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.. , ..

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,
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551100-
200800-
220500- .

2002

[537.312.5+537.36](075.8)
22.379.2 73
79
:
, ,
-

..
,

..
-
.

.., ..
79 :
. / . . -; , 2002. 124 .
ISBN 0-00000-000-0

( )
( - )
.
-
.
, 551100
200800, 220500
, .
. 3. . 39. .: 14 .

[537.312.5+537.36](075.8)
22.379.2 73
ISBN 0-00000-000-0


, 2002
.., ..,
2002


.
1. p-n
1.1. ....
1.2. p-n ...
1.3.
...
1.4.
..
1.5. p-n ..
1.6. ....
1.7. ....
2. p-n ....
2.1.
..
2.2. ....
2.3. ....
2.4. ...
3. p-n
.
3.1.
..
3.2.
..
3.3. p-n
.....
3.4. ....
3

3.5. ....
3.6. ...
4.
..
4.1. ..
4.2.
..
4.3. ....
4.4.
4.5. ...
5.
.
5.1.
5.2. p-n
..
5.3. ....
....
..


( p-n
)
, ,
.

,
( , )
( -
)
.


,
, .
.


,

.
,
.

,

.

,
,
,
p-n .

1. p-n
p+-n, p-n, n+-p, n-p , .
p-n
,
() , -
.
,

.
p-n
,

, .
1.1.

p+-n
. 1.1. p+ n
+
,
+

+
,

+
: , . . 1.1.
N a N d
p+-n

,
. p+-n ,
, ,
.
p+-n
N a >> N d p p +- n n n-.
p+ n-, ,
n- p+-.
p+ n-
p+-
n-, . -
N a >> N d
6


(. 1.2).

,
+
n- p -.
: V
,


( )

;
,

N
Nd
0

Na
. 1.2.

E = dV dx .
Pp
n, p

nn


Pn

nn

.
1.3.




+
p n-
,

p+-n .
+

x
0

(. 1.3)

(. 1.4) p+ n-,

(. 1.5),
. 1.4.
p+-n (. 1.6).



E F
F E
c

n = N c e kT , p = N e kT ,

(1.1)
7

N c , N -
,
E
xp

xn

.
1.5.

p n-

qVk

E
F

N c = 2,8 10 25 3 ,
N = 1,02 10 25 3 ;
E c - ;
E - ;
F - ; k
-5
-23
, k=8,6510 = 1,3810 /;
- , .
(1.1)

()


E E
E E
c i
i
ni = p i = N c e kT = N e kT ,

(1.2)
E i

.
. 1.6.

p+-n
V
E = q V > 0 , F = q V F > 0 , q .

Vi VF
VF Vi
F Ei
n = ni e kT = ni e T , p = ni e T ,

(1.3)

kT
- .
q
(1.3),
p+ n-

T =

VF V p

p p = ni e T
Vn VF
T

(1.4)

n n = ni e
,
(1.5)
V p Vn p+
n-.
. 1.6 , p+-n

E = Ec. p Ec.n = E . p E .n = qV ,

E Fn F p
-
=
q
q
.
, p p n n
. V =

V = T ln

nn p p
ni2

= T ln

np

p
= T ln n .
nn
pp

(1.6)

(1.6)
V
T

V
T

p n = p p e , n p = nn e .
(1.7)
(1.2) - (1.7)
-
V ,
p+ n-.
1.2. -n

p+ n-
.
, ,
, .
,
,
.


.
, , p+ n-

p, n

p
, .
nn

n1
n

np
p1
p+ n-,
xp 0
xn
.
1.7.

. 1.7. 9

(. 1.8).
p+-n

j=jn(x)+jp(x)
,


jp(x)
jn(x)

jn(x)
jp(x)

.
0
x

. 1.8.
p+p-n
n

.

p+ n-.
,
,
p+ n-.
, ..
,
dp
dn
j p = q p pE qD p
j n = q n nE + qDn
,
,
(1.8)
dx
dx
j p , jn ;

p , n ; D p , Dn
;
; , .
(1.8)
. ,
.

,
.
.
a = qE mn , mn .
= a c.n , c.n -
, .

10




= n E ,
n = l c.n mn - , l
.

j n. = qn ,
,
,
j n.

n =
= qn
= qn n .
E
E
(1.8)
, n- p+-n .


. p+ n , . 1.7.
j n. j p.

dp
dn
, j p. = qD p
,
dx
dx
Dn , D p - ,

kT
kT
p.
Dn =
n , D p =
l
l

j n. = qDn

Dn = 3,8 10 3 2 1 , D p = 1,3 10 3 2 1 .

.
:
dn
dx
d
dx

I n.
I p.

11


.
,
,
, (1.8)

dp
dn
j p = qD p
, j n = qDn
,
(1.9)
dx
dx
.. .

, p+-n
.

