. .

l :( i :( n

-t (

6.l i

-t 00)

;uu11: u ;'uu

(55.1),

J f(x; ) dl (

f(x; ) u. ;11 ( 1 )

! f(x; ) dl).

L
, ,
n

f(x; ) dl = n~OO~
lim "" f(xi; Yi)t:::..l i .

(55.2)

(-->) ;=1

1 (
(55.1) n -+ 00 ( -+ ))
,
.

55.1.

f(x;

( (; )

), 1
,
.

f(x;

z)

L.

).

(1

J f(x; ) dl = J f(x; ) dl, . .

1.

1 -

2.

J f(x; ) dl = Jf(x; ) dl, = const.


L

3. !(!I(x;y)f2(x;y))dl=! fl(x;y)dl
L

4.

Jf2(x;y)dl.
L

Jf(x;y)dl = J f(x;y)dl + J f(x;y)dl, L

L,

L2

L L 1 L 2 , L

4 3

= L 1 UL 2

L 1 L 2

5.

~ f2(X;Y),

, .

71.-+00 .

(>'->0) ,=1

f(x;

) ,

(;) ,
) .

55.2.

(; )

J dl = lim f= tll; = [, l -

6.

f1

J!l(x;y)dl ~ Jf2(X;y)dl.

7.

J f(x;y)dl

(-

= f(xc;yc) l

, .

ej\

= y(t),

t [;,8], x(t) y(t) -

= /3,

t,

= x(t),

t=

J f(x;y)dl= Jf(x(t);y(t)) ,)xl'+Yl'dt.

(55 .3)

'"

f(x;

= x(t), = y(t), z = z(t),

z)

/3:

J f(x; ; z) dl Jf(x(t); y(t); z(t)) . ) x~' + yl' + zl' dt.


=

(55.4)

'"
ej\

= <(),

[; ], <()

J f(x; ) dl = Jf(x ;<()) . )1 + y~' dx.

= <() dl

. .

(55.5)

41.3).

(55.5)

)1 + y~' dx (

u. 55.1. bl

J2

dl, L -

0(0; )

(4;

3).

ix, ~ ~ 4.

Q : =

(55.5),

2RJ2
(4)

J2 dl = J
4

(;i3 X) '

1+

J dx = 45.

454

= 64

dx

L r

bl , dl

Jr 2

: ~ < ~

/3

+ (r~)2d<p

(3

Jj(x;y)dl Jj(rcos<p;rsin<p)' Jr
=

= (<),

+r~2d<p.

(55.6)

>

(55.3)-(55.6)

bl .

u. 55.2. bl

J( +

y)dl, L -

bI r

= Jsin 2< ,

234.

(55 .6) .

dl

sin 2<

cos 2 2<p

+ .

s 2<

, , ~ < ~

d<p

d<p

d<p

J sin 2<

= --::===

234

I' :

7r

7r

J( + ) dl = J( cos < + r sin <) ~: = J(cos < + sin <) d<p = 2.


L

55.3.
I
bl
.

bl

J dl .

l =

(. .
,

235),

Oz

= f(x; ), Q =
= f(x; ) dl.

(, , ,

J "(() dl, "( = "(()

235
... )

"((; ) -

n -:;i (i = 1, n).
(Xi; Yi) - -:;i.
, . . ,

, (;;

Yi),

; -:;i:
mi ~

"((Xi; Yi)6.l i .

, :

(55.7)
i=l

max6.l i -+

(n -+ 00),

(55.7)

. .

lim

n--+

( iJ.li--+)

""
"((Xi; fj;)6.l i ,
~
i=l

, (55.2),

J "((; ) dl.

( , , ' ,

.)

4 6

J '{;)dl,

Sx=

J '(;)dl,

Sy=

Sy

= -.'
m

Sx

=-.
m

[, [, [

, :

[ =

'(; )

dl,

'(; )

J( +2)'(; ) dl.

[ =

dl,

u 55.3. 2

+ 2 = R 2 ,

(1'
1).
: ,

(.
.

236).

= . -

J . dl

= J dl

J dl = 1 R.

236

J .

dl

R cos t,

= R sin t,

~ 1. :

J sin 2 t + cos 2 t . dt = R 2 Jsin t dt =


~

R sin t .

2R

_ 2R 2

, -

2R
-R -_ .
1

, -

_ 2R

, - - .
1

56. 11
56.1.

( )


II

II

) ,

1 .
7

L)

(; ), .

= , 1 1 , . , n =
n ~; b..l i (i = 1,2, ... , n).

~; (Xi; Yi)

n
t:.Yi

(56.1)

LP(Xi;Yi) b..Xi,

Yi-I

i=1

= ; - Xi-1 -
~i (. . 237).
(56.1) u'. cYMMou uu (; ) n-

~xi

Xi-I

. 237

..'. .

. (

1~i~n

b..l; --*

(56.1) .)
(56.1) -

(55.1)

, ,

(Xi; Yi), ':uu'.'.'bI. u..


11 ) '.':uu (; ) ':uu

':'. (

J (; ) dx J(; ) dx.

,
n

(; ) dx

lim ' " P(Xi; Yi)b..xi.


n-400 ~
(.\--+0) i=1

Q(x; )

~Y; -

Q(X; ) dy = n-too
lim '~
" Q(Xi; Yi)~Yi,
(.\--+0) i=1

~i .

uuU'.'tU u

11

J (; ) dx + Q(x; ) dy

J P(x ;y)dx+Q(x;y)dy= J P(x ;y)dx+ J Q(x;y)dx.

4 8

/ Q(x; ; z) dx+Q(x; ; z) dy+R(x; ; z) dz


L

56.1.

, (; )

Q(x; )

, 11 -
.

II

1.

II

, . .

/ =- /

( ~ i
) .

2.

, . .

/=/+/.

3. , ,

/ (; y)dx

= ( ~X; = );

/ Q(x; y)dy =

( ~Y;

).

4. (

f ) (
n

).

(. .

238).

+ /
n

m
_

238

J+ J

56.2. 11

II ,

1 ,

= x(t)

= y(t), x(t) y(t)

x'(t)

y'(t)

[:;j],

= j.

= 0:, -

(; ) .

, ,

J (; ) dx =

lim

~ P(Xi; Yi) C1xi.

n-+- ~
('\-;0) i=1

t.
xi-l = X(ti) - X(ti-l)'
(. (25.2)) : C1Xi = x'(Ci)C1ti,

C1Xi =

; -

(ti-l; ti), C1ti

= ti -

ti-1
(Xi; Yi)

,
,

Xi

= X(Ci),

Yi

= y(Ci)'

2: P(X(Ci); y(Ci))

i=1

Ci

, X'(Ci) . C1ti

P(x(t); y(t)) ' (t)

[:; f],
(3

J (; ) dx = Jp(x(t); y(t) )' (t) dt,

(56.2)

'"
(3

J Q(x; ) dy JQ(x(t); y(t))y'(t) dt,

(56.3)

'"

(56.2)

(56.3),

(3

J (; ) dx + Q(x; ) dy = J(P(x(t); y(t))x'(t) + Q(x(t); y(t))y'(t)) dt.

'"

(56.4)

= <(),

[; ],

<() <'() [; ],

(56.4),

= , = <(),

[; ], :

P(x;y)dx+Q(x;y)dy = ![(;<()) +Q(x;<p(x))<p'(x)] dx. (56.5)

J (; ) dx J(; <()) dx.

(56.6)

[0:;,8]

= z(t),

= x(t),

= y(t)

J (; ; z) dx + Q(x; ; z)dy + R(x; ; z) dz

! Pdx+Qdy+Rdz= ![P(x(t);y(t);z(t))x'(t)+

+Q (x(t); ( t); z(t)) ' (t)

+ R(x( t); ( t); z(t)) z' (t)] dt.

.-,u.

1 11

(56.7)

J Pdx+Qdy= J (s:+Qs,8)dl,:,8-,

(;)
.

u. 56.1. 1

J( - )2 dx + ( + )2 dy, L L

0(0; ),

. 239), 1 =

(2; ), (4;

= = +

J= J + ! .

= -

2).
(.

2,

, ~ ~

[2; 4].

2;

239

(56.5) ,

1= ![(x-0)2+0]dx+ ![2 2 +(2x-2)2.J.]dx=

= ~31: + 4XI: + ! . (2 ~ 2)31: = i + (16 u., 56.2. 1

! 2

8)

+ i(216 -

8)

= 1~6 .

dx+ ( 2 +z) dY+(X+y+z2) dz,

(l; ;

L (3;

2)

1; 4).

: ,

2" 1 = ! = z "2 2

z = 2t + 2.
1. (56.7) ,

= 2t + 1, = t,

1=

! [t

2+ ((2t

1)2 + 2t + 2) 1+ (2t + 1 + t

+ (2t + 2)2) .2] dt =

%
2

+ 28t + 13) dt = .

(14t

56.3. -

-,
.

, . .

56.2.

D,

D-

(; )

Q(x; )

~~ ~

D,

!! (~~ - ~:)
L -

dxdy

f Fdx + Qdy,

(56.8)

t.8 D 6 L

( ,

).

(56.8)

= <{!l ()

-.

= <{!2()

n,

(. . 240).

11 ~~

, :

11 dx.dy = 1dx 1 dy =
, < () =
= 1dx
= 1( ; <{!2() dx - JP(X;<{!l(X) dx.

<1()

(;)

dx dy.

<2()

'1'1 ()

= 'l()

= '2()

240

(56.6),

lla;dXdy=
P(x;y)dxP(x;y)dx=
D

n
= -

1 (; )

1 (; )

dx -

f (; ) dx.

dx = -

(56.9)

11 ~~

dx dy

=f

Q(x; ) dx.

(56.10)

(56.10)

(56.9),

(56.8).

(56.8)

., .

u.

56.3.

1=

Jx 2 +y 2 dx+y.(xy+ln(x+Jx 2 +y2))dY,

L -

(;

1)(3;4).

aQ

(56.8)

2),

(6;

2),

(6;

4),

= . ( .

241 . 2
Jx + 2 +
=

, J 2 + 2

J 2 + 2

1) ;

I=!J(Y(YJxJ ++ +1)_ J + )~dY=


2

y2

JJ

dx dy =

'

Jdx J
3

dy = 56.