,
. :
,
, .
, ,
.
.
-
.
-
dn p
.
n n p E Dn

x
dx

x

dn p

.
n n p E
+ Dn

x + x
dx

x + x
Gn n
, - :
dn p
dn p

n n p E
n p E + Dn

D
n

dx + (Gn Vn )x =
x + x
x
dx

x + x

=
n p , x ,
t

12

n p , x - dt.
t
, 0,

d 2n p
n p n p 0 n p
d
n
+ Gn
n p E + Dn
=
.
dx
n
t
dx 2
(1.9), :
n p 1 j n n p n p 0
+
(1.10)

=
l x
n
t
-
p
1 j p p n p n0
,
(1.11)
+
n =
l x
p
t

n , p - ; n p n p 0 , pn pn0 .

n p n p0
p pn0
n =
, p = n
.
p
n
()
-n
p n n p
=
= 0,
t
t
.. .
(1.10, 1.11)

d 2n p
dx

n p n p0
L2p

= 0,

d 2 pn

p p n0
n
= 0,
2
2
dx
Ln

(1.12)

L p = D p p - n-, Ln = Dn n -.
(1.12)
p( x ) = p n0 + ( p n1 p n0 ) e

x
Lp

, n( x ) = n p 0 + n p1 n p 0 e

x
Ln

(1.13)

13

p n1 - n- ;
n p1 - -
(. 1.7).
V

. (1.7),

(V V )

T

V
T

(V V )

T

V
T

p n1 = p p e
= p n0 e , n p1 = nn e
= n p0e .
(1.14)
(1.13) (1.14) n-
-
V
x
V
x
Lp

lD p p n0
lDn n p 0
T 1 e
T 1 e Ln . (1.15)
=
j p ( x) =
e
,
(
)
e
j
x

n
Lp
Ln


p+ n-
j(x ) = jn (x ) + j p (x ) .
(1.16)

(1.15),
.
,
.
+-n ,
(1.15) (1.16) x=0.
lD p p n0 lDn n p 0 V
e T 1
j = j p (0 ) + j n (0 ) =
(1.17)
+
Lp

L
n

S
+-n
I/IS
I = jS ,
50

40

30
20
10

-4 -3 -2 -1 0


3 4

V/T

. 1.9. p-n

14

I = I s eV T 1 ,
(1.18)

lD p p n0 lDn n p 0
S .
Is =
+
Lp
Ln

+
-n ,
(1.17), . 1.9.

1.3.

+-n .

,

.
-
.
,
, ,
.
+-n
.

,

.

.

.

.

, V ,
I ~ V .

. , ,
( ,
, .),

.
.
.

, ,

15

. +-n :
, .
, . .
n-.

.

. p-n
,

. , ..

.
M = I / I s ,

M = 1 1 V V n ,
V - ; - ,
.

,
.
.

p-n .
1.4.

p-n
(1.18)
(1.18) ,
(n-) p-n .

.
,
.

(1.18),
(..
p-n ).
16

(1.18) ,

n-

.

r = 5...40 , U = Ir .

I

V Ir
I = I s e
1 , V = T ln + 1 + Ir .
(1.19)

T
0

V
,
(. .1.9).
(1.19), ,

T
I = T
,
(1.20)
r (W / S )
n-, ; W -
(n-); S - .
(1.20)
p-n .
,
, ..
.

m p-n
I = I s exp(V / mT ) ,
(1.21)
m=1,52,0
p-n
.
, .. p-n
,
.


, ..
,
. , (1.21)
( )
. p-n
( ),
17

,
I = aV 2 ,
2 / 3 .
1.5. p-n



.

p = qN a , n = qN d .
,
x p - xn n- (. . 1.5).

dV
dV
= 0 , En =
= 0.
Ep =
dx x = x
dx x = x
p

V

d 2V

,
(1.22)
0
dx 2
.
(1.22)

Ep =
Na x + x p , x p < x < 0
0

(1.23)
.
l
0 < x < xn
En =
N d ( x n x ),

0
(1.23) ,
,
, =0, E p (0 ) = E n (0 ),

(1.23)

qN a x p = qN d x n ,

.. .
p-n

18

V xp = 0,
V ( xn ) = V V ,
(1.24)
V - .
(1.22) (1.24)

qN a
V p (x ) =
x + xp 2,
xp < x < 0;
2 0
qN d
(xn x )2 + V V , 0 < x < xn .
Vn ( x ) =
(1.25)
2 0

V p (0 ) = Vn (0 ) ,

(1.25)

q N d xn2 + N a x 2p 2 0 = V V .
(1.26)
(1.26) p-n

2 0 ( N d + N a )(V V )
W0 = xn + x p =
.
(1.27)
qN d N a
, (1.27),
.
, N a >> N d ,

, .. n-.
p-n

C = dQ / dV .
p-n
,
..

dQ = qNd dxn = qNa dx p .

(1.26)
dV =

qN d dxn
W0 ,
0


dQ 0
C=
=
,
(1.28)
dV W0
.. (1.28)
. (1.27) (1.28)
19

C=S

q 0 N a N d
,
2( N a + N d )(V V )

(1.29)

S - .
N a >> N d
-
q 0 N d
C=S
.
(1.30)
2(V V )
(1.30)
. ,
(V), 1 / 2 = f (V ) . 1 / 2 = 0
V = V , .. ,
V .
,
V 1 / 2 = f (V )
.
C, V, V , E (1.30)
N d ,
W0 .
1.6.

1.
p n- p-n .
2. p-n .
3. ,
.
4.
.
5. , p-n
.
6. p-n
p+ n-.
7. .
8. p n.
9. ,
p-n .

20

10.
.
11.
.
12.
.
13. p-n .
14. ,
p-n .
15.
n- p+-n .
1.7.

1. 1,13 .

200, 300 400 .
2. , ,
0,045; 0,044; 0,049; 0,039 . ,
=300 ,
p+ n-
.
3. V =0,69 .

- .
4. p+- ,
. , =300 .
5.
F0,1 0, 200, 300 1000 .
6.
np = ni2 , p + N d = n + N a ,
N d , N a - ,

N d N a .
7. -
1

N dn / N d = 1 1 + e (E d F ) / kT , N dn -
2

; E d - ,
21


Ec E d = 0,044 50, 100 300 .
8.
,

.
9.

19 -3
510 .
18 -3

210
=300 .
10.


=300 .
4
11. - d=210

-3

=110 .
V=1. ,
, .
2 -1 -1
2 -1 -1
19 -3
n =0,135 , p =0,05 , ni=2,410 .
12. - =300

N d ( x ) = N exp( x / x0 ) . n( x ) = N d ( x ) ,
,
N d .
-3 2 -1

-1 -1

Dn=410 , n =0,14 .

22

2.
p-n
2.1.

p-n

. . 2.1
p-n ()
().

. 2.1. p-n
()
()

25

27

p-

N a = 10 10 ,
, , n-,

N d = 10 23 10 25 3 .

p n-.
p-n p
n-,


23

. 2.2. p-n

-. p-n
. 2.2.

.


, -, ni2 = pn ,
ni ()

;
p - ; n - .
, ,
.

p = N a ,
n = N d . p n
n p = ni2 N a , p n = ni2 N d .

(2.1)

ni = 1,5 1016 3 =300 ,


(2.1)
n p = 2,25 10 32 N a , p n = 2,25 10 32 N d ,
.. p n-
n p
pn

n p << p p , p n << nn .
p-n
( p p >> nn )
() p-n
, .
, p-n ,
j
p-n ,
jp
pp
=
=
1.
j p + j n p p + nn
=1 ,
.
p p >> nn p-n
24


() p-n .
() p-n
, ,
.

: ,
( n-
= p( x, t ) nn ); W = d L p , d
; L p ; p
; , ,
.


.
, p-n
( W = d L p < 1 ) ( W = d L p 1 ) .
-

( < 1 ), ( 1)
( > 1) .
-
R
. R p-n
(. 2.1,),
I = U R ,

. R0
, p-n

.
e ,
,
p-n .
e > p

25

,
p-n .
, , ,
. ,
e < p , , ,

,
.
. 2.3.
() ()
, .

, p-n
,
(. 2.3, 1).
dp
j
U
=
=
,
(2.2)
dx x = 0
qD p
RSqD p
j ; q ;
D p (); S - p-n ;
U ; R
. ,
.
p n p1 max p-n
U pn (. 2.3, 3).
p
U pn = T ln 1 ,
(2.3)
p
n
p1 p-n
(=0); = kT / q - ; k - .

, p
.
U
.
,

U (. 2.3, 4).
26

. 2.3.
() ()

27

p-n
U pn U
. ,

p-n
, U > U pn . U
( 1 . 2.3, 5).
,


[1]. U U pn ,

,
( 2).



p-n ( 3).
p-n .


.
, p-n
,

.
p-n
R pn = T / I , I . =300
R pn .
p-n

I, A
R pn ,

10-6

10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

24103

24102

240

24

2,4

0,24

,

p-n
.
p-n (. 2.3, 2 4).
28


p-n
U pn ,
.


.



p-n .
(. 2.3,, ), ,

p-n (2.2) (2.3)
-
p-n .

.
-
S r . S r
(x=d) .

,
.
S r = , ,
,
.
, x < d

, .
, ,
S r = 3 4 1 .
-

[1].
dp
(2.4)
= S r ( pd pn ),
Dp
dx x = d
p d () ,
.. x=d; p n n-.
29

(2.4) ,

S r p d . S r p d
. S r p d 0 ,

. p d 0

.

-

.

.


[1]
dx
sh
Lp
dx
p ( x) = p n + ( p1 p n )
p1
,
(2.5)
d
d
sh
Lp

p-n

p(x) =0,
Dp
qD p
( p1 pn )cth d p 1 .
j np = q
Lp
Lp
d

(2.6)

(2.5) (2.6) S r = .
S r ,

.
(2.5)
x
( S r = ) p1 =0 p n =d .

. 2.4,. p1 d

,
(2.6).

30

. 2.4.

()

()



, n+,
n-
. n-n+
. n-n+
,
.. n-n+ ,
j p = 0 , ..
,
S r = 0 .
d / L p << 1
,
( - ),
,
p-n p1 (2.3).
. 2.4,
. [1]
xd
ch
Lp
p( x ) = p n + ( p1 p n )
p1 ,

(2.7)
d
ch
Lp
31

j =

qD p ( p1 p n )
Lp

th

qp1D p d
qp d
d

= 1 ,
p
Lp
Lp Lp

(2.8)

L p = D p p .
(2.5) - (2.8)
.
S r = 0 S r =
- .
S r =
p-n ,

S r = 0 .