4
2

~~~~~~0
:,

,,:

56.4.

241

242

11

A(Xl; Yl) (2; 2) - D ( D

HOtL,

, ,

. (
.

242

L j , L2

L ).

1=

(; ) dx + Q(x; ) dy

, , .

,
,

A(Xj; Yl)

(2; 2) . :
(2;2)

(; ) dx + Q(x; ) dy.

(56.11)

(Xl;Yl)

,
?

II

56.3.

1=

Pdx

+ Qdy

(; ),

Q(x; )

D,

, ,

aQ

'


mn (

L)

(56.12)

(56.12).

(56.12)

(. .

(56.8).

243).

f dx + Q dy

dx + Q dy


, :

f Pdx + Qdy =
J dx + Q dy + J dx + Q dy =
J dx + Q dy - J dx + Q dy = ,

243

. .

dx + Q dy =

dx

+ Q dy.

.
~

~~
:

~,

f Pdx + Qdy = .
L

56.1.

(;

+ Q(x; y)dy

y)dx

P(x;y)dx
(.

= u(; )

(.

+ Q(x;y)dy =

. .

(44.5)),

. .

dU(x;y).

(56.13)

(56.11)):
(2;2)

(2;2)

1=

(56.12),

(; ) dx + Q (; ) dy

dU(x;y) =

(2;2)

(; ) dx + Q(x; ) dy

= U(2; 2) -

(56.14)

U(Xl; Yl)'

(,;,)

(56.14)

56.2.

f Pdx + Qdy

Pdx

+ Qdy

3.'v..

1.

, (

2.

t,

~, . .).

= U(; ), (56.12),

U(; )

J (; )

dx

J Q(x; d~ + .

(; ) (; )
(.

3.

(56.15)

56.5).

J dx + Q dy + R dz
L

416

(56.14)

(56.15)

= '

(56.12),

(56.13),

Pdx

'

z'

+ Qdy + Rdz

= dU(x;y;z),

(X2 ;Y2 ;Z2 )

+ Q dy + Rdz = U(2; 2; Z2) - U(1; 1; Z1),

Pdx

(XI ;Yl ;Zl)

= J P(X ;yo; zo)dX+

U(X jY jz)

JQ(x;~jZo)~+ JR(x;Yj()d(+C
Zo

(. 73 .1) .
(1 ;1 )

J dx + dy.

v., 564 1 =

(0 ;0)

Q : = , Q = , ~~ = ~~ =

1.

, .

ydx

+ xdy

. .

= d(xy),

(1; 1)

J d(x ) = xyl

(1'1)

'

(0;0)

= 1 - = 1.

(0;0)

v.,

= ,

(56.14).

56.5.

, -

dx -

(2

+ - ) dy

U(; )
.

-(-)

= --;

-(-(2+- ))

, ,

e-Ydx -

(56.12):

= --

(2 +xe-Y)dy =dU(x; ) .

dU(x; ) = U( ; ) dx
(. .

44.3) ,

: U(; ) = -;
14

+ U( ; ) dy

:1/ U(; ) = -(2 +- ).

417

(56.16)

, ,

()

, :

J- dx

U(; ) =

= -

+ ().

(56.16),

():

(-

+ ())

= --

+ /()

= -(2

/() = -2, '() = _2

= - -

, U(; )

+ - );

+ .

, ,

U(; )

+ .

(56.15):

J- dx + J(-2~ + -{) d~ + =

+ -

= - 2

+ =

+ .

- - 2

56.5.
11

L,

s = ~ f dy - dx,

(56.17)

, -
(; )

= , Q(x; ) = ,

(56.8)

JJ(1 -

) dx dy

= j

. dx + dy,

s=

f xdy.

(56.18)

-,

= ,

S=-jydx.
L

(56.19)

5= 2"

(56.18)

(56.19)

f xdy-ydx.

(56.17)

(56.18)

(56.19) .

((; ); Q(x;
,

J dx + Q dy.

(56.20)

, (; )

( ).

= , 1 ,2 , .. . ,n = n

::-; j .6.l j

Ci(Xi; Y;) , i
1;2; . . . ;n (.
244).
::-;; Mi - 1 ;=(.6.i; .6.Yi) ,

Yi-l

A1;_1Mi

; ::-;i:

; = (P(Xi; Yi); Q(Xj ;Yi).


Fi . M i -

1i

244

; ::-;i:
; ~ ; . M i - 1 M i = P(Xi; Yi) . .6.; + Q(Xi; jj;) . .6.Yi.

;=1

;=1

; =1

= 2: ; ~ L:P(X;;Yi) .6.; + LQ(X;;Yi) .6.Yi

= 1::;;i
.6.l;
::;; n

-+

(, , .6.;

-+

.6.;

lim ~ P(Xi; ;) . .6.;


--> L.J

+ Q(Xj; Yi) .6.; =

(n-->) i=1

-+

) :

J ( ; ) dx + Q(x; ) dy.

3.'..u . :

J (; ;

z) dx

+ Q(x; ; z) dy + R(x; ; z) dz.

u.

56.6.

= . cos 3 t, = . sin 3 t.

:
t 21 (. .

5=~
2

(56.17)

2"

/ ( cos 3 t . sin 2 t cos t

= ~ . 2
2

(56.4),

245).

+ sin 3 t . cos2 t sin t) dt =

/2" sin22t dt = /2" 1 2

cos 4t dt

= 1.
2

0;---------------

245

u.. 56.7.
3 0(0; ) (l; 1).

(56.20)

F=

246

4 6 {

+ l

= / 4 6 dx + dy = / (4 6 + 3 . 2 ) dx = / 7 6 dx =
L

1.

57. I
57.1.

.

Oxyz

(. .

5,

246) ,

5i ,
-

f(x;

z).

5,


d i ,

605i

i = 1; n . 5 ;

Mi(Xi; Yi; Zi)

L J(Xi; Yi; Zi)5i .

(57.1)

i=l

u'1iOU

5.

= 1:::;i:::;n
d i

J(x; ; z)

--7

(57.1) -

J(x;y;z) 5 / / J(x;y;z)ds.
5
, ,

1!

J(x; ; z) ds =

--;

J(Xi; Yi; Zi)5i .

(57.2)

(n--;) i=1

lim

( -

),

J(x; ; z)

, (
) .

1 :

/! J(x;y;z)ds, .
!/ ( (; ; z) J2(X; ; z)) ds = !/ J1 (; ; ds /! J2(X; ; z) ds.

1. / / J(x;y;z)ds =

2.

z)

5 5 5

3.
= 51

U52, 51

52

51

52

5 =

4.

/ / J(x;y;z)ds=

/! J(x;y;z)ds+!! J(x;y;z)ds.

51

52

~ J2(X;y;Z),

!!

5 J1 (; ; z)
(;;z)ds:::;!! J2(Xiy;z)ds.

!! ds = ~
61!! J(x; ; z) dsl :::; !! IJ(x; ; z)1 ds.
5,

5.

5 -

5.

7.

f(x; ; Z)

( ; ;

zc)

JJ f(x; ; Z) ds = f(x c;; zc) . S


5
( ).

57.2. I lJoAa

D -

Si

Si, i = 1; n. ;
D
ai Fi(Xi; Yi)

al, 2, ... , n .

Mi

Mi(Xi; Yi; Zi)

Si.

T i ,
247).
f::1Si , f::1Ti f::1ai

Si, T i

ai

(. .

. ,

(57.3)
"/i 6

Oz

ni

6.Ti COS"/i
(

ai

(57.4)

; ).

= z(x; ),

= f::1ai

Mi ,

, (.

Z~(Xi; Yi)' ( - Xi)

(45.2)),
M i

+ Z~(Xi; Yi)' ( - Yi) - (Z - Zi)

Z~(Xi; Yi), Z~(Xi; Yi), -1 -

= ,

. "/i

'
.

247

k=

ni = (-Z~(i; Yi); -Z~(i; Yi); 1).

(; ; 1)

(57.4)

60Ti =

)1 + Z~ 2(Xi; Yi) + Z~ 2(Xi; Yi)600"i.

(57.2) 60Si ( (57.3))


6oTi , Zi Z(Xi; Yi), ,
Si (

/ / f(x;

O"i),

; z) ds =

/ / f(x;

; z(x; )) . )1 + z~ 2 + z~ 2 dx dy,

(57.5)

=(; z)

= (;

/ / f(x; ; z) ds

z),

= // f(x; (; z); z) . )1 + y~ 2 + y~ 2 dx dz

D1

/ / f(x;

; z) ds = // f(x(y; z); ; z) . )1 + x~2 + x'z 2 dy dz,

(57.6)

D2

D1

Oxz

Oyz

D2

57.1. 1 =

( - 3 + 2z) ds, S -

/ /
S

4x+3y+2z-4

= , 1 (. . 248).

Q : z

=2-

2 - ~y.

zx' = -2, zy' = -~. (57.5) :


1=

( -3+4- 4 - 3) V! +4 + ~dxdY =

J29
= -2-

!!(4 -

i{l-x)

6)

J29
dx dy = -2-

/1 dx 3/

J29

= -2- /

1 .

dx(4y - 3 - 3 2)

(4 -

I!(l-x)

6)

dy

~ /1(16
= -2(1 -

16

) - 4(1 - ) - (1- )

2) dx =

= V29(_16.(I-x)2
232

_22+4.3 +16.(I-X)3)1 1
333

= V29 .

09

... .

.:.:.:.:.j.:.:.:.:.:.:.:"
....1........
:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: .

.. . . : : . J:.::.~:
: :
,
. ...... ... ... .. .

blill6 1
.. .... j

u.

57.2.

.... .. ..

248

249

1= / / x(y+z)ds,

s
S -


= , z = 2 (. . 249) .

= ~,

(57.6).

'

---~'

'-
z -,

1= / /

~.(y+z).Jl+ 1~2y2dYdZ = j/(y+z)dydz=

Dl

Dl
1

=/

dy /

-1

( + z) dz

= /
-1

(YZ

+ z2 ) 10 dy = / (2 +2) dy = 4,
-1

57.3.

1 .

D,

z = z(x; ),
z(x;y), zx'(x;y) zy'(x;y) -

11 ds,
5

S =

11 V1 + zx,2 + zy'2 dx dy.

D
,
,

= ,(; ; z).

: ,

; ;
.

.

1.

= ,(; ; z).

2.

Si, i = 1,2, ... , n,

6.Si .

Mi(Xi; Yi; Zi) Si.


Si

3.

mi

Mi .

Si

,(;; Yi;

Zi)6.Si

4. ; , : m ~

,(Xi; Yi; Zi)6.Si .

i=!

5.

Si,

. .

. .

!! ,(x;y;z)ds.

(57.7)

.
, ro,

Sx y =!! z,(x;y;z)ds,
Syz

!! ( + ,(; ; ds,
M = !! ( + 2) .,(; ; ds,
s
!! ( + 2 + z2) ,(; ; z) ds.

!! ,(; ; z) ds,
!!s ,(; ; z) ds,

Sxz =

Syz
=,

u,

Sxz
=,

57.3.

Zc

= !!(y2+ z 2).,(x;y;z)ds,
s

z)

Z2)

Sxy
=,

z)

R,

, .

JR2 - 2

250
-

2 ;

Jx 2

+ 2

R.

!! J

(57.7)

+ 2 ds =

1+

+ 2

=R
.

!JJ
2

dx dy =

JJ JJ- (+ 2+2) dx dy.


2

250

=R

!! J R r - r
2

r dr d'P = R

42

! ! J -
R

211"

2'

d'P'

1[2

R3

d1" = - - .
2
2

d = J2" R s

2 . 2

r
r
../ R2 _ r 2

= R sin t:

. Rcos t dt = R2

R cos t

J
2"

d=

1 - cos 2t t

=R2(~tl! -~sin2tl!) =R2(~-0) 1:

58. 11
58.1.

11 ,

11

1: ;
, .

(
, , ,

z = f(x ;y) , f(x ;y) , fx' fy' - ,


D . .).

, ,

. OaHOCmopOH:Hei1
,

(. .

ABCD
251).

CD

, ,

t:: ;

:,--1________-----'1:
.

251

Oxyz f(x; ; z ).
( ,

Si ,

= 1,2, . .. , n ,

. i
, ,

, ,

Oz

(. .

252 ,

) , . . COS,i

> ;

, (
COS,i

<

) (. .

252, 6).
n

L f(Xi; Yi; Zi) 6 i,


i=!

427

(58.1)

= (S;)Oxy -

(57.1)

Si

,, ' ,, ,

;Lt7ai

,, , ,, ,

252

(58.1)

= maxdi

-t ,

Si
II

Si,

n'', ,

( )

j(x ; ; z )

!! j(x;y; z )dx dy .
s

!!s j(x;y;z)dxdy

l~~ Lj(i;i;Zi)i'
(n--+) i=1

II

!! j(x;y;z)dydz =
!!s j(X i ; z ) dx dz =
S

l~ Lj(XiiYi;Z;) ' (Si)Oy z,


(n--+) i=1

l~o L j(Xi ;Yi ; Zi) . (Si )Oxz'


(n--+) i=1

II

!! (; ; z ) dy dz + Q(x ;; z ) dz dx + R(x; ; z) dx dy
s
(= !!s dy dz + !! Q dz dx + !! R dx dY),
5

Q, R -

S.
42

5 - ,
cropoHe

#'

#.

-s

II

1.

11

2.

3.

4.

11
51

52

5 = 51 + 52

( ),

51 52 , .
5. 51,52,5 - ,
Oz, , ,

11 R(x;y;z)dxdy 11 P(x;y;z)dydz = 11 Q(x;y;z)dxdz = .


=

S,

S2

S3

58.2. 11

II

5,

R(x; ; z)
z = z(x; ), z(x; ) -

D xy )

Oz

. .6.O"i

5,

> (i = 1,2, ... , n).

zi = Z(Xi; Yi), (58.1)

i=1

;=1

(58.2)

R(x; ; z(x; )),

>.

(58.2)

D.

~ ,

11 R(x;y;z)dxdy 11 R(x;y;z(x;y)) dxdy,


=

(58.3)

II

. , . . ,

S,

!! R(Xjy;z)dxdy =!! R(XjYjz(X;Y)) dxdy.


S

(58.4)

!! Q(X; ; Z) dxdz =!! Q(Xj (; z); z) dx dz,


!! P(XjYjz)dydz =!! p(X(YjZ)jYjz)dydz,

D xz

~.

D yz

(58.5)
(58.6)

Oxz

Oyz

( ).

(58.5) S
(58.6) - =

(;

z).

(58.5)

= (; z),


(,

).

(58.4)-(58.6),

II

!! (; ; z) dy dz + Q(x; ; z) dx dz + R(xj ; z) dx dy =
=!! p(x(Yjz)jYjz)dydz
!! Q(Xj (; z) dx dz !! R(xj ; z(Xj )) dx dy.
S

z)j

Dz

D zv

',.

dx dy cos r . ds, dx dz cos (3 . ds, dy dz cos : . ds,


ds - S; COso:, cos(3, COSi

!! Pdydz+Qdxdz+Rdxdy

(58.7)
-

1 II

S.

= !!(Pcoso:+ Q cos(3+Rcos r )ds. (58.8)

'U.

58.1.
11

!! -xdydz + zdzdx + 5dxdy


S

2
.

+z

6,

IV

253

n,

Oz -

n = (2; -3; 1)

Inl = V4 + 9 + 1 = V4,
s;

=-

3
;7-;

14

< ,

cos
cos 1 =

2
;7-;

v 14

1
;7-;

v 14

> ,

> .

(58.5) -

(58.4)

(58.6)

11=+

11(--~+ddZ~.

3+6

1 dy
-2

11 zdzdx+5 11 dxdy=
~.

1
(-3- 2 Y+2 z )dz-

~y

6-2

1dx 1 zdz+5'~'2'3=-9.

58.3. -

II

,
.

58.1.

(; ;

z), Q(x; ; z), R(x; ; z)

V,

111(~= + ~~ + ~~)dXdYdZ = # Pdydz+Qdxdz+Rdxdy,


v

(58.9)

5 -

(58.9)

.i1

m1-

( - (. .

V
zl (; );

52,

56.3).

51,

z = Z2(X; ) (J1
D - V

Zj

(; )

Z2(X; )

Zj

(; ) ~

Z2(X; ));

S,

Oz

(. .

254).

~~ dxdydz =

///

Z2(X;Y)

= / / dx dy

11
D

'

~
D

-11

R(x;Y;Zj(x;y))dxdy.

R(X;y;Z2(Xiy))dxdy-

I
I

JR
Jz dz =

ZI(X;Y)

254

II

Sj

S2

(.

(58.3)).

///
v

~~ dxdydz = // Rdxdy + /1 Rdxdy.


52

51

JR dx dy S

/
(.

58.1),

111
~~ dxdydz 1/ Rdxdy + 1/ Rdxdy + // Rdxdy,
v
=

111
~~dxdYdZ ff
v
=

S -

(58.10)

R(Xiy;z)dxdy,

v.

///
v

~Q dxdydz = ff Q(x; ; z) dxdz,

(58.11)

/1/
~: dx dy dz ff (; ; z) dy dz.
v

(58.12)

(58.9)

(58.10), (58.11)

-.

(58.12),

.',':u.

1.

(58.9)

V,

2.

--

u,, 58.2.

11

# -xdydz + zdzdx + 5dxdy,

+S

5 -

+z

1=

= 6,

///(-1
v

(58.9)

-~ 36 =

+O+O)dxdydz = - / / / dv =
v

11

z =

(.

58.1)

-6.
z

S3

52,

5,

54

, , (. .

-2
-~4~~-y

255).

11 = -6

+ //

5dxdy -

//

( )

zdzdx+

+ // (-) dy dz = -6 + 5 2" 2 - /
()

= +9 -

255

()
6-2

dx

1/3 (6 -

2"

2) dx = 9 -

1 (1)

2"' -2"'

zdz =

(6-2)3
3

3
0=-9.

58.4.

.

11

58.2. (; ; Z), Q(Xi ; Z) R(Xi ; Z)

jJ( -a

- -) dx dy

Q
+ (aR
- - -a ) dy dz + (
- - -aR) dx dz

az
=

az

f Pdx + Qdy + Rdz,

(58.13)

L --

(. .

).

(58.13)

11 m-; (. .

--

, ).

Q z = f(Xi ) -- , f(Xi ),
fx'(XiY), fy'(XiY) D (

_
_
tZ!j

),

_~ ~:f(X;Y)

__ ' "

____

D(. . 256).

z,
.
.

f (; ; z) dx.

1 --

I
I

(; ;

z) L
Z(Xi ))

(; ;

L1

256

56.3).

11

P(XiYiZ(Xiy))dx.

L,

J(; ; Z(Xi y))dx JJ( 0- : ((; ; Z(Xi ) ))dx dy =


az
= - JJ ( + az . ay)dxdy .
=

L,

f P(XiYiZ)dx = f

(. .

L1

__ L

II

(. .

58.2).

(; ; z(x; )) dx

L,

(.

58.7)

= - j "!(aP
J +
az

aZ)
. cos'Y ds

n - g~,

5,

(.

. . cos'y

>

(45.3)).
('

n 5 z),

- g~, 1.

COS : : cos ,8 : COS'Y

- az

=-

az

az

: - : 1.

= cos(3
.
cos '

/"!( + . aZ) COS~/ds


J az
s

= _

/"!J
s

COS'Y ds _

= _J"!(ap _ . COS(3) cos ' ds =


J
az cos'Y

cos (3 ds
az

/"!J az dx dz _ dx dy.

(; ; z) dx

"!

= J

az dx dz - a

dx dy.

f Q(x;

f R(x; ;

aQ

aQ

/! dx dy - azdY dz,
aR
aR
z) dz =
/! ady dz - dx dz.

; z) dy

(58.13).

(58.13)

(
).


.

( . .

56.4),

aQ

aR

aQ

aR

'

az' az

f dx + Q dy + dz = .

L :

,
.

u. 58.3. 1 =

L -

fx

y 3 dx + dy + zdz, -

R2 j

: ) ,

) ,

= +.JR2 -

2 .

257.

)
:

= Rcost, = Rsint, z == , t [j27].


(56.7) :
211"

1R

1=
.

257

cos 2 t R 3 sin 3 t( -Rsin t) . dt+

211"

211"

Rcostdt=-R6

sin 4 tcos 2 tdt+0=

27

=_R 6

1
2
1
R6
("2sin2t) '"2.(1-cos2t)dt=-S

sin 2tdt+

R6 27
R6
+S
sin 2 2t cos 2t dt = -}6

7R 6

R6

1
211"

(1- cos 4t) dt + = -}6 27 = - -8-'

1=

27

11(0 - ) dy dz + (

(58.13)

- ) dx dz

= -3

- 3 2 2) dx dy =

+ (

11 2
2

dxdy

= -3

11 2
2

dxdy .

, :

= -3

11
D

2".

sin

<' cos 2 <pdr d<p = -3

sin <p cos <pd<p'

dr =

3
= - - R6
6

! -.
2"

1
sin 2 2< d<p = - - R 6
8

1
. -

! (1 2"

cos 4<) d<p

R
12"
7R
-16
< + 0= --8-
6

58.5.
11

51 (z

= ZI (; )), -

5,

v =~

dy dz

II
52 (z = Z2(X; )), Oz:

+ dz dx + z dx dy,

(58.14)

+ 52 + 5.

5 = 51

, -

(; ;

z) =

Q(x; ; z) =

xdydz =

!!!

R(x; ; z) =

. .

dxdydz,

(58.9)

, :

V =

xdydz.

(58.15)

= , Q = , R = ,

II

(58.16)

ydxdz.

s
,

= ,

Q=

V =

R = z,

(58.9)

(58.17)

zdxdy,

(58.15)-(58.17)

II

(58.14).


I .

11

XIII.

I 51-521
59.
59.1.

,
.

8',, ( )

L n = l + 2 + ... + n + ... ,

(59.1 )

n=1

l, 2,

...

, n , ... -

' , n -

(59.1)

' .

, n ,

n: n = f(n).
(59.1) n- ''ii
Sn, . . Sn = l + 2 + ... + n .

CYMMoii

w
~

(59.1),

S = lim Sn
n---+

cYMMoii

(59.1) , . :

lim Sn

n~co

lim Sn
n~co

= 00,

S =

n .

n=l

(59.1)

. .
.

1. 2

+ 17 - 3 ~ + 196 + . .. ,
2 + 5 + 8 + ... - : n = 3n - 1.
2. + + + ... + + ... , .
3. 1 + 1 + 1 + ... + 1 + ... , Sn = n -+ 00 n -+ 00.
4. 1-1 +1-1 + 1-1 + ... ,

.

1, 0,1, 0,1, , ... (SI = 1, S2

= , S

= 1, ... )

00

5. n~1 n(n

+ 1)

. ,

1
1
SI = 1.2 = 1 - 2"'

S2 = 1 2

+ 2~3

= (1 -

~) + (~ - ~)

= 1-

~,

................... ,
1

Sn

= ~ + 2.3 + 34 + ... + n(n + 1)

(1 - ~) + (~ - ~) + (~ - ~) + ... + (~ -

n: 1) = 1- n:

l'

lim Sn = lim (1 - _1_) = 1,


n--too
n +1
1.
n--too

. . ,

11m

1.

(59.1)

S,

00

L n = l + 2 + ... + n + ... ,

(59.2)

n=!

(59.1)

1- ,

(59.2)

cS.

n- (59.2) s~u).
S~u)

= } + 2 + ... + n = (l + 2 + ... + n ) =

Sn.

lim S~u) = lim cSn = lim Sn = S,


n-400
n---700

n-400

. .

(59.2)

(59.2) .
SI'
SI = lim S~u)
n---+

cS.
(59.1)

(59.2)

1-

== lim cSn = lim Sn.


n---700

n---+

lim S n -_ SI

n--too

. .

(59.1)
(59.1).

11m

2.

(59.1)

00

(59.3)

51

52

(59.4)

n-

51 52.

(59.1), (59.3)

(59.4)

s~u), S~v) Sn .
lim S = lim

n~OO

n--+<>

(5(u)
n

. .

S(v = lim

n--too

(59.4)

5(u)
n

lim S(v) =
n--+

51

S2

S1 52

, () -

, ()
, .

11m

3.

(59.1)

( )

(59.1)

I-l , k -

(59.1), , '
.

5~

Sn -

= 5, S~ -

n > k

n- ,

(59.1)
lim Sn = 5 + lim 5~. ,

n--+

n--+

, . .

(59.1)

() , (
) .

.

00

n+1 + n +2

+ ... =

Uk

(59.5)

k=n+1

n- mm:..

(59.1).

(59.1)

(59.1)

. , ,

(59.1)

n -t 00,

. .

lim
n-+()

(59.5)

S - Sn

+ n +2 + ...

n +l

(59 .1)

iii

59.2.

+ aq + aq2 + ... + aqn-l + . . .

f.

),

(59.6)

. .mu-,1i:U n.

(59.6)

Sn =

f.

a(i - qn) , q

-q

11 Sn

n-+()

1.

(1

- qn)
1- q

= n-+()
11

qn

=- - n-+()
11 --
1- q
1- q

1. Iql < 1, qn -t n -+ 00. lim Sn


n-+()

q:

= --1q ,

(59.) , - 1 ;

-q

2.

> 1,

Iql

qn

-+

00

n -+

00.

lim Sn
n-+()

= 00,

(59.) ;

1,

Iql

+ + + ... + + ... ,

Sn

Sn

(59.6)

n-+()

= -1 (59. ) - + - + ... = n Sn = n.

liill Sn , (59.) .
n-+

= n lim Sn = 00, . . (59.6)

Iql )

Iql <

1.

.
u,, 59.1. ,

23

+ 22 + 2 + 2"1 + ... + 2n1- 3 + ...

: :
3

2 . 1+ 2

1
'"2 + 21
. 22 + ... + 2 . 2n + ...

= 23

=~

< 1. 1

59.3.
.
n-

Sn

.
nu;u

. , ,
.

(59 .1) , n

59.1.

, . .

lim
n-+

= .

(59.1)

lim Sn = S .

lim Sn-l = S

n--i'

~ 00

(n - 1)

n-+

~ 00). , n =

Sn - Sn-l

n > 1,

lim

n --+ 00

= lim (Sn - Sn-l) = lim Sn n -+ >

lim
n-+

:j;

59.1

n-t

lim Sn-l = S - S =

( ).

, .

, , ( )

lim
n-+

. , .

u.

59.2.

f:

n=l

11-1>

f:

3:';52

= .

3n -52 .
n+

, . .

3 - 2
lim n = lim _n_ _ = 3:j; ,
n-+
n-+ n + 5

n=l

. . .

u.

59.3.

(1 + ~)l + (1 + ~)2 + .. . + (1 + ~)n + .. .


Q

: , . .

= :j; .

lim
n-+

lim

n-+

(1 + l)n
=
n

59.1

lim
n--+

. , ,

lim
n--+

.'u':ui1.

00

2:-=1+-+-+-+ . . . +-+ . ..
n=l

lim
n--+

(59.7)

= . (59.7) .

l)n
= . ,
n
n N (1 + ~) < . .zI

(. (17.14)), lim (1 +
n--+

, :

. .

~ > ln n + 1,

- > ln{n + 1) - ln n.
n

= 1,2, ... , n -

1, n,

1> ln2,
1
2

> l -ln 2

'

- > ln4 -ln3


3

'

.............. . . .

')

1
n

- > ' (n + 1) - ln n .
,

ln(n

n--+

(59.7)

+ 1) =

00,

lim Sn

n--+

Sn > ln(n + 1).

lim n
n-+-

lim

n---+

00, . .

hn = . .

111

111

vn + vn + ... vn1=1v .n = V,

= J1 + ,j2 + J3 + ... vn >

. . n

60.

> .,;n.

, n ~ 00

~ 00, .


, ,

, .

mm',': nu,-;.
~

'?n.IUr.um't

, . . (

(-1),

, , ).

60.1.

<) ,
, .
.

60.1.


00

(60.1)
n=l

00

(60.2)
n=l

(60.3)

(60.1)

(60.2)

n-

(60.1),
(60.2).

(60.1) (60.2)
B~) s~v). (60.3) ,
() ~ S(v)

-.. .;: :

(60.4)

(60.2) 52. lim 5~v)


-)

= 52 '

(60.2) , 5~V) < 52 , ,


(60.4), 5~u) ~ 52' ,
5i U ), 5~U), 5~U) , . .. ( n > )
'

52. (.

15.3) {5~U)} lim 5~n) = 51, . .


(60.1) .
(60.1) .
, lim 5~U) = 00. ,
-400

-400

(60.4), lim 5~V)


-400

.',n.

60.1

(60.2) .

(60.3)

(. .

= 00, . .

N.

(60.1) (60.2),
3

59.1).

60.2 (~ ).
(60 .1) (60 .2) . .
, lim ~ = ( < < (0). (60.1)
n-400

(60.2)

Vn,

(. .

n,

15.2)

>

, , ,

I~ - I < ,
( - ) . Vn,

(60.1)

< " <

+ )

(60.5)

. V".

(60.5)

00

60.1

. ,

- )v n

=l

60.1,

1
(60.1)

(. .

59.1),

(60.2)
(60.1).

(60.2)

(60.2)

(60.5),

(),

()

u. 60.1.
44

00

=1

3 12'"

~1
~
2""

~1

(q

=1
"2 < )
1 .

1
~

, .

1
< 2n
'

60.2.

~.

n=1

Q : n

VN. v

~,

vn ~ ~.

( ).
, .

00

60.3.

tg

n=l

tg

lim
n~ oo

.2L

-F
= 5
n

571" .

(. 17.7) , . 2

f.

, .

60.2.
,
,

(1717- 1783,

60.3. (59.1)
lim Un+l = l.
n~ oo

<1

> 1.

n + 1 = l ,
n~ oo

>

n > N

l-e<--<l+e .

( . )

Ztn+l
n

+ = q,

Ztn+l
n

l < 1.
q

< 1.

< q,

l+e < 1.

(.)

Un+l

<

q. n , n

> N. 3

, n +l

< q. n

= 1,2,3, ...

, :

< q. l,
< q . 2 < q2 u !,
< q . U < q u !,

U
1t4

..................

+ U + 4 + ... + n + . ..
+ ... ,
< q < 1. ,
, 2 + U + ... + n + ... ,

. . 2

qu!

+q2u~ +q u ! + ... +qn+1 U1

(59.1).

1> 1. lim n = 1> 1. , ,


n

n~OO

N, n +!
n

n +!

>

lim

n , . .

n---+

(. .

59.3)

=J.

> 1,

n.

(59.1)

.'.':u,.

1.

1 = 1,

(59.1)

2.

u,
Q

60.4.

n!

n .

n=1

~.
n.

lim n +!
n---too

1=

u,

lim (n+!)!

n---+

--1n

< 1,

lim
n---+

n.

(n

+ 1)!

lim

n---+

1
n

+1

==

60.5.

00

n=1

:7'

[- lim (
-

n--4

3n

n+ 1

(n

3n .3: n 2
. (n + 1)2

= n--4
lim n
3

. -)
1)2 . n 2

=3 lim

n--4

l = 3

> 1,

(_n_)2
=3
n +1

lim

n--4

(_1_1)2
=3.
+n
1

60.3.
un'',,, n',n,,

.
,
.

60.4.

(59.1)
lim ~ = [.

<1

n--4

>

1.

, ,

= 1,

6. .

u.

00

60.6.

n~1 2n (n ~ 1)

n2

:
00

3n

n=1

(n + 1)

= 2

00

3n

n=1

(n + 1) ,


00

L n ' (n+ J

n2

n=1

~ r;;;,.
n~~ 'tun = n~~
1

00

n~1 3~

(n ~ 1)

n2

1 ( n )
1 ,.
1
1 1
' n + 1
= 3 n~oo (1 + ~)n = '

; < 1.

, , ,

448

60.4.

:!

60.5.

00

n=1
bI

[1; +00) J(x) ,

= f(l), 2 = f(2), ... , n = f(n), ... , :

1)

+00

J f(x) dx , (59.1);
J f(x) dx , (59.1).

2)

+00

40.

= 1

= n

= f(x),
(. .

258).

y=f(x)

n-l

3
.

258

[1; 2], [2; ], ...

, :

f(2)1+f()1++f(n)1 <

Jf(x)dx < f(1)1+f(2)1++f(n-1)1,


1

15

ii .: ..' 11".1111.111 "

Jf(x) dx < l + 2 + ... +


5 - < J f(x) dx < 5 - n
"
"

2 + U + ... + n <

Un-l,

(60.7)

+00

J f(x) dx

'i1 1.

, . .

+00

+00

J f(x) dx = . Jf(x) dx < J f(x) dx = , -

(60.7)

5" -

( l

+ ),

<

, . .

5n <

+ .

, ,

. ,

(59.1)

'i1 2.

+00

J f(x) dx .
1

+00

J f(x) dx =

Jf(x) dx
, 5 > Jf(x) dx + ( . (60.7)), ,
"
"
' +00

11

n ~

00.

5n

~ 00

~ 00 . ,

J f(x) dx,

N,

J f(x)dx
1

+60

3.''.u.
+00

(59.1)

> 1.

(59.1), , ()

u,,

60.7.

n=2

--11-'
n Il n

Q : ~l .
f(x) = -11 60.5.
nx
+

dx
-1 Il

00

= In IIIlXII 2 = 00.

, n = -11- .

nx

00

2: = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + + ... ,

(60.8)

n=1

>

, : '.

'-;u ..

(60.8)

).

' .

f(x)

= 1 .

[1; +00) f(n) - -\, = n . i- 1


n

00

1-

~ = lim !x-Pdx = lim _x__ l

-->

-->

1-

1
l-p
1
. { 1
( ----) _
- 1'
--> 1 -
1- 00,

_ l'

kI

> 1,
< 1.

= 1 n = 1,
00
n

! d;: =

( :

00). , (60.8)

~ 1. , 1
( ).

> 1,

1
1
1
+ ~2
+~
+ ... + --,,+ ...
3n~

( )

.
.

61.

61.1.

,
. '.-;'u. .
00

U 1 - 2

+ U

+ ... + (-1) n+ 1 n + ... = 2: (-1 n+ I n ,

(61.1)

=1

>

(. . ,

).

mm''.U

1714

).

451

. .

61.1 ( ). 3 (61.1)
, :

1.

>

, . . l

2.

>

> ... >

> ... ;

Iim
n--+

(61.1)

= .

0< S < l.

(61.2)

(; (2)

(61.1).

S2m = l

-' 2

- 4

+ ... + 2m-l - 2m =
- 2) + ( - 4) + ... + (2m-l

= (l

- 2m).

, ,

. , S2m

>

2.

, S2m :

S2m = l

(2 - ) - (4 - )

, S2m

(2m-2 - 2m-l) - 2m

, S2, S4,

. ,

S6,,'" S2m,'"

< l.

- ... -

Iim SZm

n--+

= S,

< S < l.

(2+1) -

(61.1).

, S2m+l = S2m

Iim S2m+l =

~oo

. .

Iim 2m+l

~oo

lim (S2m

+ 2m+l.

+ 2m+l) = Iim

100

S2m

+=

S,

= . , n-700
Iim Sn = S
n,

n.

< S < l'

(61.1)

3.':u...

1.

(61.3)
( )

(-1) (61.1).
(61.1) (61.3),

, i1.'''ll:. ( ).
~

2.

(61.2)

, ,

5n .

()

(_l)n+l ( n +l - n +2

5n

<

+ ... ),

. .

n +l'

u.

61.1.

Q :
: 1 - ~ + -

55

=1-

. .

- ... = 5. , . . 5

11113111
22 + 3 - 44 + 55 = 4 + 27 - 256 + 3125 ~ 0,7834,

, ,

-lo = 46~56 < 0,00003 . , 5 ~ 0,7834 .

61.2.


()

n , -

n=1

, .:n...'..

ui1

"'i1 nu .

61.2.

+ 2 + ... + n + ...

(61.4)

(61.5)

(61.4).

(61.4)

(61.5):
00

( +

lu] 1) + (2 + IU21) + ... + ( n + lunl) + ... = :l)un + lunl)


n=1

, ~ n

+ lunl

21u nl

00

, (.
00

,,=1

( n

+ lu"I).

21u n l

n=1

EN.

(.

59.1)

59.3)

(61.4)


00

,,=1
,

00

00

,,=1

,,=1

, (

(61.4))

, :

(61.4),

61.2.

(61.5).

f: (_1)n+l .1.n

n=1

: ,

. ,
. , , . .

( ).

61.3.
.
~

..u..,

, , .

..u..,
, , ,
.

, ,

(61.2),
1

00

'"'( _1)"-] . ~
n!

n=]

, . . , ,

( .

60.4).

(, ,
).

.

1.

5,

2.

5,

( ).

5]

52

().
,

5]

+ 52

. ]

+ 2 + . ..

Vl

5] - 52).

+ V2 + . ..

(Vl)

+ (VIV2 + U2Vl) + (UIV + U2V2 + UV1) + ...


... + (UIVn + U2Vn-l + .. . + UnVl) + ...

51

52

51 52.

, ,

, .
.

(), , .
, ,

, . , 1 - ~ + ~ -

! + ...

5 .

,
.

!
,

( ).

~ ,

.
,

XIV.

I 53-551
62.

62.1.

, , ''/
'u' ' ':

00

L 'n() = 'l (l) + '2() + ... + 'n() + ...

(62.1)

n=l
,

UJ ()

+ '2() + ... + 'n() + ... ,

, .

'.'II:U

(62.1);

'.'II:U pacxou,,oc .
,
, .

S = S(x).

S(x) = lim Sn(x),


n-too

Sn(x) =

'l ()

+ '2() + ... + 'n()

00

62.1.

n .

n=

q = . ,
.. (-1; 1); - 11 :

Ixl < 1,

00

S(x) = ""' n = - ~

1-'

n=

62.2.

Ixl < 1.


00

""'
~

n=l

')

s n-

ISi;2 I + ISin ;2 x I + ... + ISinn~2x I + . . .

(62.2)

IR

ISinn~2x I :::; ~,

( ,

= 2

> 1,

. .

60.4),

(62.2)

IR. ,
IR = (-00; +(0).

, . . n: :
00

L n

= + alx + 2 + ... + n + .. .

(62.3)

n=

( ) , al, 2, .. , n , ...
1uumu (62.3), IR -

(62.3)

, (

), . .

00

n( - )"

= + l ( -

+ ... + n( -

)n

+ ... ,

(62.4)

,,=0

(62.4)

(62.3),

= z.

63.

(62.3).

CTErlEHHbIX

63.1.

(62.3)

(62.3).

= ( (62.4) = ).

,
.

=f.

63.1

().

(62.3)

; ,

Ixl < Ixo 1


4

00

I:

. ,

= .

lim
-->

1'11 >

, . .

= 0,1,2, ...
Ixl < Ixol, q = I::0 I < 1 , ,

lanxnl

lanxol :::;

1\1,

lanxolI:; 1:::; q,

. .

(q < 1)

(62.3)

n = 0,1,2, .. . ,

Ixl < Ixol

(62.3)

63.1.

(62.3)

= xl,

Ixl > IXll

, 2,

IX21 > IXll, ,


Ixl < IX21, , , Xl,
'

63.2.

,
;

(62.3)

=j:.

(-Ixo 1; Ixo 1)

-R


Q):.)X((IX(I)X.):I:I:((.:.))!(.):(((((r:.)))):(((((I:.:Q

-Ixal

(-Ixol; Ixol)

Ixal

259

Ixo 1= ,

(- ; ). R
, . .

Ixl <

R,

(. .

R >

(62.3)
259).

--

, ,

Ixl >

(62.3) = ,
= . (62.3)
IR (. . ), , R = 00.
, (. . = R
,

= - R)

(62.3)

laal + lalxl + la2x21 + ... + lanxnl + ...


. ,

I I

, Ixl n-+
lim n 1 < 1, . .

<

I!

lim

n~OO

n
11
. I-_ .I
I1+l I = n-+
n 1 '
n

(62.3),

, Ixl > lim I~I. ,


n-+ n 1

(62.3)

R=

n
.
. I-nI

11

n-+

(63.1 )

R=

lim
n-+

.'-:u..

1. lim I n 1
n-+

(63.2)

----==

y/!anl

I = , ,

.
n

lim

n-+

la 11 =

2.

< R;

R =

00.

3.

00,

(62.3)

- R;

(62.4)

+ R).

, . .

(63.1) (63.2)),

( ) ,
.

u. 63.1.

= n""
lim

..L

_n_!-

"'l
I

I \n+l,)

I=

lim (n

n ....

00

2: ~.
n= n.

(63.1):

+ 1)! =
n!

lim (n

n ....

+ 1) = 00.

, .

u.

63.2.

2n

+ - - _.+
... + (_l)n+l _
_ + ...
7

2n - 1

: .

. :

Iunl =

Ix2n - 1 1
2n - 1 '

IUn+l1 =

Ix2n + 1 1
2n + 1 '

I n +l I = lim Ix + 1 (2n2n- 1)1 = Ix 2 1 lim 2n - 1


n
n .... (2n + 1) lx - 1
n .... 2n + 1
2n 1

lim

n ....

, 2

< 1

-1

< < 1.

2 .

! - g+ t -... ,
= 1 +1 - ! + ~ - t + ... -

= -1

-1 +

. ,

[-1;
u.

63.3.

:1].

f
n=1

(n ~:~~.

lim

n ....

1
n 2 n -

(n

+ 1) 2 n

I=

lim (n + 1) . 2
n. 2n - 1

n""

(63.1):

= 2.

-2 <

= -4

+ 2 < 2,

. .

-4 < < .

(_2)n

~ n2 n -

=2~(-1)n~
~

n=1

N'

n=l

)' .


00

2n
n . 2n-1

00

= 2L

n=l

,,=1

;:.

, -

[-4; ).

63.3.

1-t1-tt 11
.

1.

S(x)

(62.3)
(-R; R).

00

2.

00

""

n=

Rl

" n , -

n=

R2 ,

, -

. ,

R, R 2 .

3.

S(x)

- R

<<R
S/(x)

4.

= + , + 22 + + ... + + ...
n

(63.3)

= al + 22 + 32 + ... + n "

-1

+ ...

(63.4)

, j'J ;

(63.3) -
.

<< <R

( . 1,

416)

jS(t)dt= jaodt+ ja 1 tdt+ ja 2 t 2 dt+ . . . + jantndt+ ... (63.5)

(63.4)

(63.5)

1- 4

(62.4).

462

64. CTErlEHHbIE

64.1.


, . .

f(x)

f(x)

.
.~ (. T~opeMa 26.1), ),

(n

+ l)-
f(x)

, :

f'(xa)

= f(xa) + -,-(
1.

( )

+ -,-( 2.

... +
~

R.,(x) =

f(n+l)(C)

(n

+ 1)!

f(n)(xa)

,(

n.

+ ...
)n

( - )n, (, ), -

+ Rn(x), (64.1)

< < 1.

(64.1)
I f(x)

= Xa+B(X-),

= n() + Rn(x), I

,,() = f(xo) + P~~o) ( - ) + ... + f(n~\xo) ( - )n -


.

f(x)

(. .

R.,(x)

-t 00 (

lim Rn(x)
"--+00

f(x)

= ),

),

i1:

f(x) = f(xo)

f'(xa)

+ --(
1!

00

+ ... = ~
~

,,=0

f(n)(xo)
n
( - ) .
n!

(64.2)

"':

f(x)

= ) +

f'(O)
1!

+ f"(O) 2 + ... = ~ f(n)(O) ".


2!

~
,,=0

n!

(64.3)

( )

. ,

f(x);
f(x). , ,

= { -;..,

f(x)

i ,

= , f(n)(O}

(.

0+

19.5).

2!

:
2

+ ... +

n!

+ ...

S(x) , f(x).
f(x)

(64.2)

, ,

64.1.
f(x)

f(x)

(64.1)
00, . .

n -+

lim Rn(x) =

n-too

(64.2) f(x)
f(x) = lim Sn(x). n-

, . .

Sn(x)

Sn(x)

= (),

(64.2)

n-too

(), . .

'

lim Rn(x) = li () - ()) = lim () - Sn(x))

-400

--+

n--+

= f(x)
, li Rn()
n-too

= .

- lim Sn(x)
n-too

--+

--+

= f(x)

- lim

n-too

..'1iu.

f(x),

= f(x)

- f(x)

= .

lim Sn(x) = lim () = lim () - Rn(x))

n--+

Rn()

(64.2)

= f(x) - 0= f(x).

, . .

()
~

Rn(x) = (). (, Rn() = f(x) - Sn(x),


Sn(x), S(x) - .).
.
, f(x) '

= S(x) -

R.,(x) ---+ ( n ---+ 00). ,


,
.
,
.

64.2. f(x)

f(x),

f(x)

>

. . (64.2).

64.1, , lim R.,(x)


n--+

64.2

= .

If(n)(x)1 ~M. :
lim 1R.,(x)1 = lim

n--+

n--+

f(n+l)(c)
I
(
)' ( - xo)n+l ~
n
+
1
.
I

I( -

11
n--+

, J~~

(n
( -

I = 11
. I( -

)n+l

+ 1)!

n--+

)n+ll

+\)! = .
I(x _ )n+l1
~ (n + 1)! .

(n

(n

)n+l .

+ 1)!

00

n+l
.
, 1
-n--+ n

n 2

\.
Ix- x ol + (n+1)! = I
= n--+
(n + 2)! . Ix - xol n + l
1

I . ,.1

n--+

--

+2

= < 1'

, ,

.
li m

n--+

lim Rn(x)

n--+

,. Ix - xol +
= n--+
1
(n + l)!

= .

64.2.
()

f(x)

(64.3)

) () , f"(x), ... , f(n)(x), ... ;


) = ;

~J

(64.3)

(-R; R),

Rn() --7. n -+ 00. ,


f(x)

3.'.u.

n -+ 00.

,
( ):

1.

2.

n.

= 1 + 1" + , + ... + f

+ .. . ,

(-00; (0),

(64.4)
3

si=:t--,

+ , _ . . . +(_1)n(
5.

2n + 1

),+ . .. ,

2n + 1 .

(-;),

(64.5)

(-00; (0) ,

(64.6)

(1

+ )

"'-1
-

0'(0'-1)

+1
, +
2'
..

+ ... +

--=l++

1-

'(1

+ )

arctgx

= -

+ ...

[-1; 1],
(-1: 1],

' ~ ,

-1

(-1,1),

0' :::;

+ ... ,

n+ 1

+ - - ... + (_1)n _ _ + ... ,


3
n+1
5

0'(0'-1) .. . (0'-n+1) n
,

n.

2n + I

= - 3 +5 - ... + (_1)n 2n+ 1 ... ,

arcsinx =

... +

1 3
1 . 3 5
1 . 3 . 5 7
.- + -- .2 3
2 4 5
2 46 7
1 . 3 . 5 . . . (2n - 1) 2n +1
( ) .2n
-... ,
2 . 4 . 6 . .. 2n
++
1

+ - .- + _

2n + I

shx=x+,+,+ ... +(
)1+ ' '' '
3.
5.
2n + 1 .

+ ... ,

< ' < , (64.7)


-1,

(-l;l),

(64.8)

(64.9)

(-1; 1],

[-1; 1] , (64.10)

+...

(64.11)
XE[-l ; l], (64.12)
(- ; ),

(64 .13)

(-00;00).
(64.14)

(64.4).

f(x) =

) 1'() = , f"(x) = , , f(n)(x) = ,


) f(O) = 1, 1'(0)
1, ... , f(n)(O) 1, ... ;

li
-+

,.

!(n+l)!!_
n.,

1 +-1'+-2'
+ . .. +,+
" . . . ', R- ,......1 !~!_
- .....
1
..
n.
+1

(n + 1) = 00, . . (-00; 00);

) (-R; R) If(n)(x)1 =

<

eR

, . .

= eR . , 64.2 'im Rn() = .

.....

= 1 + + 2!

+ ...

(64.5).

f(x)

= sinx.

) 1'()

cosx = sin(x

~), f"(x) = -si = sin(x

+ 2

~) ,

' ( +3 . "2
7) ' ... , f(n)()-'
7) ... ,.
- cos - s
- s (+

n '"2

f ll1()-

) f(n)(O)

= sin 72n =

) S ~

= ,

{ n:
-1,

+1,

2, 4, 6, ... ,
3,7, 11, .... '
n - 1, 5, 9, ... ,
n

- ... + (-1) n .

2n + 1

(2n + 1)! + ... -

, , . .

(-00; 00);
)

f(x)

sinx

, (11) (x)1 = ISin(x + n.~)! ~

64.2

(64 .6)

(64.6).

f(x)

= cosx.

cos ,

(64.5).

cos

= 1-

2!

= sh ).

+ - - ... ,
4!

(64.13), (64.14).

f(x)

(64.5).

1.

(64.5),

(-00;00).

f(x)

= chx

(64.4)

- ,

- :

= 1- _ + _ _ _ + _ - . .. + (_1)n. - + ...
1!
2!
3!
4!
n!'

(- 00;

(64.15)

00 ) .

( )

(64.4)

(64.15) ,

():

+ -

=1+

4 + ... ,

(-;),
(-00;00) .

(64 .13)

(64.14)

(64.7).

J(x)

= (1 + )', IIt

(1 + x)O'-i, j"(x) = ( - 1)(1


1) .. . ( - (n - 1))(1 + x) O' -n, ... , n N;
) j(O) = 1, 1'(0) = , j"(O) = ( - 1), ... ,
j(n)(O) = ( - 1) ... ( - n + 1), ... ;
0'
( - 1) 2
) ( 1 + )
~ 1 + +
2!
+ ...
)

I'()

= ( -

j(n)(x)

)0'-2,

... ,

... + ( - 1)( - 2),'" ( - n + 1)n + ... ;


n.
) R-lim I~I-lim 1 (-1)(-2) ... (-(n-1)) (n+1)!
-n-+ n +l -n-+ n!(-1)(-2) ... (-(n-1))(-n) -

1-

= lim

n-+

n+ 1 1 = 1, . . (1 +)'

-n

(-1; 1).

, , . .

Rn(x)

(-1; 1),

n --+ 00.

(64.7) u1-tutt. = n N,
(n + 1)- ,
- n = n - n = . (64.7)

:
n _

(1 + ) -1+

!!:.

1 .,+

n(n - 1) 2
2'

+ .. . +

(64.8). j(x)

1)

n(n - 1) . .. 1

n.

= 1~ '

(64.8) :

Jl ;

2) 1 + + 2

+ 3 + ... + + . ..

q = ; (. 62.1),

(-1; 1) - 11 ;
-

3)

-,

(64.9)

(64.7):
(64.8).

(64.9).

f(x) = ln(l

-1

+ ).

_1_ = 1 _
l+

+ 2

(-1;

3 + ... + (_l) + ... ,


1).

, [;],

ln(l

+ )

- 2

+!

+ - - ... + (_1) __ + ...


3
n +1

(-1; 1):

(64.10).

J(x)

= 1.

= arctgx.

(64.7) = -1 2 ,

12
-l+

= 1 - 2

- ...

+ ( - 1)

2 + ... ,

(-1; 1).

arctg

= -

2 +!

+ - - ... + (-1) n - - + ...


5
2n + 1

[-1; 1].

1,

. .

(64.12).

f(x)

= arcsinx.

(64.7)

-! (_~2),

1
2
1.3 4
1.3 .5
~=1+2+2'4X +2.4.6

+ ... ,

xE[-l;l].

1-t

dt

t2

J ~dt J + J2'

dt

1.3

J2.4

arcsin
,

t dt

+ ... ,

1 3
= + -21 . -3 + -. - + ...
24 5
5

[-1; 1].

(64.4)-(64.14)

, , ,

(. )
() ().

64.1.

: 3 = e1n 3' = In 3, , l 3

(64.4),

l 3
l 2 I 3 3 3
I 3 n
3 = l+l!x+~x +! + ... +~x
2

f(x) =

64.2.

+ ... ,

(-00;00) .

f(x)

= I(4-),

f ()

= I( 4 - ) = l 4

(1 - ~)

I 4 + I [ 1 + ( - ~) ] ,

, (64.9), (-~),
:

l(4

-1

< -~

= l4 -

1 2
1
x n+1
- _. - _ ... - -n_1 . - - - ...
4
42 2
4 +
n+1
'
1

~ 1, . . -4 ~

< 4.
47

u.

64.3.

f(x)

= -3- .
-

3-

= - - = -~~

f(x)
,

(64 .8).

:3.

3(1-~)

1
1- ~'
3

(64.8), :

_2 = ~ . (1 + ~ + (~)
3-

(~)
3

+ ... ),

3-

= :3 + :3 . :3 + :3 . 2 + :3 . 2 + :3 . 3 + ... + :3 . 3" + ... ,

< 1, .

. -3

-1

<

< < 3.

65.

65.1.

f(x)

= l

> .

f(x)

(-R; R)

f(x)
l

Xl,

(-R;R) ,

= + alX + 2 2 + .. . + n + ...
n

f(Xl)

..

f(Xl)

= + alxl + a2X~ + ... + n? + .. . ,


f(Xl) ~ 8 n (Xl)

Sn(Xl),

. .

= + alxl + a2xi + ... + anx~'.

n.

,
. .

If(xl) - Sn(xl)1

Tn(Xl)

(.

= IUn+l (Xl) + U n +2(Xl) + Un+(l) + .. 1< IUn+l (Xl)1

ITn(Xl)1
. 61.1).

(
)

() (
),

ITn(Xl)1

u,,

65.1.

sin 1

3!

5!

0,001.

(64.5),

~ 1 + ~ 15 _

sin 1 = 1 _

... =

~ ( -1) n+ 1

L.J

n=l

1
.
(2n - 1)!

( ).

~ ~ 0,008(3) > 0,001,


sin 1

0,001

i! ~ 0,0002 < 0,001,

1
sin 1 :;:::j 1 - 31

1
=
5!

+-

'

842.

(. . ,

sin 1

u,,

0,0002).
0,84147.

65.2.

= 1

1
1
=1+,+,+
1.
2.

(64.4),

0,001.

... +,+
...
n.

n():

n()

111

= (n + 1)! + (n + 2)! + (n + 3)! + ... =

~ 1)! (1 + n ~ 2 + (n + 2)1(n + 3) + ... ) <


< (n ~ 1)! (1 + n ~ 1 + (n ~ 1? + .. . ) = (n ~ 1)! _ln-h)
= (n

1
n! n'

.. n() < _,1_.


n. n
n, _,1_. < 0,001.
n. n

n ? 6.

,
:

1+1+

e::::,j

517

2! + ! + 4! + 5! + 51 = 2 720

::::,j

2,718.

.'',u.

xl

Rn (1) = (n +
1)! '

< < 1. < 1 < 3, R n (1) < (n ~ 1)! .- n


R6 (1)

< ~ < 0,001,

::::,j

1+1+ ~

+ ... +

J!

::::,j

= 6

2,718.

65.2.

(.

34)

f(x) dx

> .

f(x)

(-R; R)

[; ],

.
, .
1

4"

65.3.

= 0,001.

J-

dx

: ,

'( _ 2 ) (64.4):

= 1 -l + 2- + -.. ,
47

(-00;00)_

(65.1)

(65.1) [;!],

(-00; 00),

j.

. 1!. 43 = 0,0052 ... >


> 0,001, 2! . 51 . 45 < 0,001, 0,001 :
1

4"

_2

dx

1
1
- - -

= ' 245.

192

. () f(x)

(65.1)

= -

,
:

()

_t 2

dt =

t2

1 +

(.

1-

2! - ...

dt

f(x) =

J-;e - 2

()

f(t) dt

nu.. .i1,

k J

t2

-2 dt

n -

:'u.. ()

( .i1). ,

-F(x) = -1- ( - - + - 2
.,fj;
2 . 3 2 2! . 5

474

2 3! . 7

+ ... ) ,

65.3.



,
.

, ,

"

= f(x;y;y'),

(65 .2)

= ,

'=
1
='
'

(65.3)

= ()

'() (
= () + --, 1.

(65 .2)

"()

'

+ --,-(
2.
.. . +

'

(65.3).

+ .. .

<"} ()

n.

(65 .2)

+ ... ,

(65.4)

= , : "() = f(xa; ; ).

"'(), (4)(), ...


(65.2)

= .

()

(65.4). (65.4)
(65.2) , .

(65.2).

(65.2),


.
u.

65.4.

( ) -

"

= 2 + 2,

(-l)
475

= 2, '(-l) = ~.

"( 1)
/1/( 1)
(+1)2+ 3~ (+1)3+ ...
2.
.

'( 1)
1.

y=y(-1)+~(x+1)+Y ~
( -1) = 2, '( -1) =

!. "( -1), = -1

: "(-l) = (_1)2