. -

, ,
p-n
, ,
, .
,
R U
I = U / R . ,
, Q
, R R 0 . . 2.5.



(. 2.5,) (. 2.5,).
p-n (dp / dx )x = 0 = const = I / RSqD p
, t1
t 2
. t > t 2
p-n
p1 p n . p-n


p-n U pn (t ) .
(2.3) U pn p1 ,
32

.

p1 (t ) .
U pn (t )
R . 2.5,.

. 2.5.

() ()

,
p-n
. 2.5,.


. ,

. ,
,
.

j p-n
33

.
(. 2.5,).
.
,
p .
.
(0,01 0,03) p .


p1 (t ) .
U pn (t )

p-n


. ,
,
p .

R R 0 ,
.
(. 2.5, ) R
.


.


.

p-n ,
,
.

,
,


p-n ,
- .

,
,
34

,
,

.

,
.


,
(
) .


,

.
.
,
,

p-n

,
.

,
, p-n

[1].

.

()
-,
,
.
2.2.


.
35

n-


p
j p = q p pE qDP
;
(2.9)
x

p pn 1 j p
p
=

;
(2.10)
t
p
q x

E 4q
( p n p n + nn ) .
=
(2.11)
x

(2.9) - (2.11) n, nn , p, pn -
n; p ; p
;
; - .

p / t
( p p n ) p

.
(2.9) - (2.11) .

p ( x, t ) << nn ,
,

p = ( p p n ) = n = (n nn )
.

, (2.9) (2.10) p
p p pn
2p

= Dp
pE
.
(2.12)
t
x
p
x2

p-n . ,
, ,
p-n ,
36


(2.12)
p
2 p p pn
= Dp

(2.13)
2
t

x
p

1 p 2 p p pn
=

.
D p t x 2
L2p

(2.14)

(2.13), (2.14) ,
. (2.13)

t. p / x = 0

.
(2.13) .
(2.13)

D p 2 p / x 2

( p pn ) p ,

.
(2.13),
,
, ,
, .
,
G gi ,
, Gri .
,

.
,
.
.

,

.
37




. (2.13)
, ,

, .. .
,

.
(2.13)
, .
,
, ..,
.


T = t / p , X = x / Lp,
(2.13), (2.14)

P 2 P
=
(P Pn ) .
(2.15)
T X 2
(2.15) ,

,
,
, .
,
.

=0.
p-n

.
.
, .

, .

, . ,
38



P( X ,0 ) = Pn ,
.
p-n

,
.
p-n

P ( X ,0) = P(0,0)e X ,
P(0,0 ) p-n (=0)
(=0). . 2.6
.

. 2.6. : -
; -
; -


.


.
,

.
-
.
,
-
,
39

.

.

p-n

(. 2.7).

.

p-n
,
. p-n
,

, .. p-n
(, Pn )
0 < T (. 2.7,).
, ,
P(0, T ) = 0 . P(0, T ) = P = const


.

. 2.7. p-n

: -
; - ; - ,
p-n

, p-n
,
, P(0, T ) X const . ,
40

p-n =0
,
.
p-n , ..
p-n

,
P1 ,
, Pn (. 2.7,).

.
p-n
, .


P
j = qD p
.
x
X = x / L p

(U + U (T ))L p
P(0, T )
jL
IL
=
=
=
= const , (2.16)
X
qD p
qD p S
qRD p S
I ; R
; S p-n ; U ()
; U (T ) p-n ,
P1 . -

U (T )
qU (T )
,
P1 = Pn exp
= Pn exp

kT
T

P
U (T ) = T ln 1 .
(2.17)
P
n
(2.16) p-n ,
,
(. 2.7,).
p-n U (T )
P1 , (2.16)
U >> U (0 ) . T1
P(0, T1 ) = 0 ,
41

.
P( X ,0 )

T = T1 .



.

,
,
-
.

.
. 2.7,
,
p-n
.

.

,
,
, .

,

.
.
,
,
,
.
2.3.

1. p+-n ; p+
n-.
2. , p+ n p-n .
3.
p n- p-n .
42

4.
p-n .
5. ,

p-n
().
6.

p-n .
7.

p-n
.
8.


.
9. ,
.
10.
n-
.
11.
n- p-n
.
12.

.
13.
p-n
.
14.

.
15. p-n


.
16. ()
-
-
.
43

17. ()
-
-
.
18.

p-n
.
19.

p-n .
20.

.
21.

.
22. : .
23.
.
24. ,
.
25.
.
26.
.
2.4.

1. -
+-n :
1.1. +-;
1.2. n;
1.3. -

()
+.;
1.4. - ()
n-;
1.5.

,
n-.
44

2.

:
2.1. ;
2.2. ;
2.3. ;
2.4. ;
2.5.
;
2.6.
.
3.

, :
3.1. ;
3.2. ;
3.3. ;
3.4. ;
3.5.
;
3.6.
.
4.
:
4.1. ;
4.2. ;
4.3. ;
4.4. ;
4.5.
;
4.6.
.
5. -

:
5.1.
;
5.2. ;
5.3. ;
5.4. -
;
45

5.5. ;
5.6.
- .
6.

:
6.1. ,
;
6.2. ,
;
6.3. ,
;
6.4. -
;
6.5. -
;
6.6. -

.
7. - :
7.1.