+ 22

= 5.

+ 2',
= 2 + 2(')2 + 2",
2

y/l/ =
(4)

(5) = 4'" + 2'" + 2yy /l/ = 6'" + 2yy /l/, ...


= -1

/1/( -1 )

1
=-2+22-=0,
2

1
(4)(_1)= 2 + 2.4" + 225 = 22,5,

(5)(_1)

= 6

~. 5 + 22 0=
2

15, ...

,
:

!


.
, ,

(65.5)
() = , '(:) =
, l (), 2()

f(x)

- R;

+ R),

= ()

(65.6)
.

l
= ,

Cl

(65.6)

( )

(65.5),

Pl (), 2(), f(x) . ,


+ R)

( - R;
u.

65.5.
"

(65.6)

(65.5).

'

+ = xcosx,

() = , '() =

1,

: :

()

= , 2 = 1,
= xcosx =

f(x)

x~2. + x~4.

x(l-

_ ... ).

= + CIX + 2 + + ...

' =

+ 22 + 2 + 44 + ... ,
" = 22 + 2 3 + 34 4 2 + .. .
Cl

= ,

= 1.

Cl

(22

+ 23 + 34 4 2 + ... ) + (l + 22 + 2 + 44 + ... )+
2

+ CIX + 2 2 + 3 + ... ) =

(
' - l ' + ....
)
1- l ' + l
2.
4.
6.

= ,

22

x1

+ 2 = 1,
3 . 4 . 4 + 22 + 2

23

1
5 . 5 + 3 + = - 2"'
5 . 6 . 6 + 44 + 4 = ,

4 .

, 2

= - i! '...

= ...

,
3
5
7
y=x-+5-7+''''

..

= sinx.

XV.

56-58'

66.
66.1.

nuu',-;u n', . .
,

( , , ,

. .),
, ,
, .

D,

nuu',-;u

f(x

+ )

(0'1.

f(x),
. 14.3) n > ,
) D

= f(x).

1.

, .

2;

f(x)

~; , f (. ( + ~))
3.

[; Xl] IR,

f(x)

= f(ax

+ )

f(ax)

= f(ax).

J f(x) dx = J f(x) dx [; Xl]'

, ,

< < < ,

J f(x) dx = Jf(x) dx + J f(x) dx.

(66.1)

,
+

J f(x) dx = J f(x) dx + J f(x) dx.


+

47

(66.2)

J f(x) dx = ( = + ) = ! f( + ) d Jf(x) dx.

(66.2)

(66.1),

J f(x) dx = J f(x) dx.

Jf(x) dx = J f(x) dx.

sin

cos .

21, . .

21.

()
.1i'' '1iu (),

t ;?:

= . sin(wt + 410),

.n ':1iU,

(66.3)

',

w -

1i'1i.

410 -

( ) npocmoi1 .'.
'X:oi1. (66.3) =
. .

7:,

21 (w
w

, 21

).

(66.3):

= Asin(wt + 410) = Asinwtcos41o + Acoswtsin41o = acoswt + bsinwt,


(66.4)

= sin 410, = cos 410. ,

sinwt

coswt.

' .1i'' ':1iu,


( ) ,

41(t) =

sin wt

cos wt.

+ 1 sin(t + 411) + 2 sin(2t + 412) + ... + sin(30t + 41)

+ L n sin(nt + 41n)
=l

, ,

41(t) =

+ I: (ancosnt + bnsinnt)
=l

. -

= 21, 2 = 2;,

= 2;, ... ,

= ~~, = (< )
,

'P(t)

, 27, . .

27.

,
,
( ).
: ,
,

(66.3)

(66.4)?

() ?
, .

66.2.

()
, .

u'I-L,,mu-,7U,, .,,

0 + ] cos + ] sin + ... + n cos n + N sin n + ... =


00

" n cos n + n s
. n,
= 2 + 'L..-

(66.5)

n=]

, n , N

(n

= 1,2, ... ) ':u

'n. .

(66.5)


00

; +

2: sin(nx + ').

(66.6)

n=l

, n = n sin 'n, N
cosnx + N sin n = n sin(nx + 'n); (66.5)
n =
+ ; tg'Pn = :.

Ja;

= n cos ',

(66.6),

~
.

, .

-1

, :

cosnxdx

{SinnX
n

xl

-1

J sin n dx =

I"-1 =

=27

(n

i )

(n=),

(66.7)

-1

II n,

(66.8)

J" cosmx cosnxdx =


(m:j:. n),
2 J (cos(m + n) + cos(m - n)) dx = {~
=
J" sin m . cos n dx
2 J (sin(m + n) + sin(m - n)) dx = ,
J" sin m . sin n dx =

-"

(66.9)

"

n),

-"

(66.10)

21

-1 1 "
=

(cos(m -

n) - cos(m + n)) dx

(66.11)

(m:j:. n),
(

= n).

.',1iU.

1.

(66.7)-(66.11)

1, cos , sin , cos 2, sin 2, cos 3, sin 3, ... ,cos n, sin n, ...

iim, m--mu:
,

21, .

2.

(66.7)-(66.11)

[; 21]

(. 3
66.1).
f(x) -

, .

21. , )
, . .

f(x)

(66.5):

00

f(x) = 2

" cosnx + " s


. n.
+ '~

(66.12)

,,=1

f(x)

( ) 21,

21.

[-1; 1] (
[; 21]) ,

(66.12)

. ".

j
-

() dx =

j ;
-1('

dx +

-1 1:

(66.12)

n=l

j
-rr

cos

n dx +

sin

n dx) =

-"
1

= J2

16 .

4 1

dx

= 1

, ,

(66.7)

(66.8) .

J f(x) dx.
1r

=:;

(66.13)

-".

(66.12)

cos171x

- , :
1r

j f ()

1r

! cos171xdx+
cos171xdx = 2

-".

( n


171

= n

cos

171 . cos n dx + n

-1

11.=1

cos

171 sil1 n dx) .

(66.7) , (66 .9)

(66 .10)

:
1r

f(x)co s nxdx

= n .

-".

f () cos n dx , n
,

(66.12)

= 1,2, 3, ...

sil1

(66.14)

[-;], :

n
~

1r

=:;

f(x)

SiIl

n dx ,

= 1, 2, 3, . ..

(66.15)

, n , n ,

(66.13)-(66.15),
f(x),
-

':u'u'm-u

(66 .5)

f(x).

[-; ]

f(x)

00

f(x)

rv

.
2 + ~
L n cosnx + s n
n=1

f(x)

( )

. ,

482

S(x) .

67.

27r-l

67.1.

, (~)

f(x)

. . ,

(=),

f(x),

f(x).

= 27.

27-nuu',;u.u.

67.1

(). 27-

f(x)

[-7; 7] :

1. f(x)

-, . .

2. f(x)

-, . . ,

1.

2.

f(x)

S(x)

S(x) = f(x);

S(

) _ f(xo - ) + f(xo + )
-

'

. .

f(x)

= -7

= 7

( )

S( -7) = S(Jr) = f(-Jr + ) + f(Jr - ).


2

f(x)

1 2

(6u. uu) , [-7; 7]

(66.12):
00

f(x)

= ; + L n cos n + n sin n,
n==!

(66.13)-(66.15).

f(x)

[-1; 1].

',.

1.

21 [; 21]

f(x)

(66.12),

= :;

J f(x) dx,
211"

J f(x)cosnxdx, n =
N =:; J f(x)sinnxdx, n =
J f(x) dx J f(x) dx
n

211"

=:;

1,2,3, ... ,

211"

1,2,3, ...

11"

211"

2.

3 -

-11"

. .

66.1.)

.
, ,

, . .
, .

u.

67.1.

f(x)

21,

[-1; 1]

f(x)

= {~xx

~ ~ 1,

1 ~

< .

260

f(x).

, ,
. :

= -

11"

=:;

11"

-11"

31

J f () dx = -1 J (- ) dx + -1 J2 dx = -,
1

-11"

J f () cos n dx =:; J (- ) cos n dx + :; J2 cos n dx =


11"

-11"

-11"

11"

y=f(x)

27r

y=S(x)

27r

260

(- sin n 10 + """"2
1 cos .n 10) + -2 (
1 cos n 171")
= --1
- sin n 171" +""""2
7r
n
n
7r
- 1

-1

= - _1_ (1 _ cos n) + ~2 (cos n n 2

1)

7rn

= __3_ (1 _
n 2

( -1) n) .

=-

7r

J f(x)sinnxdx = ...
1

1
= _(_1)n+l.
n

-1

f(x) '" S(x)

f(x)

.
1
= -34 + L~ - -n32 (1- (_l)n)
cosnx + _(_1)n+ 1 sinnx.
n
n=l

f(x)

[-; ],

, ,

f(x) = S(x),

. .

_ ~ (cosx
cos3x cos5x
)
f( ) -- S( ) -- 37r
4
7r
12 + 2 + 52 + . . . +

+(

= S(x)
2

f(x)

+ cos3x _
3

....

f(-7r+)+f(7r-)

Sinx _ sin 2
1
2

S(x)

+2

485

= -2- = 2

260.

67.2.

[-7; 7]

f(x)

t!: t!:,
( )
( ).

f(x)

',
00

f(x) = "2

+ '"'
L.., n cosnx,

(67.1)

n=l

= :;

Jf(x) dx,
7

n = :;

Jf(x) cosn;;dx,
7

n N.

(67.2)

f(x)

',
00

f(x) =

L n sin n ,

(67.3)

n=l

=:; Jf(x)sinnxdx ,
7

n N.

(67.4)

(. .

39.4) ,

f( x )

[- ; ] ,

f( x )dx

{2'

j f( x ) dx ,

f( x ) -

f(x) -

(67.5)

f( x ) - , f(x) cosnx -
(f(-x)cos(-n x ) = f(x)cosnx), f(x)sinnx -
( -) sin( -n) = - f(x) sin n) .
f( x ) , , ,
f(x) cosnx - , f(x) sin n - .
(67.5) (66.13)-(66.15) (67.1) - (67.4).

(67.1)

(67 .3)

n:..u

, '/- - .

u.

(-7; 7),

67.2.

= 27 .

f(x)

y=f(x)

y=S(x)

261

. , n
N

261

1 sin n 1")
= -2 j71'. sin n dx = -2 (
- - cos n 171' + '2'
1

= , n = , 1, . . . ,

= -2 ( - -1) cos 1n,

. . n = 2. . (_1)n+l (n N). :
n

2 ( -1 )n+l'
sin 2 + sil1 - ... ) .
= L -.
. s n = 2 (sin
- - - OO

n=1

S(rr) = -1 + 1

(. . 261).

67.3.


, 21.

f(x), [-1; l],


f(x), 1 - )
.
.
= 1 t , f(x)

21

+ 21) =

(f(

cp(t) = f (~t), [-71'; 1]


= 21.

,
-1

< t < 1

-!

= -1,

= -l,

= 1,

CP(t+2rr)=f(~(t+2rr)) =f(~t+2l) =f(~)


. .

<p(t

+ 21)

=l

< < 1;

= cp(t) .
487'

=cp(t),

[-1; 1]

<p(t)

<p(t) = ~

00

+ L n cos nt + n sin nt,


n=l

J <p(t)cosntdt
1

n =;;:

(n=0,1,2, ... ),

-1

J <p(t)sinntdt

=;;:

(n

= 1,2, ... ).

-1

f(x)

=2

1 dt -Z-,
-

L
.
+ n cos -z- + n -z-'
00

1n

1n

Jrd ,

(67.6)

Slll

n=l

J f(x) cos -z1n


dx
1

= l1

(n

= 0,1,2, ... ),

-1

= l1

(67.7)

J f(x) . -z- dx
1

Slll

1n

(n = 1,2, ... ).

-1

(67.6)

:;'uu

f(x)

= 21.

(67.7),

.-,u. , 21-
, ,

= 2Z. , f(x) [-Z; 1] -,m,


00

f(x)

"

1n
= 2 + L....- n cos -z-,

(67.8)

n=!

= l

Jf(x) dx,

n = l

f(x) -

Jf(x)

1n

cos -1- dx,

= 1,2, ... ;

(67.9)

,-,m, ,
00

1n
f(x) = "L....- n sin -z-,

(67.10)

n=l

=l

1n
Jf(x)sin-1-dx,
1

488

= 1,2, ...

(67.11)

u.

67.3.

f(x) =

(-4; 4)

: ,
(67.10) (67.11), l 4, :

00

7rn
= '"'
~bnsin -,
i=J
4

J . 7rnX
4

n -- 4"2

-4- d, n -- 1, 2, 3 , ...

n :

bl l =

1(

7rnxl4

44

2" - 7rn COS""4 + 7rn

. 7rn

7rnXI4)

sin -4-

8
8
= --S7rn
= _7rn
. (_1)n+l,
7rn

n = 1,2,3, ...

8 (Sin
~
271"
sin _
37
__
4_ _sin
__
4_+ _
4_ _

=-

7r

-4

67.4.

...

< < 4.

1()

(- 00

< < 00).

, . .
, ,

f(x)

1()
YI',

,,

Y=f(x) :

fl(X)

~~
-l: .

262

~n'L-,:.

-:'u

-:m m

:--,- n-

:m'IC [; ],
. .

[; ]

fl () = 2l = Ib - al ,
fJ () = 1() -l ~ ~ {.
262
11 ().

fl

() .

[; ] ( )

f(x).

f()

[;

[].

f(x)

( :

= [; ];

f(x)

[;

[],

= Ib -

al.)

[-l;

],

= 2l .

[J

[-1 ; []
fl (),

f(x) [; [] .
, f(x) [-l ; ]
(. . -l ~ ~ f(x)
f( -)) -

. .

263.

f(x)

(.

(67.8)

(67.9)).

-.,

---

-l

y=f(x)

-- . , ""/1 ()

-l:,
~ ....... '"

f(x)

[-l;]

(67.10)

(67.11)) .

[],

264

264),

(.

"

263


(. .

[;

. -

f(x), ,
: S(xo) = f(xo - ) ~ f(xo + ) .

f(x) ,

.-.u. ,

f(x)

[;

[] ,

, [ ; 7];
, (

(67.3)).
u. 67.4.

< < 7.

(67.1)

f(x)

= 7 2" ,

1()

:
(. .

7"2

11()

'

<<7,

7+
2 '

[-1; ]

265).

-7

r.

"2

< <

27.

-1[

11 () .
(67.1) (67.2), -

265

2j77-
-2- dx

= "2'

= -;

1
= -2j77-
- - cos n dx = --2
(1 7

7n

cos 7n).

1( ) -

_?!.:.

~ (cos
7
12

- 4

cos 3
2

cos 5
52

+. .. ,

< < 7 ( 5(0) = i ; i = ~, 5(7) = ! = ).

67.5.
.

(66.12)

(66.13)-(66.15)

. ,
:

cos n = ---2--(
e-i:p

sin'P

i:p

2ie

-i:p

f(x)

ei:p

COS'P

e inx _ e- inx
sin n = - - - - 2i
+ i sin '

i sin ' , COS'P =

COS'P -

i<p

-i:p

). (66.12), :

00

= 2 + L n .

einx

+ e- inx
2

einx

e- inx

2i

n=1

=2 +L
00

einx + e- inx
einx _ e- inx
n .
2
- ib n .
2

=1

20

L
00

- ib )einx
n

n=1

2n

+ ib )e- inx

inx +
= 2 + '\'
L n e

n=]

00

ib n
_ + ib n
' - 2
4 1

e- inx ,

(67.12)

_n.

n n (

1(1

="2 :;

(66.14)

(66.15)),

J1 f () cos n dx - i:;1 J1 f () sin n dx =


-- -1 J f(x)(cosnx - isinnx)dx = -1 J f(x)e-inxdx,
)

-n

-~

21

21

-1

. .

n =21

J f(x)e-inxdx
1r

(n=1,2,3, ... ),
1

J f(x) dx,

"2 = 21

(67.13)

(67.14)

-"

= ~ (~

f(x) cosnxdx

f(i) Sin'nXdX)

+ i~

-1

()( cos n + i sin n) dx = 21

-"

J
1r

(n = 1,2,3 ... ).

-"

f(x) =

(67.12)

L= cne inx + cne- inx ,

(67.15)

f(x) =

n=l

L=

cne inx . (67.16)

n=-

(67.13)-(67.15),

J f(x)e-d
1

n =21

(n=0,1,2, ... ).

(67.17)

(67.16) 1,,n1'u. ,,u.


f(x), , (67.17),-

'1UU

1,,n1'',,'U 1u'U'm,,'U .

f(x)

[-l; [],

f(x) =

n=-=

in1rx
1

= 2l

J f(x)e
1

in1rx
1

dx

(n = , 1, 2, ... ).

-1

(67.18)
, ( )
, .

lapM01tur;;aMU, , W N
Jr n (n
,

r;;,,nr;;1t'bl. ,,nu

'bl. 'u,,

1, 2, ... ) -

00

I:

f(x) =

cnei"'n X

n=-

,,

{1, 2, ... , , ... } ,,n


cner;;mpoM.

WN

Jr n

u.

67.5.

2-

f(x) =

{~'

xE[-l;),
[;

1],

f(x).

J1

2 e- i7n d =

1
.

-i7n 11

2Jrni

i
= --(cos 7n - i sin 7n - 1)
27n

I
I

I
I

--

I
I

266

266

- e

-2 -1

= 2.

--

(67.18)

1 ( i7rn
= 2:ni e-

(-1)n-1
27n

i, n 7'=

(l

= 1):

)
1 =

= 2

Jdx = 2
1

f(x)

f(x)

00

= 2+i

n=-)

( -1) n

1 i7n

----

27n

(n#)

1
2

. (

=--1

(S(O)

68.

= ! 1

i7

i7

i7

e--+--+--+--+
... )
7

37

37

~, S(l) = 1! 1 = 1, S(x) ) .

f(x),

[-l; []

,
00

+ L n COSWnX + n sinwnx,

f(x) = ~O

(68.1)

n=l

1n

1 '

n -

n= / f(t)coswntdt

(n=,1,2, ... ),

-1

n =

(68.2)

(n = 1,2, ... ).

f(t) sin wnt dt

-1


, f()

= 2/.

f(x) - ,
(-00; 00) (. . 1 = +00).
, [-1; l]
f(x)
:
00

If(x)1 dx = < 00.

/
-00

f(x)

n n

(68.1)

(68.2),

f(x)

= 21

1
f(t) dt +

-1

00

L /

f(t)(coswnt cosWnX + sinwnt sinwnx) dt,

n=l_1

. .

f(x)

J f(t) dt + L J f(t)
1

= 2l

-1

00

(68.3)

dtl~

21 /

1/

12l /
-1

Wn

f(t)

coswn(t -

) dt.

(68.3)

n=l -1

l -+ +00

1/

If(t)ldt

l.

, . .

-1

100

2l /

If(t)1 dt

2t -+ .

-00

(68.3).
-- -l1n wl = ,
1 W2 = ,
21 w = ,
31

... ,

~Wn =

4 4

(6.w n
,

= W n+l

Wn ,

0,1,2, ... ),
1

6.wn

-1

1 -1 +00.

J f(t) coswn(t - ) dt = ;: n=l


L J f(t) coswn(t - ) dt =
n=l -1
-1
00

~ ~ ~ ()

00

,,""(' - ) dt) !'."'" ~ ~ ~ <("'n) . !'."'n,

f(t)

<p(W n )

J f(t) coswn(t - ) dt, Wn = , '2{, ... , nI

Jr, .

-1

<p(w)

J f(t) cosw(t - ) dt,

w (; +00)

-1

(, ), ,

1 -1 +00,
1

f(x)

00

= ;:

f(x)

n=l

J <p(w) dw,
00

Jdw J f(t) cosw(t - ) dt.


00

00

= -1 1lim
"<p(w n )6.wn = .....
~
1

(68.3)

00

(68.4)

-00

..iJ. ,

(68.4)

u..

f(x).

f(x);

1 1
dw

f(t)cosw(t-x)dt=

f(x-);f(+).

-00

(68.4)

):

f(x) = ;:

J dw J f(t) cosw(t - ) dt =
00

00

= ;:

-00

J dw J f(t) (coswt . coswx + sinwt sinwx)dt =


00

00

-00

1dw(~ 1f(t)coswtdt.coswx+~ 1

f(t)sinwtdt.sinwx),

-00

-00

. .

J(A(w)
00

f(x) =

coswx

+ B(w) sinwx) cUv,

(68.5)

A(w) = -

7r

J f(t) coswtdt,
J f(t) dt.
0:0

-00

B(w) = -

7r

00

sinwt

-00

f(x)

. ,

n,

= 1,2,3, ... ,

w.

, ,
.

.-.u..

1.

'.,

f(x) -

(68.5)

0:0

f(x)

A(w)

A(w)coswxcUv,

J f(t)coswtdt;
0:0

=;

J B(w)sinwxcUv,
00

f(x)

B(w)

00

(68.7)

f(x)

(;

J f(t)sinwtdt.

=;

2.

(68.6)

+(0),

(-00; ) ,

3.

(68.6), - (68.7).
(68.5)

, (68.6).
B(w) =

(68.7) A(w)

~jj(w).

{ioo

f(x) = ;! A(w)coswxcUv,

A(w)

(ioo

;! f(t)coswtdt;

f(x)

= ~A(W),

(2

= ;

00 -

B(w)

B(w)sinwxcUv,
4

(2

!
00

f(t) sinwt dt.

~ A(w) B(w) ?-n


. -n.

f(x).
4.

(68.4)

':n'/',l1

J e'u;xdv.J J f(t)e-!UJtdt;

100.00.

f(x) = 21

-00

-()

(68.5)

f(x)

J c(w)eiwxdv.J,
00

= 21

-00

J f(t)e-iwtdt;
00

c(w) =

-00

J c(w) e!UJx dv.J,

100.

f(x)

= -21

-00

J f(t)e-iwtdt
00

c(w)

-00

(c(w) =

bc(w)).

21

68.1.

f(x)=

- ,

(; +00),

=,

(-;).

:
,

00

00

J If(x)1 dx = J eXdx + J -00

~
1i

dx

= 2.

-00

B(w) =

(-00; +00):

(68.7):

J e- t sinwtdt

+00

~
1i

. _w_.
1 + w2

2
f(x)=;

J 1:W2sinwxdv.J,

+00

XE(-;)U(;+).

3''u. ,

1(1)

= 1,

= ~ 100 wsinw2 dw.


1

1+w

, 1(1) = e- 1 = 1. ,

00

s d
1 + 2

= 1(1) . ~ = ~.
2

,
.

XVI.

I 59-62
69.

, , ,

, .


, , , /.'l
.
. , , ,
,

;
,
;

. .
,
, , , , , .

, -

U(),

, () ~.' ( ':'u.

mO"iKU). , -

U()


e~op'oe

JvI

(), ,

( ':. ':'u. mO"iKU).

(
, ,

... ),

... ),

, (, ,

. .

(), , . .

U() (()) ,
() ca'OHapHtM (
); , (, ,

),
ca'OHapHtM ( ).
.

V -

, ,

):

= U(; ; z).
499

(69.1 )

(
U(),
U(; ;
U(1'), f - - .)

z),

U()

, , U(; )
n;u.

'(), ,

, z:

0,=

'(; ; z) (

0,=0,(1')).

'() (

0,=

0,= (; ; z)z + Q(x; ; z)] + R(x; ; z)k,


(; ;

z), Q(x; ; z), R(x; ; z) -

'()

Oxyz

'() ,

, n;u. ,

0,= (; y)z + Q(x; )].


oonopoiJHtJtM, '(1)
, . . ,

Q-

.
,

m -

-mg, g -

(U(x;y;z) - , P(x ;y;z), Q(x;y;z)


R(x; ; z) - )

u. 69.1.

/1 -

2 -

z2

= 1;

Oz

+ 2 = ).

u. 69.2.

w
Q

Oz

(. .

7.4).

Oz,

W,

. :

w = (; ; w)
- f

= (; ; z)

(W = wk).

Jlif

(. .

267).

V (),
, wp,

M(XjYjz)

( z).

Oz).

= rsin<p

(<

= VJP = VJ r sin<p,

. .

V =

ji:Jxrl

w r (V ..1 , V ..1 w,
w, , V ).
, V = w , . .

V=

VJ
z

V=

= -VJi + VJX] + . k

(-VJj VJXj ).

267

V , -

, .

70.
70.1.

11

= U(; ; z).

' ',

, U() , . .

U(; ;

(70.1)

z)

= .

(70.1)

,
.
.

(70.1).

)1 -

Z2,

= 1 + + z2 = ,
2

J1 -

2 -

z2

= .

. . .

( )
, .

= U(;)

U(;)

' .. , . .

, U(; )
.

, , (
)

.

(. .

12.9).

70.2.

= U()

U(; ;

z),

},;[ .

cos ,

cos (, cos ')'.


,

~__

; :t.z

_ ____ L ______ _

.. _'.J_C!' _____ 1, . . ~x

/:::"U

. . t.y

O~------

/:::"U
.

= U( + /:::"; + /:::"y;z + /:::"z)

(. .

268
/:::"

U(),

= U(Ml ) -

U(; ;

z)

268).

= IMMll = V(/:::"x)2 + (/:::")2 + (/:::"z)2.


ui1. uu = U() '7

lim /:::"U
.6.-. /:::"

lim
Mj-.M

U(M l ) - U()
IMMll

() ]! . ~~ > ,
, ~~ < ,

. , I ~~ I

1: I ~~ 1, U.
.

,
, U(; ;

z)

!:::J.U =

6,6,6 -

.!:::J.y + az !:::J.z + 6!:::J.x + 6!:::J.y + 6!:::J.z,

!:::J.

!:::J.

!:::J.U

!:::J.x +

!:::J.

cos 0:, !:::J.y =

!:::J. = cos : + cos.8 +

!:::J.

!:::J.s/3,

!:::J.z =

-+

(. .

44.3).

!:::J.s"

-+

az cos, + 6 cos : + 6 cos /3 + 6 cos f.


,

= coso: + cos,B + z cos,.

(70.2)

= U(;) : cos/3 = cos (~-o:)


.

= sin 0:, COS, =

(70.2)

= coso: + s:.

3.',1tu.

~~, ~~, ~~.


, Oz. ,
, , (70.2) : = , /3 = ~,
"v -

1[

2'

u _ u
1

u, 70.1.
(;

1; 2)

'

= 2

+ 2 - 4yz

(2; 3; 3).

: j\1 j :

MM j =(2;2;1),

2
COSO:=J4+4+1

'

2
cos/3=3'

1
cos'=3'

= 2,

UI = 2 =

'

= 2y-4z,

u
I =2

4.2

= -4,

= -6.' u
I --4 .
az -

(70.2)

~~ 1 = ~ -

~-

~ = - 16.

~~ < ,
.

70.3.

~~
? ,
.

(70.2)

= (s;s,;s,)

g- = (U. U. U).
' ' Bz
~

, -

U(; ;

z) (; ; z),
?' grad . . grad
,

(U. U . U)
' ' Bz '

----------------------,

U U gradU = X i + i)j
,

grad

+ Zk.

. :

u. (70.2)

= gradU,

.
~

269

u-

({J -

(. .

(70.3)

Igrad UI . cos ({J,


grad

(70.3)
-

269).

, COS ({J

= 1,

. . ({J

, ,
() , . . '
''Ii:' 'li: 'n' 'u 'u ''Ii:
'.

504

.

.

1.

ceoiJ.cmea

( = ) ~~ = . (70.3) , cos = , . . =~.


2. grad(U

+ V)

3. grad(c

4. grad(U . V)

+ grad V,

= grad

= grad , = const,

= grad V + V grad ,

) _ V grad - grad V
5 . gra d( V
V2
,

6. gradF(U) = !!..L
8U gradU.
.
, , . :

grad 1(U)

= 8 (f(U))i +
81

8U ~

8 (f(U))j

81

8U .,

= 8U . 8 z + 8U . 8 . J

81

8U . 8z . k

+ 8z (f(U))k

+ 8U

81

= 8U

. grad u.

.'u.
.

u.

70.2.

= ;r + .z + ~

(-ll -1).
' ,

: :

gl'ad =

(1

- - -z2 ) z~ + (-
~

gdU(-l; 1; -1) = 22

1) ., + (- + -1) -

+Z

+ ] -

~
Z2

2. = 22-

k;

2k.

I gradU(A)1 = J4 + + 4 = 2V2.
,

(2..)2), - gradU(A)
( ).

-2; + 2.

71.
71.1.

, = ).
;
.

Be~opHOU .ltu ,

().

. ,

, (
); ()
, .

,
, -;m'i1 m-;i1.

= (; ; z)i

+ Q(x; ; z)J + R(x; ; z)k

()

(71.1)

dx
(; ;

z)

dy
Q(x; ; z)

dz
R(x; ; z)'
(71.2)
PQ -

, r = il + } + zk -
-. dr = dx . +
+ dy . } + dz . k

270

PQ

(. .

270).

dr , . .

u.

71.1.

(71.2).

, [J

Q : 17
69.2). (71.2), :

dx
-wy

dy
wx

dz

506

= -wyz + wxJ

wx dx = -wy dy,
{ dy = wxdz.

Oz.

(.

, :

2 + 2 = 1,
z

. .

2,

Oz,

, .

71.2.

(71.1).

()
, . ,

. ,

5.

5.

fi

(SD:;S,;S,) -

(;)

5.

51,52,'" , 5 ,
M i (i = 1,2, ... , n) (. . 271)

s_--__

( )
: ( 1 ), (2 ), ... , ( ).

271

. .

5i
H i . b.5i ,

b.S i i- , H i i-ro a(Mi ). H i


a(Mi ) fii: H i = n,(i ) = a(Mi ) . fii, fii M i . ,
, 5

Ki

, ,

L a(M

i ) . fii .

b.5i .

i=1
,

):
n

1I1Jo

nl

L a(M

(maxd,->O) i=1

i ) . fii .

b.5i

= JJ() . ds.
5

di

()
.

~, e~opa

ii

'

, . .

JJ iinds .

(71 .3)

(.

(6.2)),

(71.4)

s
n -

n, ds -

() .

(71.3)

JJads,
s

Idsl = ds.
n = (s: ; s, ; s ")'), = (P;Q ; R), = P(x;y;z),
Q = Q(x; ; z) , R = R(x; ; z) -
, (71 .3) ,
ds ,

= JJ( cos . + Q s, + R cos ")') ds.


s

(58.8)),

1 II

(.

= JJ dy dz + Q dx dz + R dx dy.

(71.5)

s
~

, .
,

( ).
,

v .
n ds f n ds, ... ) .

"

fj ds ( f
s

(. .

272).

= ()

ii

ii

ii .

n >

5,

V)

V,

; ,

n < ).

> ,

. ,
'Um'1i'U'Ii:'U.

<

cmo'li:'U,

.
,

, . ,

(. .

273).

;
, , ,
.

((?~

i'i

~~
.

272

273

71.2. ii

=z .i -

274

. J+ .

+ 6 -

2z - 6

(. .

274).

= z,

Q =

-,

R=

. :

JJ z dy dz s

dx dz + dx dy.

(71.5).

,
.

, Oz -

fi

. (

k);

( ~ i + ~J - ~

cos"Y > ,

; : cos :

= - ~, cos (3 = - ~,

_ 2 )
cos')' - 7'

= 1

1 =

11

+ 2 +

z dy dz

z dy dz

2 = -

11

dx dz

1 1
=1
1

=-

11

=-

2 , :

K 1,

dy

11

= ... = -3

dz

= ... = 2,

xdx

11

2'

xdxdz

zdz

-6

-26-

11

ydxdy

:
u.

ydxdy

71.3.

-6-

1 1
dx

= ~ + 2 + ! = ~.

0(0; ; ),

275).

ff Tnds = 11

Tnds

11

Tnds

= K 1 + 2

5
. .
.
, 1 = , . . n:f = ;

2 =

11

1'"ds

. . n:f

71.3.

1
= ... = -.

(. .

ydy

= .

11

ds

= .nR

275

= nHR2 .

.
-

510

(71.1)

u:u1J. ( ) 'ICm

()

= (; ; z )i + Q(x; ; z)J + R(x; ; z)k


+ aQ + aR

az
div (), . .

. _
dJva(M)

aQ

aR

+ + az'

(71 .6)

ceoi1cea .

1. - , div = .
2. div( . ) = div , = const.
3. div(a+b) = diva+di"b , . .
.

4.

div(U . )

= . div + grad U.

,
, ,

div(U

= u . i +

(71.6).

4.

u Q. J + u R k,

) = ~(U'
) + ~(U'
Q) + ~(U' R) =

az
=u + U +U aQ +QaU +UaR+RaU =

az

az

=u( +aQ +aR) +U +QaU +RaU =

az

az

= . div + grad .

(. (58.9)) -

fff(~= + ~~ + ~~)dV

!fPdydz+Qdxdz+Rdxdy=
s

(71 .7)

V,

5,

(71 .1) , ,
(71 .7) 5 ;
DJ;! .
,

(71.7)

ff " ds = fff di v . dv
5

( ).

11

(71.8)

liI

- , ;; '/

no.ll.R ' '/ n

( n' ''i1

',, . . ) ' mpoi1noMY ' '


no.ll.R ',

'''', aaHHoi1 n'.

V,

(71.8),
() 1 (
).

(. .

54.1)

JJJ di~ () dv = V . div ( ),


v

()

V. (71.8)

ff andS = V diva(Mo).
5

. diva(M )
o

= \11 # n ds.
5

diva(M)
1
diva(M) = Iim v
v-+o

V -+

-+

# n ds.

(71.9)

u':uu -:' nJI... j'vf

()

S,

, , ,

(71.9)
(71.6).

(V -+

).

( )

.
.

, ()
), , :

diva(M)

>

, ;

diva(M) <

1 , .

(71.9),

div ()

, ) .
.

S,

V,

, ,

div

= .

, . .

diva(M) ==

, '':, ( ).

'/J.., 71.4.

j1,

W.

( . 69.2),

div V(M) = (-wy)

(wx)

Oz.

+ . k.

+ az ()

= .

V-

71.4.

= -wyz + wx]

(71.1).

xl

+ ] + zk -

L. ,
dr = dxl + dy . ] + dz . k

(. . 276) Idrl =
= dl, dl -
(dl = J(dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dZ)2).
~

:9

dr,

276

u..uii.

L,

L,

. .

(71.10)
.

dr
-

= Idrl dr = . dl = dx + Q dy + Rdz,

L,

(71 .10)

= f dl ,

(71.11)

(71.12)
17 nll ll. "

,
;

(71.12)

()

(.56.5).

,
,

iidr ; ,

ii
- .

u. 71.5.
(. 69.2) V = -wI + wx]

L,

0:,

; , :

Oz.

(71.12),

f -wy dx + wx dy w f - dx + dy =
= 2.; (~ f - dx + dY) = 2.; . S,

S -

Oz,

(.

56.17).

= 2w S cos,;

u.

71.6.

ii

= ( -

(1; ; ), (;

2z)I + (

1; ),

+ + z)] + (5 + y)k

(; ;

1)

(. .

277).

(71.12),

277

f ( - 2z) dx + ( + + z) dy + (5 + ) dz = J + J + J

L
;

+ = 1, z = ,

J = J( - ) dx + ( + - + ) . (-dx) + 0= 2

14

+ z = 1, = ,

J J( - 2 + 2) . + ( + 3 + 1 - ) dy + ( + ) . (-dy) = - ~.
=

+ z = 1,

= , ,

J = J( - 2 + 2) dx +

1(5 + ) . (-dx)

= -3.

J + J + J = ~ + ( - ~) + (-3)

71.5.
~

= -3.

( ) 1 nJI,

= (; ; z)l + Q(x; ; z)J + R(x; ; z)k


,

rot () =

rot ()

Q
(aR aazQ ) ~ + (
- - -aR) ~ + (a- - -)-k.
az
-

- -

(71.13)

(71.13)

, :

rota(M) =

az
R

1J.m .

1. - , rot = .
2. rot( . ) = . rot , = const.
3. rot(a + ) = rot + rot , . .
.

4.

, ()

rot(U . )

= rot + grad .

,
, ,

3:

(71.13).

, ,

(. .

58.4)

f Pdx+Qdy+Rdz = 11(~R - ~~)dYdZ+


L

L, . .

(
OZ

_ OR)' dxdz

J!(
5

_ OP)dXdY .

(71.14)

S,

(O

(71.14)
Pdx+Qdy+Rdz =
aTdl (. (71.11)).

(71.14)

-OR - -OQ) dy dz

OZ

(.

(71.3)),

rot

. .

Q
+ (
- - -OR) dx dz + (O- - -) dx dy =
OZ

11

rot n

ds.

, -

f aTdl = 11 rotnads.

(71.15)

;'lt11 .11.

278

(71.15)

, 'u;..'u. ;

.;'lt ;'lt

'lt n; ; '

nX1t S, ; 'ltu''lt'lt ;'lt.


L ( ) (. . 278).

516

(71.14),

,
.

L,

(71.15)

(.

7)

!! rot

ads

= rot

(. .

f ardl = rot

() . S.
rot n

()

rot n

279).

(71 .15)

L
:

( ) . S,

5
()

57.1,

!!?~ ()

f dl.

-+

S -+

. , :

rot n

()

= lim

5-->0

-S1

279

f dl.
L

? '.? I ,

S,

, .

, ()
, .

.
,

Oz

17 =

-W'

'

69 .2)

w,

. .

i + W .

rot () =

0-

/z

-yw

XUJ

a(wX))i_

az

(0- a(-w))J+
(a(xw) _ a(-W))Ji=
az

= - + 2w . k = 2w.
,
.

(. ).
.-u.

(71.13)

()
,

S.

(. .

72. OrlEPATOP
72.1.

70.3).

()

grad , div , rot .

, 'IC

nv.. n.-: (
) .

'V

);
.

'V

,
, ,

Q, R

gx, gy' gz

,
:

1.

'VU

2.

'Va =

3 . "v

(JLl + JLJ + JLk). = aUl + U] + aU k = gradU.

az

az
(JLl+JLJ+JLk) (Pl+Q.J+R-k) = +qQ+aR = div'a.
~

fu

&

fu

az

&

= rot .

518

= \1U . = ( \1) . ,

8>..

(70.2)

= (COS ; cos.8; cos ,).

72.2.

. u''u''' n
' nr.; . ,
:

div grad , rot grad ,

grad div , div rot , rot rot 0;.


(,

div ; -

, :

div div 0;,

, , . .

div div 0;,

.)

, . ,
,
.

1. divgradU

\1(\1U)

(\1. \1)U

(::2 + :;2 +~) .

- .;2 + u + 8 u.

8
8 2
8z 2
t::.U.
2

divgrad

= t::.U =

82 u

82 u

82 u
8z

+ --2 + --2'

--2

t::.U

(72.1)

.
'u'r.;u 'r.;v,uu.

3''u.

(72.1)

82

82

82

8-

8z

t::.=\1.\1=-+-~+2
2

( ).

2. rot grad = \1 (\1U)

= (\1 \1)U =

(-).
, .

519

4. div rot

= \7 . (\7 ) = ,

, , . ,

5. rot rot

= \7 (\7 ) = \7(\7 . ) -

(\7 . \7)

= grad div -

6.,

( ) =
6. = 6. i

+ 6.Q J + 6.R k -

- .

73.

73.1.

, 'u'':.,
, . .

div

= .

(.

71.4);

, .

um .

1.

(71.8).

2.

, . . div
, ,
-:m''/.. nm':u. .

= rot .

1-2

. ,

( ,

div rot

= ).

3.

(
m6m ).

1

(. .

2;

280).

1, 2 , . ,

n-

280

JJ n ds = , ,
5

JJ n ds = - JJ n ds.
51

52

1, . .

nl,


, , ,
, .

73.2.
nm'u' ( 6u6',
Um't) , , . .

rot ii

= .

( ).
.
i1.m

1.

ii

f a".dl = .

(71.14).

, ,
;

= ,

, . . .

i1.m

2.

f dx + Q dy + R dz

ii

- L

1\11

L
2 -

M1

1.

2 ,

M1
M 1 pM2

(. .

M 1 pM2 qM1

dx

. 281

M 1 qM2 ,
281). , 1,

= .

+ Q dy + R dz

Mlp M 2QMI

, :

dx

+ Q dy + R dz

, 2

dx

+ Q dy + R dz +

'2

dx

+ Q dy + R dz =

2,

' 2

' 2

. .

dx

+ Q dy + R dz =

M l pM2

i1.m

Pdx

. 2

= ,

+ Qdy + Rdz.

3.
ratii = ,

U(x;y;z), . .
(; ; z) , . ii
grad .

= lj.Q
rot = ,

'
=

lj.Q
az

aR aR
'

~~, . . Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

= U(; ; z) ( 56.1).

{ + Q] + Rk; dU =

= Pdx + Qdy + Rdz.


: = U Q = U R = U .
&'
~'
fu
'
U U U = . i + Qj + Rk = . i + - . j + - . k = gradU,

az

. . .

.',-,u.

rot grad

= U(; ; z)

= grad [J ,

oanoi1

= U(; ; z) -

(x;y;z)

U(x;y;z) =

Pdx+Qdy+Rdz=

(XO;YO;zo)

J (; ; zo) dX + J Q(x;~; zo) ~ + J R(x; ;

(; ;

zo)

grad(U

+ , (73.1)

, (; ;

+ )

() d(

'

(-

z)

= grad ).

((; ;

z), Q(x; ; z), R(x; ; z) -

).
.--,u.

, . .

= - grad ;

= gradU.

:
,. ;

. .)

73.1.

()
.

= (y z -

2x)1 + (xz - 2)] + xyk

: :

rota =

yz -

xz -

= ( - x)l - ( - )] + (z - z)k

= .

, .

(73.1),

, . .

(; ;

zo)

= -2, Q(x; ; zo) = -2,

U(; ; z) =

R(x; ; z)

= Zo =

= ,

J(-2) dX+ J(-2~) d1, + J d( + = _ _y2+ xyz +


2

73.3.
,1tu-.7I:U, ( .n6',),

. .

rota =

diva

= .


J
.

= grad ,

, MOJHO

= U(; ; z) -

div

= div grad =

, Je ,

. .

.
, YJe , .

XVII.

-8

74.
74.1.

rlEPEMEHHOrO

(. .

VI).

= + iy

z,

& ()

D
w = u + iv

w.

()

, '':. 7'tL 7.n


Jl.7 n. w

= j(z),

(. .

282).
z D
w,

I A~!V~W

w
= j(z) .'1':i1.
D
n''U. w
j(z);
1 w, j(z)

','ui1 (

282

).

, , '

w = J(z),

] .

, Jo

(. .

= J(z)

43.1).

u+iv=j(x+iy),
. .

j(x

+ iy)

= u(; ) = Rej(z),

= u(; )

+ iv(x; ),

= v(x; ) = Imj(z),

(; )

D.

u(; ) i1u'i1 ' '7(;'UU


j(z), v(x; ) - MHUMOi1.
,
.

u.

= Z2.

74.1.

: w =
. .

u
: u =

74.2.

z2 u + iv = ( + iy)2,

+ iv =
2,

- 2
= 2.

+i2xy.

zo,

o-;m'.m m'-;u

Zo

1(z)

, ,

zo.

6-

zo.

Wo n, ':''U'U W
l(z) m'': Zo
( z -+ zo),

Iz - zol < 6,

6,

z f Zo,

lim l(z) = wo.

11(z) - wol < .

z---tZQ
:

(Ve > 36 > Vz : < 1z - Zo 1< 6 ===> 11 (z) - Wo 1< ) <===> lim

Z~ZO

Wo

1(z) = wo

lim

-+

(; )

-+

lim v(x; )

---+

= Vo.

-+

( )
. ,

!I(z)

12(Z)

io

lim (cl11(Z) c212(z)) =

Z---+Zo
l, 2

Zo

D,

lim !I(z)

Z-+Zo

lim 12(z),

z---+zq

lim !I(z) 12(z) = lim !I(z) lim 12(z)

z-+zo

z-tZQ

()
lim ~
Z-+Zo 12(z)

lim 12(z)

---+

lim

Z-+ZO

(z)

= _z_-+_z.:....o_ _
lim 12(z) ,

z-+zo

526

'~

= j(z) z = Zo
w = j(z) ,nL8tl 8
m'7 zo, lim j(z) = j(zo).
.
z----tZQ

: -

j(x)

Zo,

= .

lim !:ij(z)

~z-+o

f(z)

D,


,
(.

43.1).

74.3.

z=

ro

+ iy.

=e =
Z

= eZ

(cos

+ i sin ).

, ,

z =

eZ

e ZI . eZ2

= eZI

+Z2.

(74.1)

w = e

e Z ==

< , , .

28.3),

e Z1 eZ2 =

+ 2) + i sin(Yl + 2)) =
+ 2) + i sin(Yl + 2)) = \ +X2+ i (YI +2)

2 (COS(Yl

= 1 +2 (COS(Yl

= e Z \ +Z2.

: e ZI :e Z2 =e Z1 - Z2 ,

(eZ)n=e nz

(n

N).

lezl =

eZ

lim

fuz-+-oo
(-+-)

i=

, ,

, . .

(74.1),

eZ

= ,

eZ

i= .

lim

fuz-++oo
(-++)

--? 00 .

eZ

= 00,

i'

(74.1) = , = <,
= cos < + i sin <. , ,


= (cos ip i sin ip) z = i' (= Izl e iarg Z),

nm1i11 ..11 (. .
~

27.3)


: n''ICt1

2Jri.

ez +27fi = eZ

27;

(cos 27

+ i sin 27)

= eZ ,

. . z + 27i
eZ , . ,
7;

-1 < .

, :

' z =1= ,

= Ln z.

= z,

z,

w = Ln z

=z

( ,

Ln( -2)).

z
r . i', w
+ iv, ,
, e u +iv = r . i', " . e iv =;: r . i'.
:

=,

v=<p+2kJr, T.e.u=lnr, v=<p+2kJr(k=0,1,2,... ).

w = Ln z = u

+ iv =

ln r

+ i(ip + 2kJr)

.. Lnz = lnlzl + i(argz


Arg z ::: arg z + 2kJr,.
.

(74.2)

+ 2kJr)

+ i(argz + 2kJr) , (74 .2)


Lnz = lnlzl + iArgz,

= ln Izl

, . .

w ::: Ln z -

(74 .2) k. k = ,

, 61i'-. 1i'1iu..

Ln z

lnz = ln Izl

+i

ln z:

argz,

- 7 < argz ~ 7.

(74.3)

z -

, a.rg z ::: ln z :::


::: ln Izl, . .

528

(74.2)

:
,

(74.2)

Ln Z = ln Z + 2kJri.

= Ln Z

Ln(z! . Z2)
LnC:)
Ln zn
Ln

= Lnz!

= Lnzl

+ Lnz2,

- Lnz2,

= n Ln z,
1
n

O/Z = - . Ln z.

, , :

Ln(zl . Z2)

= ln IZl . z21 + iArg(zl . Z2) = ln(lzlllz21) + i(Argzl + Argz2) =


= (ln IZ11 + iArgzl) + (ln IZ21 + iArgz2) = Ln ZI + Ln z2.

u.

74.2.

Ln( -1) ln( -1); ln 2i.

: z = -1 1Z 1 = 1, argz = 1. ,
Ln(-l) = ln 1 + i(Jr + 2kJr) = iJr(2k + 1), ln(-l) = JrZ ( (74.2)
(74.3)); ln 2i = ln 12il + iarg2i = ln 2 + i~.

= z

n - ,
w = zn = (cos n< + i sin n<). w = zn -
. n = 1 (q N),
1 q q :,z __ Q!"i"":II1(
arg z + 2kJr
.. arg z + 2kJr)

= zq =

""

Vlzl

= zq

COS

+zs

k= O,1,2, ... ,q-l.

(q-) . k

k = .
n = ., , q N,

q
.
(l)p
(
p(argz+2kJr)
.. p(ar g z+2kJr))
w=zq = zq
= QGII
Vlzl P cos
+rs
.

=zq

= za

= + if3
w = za = Ln z.

= za

. ,

i'


. L.
H(1L+27rk)

= '

>

7r

"1

,
-27rk

= , 1, 2, ...

k = : ii = -"2.

= + iy

sin z

e iz _ e- iz

cosz

-----=-:--

2i

sinz
tgz = - - ,
cosz

sz

. ,
.
eix _ e- ix
1
. .
. .
1

sz

cosz
ctgz = -.-.
z = ( = )

..

= 2i (s+~s-(s-~s)) = 2i2~s = s.

2i



. ,

sin 2 z

+ cos 2 Z

= 1,

sin 2z = 2 sin z cos Z,


COS(Zl

sin(z

+ Z2)

+ 27)

cos(-z)

= cos Zl

COS z2 -

sin zl sin Z2,

= sin z,

= cosz,

sin( -z) = - sin z,


tg(z

+ 7)

= tgz,

COSZ

(k

= 0,1,2, ... ),

2 tgz
2'
1 - tg z

tg2z

sin (z

+ ~)

. (

37)
+ 2""

S Z

="2 + kK

= cos z,
= - cos z,

. . , , :

+ cos 2 Z =

(eiZ _ e-iZ) 2

2i

(eiZ

+ e- iZ )
2

e 2iz _ 2 + e- 2iz
e 2iz + 2 + e- 2iz
------+----:----4
4
_e

2iz

+2-

e-

2iz

+ e 2iz + 2 + e- 2iz
4

53

4=

1.

lim

z .... oo

sin z

sin z =

, , cosi = +2

-1

00,

lim

z .... oo

z=

00.

;::;: 1,54 > 1, cos3i > 10.

eZ _ shz = - - - -
2

e Z + chz= - - - -
2

shz
thz = - h '

chz
cthz= - h .
s z

shiz = isinz,

iz,

sinz = -ishiz,

ch iz = cosz
(

= i tg z, ctg iz =

tg iz

-i ctg z).

sin 2 z + cos 2 z = 1 ,

(-ishiz)2 + (chiz)2 = 1,
2
2
- sh iz+ch iz = 1. z - ,
iz z; ch 2 Z - sh 2 Z = 1.
:

ch2z=ch2 z +sh 2 z,

ch(-z)=chz,

sh 2z = 2 sh z ch z,

sh( - z) = - sh z,

Ch(Z1 + Z2) = chz l chz 2 + shz l shz 2 ,

shz + chz

=e

Z
,

..

sh z

ch z
ni.

2ni;

th z

cth z

7U. z,

w = Arcsin z .

, z

sin w = z,

= sin w = iw "2 z. -iw '

,
e 2iw -2ize iw -1 = . eiw = iz+ J(iz)2 + 1, . . e iw = iz+ V'1=Z2
( , V'1=Z2

). iw

= Ln(iz +~,

= t Ln(iz + V1="Z2).

w = Arcsinz = -i Ln(iz

+ ~).

().

Arcsin z

.
,

= -i Ln(z + VZ2=1),
i
i - z
Arctgz = -- Ln - - (z f:; i),
2
i +z
Arccosz

Arcctg z

Z - 2
= -22 Ln z +i

(z f:; i).

, ,

Arshz

), w

() ,

= Arcthz

Archz

() ,

Arthz

(:).

Arshz = Ln(z
Arthz

+ ~),
1
1+z

= -2 Ln -,
1- z

Archz

= Ln(z + Jz2"=1),

Arcthz

z+1
= -21 Ln -.
z- 1

74.4.
. -
w

z,

lim t:.w
c.z->O

= j(z)

t:.z

lim j(z
c.z->O

+ t:.z) - j(z) = j'(z),


t:.z

, ~
'~

'~

z,

j(z)

(74.4)

j(z)

z.
,

(74.4) t:.z
z + t:.z

, . .

(. .

283)

283

+ t:.x

: ) .

j(z)

( ~~ 6.z ~

~w

-+

J'(z)

). .

= j(z)

= (; ) + iv(x; )
z = + iy,
(; ) v(x; ) ,
w = j(z) z ,

74.1.

(74.5)

av
-

(74.5)

'

i1-. ( u

.'.).

u,,m

z,

j(z)

(74.4)

6.z = ~x+i~y ~ . ,
z+6.z z

ii ( ),
. .

6.z

= 6. ~ ,

'()
z =
=

'1

~x--+o

,~
~x--+o

~y

(.

284).

284

(u(x+6.x;y)+iv(x+6.x;y) - (u(x;y)+iv(x;y)
6.

((

+ 6.; )

- (; )

+ i(v(x + 6.; )

- v(x; )

6.

6. + i6. x v = "1 6. + ~' "1 6. xv = - + ~-.


,av
= ~x--+O
1
~x
~x--+O 6.
~x--+O 6.

"

+ ~z

( ), ~z

j'(z) = 'im ((;

+ ~y) + iv(x; ~ 6.)

~y--+O

= i~y -+ , ~x = ,
- ((; )

+ iv(x; )

l6.y

lim 6. + i6. y v
i6.y

~y--+O

= _i au + av = av

_ i au
'

, ~~ + i~ = ~~ - i~~ = j'(z).
:

= av = _ av .
'

j(z)
z

(74 .5)

. ,

. (; ) v(x; )
(. (44.4))

= + iy,

.6.

.6.
+ .6.
+ 1 , .6.v

l.6.zl

= J(.6.X)2 + (.6.)2 .

av.6.x

+ av.6.y
+ 2,

((

+ .6.; + .6.) + iv(x + .6.; + .6.)) - ((; ) + iv(x; ))


.6. + i.6.y
.6. + i.6.v = (8u.6.
+ 8u.6.
+ 1 ) + i (8v
.6. + 8v
.6. + 2
)_
8
8
8
8
.6. + i.6.y
.6. + i.6.y
8u
.6.
+
8u.6.
+ Zx
.av.6. + ty
' av .6. l + 2
.


=
.6. + i.6.y
+ .6. + i.6.y .

.6.w
.6.z

(74.5),

.6.w
.6.z

av av
- '
'

= 8u.6.
8

+ i av .6. + i 8 u.6.
.

+ ,
.6. + z.6.y

av.6.y

+ ia2

= .6. + i.6.y'

.6.w
.6.z

~(.6.x+i.6.y)+i~(.6.x+i.6.y)
_
.6. + i.6.y
+ -

.av

+ Z + ,

, lim ~w

= j'(z)

c.z-+o uz

. j'(z)

,
j (z)

j(z)

.av

- t.
j '( z ) _

= + i a

= + Z '
-

(74.5)

av

l.6.zl.

'
534

j '( z ) -_ av

+ Z '

= av

_ i au .

j'(z)

. av

(74.6)

z.

11 (z) 12 (z)

1. (11(Z) 12(Z))' = f{(z) (Z ) ,

2. (11(Z)' 12(Z))'

= f{(z) 12(Z) + 11(Z)' (z),


(f2(Z):i ) .

3 (11( Z))' - 1;(z)' 12(Z) - 11(Z) ' 12(Z)


. 12(Z) Ji(z)

4. rp(z) z , 1(w)
w = rp (z), (1(rp(z)))' = 1~(rp) rp~(z ) .
5.

(1 - J(w))' i=

z 1(z)
1- 1(w), w = 1(z),
, 1'(z) = (1-1~W))" 1- 1 (w) - ,

1(z).

,, u.11,u,, Jt,,. .111,UU 1,,n1 n

,,.. :

w = zn (n

N)

=e

= sin z,

= tg z

= th z

l , 2, . .. )

+7k

= sh Z,W = ch z,

z = (~+ 27k) . i

; w

i=

Ln z , w

za

74.5.

, z = ~
(k

= cos z,

',1

z,

1(z)

Jtuu',1U (-

-)

j(z) Jtuu',1U Jtu


D,

D.

, ',1

).

z,

, n.

f(z)

j(Z)

j(z). ,

, .

= j(z)

z. lim ~w =
~z---t

, i~

= 1'(z).

= 1'(z) + ,

~ .z ~ .

: .w

1'(z) "1-