;
7.2.
;
7.3.
;
7.4.
- ;
7.5. -
;
7.6.
.
8.
:
8.1. ,
;
8.2. ,
;
8.3.
;
8.4.
;
46

8.5.
;
8.6.
.
9. :
9.1. ;
9.2. ;
9.3.
;
9.4.
;
9.5.
;
9.6. .
10. :
10.1.
-
;
10.2.
;
10.3.
;
10.4.
;
10.5.
.
11. :
11.1.
;
11.2.
;
11.3.
;
11.4.
;
11.5.
;
11.6.
.

47

3.
p-n



, .
,


.

p-n .

.



.

. ,
. ,
- ,
,
, ,
.

.

.
p-n ,
,
,
,
. .
3.1 -, p-n
. p-n
0
(. 3.1,) U
= 0,4
;
2,3 .
1
= 2,8
U

48

,
,
.

. 3.1. () () -


VD5 [3] (. 3.1,).
, VT5
1
U
= 2 3 , VD5
1
I
= 5 12 .

VT4, VT5
VD5 . ,
VD5

-.
,

, ,
, [4], [5].

,

. ,

.
.

49

3.1.


: ,

;
. (
) ( ).

( n-)


.
R=0 (. . 2.1)
jL p
P 2 P
e
=
(P Pn ); P(0, T ) = 0 ; P( X ,0 ) =
+ Pn .
(3.1)
qD p
T X 2
(3.1) .
P(X,T)
, ,


. , (2.9)
p-n (=0),
.
(3.1)
.
P(0,T)=0.

=0 (. . 2.7,)
.

.



(=0,001-0,01) .
(3.1) ,

,
50

. (
) ,
p-n
.
.
p-n
. ,
.
(3.1),
.
P
X
X

P( X , T ) = Pn 1 e + 1 e erfc T
e erfc T +
, (3.2)
2
2
T
2
T

P1 j f L p qD p - p-n

; j f - p-n
; erfc - ,
2 z y2
erfc z = 1
e dy .
0
. 3.2 (3.2)
. ,
HH T=0
p-n (X=0),
P
.
P1

p-

,

Pn
0

.
p-n . 3.2.

, p-n


.

(3.2)

(2.2) X=0

51


qD p P1 e T

erfc T .
j (T ) =
(3.3)

Lp
L p T

qD p Pn L p = j s , qD p P1 / L p = j f , j s -
p-n , (3.3)
e T

erfc T ,
j (T ) = j f
(3.4)
T

j f >> j s . (3.4)
qD p Pn

.
(3.4) ,
T=0 .
P(0,T)=0 (3.1),
HH p-n
.


.
(3.4) ,
,
>0,01. . 3.3
, (3.4).

p ( ).
0

0,02

0,04

-20
-40
-60
j/jf
.
3.3.


p-n



52

(3.4)

p-n .
,


(3.1)

, ..
t=2,5RC0.

.

j f Q f .
,
j (T ) .
Qs . ,
QR .
Q f , Qs QR
.

Qs = S j (T )dT .

(3.5)

(3.4) (3.5)
Qs = I f p 2 = Q f 2 ,

(3.6)

I f , p-n
. (3.6) , Q f ,

. ,

, .
,
,
, .


.

. I 0

I0 = U R
(3.7)
U - , R -
, .
(3.7) , p-n
, p-n
(2.15),

53

UL p
jL p
P 2 P
P(0, T )
=
(P Pn ) ;
=
; P( X ,0 ) =
e
+ Pn . (3.8)
qRD p S
T X 2
X
qD p
(3.8) (3.1)
P(0, T )
UL
=
.
X
qRD p S


. p-n
.
,
p-n .

(3.8).

j f + j0 X

X
P( X , T ) = P1 e X
e
erfc
T

2jf

2 T

(3.9)

X
e X erfc
+ T .
2 T

(3.9) . 3.4.
, R 0
, p-n
T1 . , T1
,


P
P( X , T1 ) ,

(2.9)
T = T1 .
T = T1
,
Pn

, ..
0
T
T > T1 ,
. 3.4.

p-n

54

,
T T1 .

P 2P
=
(P Pn ); P (0, T ) = 0 ; P ( X , 0) = P ( X , T1 ) ,
T X 2
P( X , T1 ) (3.9)

(3.10)

j f + j0 X
X

P( X , T1 ) = P1e X +
T1
e erfc

2 j f

2 T1

(3.11)

e X erfc
+ T1 .
2 T

(3.10) T2

(3.8)
P(0, T ) = 0 . ,
, ,

p-n .
.
T1 (3.9)
P( X , T ) = 0 X=0 T = T1 .

jf
1
erf T1 =
,
(3.12)
=
j f + j0 1 + B
B = j0 j f = I 0 I f
,
; I 0 ,
(3.7). (3.12) ,
p t1

() (. . 3.3)
I 0 I f .
. 3.5. (3.12) . 3.5 ,

p j0 j f .

55

T1
2
1

0 1

. 3.5.

B=j0 / jf

5 B

Upn

.3.6.

p-n

p-n ,

.
3.6.