L.l.Z

= 1'(z).z + .z.

, 1'(z).z

Az

, .z; .z

, .z.
,

= f(z).

dw w = j(z)
z , . . dw = 1'(z).z,
dw = 1'(z)dz ( w = z dz = z' .z = .z).
, l' (z) = ~~, . .
~

,,

.',':u.

D,

j(z)

= (;) + iv(x;y)

(; ) v(x; ) -

2 J

(?"

J = ,
+ 1l
2

. .

72.2).

, -
, , :
2
2

av

- 2'

a2v

2 -

'

2
av +a
v_
2 - .

u(; ) v(x; ) nu',I>UU n","v,u.

,, 74.3. , w

= z2

. .

Re w

1 w

= v

w = z2 = ( + iy)2 = 2 _ 2 + 2ixy.
, u = 2 - 2, V = 2. -

(74.5):

av

= 2,

= -2,

av

=2'

= -2.

(74.5)
z. w = Z2 , ,
.

(74.6),

= : ( 2 - 2) + i ~ (2) = 2 + i2y = 2( + iy) =

(z2)'
. .

2z,

(z2)' = 2z.
,

w = Z2 ,
(74.4):

w'

lim

~w

6 x ~O ~z

lim (z

+ ~z)2 - z2 =

6x~O

~z

lim

2z~z + (~Z)2

6x~O

~z

= lim (2z
iJ.z~O

u.

: ,

,. (
/1
l'l

= 6 ,

/1

+ ~z) = 2z .

74.4.

= - 6 ,

, , g~

= u + iv

/1
,

- (74.5). g~

+ 2.

+ = ) .
/1

= (

2 + 2)~

= 2 -

2,

= 2 - 2. ,

, :

= ~~ dy = ( 2 - 2) dy = 2 - + rp(x).

<()

-.

== (

+ 2)~

= -6,

~~
-6 = -(6
2

( 2 - + rp(x))~

6 + <'(),

+ rp'(x)) . <'() = rp(x) = ,


+ . w = . + iv:

= w = u + iv = -

2 + 2 + i( 2 - + )

= const.

= +i - 2 _i + 2+ Ci = (+i) +2+iC
7

= z + 2+iC.

74.6.
.

= j(z)

Zo

f'(zo) =1-

Wo

= j(zo)

w =

j(z)
w.

Zo

z = Zo

w (.

+ .6.z

Wo

Zo

L,

w = Wo +.6.w

[.

Zo

285).

285

f'(zo) = lim ~W. ,


.6.z-+o uZ

If'(zo)1 = I .6.z-+o
lim ~w I =
uZ

= Iz - zol

I~w
I = .6.z-->o
lim II~WII. l.6.zl =
uZ
uZ
Zo Zo + .6.z,
Wo Wo + .6.w. ,

lim

.6.z-->o

l.6.wl -
If'(zo)1

Wo Wo + .6.w
Zo Zo + .6.z. (J(z)
zo) [, zo.

lim

.6.z-->o

II~WII
= If'(zo)1
uZ

Zo

, . .

Zo

If'(zo)1

()

= j(z).

uum- m.;c u.,


JtCmu.,
< 1.

If'(zo)1

u-

74.5.

= ~z2

Ij'(zo)1 > 1,

If'(zo)1

1uum-

()

Zo

=3 -

4i.

!z2 Zo = 3 - 4i,
w' = z.
1!,(zo)1 = Izol = 13 - 4il = 5 > 1.
w = !z2 Zo 5 (

Q :

w =

).

argj'(zo)

~w

11 arg ----

z--->

uZ

11 (arg~w - arg~z)

z--->

=
0!1 0!2 -

Zo

lim arg ~w -

z--->

lim arg ~z

z--->

= (}:2 -

Zo,

Wo

(}:1,


(}:2

0!1

z w (. . 285).
+arg!,(zo). , arg !'(zo) - ,
1 Zo

Wo

wo.

arg!, (zo) -

Zo

arg !' (zo).

j(z) Zo (
arg !'(zo) ,
zo. 11 L 1
Zo Wo arg !'(zo) = O!~ - ():~ = . ,
arg !' (zo) = 0!2 - (): 1 = O!~ - O!~ , . . 1 [1 Zo
z = arg !,(zo), = arg !'(zo)
,

j(zo) f:.

1 11

Wo

Ll ,

(. .

286).,

w = j(z) v.m-
zo.

(-;mu-)

= j(z),

zo,

'lC.:.'.t

(. . , ).
,
'lC'.:'bl. m;'u. 1- ;

'lC.''. mJte

'. 2- .

I(z)

Zo Z 13

, w

= I( z )

w = I(z)

D,

D,

w = I(z) I'(z) =J ,

D; w = I(z)
D, w = I( z ) D
I'(z) =J .

u.

74.6.

Q
z,

:
. .

w' = 2 =J

w = 2z.

= 2z

argw'

= arg2 = ,

,
I

2.

(w

w = 2z

= )

2.

75.

75.1.

Zo

( )

Zo

Z], Z2 , . . . , Zn-l

(. .

I(z) .

287).

llr ~ (k

= 1,2, ... , n)


.Zk = Zk - Zk-l.

Ck

L:

I(k).Zk'

k=l

.1]
, ,

j(z)

Jj(z) dz.

287

f\:u ( f\:OHmypy)

,----------------------------,

(75.1)
,

~ ,

= Xk + iYk.

(75.1)
u(; )

j(z) =

j(z)

+ iv(x; ),

z =

+ iy,

Ck =

j(Ck ) = U(Xk; Yk)


t1z k = (Xk

+ iYk)

+ iV(Xk; Yk),

+ iYk-l)

- (Xk-l

= t1xk

+ it1Yk

k=l

k=l

k=l

k=]

I)U(Xk; Yk) t1x k - V(Xk; Yic)t1Yk) + i L (V(Xk; Yk) t1x k + U(Xk; Yk)t1Yk).
, ,

(. .

56.1).

j(z)

. (

J
L

j (z) dz

lt1zk l -+

= dx -

V dy + i

V dx +

541

dy.

(75.2)

(75.2)

(75.2)

Jj(z) dz J( + iv)(dx +
=

(75.3)

i dy).

= x(t), = y(t), t1 :::; t :::; t2 L, z = z(t) = x(t) + iy(t)

n.mu'7U. .


7Co.nAe7CCHt.

L;

(75.3)


t2

Jj(z) dz = J j(z(t))z'(t) dt.


L

(75.4)

tl

z(t)

Jj(i) dz = J( + iv)(dx+
L

t2

i dy)

J( + iv)(x~ + iy~) dt =
J j(z(t))z'(t) dt.

tl

t2

tl
cBoi1cmBa
.

1.

J dz = z - zo

6.Z k

= 6.z 1 + .. .+6.zn = Z1 -Z+i2- Z 1 + .. ,+Zn -Zn-l = Z-ZO'

k=l

J(Jl(Z) f2(z)) dz = J(Z) dz J j2(Z) dz.


3. Jaj(z) dz = Jf(z) dz, - .
2.

4.

J j(z) dz
L

= -

J j(z) dz, . .
L-

J = - J).

42

Jf(z) dz = J j(z) dz+ J j(z) dz, L = L +L

5.

L
r

2,

L1
L2

. .

L1

L2.

6. '/ . . Ij(z)1 ~

L, IJj(z) dzl ~ Ml, l - L.


L

I:

I~Zkl

ZOZIZ2 ... ZN,

L.

k=1
-

(75.i)

(75.2).

u.

75.1.

Imzdz,

7 (. .

L argz ~

Izl =

1,

288).

1=

x=cost,
{ y=sint

(75.3),

1
.

288

Jy(dx+idy) = Jydx+i Jydy=


L

-1

-1

J ~dx+i J ~ 2 ~dX=
1-

= (::.~ + ~ arcsinx) 1-1 _ix21-1 = -~.


2

1=

J"

sin t ( - sin t

(75.4),

+ i cos t) dt

(z = cos t

J" -~

+ i sin t):

(1 - cos 2t) dt

+i

J"

sin t cos t dt =

1
1.
) 1"+~2"S
. 1 . 2 t 1" =-2"
7
= ( -2"t+4"S2t
o

75.2. .
. -

75.1 (). f(z)


D,
L, D, , . .
j(z)dz = .

,
( ).

(75.2)

j'(z)

f j(z)dz= f udx-vdy+i f vdx+udy.


L

a,n:

j(z)

D,

+ iv

= (; )

= v(x; )

j'(z)

( -v) av

f u dx - v dy f v dx + u dy (. 56.3). L

.
L

f j(z)dz = .

L1

D,

L2 .

(. .

j(z)

289).

L 2 (. .

75,

L).
D

( ) 11 12

D 1,

l: + L

+ l : + L 2 + 12 + 11.

f f(z) dz

(. .

289),

L, L 1 , L 2

11 12: = L

L, L 1

75;

=0,

. . () 1'1 1'2
. :

J j(z) dz = f j( z ) dz + f

j(z) dz

L,

= ,

J( z ) dz

L2

. .

j( z)

D ,

15

, .

289

290

3.'u.

L 2 ,

f J(z) dz = f

(L, L 1

L2)

j( z) dz

L,

j(z)
1

75.1.

D,

f j(z) dz = f j(z) dz, . . j( z)

(. . 290),

j(z) dz, re

L2

( ). {;,

L1

j( z ) -

j(z)

).

Zo

,
Zo z (.

L! L 2
291).

J j(z) dz - J j( z) dz
L,

L,

= , . .

J J(z) dz+ J j( z) dz = ,
, J j( z) dz = J j(z) dz.

j( z )dz

L-

D,

L,

18 " Di1 ll. ~)'pc


4

L2

r,

J j(z) dz

~D,

f j( z) dz. -

ZO,

z , J j(z) dz
Zo

- L1
.

F( z ): F(z)

291

z.

=J

j(z) dz. ,

20

F( z)

.I

j(z)

F' (z)

D,

= (]

D,

j (z) dz )'

= j (z ) .

"

F( z) ni1
D , F'( z )
j(z) .

j(z)

j(z),
F(z) + , = const.
~

F(z)

J( z)

j( z )
j (z )

Jj(z) dz, . .

I-J-j-(~Z-)d-z-=-F-(z-)-+--,---F-'(z-)-=-j(-z---'
)I

F( z)

=J

Zo

J( z) dz

J( z ). , J j( z) dz

= F( z) + .

= Zo,

'0

= F( zo) +C ( , ).

= -F(zo), ,

,--------------------,

J j(z) dz = F(z) - F( zo) .


20

.i1 m-i1uv,.

'
, .

, J
. .

e"dz

= +; J

sinzdz

= -sz+; J

3z dz

= .~ 1: =-i

u. 75.2. : ) f ~; ) f(z-zo)ndz
z - Zo

(n

f:. -1),

(. .

R
292).

zo,

: ) , . .

_1_ zo. .-

z - Zo

= + Rsint, 0:( t:( 21. -

= + Rcos t,

= + iy = +

R cos t + iyo + iR sin t

= ( + iyo) + R(cost + isint)

292

= Zo + R

, , -
z = Zo R . e i t , :( t :( 21 .

(75.4)

dz
i .R .
-=
J
.f z R
21\"

Zo

f:.

-1

eil

dt

il

=i

J dt = 2ni.
21\"

:
21\"

f (z - zo)n dz J(R eit(R e dt =


= iR + J
dt = R"+l .
n+
=

i .

n 1

il

i(n+1)t 21\"

21\"

e i (1l+1)t

Rn+1

= --(cos2n(n
+ 1) +isin2n(n +
n+1

I =

R n+ 1

= --(1-1)
= .
n+1

1) - )

,
--------------------------------------------,

z _ = 2ni, f (z - zo)"dz = , n f _d_


z -

75.3.

Zo

, n f:. -1.

75.2.

75

L -

1( z )

= _1_
1(Zo)
2 .

n~L

Zo

D -

D.
1(z )
. dz ,
z - zo

D,

(75.5)

L (. .
) .

547

(75.5),

t':l t':l .

(75.5)

. '

f( z )

zo,

lr

Zo,

, J''t

lr

L) .

lr,

293),

D1

j(z) .
z - Zo

( .
.

545),

293

f( z )dz =
z - Zo

f
1,.

j(z)dz.
z - Zo

_1_

2Jri

f j(z)
dz =
f
z - Zo
_1
2Jr'i

j(z) dz
z - Zo

2Jri

/"

~j(zo)
2Jrt

= _1_

f
l

f~
+~f
Z - Zo
2Jrt

j(z) - j(zo) dz.


Z - zo

I"

f~
= 2Jri ( . 75.2) . ,
z - Zo
~
2Jrt

f j(z)
dz = ~j(zo). 2Jri + ~ f
Z - Zo
2Jrt
2Jrt
~
2Jrt

j(z) - j( zo) dz,


Z - Zo

I"

L
. .

j(zo) + j( z ) - j(zo) dz
z - Zo

f
L

j( z ) dz - j(zo)
Z - zo

=~
2JrZ

f
lr

j( z ) - j(zo) dz.
Z - Zo

(75.6)

(75 .6) .
j(z) Zo D,
> Jl r > , Iz - zol ~ r (
l Iz - zol = r) If( z ) - j(zo)1 < .

54

dz - j(zo)1
z - Zo
I ~ f j(z)

(.

I~ f

211"2

j(z) - j(zo) dzl


Z - zo

211"2

/.

/~f
""

75.1),

Jj(z) - j(zo)J d / ~~2 Jz - Zo J


211" r 1I"r -

z""

211"

/.

~
211"2

f j(z) zodz - j(zo)

Z -

(75.5).

(75.5)

: ' ,

ll'I ,
-.

75.3.

j(z)

zo

, n-

(75.7)

75.4. zo,

!,(zo),

J(z)

j(z)

= j(zo) + J'(ZO)(Z -

zo)

+ (~O) (z - zO)2 + ...


2.

... +

j(n) ( Z O ) n
I
(Z - zo) +...
n.

(75.8)

, nu. umu-,JCil JC'UU

maJC-

-; Jt.m umu-,JCil JC'uil.

,
(

= vx

= , ! ~

).

(75.8) i1..,

/(z) zo.

zo

/() .
.-'u. n-

/(z)

~
272

/(z) =

/Z d~

(75.9)

~ -

(75.5) z ~, zo z)
(75.9) z:

/(n)(z)

=~
272

/
~.
z)n+l

(75.10)

(~ _

(75.5)

(75.7)

u 75.3.

Izl = 1, )

z2d~ 4' ) L -

L -

Iz - il = 2.

Q : ) /(z)

= ~4
+

Izl ~ 1.
)

f z2d~

294

= .

2i,

Iz - il

-i
-2i
.

dz

z2

+4

:+2;

z - 2i

dz.

/(z) = z ~ 2i ~
.

294

(75.5),

-- I
f z-dz+ 4 = 2Jri (1)
z + 2i
-?--

z=2i

L.

75.4.

f
Izl=1

7
= 2Jri- = -.

~dz.
z

4i

Jl. ,

COS Z

dz =

Z3

cos z
(z _ 0)2+1 dz

Izl = 1 j(z) = cosz

(75 .7),

Izl=1

Izl=1

22~i(coSZ)1I1

z=o

= Jri(-cosz)1

z=o

= -Jri.

76.
76.1.

00

= UJ + 2 + ... + n + ... ,

(76.1)

n=1

, '.u

, ., ( ).
n
00

00

n=l

n=1

L n = L(a
n n

= n + ib n

= I: uk = I: (ak + ib k ) = I:
k=1

(76.1)

k= 1

+ i I:

ak

k=l

bk n

k=1

n- ',u':i1 .. .

+ ibn ) = (l + ib 1) + (2 + ib 2) + .. : + ( n + ib n ) + .. . ,

(n = 1,2,3, ... ) -

5 n

(76.1)

5 n : 5

lim Sn

n-+

u,

5 -

5
n

lim

n-+

I:

ak+i lim

k=1

n-+

I: bk , (76.1)

k=l

lim 5 n

n-+

(76.1)

u.

(76.1)


00

L ak = l + 2 + ... + n + .. ,

(76.2)

k=l

00

bk

= 1 + 2 + .. . + n + ...

(76.3)

k=1

5
51 + i52 , 51 - (76.2), 52 -
(76.3). ,
(76.2)
(76.3) .

551

.
.

(76.1)


>

00

n =

un+l

+ n +2 + ... =

L
k=n+l

76.1

>

Uk

ak

+i

k=n+l

( ).

(76.1) , n n ~
: lim n = .

bk.

k=n+l

00

n-4 00

(76.1)

..,
00

Iunl = IUll + IU21 + ... + luHI + .. .

(76.4)

n=!

76.2.

(76.4),

(76.1).
ll

lanl

= J ;, + ;,

Ja;, + b~

Ibnl

Ja;' + b~

00

60.1) .

>

L Ibnl

n=l

L lanl

n=l

(76.2) (76.3), ,

(76.1).

S,

S,

, :

n-4
lim n +l = {,
00
n
, l > 1 .

< 1 (76.4)

76.2.
~

n':,
00

CnZ

= +

CI Z

+ C2 Z2 + ... +

CnZ

+ ... ,

(76.5)

n=

(':u'um. ),

z =

+ iy


00

2:=

Cn(Z -

(76.6)

zo)n,

n=

(76.5)

z - Zo

=t

(76.6)

z-

ZO,

Zo -

(76.5).

z ,

z,

(76.5)


, .

= Zo

z,

76.3 (). (76.5)


=j:. ( zo),

Izl < Izol.

76.1.

63.1).

(76.5) z

= zo,

z,

IZol

(76.5)

Izl > Izol

(. .

).

z,

R =

Izol
Izl < R,

Izl < R

R
~

z =

Izol = R Izol < R - 7f, .

(76.5),

Izol < R (76.5) , - ;


Izol = R ,

= ;

= 00,

= , (76.5)

(76.6)

Iz - zol < R

= zo.

lim

n ....

1.....fzL1
(
n +1

(76.5)

lim

n ....

1\.IICJ ),

Icnl

( )
.

( ) 71m .

1.

2.

.
,
.

u. 76.1.

00

n=

~.

n.

Q : = ~!' n +l = (n ~ 1)!'
R = lim I~ I = lim (n + l)!
n .... +1

. .

= 00.

n ....

lim (n

n!

n ....

+ 1) = 00,

z.

00

u. 76.2. n~o

Q : R
q

Iz - il < 2.

u.

76.3.

2n + 1 (n

= nl~~

(n

+ 2) = 2.
+ 1)2n
I

(z i)n
(n;1)2n.

ZI

= ,

z2

= i,

z3

=3-

2i.

: .
2
2n 2
n+21.
I n +l I . Iz + 1Vn
2
IUn+ll= Izn+l
~,
11 - - = 11 +1 2 =Izl
n->

n->
n+llz nl

2n
l
lunl= Izn
.::'

z, Izl2

Izl <

1.

< 1,

. .

1.

ZI

z2

=i

( )
.

i)2n
(_1)n+l (

vn

= -

n
(

2n
(_1)n+l Z.::

00

n=

z2

=i

(1)n+l (1)n

vn

= ( - 1)2n+l = __1_.

vn

vn

= f -

60.5).

, Z2

=i

=3 -

2i

76.3.

76.4.

Iz -

zol < R

I(z)

00

I(z)

=L

cn(z - zo)n,

(76.7)

n=

f
'n = '----/(_n)--'n.---(z---'--o) = _1
2ni
-

I,~l

(( - zo)n,

d(:<,

(n

= 0,1,2,3, ... ) ,

(76.8)

lr

I(z)

(76.7)

r < R

Iz -

zol

<r

(. .

295).

. . . ...
.. .
..

.... . ",z, .'.


.

... ... ZO . ...

..
i)

zo,

Zo

. ..

..

:: " -: .:... ~r
.

295

j(Z)

Iz - zol <

lr,

z (75.9):

j(z) = -21.

lr :

f !(~) d1" ~ Z

<, -

JrZ

~ - z - (~- zo) - (z - zo)

= (~- zo) (1 -

Iz - zol < I~ - Zol, I~ =: ;~ I <

1,

"FZO

(_;~)

1-~

{-zo

1 _"FZO
Z-Zo
{-zo

~
<, -

z - zQ .
<, - Zo

z - Zo

~- Z

Zo

=~-

Zo

(z - zo)2

(z - zo)n

+ (~- zO)2 + (~- z) + ... + (~- zo)nH + ...

-21.f(~)

JrZ

+(z-zo) -2'
JrZ

. .

~r

f
n
1
)d~+ ... +(Z-ZQ) -2'
Zo
JrZ

L...

n=

1
-- -2'
JrZ

(~

~ -

~ (z - Zo )n
1

f( z ) --

lr.

JrZ

f
I

( f d~
)n+l
~

Zo

lr

f ( fd~
)n+1 (n -- 0,1,2, ... ).
Zo
~ -

f
)n+ld~+ ... ,
Zo

f( z ) --

- Zo )n ,

L... (Z

n=

(75.10),

1,.
n-

f(z)

zo:

f(n)(zo)
I

n.

(n = 0,1,2, ... ).

(76.7) ,

f(z)

(76.8).
.

f(z)

Iz - zol < R

f(z)

= + 1 (z -

zo)

+ b2(z - zO)2 + ... + b (z - zo)n + ...


l1

, :

j'(z) = 1 + 2b 2 (z - zo) + 3 (z - ZO)2 + ... + nbn(z - zo)n-l + ... ,


j//(z) = 2 2 + 2 (z - zo) + ... + n(n - l)b n (z - zo)n-2 + ... ,
jlll(Z) = 3 2 + ... + n(n - 1)(n - 2)b n (z - z)n- + ... ,
... . ..................... ,

j(n)(z) = n! . n

+ (n + 1)! . n + 1 . (z - zo) + ... ,

, z

= Zo,

_
_ ,
_ j//(zo)
_ j(n)(zo)
- J(zo), 1 - j (zo), 2 2! , ... , n n! , ...

, n

(n

(76.7),

= , 1,2, ... ), ,

j(z)

~M.

():

= 1 + l! +

z2
2!

z3
sin z = z - !

Z2

=1-

cosz

-2'.

+ 3! + ... ,
z5

z7

Z4

z6

5! - 7

+ 1"
4. - -6'. + ... ,
z2

ln(l
(1

+ ... ,

z3

+ z) = z - "2 +"3 - ... ,

+ z)

>

_
:
0:(0: - 1) 2
- 1 + ,Z
+ 2' z
1. .

0:(0: - 1)(0: - 2)
3'.
z

+ ...

,
~

eiz

.
1!

= 1 + 2Z

iz

Izl < 1.

(')2
2!

eZ ,

(')3

+ ~ + ~ + ... =
!

(1 - ~~ + ~: - .. .) + (z - ~: + ~: - ...),

. . e iz = cos z

+ i sin z.
7

76.4.

zo,

1(z),

(76.7):

(76.8).
I(z), I( zo)

'uu

Zo

I(z)

= ,

= 2 = ... = -l = ,

I(z)

I(z) = Cm(z - zo)m

+ Cm+l(Z -

Zo

Zo

= I(zo) = .

, . .

= .

f=.

zo)m+l

+ ... + Cn(z - Zo)n + ... ,

(76.9)

Zo ' '' ( - ) .
= 1, Zo '.
(76.8) ,
Zo m I(z) , I( zo) =
= /'(zo) = ... = l( m -l)( z) = , I(m) (zo) f=. .
(76.9)
I(z) = (z - ZO)m<p(Z),

(76.10)
= + +l (Z - Zo) + ...
<p(Z) z = Zo , <p(zo) =

<p(z )

=
~

f=.

(76.10), m zo, <p( zo) f=. ,

Zo

<p(z)

I( z )

/(z).

76.5.
76.5.

( ~

r <R

00)

1(z )

r <

Iz - zol <

+ 00

1(z ) =

cn(z - zo)n ,

(76.11)

n=-

n -

21l"i

f (~

1(0

_ zo)n+l

dE,

(n

= , 1, 2, ... ),

(76.12)

L -

zo,

(76.11)

j(Z)

L1

L2

r < Iz - zol < R

Zo ,

(. .

296).

j(z)

L1

L2

.
:

j d~ =

~-z

L!

L2

296

(76.13),

, .

I."~ --

Zo
Zo

1
~

- z

L2

Iz - zol <

I~

- zol,

I < 1. ~
JI
." - Z
.

= (~ -

~--~--~--~

(~ - zo) (1

zo) - (z - zo)

E::::;~)

z - Zo

=~-

Zo

+ (~ -

(z - zo) n

zO)2

+ ... + (~ -

... + (z - zo) n ~
2l

f
L2

L2:

zo)n+l

+ ...

. . 2~i

!~df, == n~o cn(z -

zo)n,

L2

~
271'z

f(O n+l df.


(f. - zo)

L2

(n == 0,1,2, ... )

f(n) (z )
1 , /( z ), ,
n.

( cn :j:.

==

zo).

L 1 If. - zol < Iz - zol, . e1 {Zo I < 1.


z - Zo
1

==

f.-z

(z - i o) - (f. - zo)

(z - zo)(I- ~:::::~)

------------==

z - f.

+ f. - Zo 2 + ... + (f. -

== _ ( __1__

z .- Zo

(z - zo)

==

ZOl:l + ... ) .

(z - zo)

_~f(f.) =~~+~ f.-zo f+ .. .+~ (f.-zo)n /(0+ ...


271'2

f.-z

271'2 (z-zo)

271'z (Z-ZO)2

271'2 (z-zo)n+l .

- _1

271'i

f df, ==
f. - z

L,

== (z -

ZO)-l

~
271'2

f(f.) df, + (z - zO)-2 ~


271'2

L,

... + (z - zo)-(n+l) 2~i

== f(z - zo)-n

f(f.)(f. - zo) df.

+ ...

L,

f(f.)(f. - zo)n df, + ... =

2~i

n=!

. . -2~i

L1:

f(f.)(f. - zo)n-ldf"

(76.15)

L,

!~df, = n~1 c-n(z -

zo)-n ,

L,

-n = -21
.
71'2

f (f. - f(~~n+l
df.
Zo

(76.14)

00

/(z) =

L cn(z n=

(n

= 1, 2, , .. .).

L,

(76.15)

00

Zo)n

+ L C-n(z - zo)-n
n=!

(76.13),

+00

n=-

560

Cn(z - zo)n.

.n - n ,
L 1 L 2 L Zo,

L1

( -

L2

): = 2~i f (~!~~~n+l df.

(n

= , 1, 2, ... ).

< Iz - zol < R,

f( z ),

(76.11)


+ 00

l(z) =

n~oo cn(z -

00

00

zo)n = ;

cn(z - zo)n

+~

(z

~-;o)n

. , . .
00

11(Z) = 2=:Cn(z - zo)n,


n=

nu..:i1. - j

11 (z)

Iz - zol < R.

, . .
00

12(Z) =

L ( -

n=1

Z -

)n,

Zo

.i1. - ;

f2(Z)

< Iz - zol < R

Iz - zol > .

+00

cn(z - zo)n

n=-

f(z)

= fl(z) + f2(Z).

Iz - zol < R,

f(z)

.',u.
;

_1_ ,
z -

Zo

1 )k'

z - Zo

>1-

, -

(k -1)

tl tl.

u..

764.

Zo

= .

f(z)

u2
un
= 1 + , + , + . . . + , + ... ,
1.
2.
n.

. = 1,
z

1
1
1
1 '
e Z = 1 + -,- + - - 2 + ... + ---n + ... , z =J. .

l .z

u..

2!z

n.z

76,5,
1

j(z)
Zo =

= z2 _

z - 6

: :

zl = -2 Z2 = 3,.
Izl < 2; ) 2 < Izl < 3; ) Izl > 3.
j(z) j( z) = ~ 3 - z l2) '

: ) ~

Izl < 2

(.

297)

_1_ =_~~ =_~ (1+:' +


+ ... )
z-3
31 -
3
3 3

z:

( 1:'1 < 1, . .

Iz l <3)'

Z~2=-~1~1 =-~(1-~+;:- .. ) ( 1-~I<I,..lzl<2).


,

j(z) = z2 _l _ 6 =
z

+ (_1)n

n-

) 2

-~ ~ Cn~l

<:

j(z)

211~l )zn =
1

36

278

= - - + - z - _ _ z2 + ...

Izl < 3 (. 298) :


(Izl < 3),

_1_ = ~ . _1_. = ~ (1 _ ~
z +2
z 1 + ~Z
z
z
1

= +-z ,

2
'2

22

+ 3'
z

- ...

+ 22

_ ... )

z2

(Izl > 2).

'

....... . ...
..... . .

297

_1_
z- 3
Z :

Izl > 3

(.

298

299)

= ~ . _1_ = ~ (1 + ~ + 2 + ... )'


z

2=

1 - 1z

299

z2

~ 1 ~ ~ = ~ (1 - ~ + ~: -

.. .)

(lzl > 3),


(Izl > 2).

76.6. .

, i1 ',;i1

l(z)

z = zo

l(z)

'U.:u--i1.,

l(z)

zo -

I( z )

R >

l(z),

< Iz - zol < R

, , - -

(76.11) : I(z) =

00

2:=

n=

00

cn(z - zo)n

+ 2:= (
n=]

)n.

Z -

Zo

lI

1) , . .
. Zo

ycmpaH'UMoi1. i1. m''lCi1.

563

l(z) .

2)

. .

. Zo .

3)

j(z).

, . . ,
.

u. ','lCu.

Zo

j(z) .

j(z)

Zo -

Zo

(76.11)

f(z) =

j(ZO)

= ,

2:

Cn(Z - zo)n.

n=

Iz - zol

< R,

= Zo.

(. . -

lim f(z)
z---tzQ

zo), j(z)
Iz - zol < R ( z = zo); Zo
, Zo f(z)).
lim j(z) = ( i- 00) , j(z)

z-tzQ

Zo

j(z)

','ICa

z = zo

',u.

., 'lCO-

lim j(z)
z---tZQ

= .

Zo -

,
_

j(z) -

i- .

2:

-l

zo (76.11)

-2

cn(z - zo) + - - + (
)2 + ... + (
),
Z - zo
z - zo
z - Zo
Zo - n..1>
= 1, Zo .

n=

j(z) ;

jCz)

= (z _lz0 )m (Cz- zo)ffi

cn(z - zo)n

+ Cl(Z -

z)-l+

n=

+ C-2(Z

zO)m-2

+ ... + -)

j (z) = -,--o:.g..:...(z-,-:-)=
(z - z) ,

(76.16)

g(zo) = - -:j:. .
J(z) -+ 00 z -+ zo, . .
j(z) .
,

g(z) -

'::

z = Zo

. .

(76.16)

lim j(z) =

z-tzo

00 .

(z - zo)ffi j(z) = g(z).


Zo:

lim (z - zo)ffi J(z)


Z~20

Zo

= -

(-

f=

, - -:j:.

00),

(76.17)

- .

Zo - - J(z).
Zo - J(l ); Zo z
- j(Z). Zo -
76.6.

j(Z)'

= (z (z j(z)

j(z).

zo)7n<p(z),

zo)nl j(z)

= <p(z) }.; ((z -

<p(z)

Zo

zo,

zo)m J(z))

<p(zo) -:j:.

= <P(~o) f=

(. (76.17)), j(z) z

(-:j:. 00),

Zo

- . ()

, , (

Zo -

-),

Zo

j( z )

, .

zo.

{zn},

,
.

= .

76.6. j(z)

= ;

: ] (z)

=z

: e Z
z

00

= n=
L 4
n. z

= .

, lim z
,--+

z --+

= -

( . 76.4).
z --+

lim

--++

= +00;

i1 ,

lim

--+-

lim

z--+o

= .

.-,u.

,
,

R,

z
z =

= 00.

= 00 -

z =

j( z)

z =

00).

00 , '

](z) .

.

,

= 00

](z)

EI

](z)

= 6

= 00
j (

6)

u. 76.7. j(z)
:

z --+ : lim ~
z--+o

=~
.
z

j(z) z = .
lim sin z -!- = 00. ,

'--+

= . , lim z2~
= 00 ,
Z
lim z3 ~ = 1 =1- . (. (76.17)), z = -
Z--+O
z
z

,--+

u.

76.8.

j( z ) =

z +3
.
z (z + 2)(z - 1)2

:
, z

z! =

u, 76.9. j(z)
2

=~
l+ z

z2 = -2 -

= 1-

= z ~ 3 ' g(z) =

= 00.

: z = j(z)

(t) = 1

_W

3w

'

=z~3

13wl < 1

(t) = w (1 + 3w + (w)2 + ... ).

1
j(z) = --3
z-

1(
3 2
)
= -z 1+-+2"+'
"
z z

1 3 2
-+2"++
'"
z z
z

3n
= '"
~ -:--+1
ZN '

(. -

tI/I0 , z =

00

g(z)

=~
1+z

77.
77.1.

,m,

2~i

j( z)
Zo , j(z) dz,

L
j(z) (.

13

zo,

< Iz - zol < R).

Zo

Izl > 3.

n=

= 00

).

00

Resj(zo)

j( z)
Res(f(z);zo) . ,

Res j( zo)

= -21. f
7

(77.1 )

j( z) dz.

L

(;-1

(76.12)

=~
2JrZ

f j( z) dz

= -1,
Res j(zo) =

C-I,

. .

j( z)

Zo

j(z)

(76.11).

().

77.1

D,

D,

j(z)

L,
zk (k = 1, 2, . .. , n),
n

f j( z) dz = 2Ki L Res j(Zk).


L

(77.2)

k=l

zk

D,

lk

(. .

300).

(.
.

545)

f j (z) dz = f j (z) dz + f j (z) dz + .. . + f j (z) dz,


L

11

In

12

. ,

(77.1),

j( z) dz

= 2Ki Resj(ZI),

f j(z) dz = 2Ki Res j(Z2),


12

f
.

j(z)dz

= 2KiResj(zn).

In

300

f j( z)dz = 2KiResj(zl) + ... + 2KiResj(zn),


. .

j( z) dz

= 2Ki k~l Resj(zk)'

77.2. .

u':

z = Zo

uu

';u.

j(z),

Res I(zo)

, -I

zo

I(z)

f(z) =

(76.11)

= ).

I(z) .

zo

00

2:

Cn(z - ZO)n + --=L..


n=
Z - Zo
00

n=

I Res I( zo)

."t'u.

-I

(77.3)

)~; (z -

-t

ZO,

(77.3)

zo)f(z)1

f(z)

I(z)

= Zo

zo.

= ~(;f' <p(Zo) i= , 9(Z)


9(zo) = 0,9'(Zo) i= ). , (77.3),

j( z )

(. .

.
_ .
<p(z) _ .
. Resj( zo) - )~~(z - zo)9z) - z~n;o

<p(z)

_ <P(zo) .

9(Z)-9(ZO) -

91(Zo)' . .

z-zo

<p(z)

Res ( M;zO

Zo

(77.4)

<p(zo)

=~.

00

-I

I(z).

I(z)
-2

Zo

j( z ) - n~o C,,(Z-zo) + z _ Zo + (z _ zO)2 + .. . + (z _ zo)ffi'

(z- ZO)''' j( z ) =

00

2:

,,=0

Cn(z-Z)n+ m + _ m +C-+I (z-ZO)+, . '+I (z-z)m-I.

- 1)

, :

(["'-1

dz m- I ( z - zo)'''/(z ) =
00

= (m-l)!l + L

n (n+)(n+-1)(n+- 2) . . . (n+2)(z-zo)n+l.

n=

z -7

Zo,

([",-!

Resj(zo) = ( - 1)'. Z-+Zo


lim dZ -l (z - zo)m/(z).

(77.5)

'' mO"t1Ca. Zo --
/(z),

-l
.

u 77.1. I(z) =

+ 24

z - z

<)

= -

z2

(77.4)

(77.5),

+2z )
4

11

= -21 ,-+
lim

77.2.

<)

(+
_z- 2)
1- z

I(z)

= .

1-

1 lim ( (z-0)3 z3
= -,
2. z-+o
z -

: ZI =

= ). ,
Res(f(z); 1) = (z f -+ z24)' Iz=1 = 1 ~ 42 = -.

Res(f(z); )

I(z)

=e

1
Z

11

1 = .
= -6
2

z =
Res(f(z); ) = 1.

. .

76.4.

-l

= 1,

Iz <)

1-

=i

Iz -

(77.2),

= (z _ l)i(z'2 + 1)

( . . 01)

(77 . )

dz

z-l

= 27i [lim
z-+i

'(1'

= 27!

< v2

z-+i

(77.5),

= 1.

z- i

l'

.(

(z - 1)2(z + i)(z - i)

)2( 2
) = 27~ Res(f( z );~) + Res(f(z) ; 1))
z +1

(z - 1)2(z + i)

Z2

1- il

f (z _ 1)1(z2 + 1)' L L

il = V2.

: I(z)


ZI

77.3.

+~

lim
1! 1

301

((z _1)2-:--_-:-;;-1:-;;-_-,-)']
(z - 1)2(z2 + 1)

-2Z) = "(1-4 - -21) = --7i2 .

+ l
1
(z2 + 1)2
570

27!

2".

J R(sin ; cos )

dx

z = e ix
Izl = 1 ,

u.

77.4.

dx

2".

1=

(3

+ 2 cos )2

: , z

ix

dz -- ietxdx -- iz dx , cos --
27 z
Izl = 1. ,
2".

dx

J (3 + 2 cos )

Res ( j(z);
- -1
- 1!

-3

+ 1.

dz

Izl=1

+ 1 .
2z

zdz

(z2

Izl=1

~ 5.

-3 +
5)
2

z -- _2_
-

+ {z + 1)2

(.77.5)

- 1

+ 3z + 1)2

.
(( z - -----:--3 + 5) 2
-+15
2
11

O~

-ix

1 j(z) = (z2

Izl <

z1 =

+2

= e ix .

(z-

-+15)2.
2

) I

(z- -3-15)2
2
3
55

, 1 = ~.
2ni
2

_3_

55

=
1
25

XVIII.

I 69-71


, .

, ,
.

.

1.

2.

.
, .
,
, n'u
.

78.

30

78.1.

D
- - .

I]

f(t) t

).

f(t)

,,,

1. f(t) == t < .
2. f(t) -- - t ~ , . .

1 ,

. N! > 50 ~ , t
If(t) ~ e sot , . . t
.

f(t)

80 n'/,,

f(t).

1-3

.
,

; ,

t =

= ),

80

t n (n > ) ( f(t)

). , , -

=t

f(t)

= ae t2

( ),

',1iu.

f(t)

, . .

f(t) = fl (t) +if2(t);


fl (t) f2(t)

,
.

-;.u, uu.

()

f(t)

= 8 + i(!,

J f(t)

00

()

e-

pt

(78.1}

dt.

f(t)

() -

n.u, .

f(t)

() ~

()

f(x)

f(x)

~ ()

( ,

).

78.1

() ()

Rep

f(t)

= 8 > 80,

( ).

80 -

f(t),

() , ( 8 ) 80)'

. =
8

i(!

Rep

s >

If(t)1

11 f(t) . e

80

. e sat ,
pt

(. .

302).

<~e'p:>.'~,~::::

dtl

11f(t). e-ptl dt

....

.,
'"

80

302

8,- 80

>

le- pt I = le- 5t

= e- st . I cos (Jt -

e-i"t I

i sin (Jtl

= e- st .

IF(P)I

11

f(t) e-

dtl ~ ~.
8 - 80

pt

F(p)

(78.2)
(78.1), . .
Rep = 8 > 80.

78 .1

).

F(p)

lim F(p)
--+

= .

'

Re

Rep >

= 8 --+

80,

f(t).

(78.2),

+00 . .

F(p) F(p) --+

--+

00 .

, , ,

F(p)

5, F(p)

= 2

,

.

F(p),


, ()

F(p) ,
Re = s = 80

f(t).

= tgp (

8).

78.2

( ).

fl (t)

!2(t),

F(p)

, .

( . )
u.

78.1. -

l(t)
11------

t\

l(t)
( . .

303).

= {~

t<

~ ,

()

(78.1)

J 1 e- pt dt
00

-+

. . F(p)

(80

Je- pt dt

li

= Rep >

= )

= lim -- . e-ptl = -,
-+

= ~, , ,

l(t) ~ ~ , 1 ~ ~ .

.',u. -

f(t),

f(t)
u.

= {~(t)

t<

~ ,
.

= eat ,

78.2. f(t)

: .

(78.1)

00

F(p) =

eate-pt dt

= lim

-+

Je-(p-a)t dt

Re(p -

> .

78.3.

-+

. (1

11

-(-) . )

------

-+

- '

e at == _1_

u.

= - lim - - . e-(p-a)tl =

(Rep> Rea).

(78.3)

f(t)

= t.

Jt . e- pt dt = lim Jte- pt dt =
00

-+

lim

11. e-pbl = . /

--+

1L .=

dV --

=
( . .

82

-pt dt

I du__
= dt1
v-

11

--+)

( -_.
t

_ tl

. \.1 . -sb

t~

--+

1
2.

-pt
b

= ) ,

)
1 _tl
-

=
1
-2

. .

(78.4)

','t/:u. F(P) = _1_

Rep

> Rea,

(78.1)

, , ,

(78.1).

78.2.

,
, .

,
.

, . . (t) ~

2 -

, 1' (t)

+ 2' 12(t)

F 1 (), 12(t) ~ F2(P), l


~ 1 . F 1(P) + 2' F 2(P).

! (1 . (t) + 2
00

12 (t )) . - pt dt

! 11 (t) . e00

= l .

! /2(t) e00

pt

dt + 2

pt

dt = ) . F j ()

+ 2 . F 2 (p).

78.4.

si1.<.lt,

), (st),

: ,
:

S1.<.lt

=e

iVJt

e2i

iwt

1(1

. 2i

sin 1.<.It

1.<.1

(1.<.1 -

(78.3),

= . 1 ~ . 1, . .

1.<.1

+ i1.<.l

2 .

(78.5)

+ 1.<.1 2'

(78.6)

+ 1.<.1

cos 1.<.1 t =:=

- i1.<.l

1)

=. - --- - ---

..

COS1.<.lt

ch 1.<.It, sh 1.<.It.

=. .

, wt =

c.vt

-c.vt

+2

-=- 1 . _1_
-;- 2 - w
chwt

+ 1 . _1_
2 +w

-w

_ w2

. .

2'

(78.7)

2'

(78.8)

shwt ~

w
2

-w

.F(x), . .

f(t) ~ F(p), > , f(t) ~

f(t) ~

(78.1)

J= f(t) e- pt . dt= [ t

= t 1] =

1
= '

J= f(t1) .

_E t1

dt]

1
= '

J= f(t) . _!

dt

= 1 .F ()

( ,
).

, cos t ~ 2 ~ l'

( )

f(t) ~ F(p), = const, ! . f(t) ~ F(p - ), . .


e at .

eat . J(t) ~

J
00

(78.1)
!

f(t)e- pt dt

(Re(p - )

> 80)'

19 . ...

J= f(t)e-(p-ajt dt = F(p - )

u.

78.5.

at.

at

. s wt

+w

. coswt =:= (

)2

+w

2'

2'

78.9 )

78.10

F ()
Q

7'

- 5

= 2 _ 6 + 11 .

: ,

2 - 5
2 ( - 3) + 1
F(p) = 2 _ 6 + 11 - ( _ )2 + 2

-3

=2.

v2

+_.

v2

(p_3)2+(V2)2

(_)2+(V2)2

~ 2 . t . cos V2t + ~. e3t si V2t = f(t).


(.

(78.9), (78.10)

.)

f(t)

F(p) ,

>

f(t -

) ~ - F(p), . .

JI - .

t - =

tl,

J f(t - ) e00

f(t - ) ~

= J f(t 1)- . e- pt1


00

J f(t1)e-(t1+) dt 1 =
dt 1 = - J f(t)e- Pt dt
00

pt

dt =

00

F(p).

.
,

f(t-T)

f(t) f(t - )

f(t)

f(t)

l(t-r)

f(t-r)

---

I
I

(. .

304).

304

f(t)

305

f(t-r)

, ,

),

f(t -

; ,
.

1 (t -

={1

' '':'u (.

t ~ ,
t <

/ u"u',-

305).

l(t) ==. 1
l(t - ) ==. 1.
- .
'

g(t) =
:
u.

78.6.

{~(t - )

g(t) = f(t -

~ ,

<

. l(t -

).

=t -

f(t)

1.

: ,

1-3

(. .

78.1).

f(t)

f(t)

t ~ ,

< ,

. . f(t) = (t - 1) . l(t) (. . 06, ), , , t ~

:h

(.

(78.4)), 1 ~ 1 , ,

f(t) = (t - 1) . l(t)

~ 2" - - = ().

579

f (t)

= {t -

f(t)

t ~

1,

t < 1,

f(t) = (t - 1) . l(t - 1) (. . , 6), ,


, f(t) = (t - 1) . l(t - 1) ~ - = ().

. .

f(t)

f(t)

f(t)

1 f---

-1

307),

307

78.7.

306

f(t)=

t < ,

~t~3,

t > 3.

(.

f(t)

= l(t)

78.8.

l(t) 1(t-3).
- l(t - 3) ==. 1
- 1 . - = ().

f(t)

f(t)

{~
4-t

< ,

~ t ~

308.

2,

< t < 4.

: -

t ~ 4,

2
.

f(t) = t l(t) - t l(t - 2)

+ (4 -

308

l(t)

l(t-T):

t) l(t - 2) - (4 - t) l(t - 4),

..

f(t)

= t l(t) -;- (t - 2 + 2) l(t -

2) - (t - 2 - 2) . l(t - 2)

+ (t -

4) l(t - 4).

J(t)

= t l(t)

- 2(t - 2) l(t - 2) + (t - 4) l(t - 4) .

f(t)

f(t)

1 2
2 2"-

~ 2"

1 4 = F ( ).
+ 2"

3.':u.

1.

, ,

() =

l_1'

1-

Jf(t)e-

dt.

2. f(t+T) ~ (() .

J!(t)e-Ldt)

f(t) ~ F(p) f'(t), f"(t), ... ) f(n)(t) -

f'(t) ~ . F(p) - 1(0),


f//(t) ~ 2 . () - . 1(0) - 1'(0),
f//'(t) ~ 3 . F(P) - 2 . 1(0) - . () - f"(O),

(78.11)
(78.12)
(78.13)

......... . .. . ............ ,

(78.14)

1'(t) ~

J
OO

1'(t)e- dt

I vdu==l(t)
_pe-

= e- pl
dv = f'(t) dt

dt ]

= l(t)e-Pll~ +

J f(t) e00

pl

dt

= -1(0) + () .

f'(t)

pF(p)- 1(0).
1// (t):

f//(t)

= (J'(t)'

~ ( . () - f(O) - f'(O)

= 2

. F(p) - . f(O) - f'(O) .

I (t)
I11

~ (2 . F(p) - . f(O) - 1'(0) - 1"(0)

= . F(p)

(78.11) (n - 1)

flll(t):

- 2 1(0) - . 1'(0) - 1//(0).

81

(78.14).

.''u.

(78.11)-(78.14)

j(O) = , 1'(t) ~ . (); j(O) =


= 1'(0) = , !"(t) ~ 2 . (), , , j(O) = 1'(0) = ...
... = j(n-l)() = , j(n)(t) ~ n . F(p), . .
:

.
u.

78.9.

xfll(t) - 2x"(t) - 3x'(t)


()

= 3,

' ()

, " ()

x(t) ~
(78.11)-(78.13) ,

= - 2.
()

x'(t) ~ '
" (t) ~ 2

3,

. -

xfll(t) ~ .
2

+ 2x(t) + 2,

. 3 - ,
- 2. 3 - ' 0+2 ,
2

= 21 =='_.

+ 2x(t) + 2 ~

x/ll(t) - 2x"(t) - 3x'(t)


~

2?

+ 2-

2(p~

. -

3)

3(

. - 3) +

2
+ -.

Ii

j(t)

~ (),
'() ~ -t

j(t),

" () ~ (_1)2 . t 2 . j (t),

.... ... .. ... ,

F(n)(p) ~ (_1)n . (n . j(t),


.. . . .. ... ... ,
. .
(-t).

78.1 , ()
Re = 8

> 80.

, .

(78.1) (

),

(1 f(t) . e- dt)' J(J(t) . e-Pt)~ dt =


J f(t) (-t)e- dt = J(-t f(t)e00

F'(p)

pt

00

00

Pt

dt ~ -t f(t),

. . F'(P) ~ -t f(t). F"(p)


FIII(p) ~ -t(e . f(t)

Pt

('()' ~ -t( -t f(t)

= t2

f(t),

j(t) F(n)(p) ~ (-1)n. t n . j(t) .

-t 3 .

u. 78.10. t n (n N), e at
sinwt, t coswt , t shwt, t chwt, eat . t sinwt, eat . t coswt.

tn ,

Q : 1 ~ ~, ,

, -t 1 ~. -~ , . .

~?

_t 2 ~ (~)' = -5-, . . t 2 ~

n.

::;:

5. Q

n!

----::t=.

at

n.
n!
. t = --,-----,.....,--;--;-

(78 .5), sinwt ~

(
. .

(2

2wp

+ ( 2)2

-'-

-;- -

( '

2 W

+w

wt ,
.

2 )'

)n+!

2'

+w

~ - t sin wt,

tswt::;:
,

2wp
(

(78.6) , (78 .7)


2

t cos wt ::;: (?

w2
2 2'
)

2:..;

.
t ch wt ::;:

+W

t sh wt::;:

2
(

583

(78.15)

+ w-? ) 2 '

? '

W )-

+w2
-

2 2'
W )

(78.8),

(78.16)

at

(78.15)

(78.16),

2w(p - )

. t . s w t 7 ((- ) 2 +w 2 ) 2 '
t

at

( - )2 - w
(( _ )2 + ( 2)2
2

t.

. . cosw

=;=

Ii

f(t)

* (), /

f(r) dr

* Ff), . .

.
t

Q <p(t)

<p(t)

= / f(r)dr ( ).

() .

<p'(t)
( <(0)

. ()

= ) ..

<p'(t)

= () f(r) dr)' = f(t),

()

= . ()

- <(0)

. (). ()

() , . . / f(r) dr

* () .


00

f(t)

* () /

00

() dp , / () dp

* f~t),

. .

00

t.

(78.1)

),

1() = 1(1
dp

f(t)e- Pt dt) dp

1(_~e-Ptl~)

1(1

f(t) dt =

e- pt dP) f(t) dt =

1f~t) e- pt

dt

* f~t).

u. 78.11. si~ t;
t

!
sin dT.
.

00

"\. : si t ==

'..J

si t ==!
1 dp
1'
t
2 + 1

= "27 - arctgp ,

. . si~ t ~ - arctgp = arcctgp.


t

, ! si'
dT == ...
- ~.
2

1 () . 2 ()

! 11 () . 12(t - ) dT.

(78.17)

J11 () . 12(t - ) dT

(78.1),

J11(T)'12(t-)d!(! 11(t)'12(t-)d
= ! e-ptdt! 11 () . 12(t - T)dT.
t

~ ~ t (. .

t-

= tl,

< 00,

e-ptdt=

00

t<

309).

309

Jfl(T) ' fz(t - T)dT J fl(T)dT J e- pt . 12(t - T)dt =


00

00

! 11 ()-

00

! 12(t )e00

dT

585

Pt

dt l = F1(p) F2 (p) .

'~uu

11(t)

12(t)

(78.17)

m~ii.

11(t)

* 12(t), . .

! 11 (7) . 12(t - 7)

* 12(t) =

11 (t)

d7.

),

t- 7=

* 12(t)

, . . (t)

= 12(t)

* (t).

, , . .

u,,

78.12.

) 1
- (2 + (.,-2)2

Q : () -

(2

(2

+ (2)2 .

1
1

1
== lsinwt
+(2)' (2 +( 2 )' 2 +w 2 . w
'

t 1

() ~ ! - . sinW7' - . sinw(t - 7) d7

= -2w2 . !(COSW(27 -

t) - coswt) d7

= _1_2 (~ . sinw(27 _ t)l


2w

2w

coswt. 71

1 (1-sinwt-tcoswt) = 1 .

= -2
2w

. .

-(swt-wtswt),

2w

~ 2 ~ -1
3 ('
s

+w-)

2w

wt - wt . cos wt ) .

78.2. 11

* 12

~ 1 ()

. 2 ()

1{ (t)

. ! () . 2 () ~

! 1{

(7) . 12(t - 7) d7

+ 11 () . 12(t).

(78.18)

. F 1() . F 2()
' F1() . F2(p) :: . F1() . F2(p) - 11 () . F2(p) + 1; () . F2(P),

1~ (t) { (t) ~ .

F1 () - 11 ())

12(t).

. F 1()

. 2 ()

1{ (t)

* 12 (t) + 11 () . 12(t)

J1{ () . 12(t - ) dT + 11 () . 12(t).

' F1 () . F2(p) ~

(78.18)

Jt11. JtSl..

J12() . 1{ (t - ) dT + 12(t) . 11 () .

' F1 () . F2 (p) ~

78.13.

2 2

F(P)
Q

= (2 + 1)2'

2 2
(2

----".--=-------".

+ 1) 2

= 2 - - . - 2

+1

+1

1
- 2 - - . ---/--+1 +1

11 (t) . f2(t) ~ 27i

(78.18)

sint,

Re z =

'

>

) .

80

=:=. cos t ,

t cos t

+ sin t.

(J

12(t)

~ F 2 (p),

1 (z) . 2 ( - z)dz,

, -ioo

-2-
1

,+ioo

+1

Jcos . cos(t - ) dT + 0=

~2

(t) ~ F 1 ()

-2-- ~

80

( . .

310)

(
.

310

() .
.

f1 (t) + 2 . f2(t)

+ 2

~ l . 1 ()

1.

: 1 .

2.

: f(t) ~ ~. F(), > .

3. : eat . f(t) ~ ( - ).
4. : f(t - ) ~ - . (), >
5. :

. 2 ().

/'(t) ~ ' () - /(0),


f"(t) ~ 2 . () - . /(0) - /'(0),
flll(t) ~ 3 . () - 2 . f(O) - ' 1'(0) - f"(O) ,

6.

'() ~

-t f(t) ,

"() ~

(_1)2 . t 2 . f(t),

J/() dr ~ p~) .
8. : J () dp ~ f~t) .
7.

00

9. : F1(p) 2 () ~

=!I*h
10. :

J()' f2(t - T)dT =


-y+ioo

!I (t)-f2(t) ~

2;i

J 1 (z)F2(p-z) dz.

-y-ioo

78.3.
,
( )

.
,

, , ,
( . . . . ) .

6.:uu, uUaJt u6:;;uiJ.

N!

J !(t)e00

f(t)

F(p) =

Pt

e at

sinwt

2 +w2

coswt

2 +w2

shwt

chwt

e at . sinwt

e at . coswt

10

e at shwt
at

11

12

t n (n -

13

chwt

e at .

?w

14

t . sinwt

15

t . coswt

16

t . shwt

17

t . chwt

18

e at . t . sin wt

19

e at . t coswt

20

2~3 (sin wt - wt cos wt)

21

2~ (wtchwt - shwt)

_ w2
w
( _ )2 + w2
2

( - 12 + w2
(

)2

_ w2

)2

_ w2

n!

tn

w
_ w2

n+I

n!

_ a)n+l

2wp
(2 +w2Y
~2 w
(p~ + W2 )2
2wp
(2 _ w2Y
~2 +w
- W2 )2
2w(p - al
(( _ )2 + w2:/
{ - )2 - w
(( _ )2 + w2 )2
1
(2 + W2)2
1
(2 _ W2)2

dt

N~

J f(t)e00

f(t)

F(p)

pt

dt

22

sin(wt

')

23

cos(wt

')

79.
79.1.

w cos ~ sin ':


' +W2
pcos ~ =f w sin ':
+w 2

, 'u,

79.1.

F(p)

f (t).

()

00


00

()

""'

=~

n=

n+!

= -

+ 2" + 3" + ... ,

tn

= 2: ' ,N. = + ! t + ...

f(t)

(t > )

n=

, (), . .

()

00

= 2:

n=

n:l ~ 2: ' tn = f(t).

00

,
N.

n=

u.

79.1.

()

= _. sin -;

f(t),
()

-2-'

+1

F () =

~ . sin ~

~ (~

- ~
3'. ~

+~
-, ~5
::>.

...

) --

~2

- ~
3' ~4

+~
'" ~6
.

...

, 79.1

t>

1 t

=t -

f(t)

3 !

' ()
= 00:

( ) _ _ _ _

_ ~ .

~ ( 1 - p~

, 11
11 1< 1,

Ipl >

. .

~
+1

-2+1- 2(1+?-) -. 1-(-?-)


=

+ 51 t5! - ... ,

;4 -...)

1. , f(t)

~-

:1 + ;5 -... ,
2

=1-

t2!

t4! - , .. , . .

f(t) = cost, t > .

() = ~~~~ -

79.2.

, . () ()

Pl,P2, ,n,

(79.1)
, ().

, ~~~~ (
() ());

lim

~=

()

( .

78 .1),

. . () = (( )) .