,

. ,

.
p-n


P(0, T )
U (t ) = T ln
.
(3.13)
Pn
, T T1 ,
P(0, T ) Pn ,

,
p-n
.
T = T1 , P(0, T ) = Pn ,
U pn (T ) ,


U, P(0, T ) = 0 .

HH
. (3.10).
(3.11)
.
.
p-n

.
.
56

,

.
.
3.2.



,
.
,
p-n ,
.
.
.
,

.
,
.
p-n .


.

HH P1 p-n .
(3.9),
j0 = 0 , X = 0 .

(3.14)
P(0, T ) = P1erfc T .
P(0, T ) P1
p-n .

, (3.14)
P(0, T ) Pn = (P1 Pn ) erfc T ,
57

(3.13)
p-n

U (0 )
U pn (T ) = T ln 1 + exp
1erfc T ,
T


U(0) - p-n
. U (0 ) >> T

Upn (T)

0.5

U (0 )
erfc T .
(3.15)
U pn (T ) = T ln 1 + exp

(3.15)

(. 3.7).

T=10-20
U pn (T )

0
10
20
30T
. 3.7.

p-n
, U (0 ) T = 30


dU pn (t )
dt

.
(3.15) ,
20%

2 < T < (U (0 ) T ) 2

= T .
p

(3.16)

(3.16) , U pn (t )
HH .

2 < T < 20 .

. p-n
, T .

.

.

HH
58

p-n .

t
p

P(t ) = (P1 Pn ) e
.
(3.17)
(3.13), p-n

P
t
U pn (t ) = T ln 1 1 T
.

P
p

P1 >> Pn ,
p-n

t
U pn (t ) = U (0 ) T
.
(3.18)
p
(3.18)

.
(3.15) (3.18),
-
,
. (3.14) ,
, .. 0 < T < 2 ,
HH
.
,
(3.15)
(3.18).

p-n
.
P( X , T ) HH
.
p-n P(0, T )
p-n X = 0
P( X , T ) .
,
.
(3.9) X = 0 , j0 = 0 ,
.

,
59

. ,
. R

.
R ,
U pn (t ) p-n . R
U pn (t ) R (. 3.7).

R
[1] , .
R ,

R
. ,
T = Tc
P
P

=
,
(3.19)

j
r
.
( P t )r T < Tc


(3.17). , (3.19) ,
T = Tc ,
, T > Tc U (t )
R . ( P t )r ( P t ) j

Tc

U (0 )
= T I f R e Tc .
T
(3.20) ,
. [1]
2 5
U (0 ) = 0,7 : T I f R 510 -10

lnerfc Tc +

(3.20)


Tc

1 10.
,
HH , T > Tc ,
R .

I (t ) = I (t c ) exp t / p ,
(3.21)

60

I (t c ) t c , I (t ) = U (t c ) R .
(3.21)
, t > t c ,
p .
R ,

U (t )

2 < T < (U (0 ) T ) 2 , .. R
R ,

R 1,5 T eTm ,

If

(3.22)

Tm = (U (0 ) T ) 2 ; T I f p-n
. Tm
HH P1 j f L p qD p p-n
U (0 ) = T ln (P1 Pn ) ,
j f Lp
U (0 )
2.
Tm =
2 = ln
qD p Pn
T

(3.22)
T L p
j f Lp

R 0,2 T
= 0,2
= 0,2 T

I f qD p Pn
SqD p Pn
SqPn

p
Dp

(3.23)

S p-n .
nn p n n-
nn p n = ni2 = N d p n , N d -
(3.23)
p
N
.
(3.24)
R 0,2 T d

Sqni2 D p
(3.24) ,
p-n ,
,
.

S = 10 8 2 ,

p ( N d ).

N d = 10 22 3 ,

D p = 1,2 10 3 2 1 ,

= 0,024 ,

p = 5 10 7 ,

q = 1,6 10 19 , ni = 2 1016 3 . (3.24)

61

= 7,5 1011 .

,
,
.
p-n
.
, (3.24) S = 5 10 4 2 ,
N d = 10 21 3

= 3 10 9 ,

, .
, R , ..

HH .

C ,
.
I f C

U (0 ) . p-n
,
, HH

.
,

p-n


.
C .

.
. , U (0 ) ,
I f , [1]
U (0 ) I s C

T
T
e
U (t ) = T 1 e
,
(3.25)

I s p-n .


I
U (t ) = U (0 ) s t ,
(3.26)
C

62


p-n .


< 1, HH () , .
>> 1 , R

dU (t )
1,4 T ,
(3.27)
dt
p
(3.16) ,

1,4 .
U (t ) 1
P (3.27) (3.16).
, U (t ) >> 1
(. . 2.8),
.
,
.

p-n ,
.
3.3. p-n

p-n

.
p-n
. R p-n ,
. ,
p-n ,

. . 3.8
p-n ,
. . 3.8 ,
(''''
) (''''
).
63

Upn

U(0)
U()
0

. 3.8. : -
; - p-n ; - ; -

,
HH p-n
.
HH ,
P( X ,0 ) = Pn .
,
j f Lp
P(0, T )
=
.
qD p
X


n-
p-n . [1]

X
1
P( X , T ) = P1 e X erfc
Tf

2 Tf
2

(3.28)

X
e X erfc
+ T f + Pn ,

2 Tf

T f = t f p
p-n . (3.28)
. 3.9.
64

P(X,T)
P1
T5
T4

T3
T2
T1

0.5

0.5

1.5

. 3.9. p-n
(T1=0,001; T2=0,01; T3=0,05;
T4=0,17; T5=0,5)

( )

(3.28) P1 T f
X = 0
2
(3.29)
P1 T f = P1erf T f P1
Tf .

erf T f

( )

T f , (3.29)
,
T f 0,5 .
(3.29) [1]
l, p-n ,
,
Tf

l T f = Lp
Lp
Tf .
(3.30)
2
erf T f

( )

(3.30) ,
, p , .. t f > p
, ,
l T f = L pT f ,

( )

( )

T f > 2K3 . l T f > L p


.

65


erf T f

2
2 X
P( X , T ) = P1erf T f exp
. (3.31)
X P1
T f exp

Tf
T

T f > 2K3 (3.31)

X
.
P( X , T ) = P1 exp
(3.32)
Tf

(3.32)
.
T f .

p-n
p-n (. . 3.9).
(R 0 ) p-n
P1 .

,

P( X , T ) 2 P( X , T )
=
(P Pn ), P(0, T ) = P1 , P( X ,0 ) = 0.
(3.33)
T
X 2

X

P1 X
X

T f + e erfc
+ T f . (3.34)
P( X , T ) =
e erfc
2 T

2 T

2
f
f

(3.34)
T f .

3.10. (3.34) . 3.10 , X = 0 , T f = 0

P(0,0 ) = P1 , , P 0, T f = P1 , .. P1
p-n
.
P(0, T ) = P1 (3.33)
, j f = const

.

66

P(X,T)/P1
1.0
T5
T4
T3
T2

0.5

T1

0.5

1.5

. 3.10.
(T1=0,001; T2=0,01;
T3=0,05; T4=0,17; T5=0,5)


(3.34) T f

P( X , ) = P1e X ,
,
P P1 = 0,05 ,
l = 3L p = 3 p D p . l
,
X = 0 ,

HH . l < 3L p

P( X , T ) n-.
p-n '' ''
,
[6], [7],
.

,
, .
,

,
-
HH .

,

67

()
.

: ,
, .
p-n
-

.
3.4.

1. p+-n ; p+
n .
2. , p+ n
p-n .
3.
p n p-n .
4.
p-n .
5. ,

p-n
().
6.

p-n .
7.
-

p-n
.
8.
-


.
9. ,
.
10.
n-
.
11.
n- p-n
.
68

12.

.
13.
p-n
.
14.

.
15. p-n


.
16. ()
-
-
.
17. ()
-
-
.
18.

p-n
.
19.

p-n .
20.

.
21.

.
22. : .
23.
.
24. ,
.
25.
.
69

26.
.
3.5.

1.
p-n

(3.2). Mathcad,
P( X , T ) T=0;
0,0001; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1 Pn , P1 .
.
X T.
2. (3.3), Mathcad

P1 , Pn , L p , p .
.
Pn , L p , p .
3. (3.9) Mathcad,



. ,

.

.
4.
p-n
(3.11). Mathcad,


.
, .
5. (3.9),

.
6.

p-n
70

.
.
7. p-n

.

.
Mathcad,

8.



.
,
.
3.6.

1. p-n
:
1.1. ;
1.2. ;
1.3. ;
1.4. p-n ;
1.5. p-n ;
1.6. .
2.


:
2.1.
p-n ;
2.2.

p-n ;
2.3.
p-n ;
2.4.

p-n ;
2.5.
p-n .
3. p-n
:
3.1.
p-n ;
71

3.2.
p-n ;
3.3.
p-n ;
3.4.
p-n ;
3.5.
p-n .
4. T1

:
4.1. ;
4.2. ;
4.3. p-n ;
4.4. ;
4.5. p-n ;
4.6. pn .
5. p-n

:
5.1. p-n
;
5.2.
p-n ;
5.3.
p-n ;
5.4.
p-n ;
5.5.
p-n ;
5.6.
.
6.
:
6.1. ;
6.2. p-n
;
6.3. p-n
;
72

6.4. p-n ,
;
6.5. p-n ;
6.6.
.
7. R

:
7.1.
;
7.2.

;
7.3.
;
7.4.
.

73

4.

4.1.


.
6
7
10 ... 10
-1 -1

, - 10

-12

... 10

-13

-1 -1

.
4

-8

-1 -1

: 10 10 .

,
, .

.
28
10 ...
29

-3

10 , .. ,
.
.

,
.
,

. ,

n = Nd

E d

(2mn kT ) 3 2 e 2kT ,

(4.1)
h3
N d - ; E d -
; mn -
; h - ; k -
; T - .
()
ni , ,
ni =

32

E
e 2kT ,

(2mn kT )
h3
E .
74

(4.2)

(4.1) (4.2) , n ni
. E d << E ,
, 2kT << E , E d ,
. ,
E d > 2kT
(4.1)
- ab . 4.1.

E d < kT , E >> kT . n,-3
,
d
,
210

n
c
.
b

110
- bc . 4.1
ni

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 T, K



. 4.1. 2kT E .