~~~~ :
() = () = _C_l_ + ~ + .. , + ~,
()

Ck

(k

= 1, 2, . . . , n)

- )

- 2

(79 .2)

- n

()
( ) . ( - Pl)

= l + ( -

:
l )

(2
- - 2

+ -- + '" + -. )'

) =

lim

-->,

(())
. (

_ PI) =

[Q]

lim

Pl ,

()

-->I ( ) -(,)
-,

, l
(79.2)

:J~l))' (

Pi)

Ci = :'~;)' i

= 2, ... ,n.

Cl, 2, ... ,

(79.2),

F(p) = () = ~(Pl) . _1_


()
(Pl) - l

+ ,(2)

(2)

. _1_
- 2

+ ... + ,(n)

(n)

. _1_.
- n

(78.3)
_1_ == eP2t
- 2'
,

... ,

--'-

---;-

pnt

- n

()

F(p) =

()

A(Pk) . _1_ ==
A(Pk) . ePkt = f(t).
k=1 B'(Pk) - Pk . k=l B'(Pk)

.''.u. ,

( (77.4)): Ck

:'~:))

() l,2,

... ,n

Ck (k = 1,2, ... , n)
F(P) -

Res(~~1;Pk)'

F(p) =

~~~1

- 13 ,

()

l, 2, ... , n ,

F(p)

(79.3)

79.2

79.3.

F(p)

= ~t~~

.. ,n -
f(t),

l,2,
,

F(P),

F(P) =

~~~ ~

k=l

Res(F(Pk) . ePkt ) = f(t).

(79.4)

79.2.

liJ

nu (
),

f(t)

,+ioo

= -.
272

F(p) ept dt,

,+ioo

f(t)

liJ

= -21.
72

F () . ept dt

=L

(79.5)

=, > So.

Rep
(79.5)

Res ( F () . ept ; k ) .

k=!

-y-ioo

3.'u. -
:

F(p)

, ()
, , ,
; , ,

, ..

u,, 79.2. F(P)=~.

+4

: :
- 3

3
F(p) = - . - = - . - - - - =
2 + 4
2 + 4
2 + 4

- 2'3 . 2 +2 22 ~ cos 2t - ~2 sin 2t = J( t)

79.2

(78.5)

(78.6)).

, :

+ 4, '() = 2, l = 2i
= -2i , (79.1),

() = - 3, () = 2
2

f(t) = 2i - ~ e 2it + -2i -.3 e-2it = ~ (2i(e2it + e-2it) _ 3(e2it _ e-2it))


222
2(-22)
42
1

= 4i (2i(cos 2t + i sin 2t + cos 2t - i sin 2t)- 3(cos 2t + i sin 2t - cos 2t

= ~/4icoS2t -

6isin2t)

=
~sin2t = f(t).

+ i sin 2t))

= cos2t -

u.

-,

79.3.

= (1_1)'

F(P)

: () = 1,() = 3(_1),'() = 4p 3_3 p 2'Pl = 1 -

, 2

(79.1)

3- (

= 3).

1
lim (
ept . ( - 0)3 )"
2! --+ 3( - 1)

4- 3

f(t) =

= -

(79.3),

+ -1

f(t) = -1- .

. .

+ '21.~~

(e _ 1

Pt

) "

= ... = -

t
'2
-

t- 1

t - t - 1.
2'

t -

f (t). 3 (1_ 1)
: F(p)
, f(t)

= -1 -

t-

= 3(-1
1 ) = _1_ ~ - ~ + ~1'

+ et .

3( 1

-1

f(t).

~. ~1' ~ ~

) =

t2

F(P)

~1 ~ e , .,
t

, ,l:

J~T2et-r dT
t

F( ) ==
.

= t r
= e - dT

= [

dv

= _e2t -dTr

I du =

1 t-r 21

=-'2

J
.
t

1 2

0+'2'

t-rd

[u=

dv=et-rd

I v=_et-r
du=dT

1 2
=--t
2

++(- t_r)l - t_rl

1 2 -t+0-1+e t =
=--t
2
t2
= et - '2 - t - 1 = f(t).

80.



(n)

+ aly(n-l) + ... + n
4

= f(t),

(80.1)

()
,

Cl, ... ,

= ,

n-l

= Cl,

/()

... ,

J1.

y(t)
f(t) .
f(t) ~ F(P) = F.

y(t)

~ ()

(80.1)

(n _pn-1_n-2l

- . .. --.t)+l (pn-1y _n-2 - ... - n -2) + ...

.. . + n-l ( -

+ n = F.

onepamopHt.. (
) . :

(n + l-l + ... + an-lp + )

+
. .

Y(p)Qn(p)

l (

= F + (-l

-2

+ alP

+ l-2 + ... + an-l)+

+ ... +

-2

= F()+R - 1 (), Qn(p) R n- 1 () -

n - 1

+ .. . + Cn-l ,

( )

= F(p) + R n - 1 ()

(80.2)

Qn(p)'

nm,, u,,

(80.1).

, . . ()

= /() = ... = y(n-l)() = .

() = F(p) .

(80.2),

Qn(p)
y(t),

, ,

3aMe"iaHue.


'U.

80.1.

//

(80.1).
y(t)
t ( t ~ ).

- /

y(t)

+ 2 = 12e3t
~ ()

()

= .

= 2, /() = 6.

y/(t) ~ - () = - 2,
y//(t) ~ 2 - () - /() = 2 - 2 - 6,

31

.
1
=--

595

: 2 - 2 - 6 - 3( - 2) + 2

= 12~,
-

22 - 6 + 12
()

( _ 1)( _ 2)( _ 3)' t .

() =

(()

= -.L1 + ~2 + ~3)' -

(1

= 1, 2 = 2, = 3) ,
( (79 .1,
() = 2 2
'() = (

2)(

- 3) +

+ 12,

1)(

- 3) +

1)(

- 2).

y(t) =

8
e 1 t
(-1)(-2)

u.

80.2.

8
e2 . t
1(-1)

12 t
+ _
.
21

l. t
"

+ 4 =

t < 2,

3 - t,

t < 3,

()

8e 2t + 6 t

f(t)
1

= 4e t

'

< , t

= , '() = .

311

: ,

311.

f (t)

1
1
= - t . 1 (t) - - t . 1 (t - 2)
2
2
1

1
=-t
l(t) 2

+ (3 - t) . 1 (t -

2) - (3 - t) 1 (t -3)

-(t - 2 + 2) l(t - 2) - (t - 2 -1) l(t - 2) + (t - 3) l(t - 3)


2

= -t l(t) - -(t - 2) l(t - 2) -l(t - 2) - (t - 2) l(t - 2)+


2
2
+1(t-2)+(t-)1(t-)

1
3
= -t1(t)--(t-2)
1(t-2)+(t-3)1(t-3).
2
2

"

+ 4 = 2t. l(t) - 2(t -

2) . l(t - 2)

+ (t -

) .

l(t -

).

2
1 1
3 1 -2
1_
pY+4Y=---:----
+-
.
2 2
2 2
2

596

Or

( ) _ ~ .

- 2 2 (2

1+

2(2

4)

+ 4)

1(1

=4

2 - 2

1)
1(1 "21. +2) == ~ (t - ~
+
4:
2 -

22

. 4

sin 2t) '

y(t)

=~

(t - ~

sin 2t) -

(t -

2)) l(t - 2)+


+ ~ (t - 3 - ~ sin 2(t - 3)) l(t - 3).
~ sin 2(t -

2-

liO

J\o.
u.

80.3.

' = - z,
'

= + ,

z'

= + z;

()

= 1,

()

= 2,

z(O) = 3.

= x(t)

~ () = ;

= y(t)

~ () = ;

= z(t)

' ~

' ~

- 1;

- 2;

z' ~ pZ - 3.

- . + Z = 1,
- ( - l) = -2,

+ (1 - p)Z = -3.

, :
-2

() = ( _ 1)'

() = 2 2

Z ()

- 2
_ 1)2 '

= 32 - 2 ~ 2
(_

597

1)2

Z(P)

= Z.

, :

()

()

-2

= ( _

Z(p) =

1)

2-2-:

2(-l)

(-l)

(-l)

(-l)

2 2 - -

2 =

_~ + _4_

3 2

2 =

_~ + _5_

(_l)2
-

2 -

(_1)2

: x(t)

=2-

et , y(t)

-l

-1

=~ _ _
1_=2_et=x(t)

(p_l)2

(P-l)

= -2 + 4e t -

p-l '

-2 + 4e t _ te t = y(t) ,

-2 + 5e t _ te t = z(t).

te t , z(t)

= -2 + 5e t -

te t .

, ,

( ); Q ;
.
.

11

1.(u v)'=u'v';

2.

3.

(V )' =

v)' = u'v
"v

+ UV',

- UV
v2
'

, ()'

= ';

(f.v )' =

_CV .

-;'

= y~ . ~, = f(u) , = <();
5. y~ = ;, , = f(x) = <() .

4. y~

2.

= ;
(\')' = \'-l

3.

( )'

1. ()'

4. (log )'

= - sinu ';
= cos1.2 . ';

= -~u . ';
(arcsin )' =
1
. ';

8. (ctgu)'

9.

10. (arccosu)'

. ';

= ~1
+1 .. ';
(arcctgu)' = -~ . ';
l+

11. (arctgu)'

12.

=-

13. (shu)'

= chu ';

14 . (chu)'

= ';

15 .(thu)'=
16. (cthu)'

= 2J .';

, (1n )'

= cosu ';

5. (sinu)'

7. (tgu)'

[n ', , ( )'

= _1_
. '
[n '

6. (cosu)'

. ', , (VU)'

1 ';
ch 2

-+
'.
sh

59

. ';

= 1.
'
'

1.

/ du

2. /

0:+1

=1- -1)

d;: = ln lul + ;

. /audu= L

4. /

+ (:

du

'

= + ;

5. / sin du

= - cos +

(/ sh du

= ch + ) ;

6. / cos du

= sin +

(/ ch du

= sh + ) ;

7.

Jtgudu = -ln Icosul + ;

8. / ctgudu = ln I sinul + ;

9./ cosdu
10.

= tll + ) ;
(/ 4ch-

=tgu+C

(/ s~lf = - cth + ) ;

/~ = -tgu+
s

11. /

~u

su

= ln Itg 1!2
I + '

12. /

~
cosu = ln Itg(1!
2

13. /

du
= arcsin 1! + ;
Ja2 - 2

14. /

Ju 2 + 2

15. /

du

du

+ u2

= ln lu +

Vu 2 + 2 1 + ;

= 1 arctg 1! + '

16. /

. du
= -1.. . ln +
2 - 2
2
-

17.

va

2 -

'

+ zr.)1
+
4

2 du = 1! .
2

va

2 -

I+ '
2

2 + fL arcsin 1! +
2
'

= 1 + -1'.+ .
-2' + ... + I + ... ,

= -

sin

+ - - ... + (-1) n (

2
2!

2n + 1

5!

2+1)!

4
4!

2n

+ ... ,

(- 00;

+ ) -

: _

1+ ,
1.

(2)!

0:(0: - 1) 2
2'

.. .

1
2 ++ n
--=1++
1-

l (1

+ )

arctg
arcsin

0:(0: - 1) ... (: - n

[-1; 1J,

: ~ ,

(-1:1 J,
( -1, 1),

1.3

::;; -1,

)
( -1 ;1,

n+ 1

-1<0:<,

= - 2" + 3 - ... + (-1) n n + 1 + ... ,

= - 3 + 5 - ... + (-1)

+ 1)

+ ... ,

(0),

(-;),

cosx=1--+--+(-1)n_-+ ... ,
(1

(-00 ; (0),

2n + I

+ 1 ... ,

(-1; 1] ,

[-1 ; 1] ,

1 . 3 . 5 7

= + -2 . -3 + -24 . -5 + - . - + ...
246 7

... +

1 ..5 ... (2-1)

2n + 1

( . - - + .. . ,
246 ... 2)
2 + 1

2n + 1

sh

= + 3! + 51 + ... + (2 + 1)! + ... ,

ch

= 1 + 2! + 4! + 6 + ... + (2)! + ... ,

2n

601

[-1 ; 1],

(-00; (0),
(- 00; 00 ).

+ ... ,

N2

J f(t)e00

F(P) =

f(t)

Pt

eat

sinwt

2 +w2

coswt

2 +w2

shwt

2 -vi

chwt

eat . sin wt

_ w2
w
( _ )2 + w2

eat . coswt

10

11
12

tn

at

at

.
.

?w

( - 12 + w2

shwt

at .

14

t . sin wt

15

tcoswt

16

t shwt

17

t . chwt

18

eat . t . sinwt

19

eat

)2

_ w2

n+I

n!
_ )n+1
2wp
(2 + w2Y
lj,2 w
~ + w2 )2
2wp
(2 _ w2)2
lj,2 +w

tn

_ w2

n!

13

)2

chwt

(n -

~ _ W2 )2

2w(p -

. t . COS UJ t

20

2~( sin wt - wt cos wt)

21

2~ (wt ch wt - sh wt)

602

(( _ )2 + w2Y
(
2
.
- ) - w
2
(( _ )2 + W )2
1
(2 + W2)2
1
(2 _ w2)2

dt

N~

J f(t)e00

()

f(t)

pt

22
23

sin(wt

cos(wt

<)

<)

w cos ~ sin <f?

+?

l!. cos ~ =f w sin <f?


+w'2

dt

./:

(495) 785-15-30, e-: trade@airis.ru


106

: , . ,
:

www.airis.ru

1100

1730,

, ,

: . , .
:

106,

.:

785-15-30

, /

129626,

66

-.>
.

.:

-:

(495) 785-15-33,

editor@airis.ru



. .
. .6

. .
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. .
. .
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19.12.05.

3. .

6090/16.

. . . . .
'.-. .

38.

5000

N2 589.

000 "-".
113184, . . . , . 50, . 3.
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