,

- cd . 4.1.

,
.

- .

.
mn
m p , ,
22

22

.
F = qE
l
= F m = qE m .
= l , -
() ,
75

()

1
= = qEl 2mn ,
2

q 2 nl
j = nq =
E = E ,
2mn

= q 2 nl 2mn

= nq .
(4.3)
= ql 2mn - .

l,

.
(4.3) ,

.
.

T,

- .

. -

,
,
ql
1
~
=
,
2m T 3 2
..
.


.
,
.

76

ql
~ T3 2,
(4.4)
2m
..
,

,
.

.
,

,
.

T = Tmax


. ,


.

, , ,
, ,
,
,
= ni q p + ni q n + nq n .
un =

,
, .
(4.1) (4.2)

E
2
3 2 2kT
=
(2mkT ) e
q p + n +
3

Nd

(
2mkT )3 2 e
3

E d

2 kT q , (4.5)
n

h
h

.
(4.5)
E
= i e 2kT +

E d

N d n e 2kT ,
(4.6)
i n - ,
.
, kT << E d ,
(4.6) , ..

77

E d

= N d n e 2kT .
(4.7)
,
,
,
.

.
,
kT E ,

.


E
= i e 2kT .

(4.8)
(4.5) - (4.8)
E
E d .
(4.5),
1
1
ln = C1
E + C 2
E d ,
(4.9)
2kT
2kT
C1 , C 2 - . . 4.2 ,
(4.9). cd
, ab - .
. 4.2 (4.9)
,
ab
E ,
. cd
E d .


,
. 4.2.

.

78



.
4.2.

,
.

,
.
, . .
, ,
, .

,
,
-
.

.

. ,

,


.


,
.
,
,

,
, (, )
.


(,
79

.). ,

,
- ,
.

.
(" ")

(10 10 10 12 )

("", ""),
.

.
-
-2
J,


J = J 0 exp(x) ,
-1

, , ,
l0 ,
e ; l0
; J 0 .
,
,
(
-),

.
.
:

( );

;
;
.

. () c
80

,
c ,
c = e + f + d + k ,
(4.10)
e , f , d , k ,
,

,
. c

N
-1
. = c N ,

. (4.10)

.


= 0 0 r ,
(4.11)
; 0
0

;
r
;
.
,
N.
, : e = N ~ N ; N = n;
~ n.

()


.

.
().
, ,
= E h , = 1240 E ,
(4.12)
E , ; h .

() = 0 (h E ) r ,

(4.13)
81

0,5 < r < 1,5


. 0
.
0
3

8 2 h 2 m p 2 mn 2

,
(4.14)
0 =
2

+
m
m
3mn cn 0 p
n
mn , m p ;
c ; n .
(4.12) (4.14) ,
>

.


.

,
.
,
, ( ,

-,
-
).
. 4.3
,-1

10 6

Ge

10 5
, 4
10
.

Si
3
10


2
10
300 K

77 K
.
GaAs
1
10

0
10

:
0,6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h.
. 4.3. ;
Ge, Si GaAs
.
82

,
E d . h E d
m N 1
= 8,3 1017 0 d
,
(4.15)
mn n E d
m0 ; mn ;
n .
21
24 -3
N d 10 10
-1

(0,1 100 ) 10 2 , .
,

.
()
, .

.
,
,
.
.

(),
.
, ,
,
.
() .

. .

,
.

,
,
,

.

,
.
83


.

,
, ,
.
. E 4
. .
0 90
. , E = 1
90.
,

.

,

. ,

,
.
( Z = 14) ,
,
.


. ,
,
(. . 4.3),
. ,

.
, ,
.

.
l
.
84


. 4.4


-1
2

Er,
,
l10 ,

0,01
7760
0,013

0,02
970
0,1
0,03
300
0,33

0,05
90
1,11
.
0,1
39
2,53
E = 40

0,6
19
5,29
,
1,0
15
6,76
E = 100

2,0
10
9,52
.
10,0
6,0
17,4

P

1

(4.10)

1 2
, . . 0,5


.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 E,

. 4.4.
:

,
.. 1 , 2
,
e = 2,718 ,

.



.
, ,
.





85

. ,

E = 1 3 ,
. E = 100

.
, .
, ,


.
4.3.

1. , .
2. ,

.
3.
.
4.
.
5.
.
6.
.
7.
.
8. .
9. ,

.
10.

.
11.
.
12.
.
13.
.

86

14.

.
15.
.
16. -.
17.
.
18.
.
19. ()
.
20.
.
21.
.
22.
.
23. .
24.
.
25. -

.
26.
.
27. -


.
4.4.

n(T )
N d E d
.
2. n(E d )
N d T .
3.
N d , E d T .
, .
1.

87

4. ,

,
.
.
5. ,
,
. .
6. ,
,

. .
7. ,
, .
.
8. ,
, .

.
9. ,
, .
,
.
10.
, , .
,
.
11. ,
, .

.
12. ,
, .

.
13. ,
, .
.
14. ,
, .

.
88

15.
, .

.
16.
, ,
.
.
17.
, , .

.
18.
, , .

.
19.
, , .

.
20.
,
, .

.
21.
,
, .
.
4.5.

1.
:
1.1. ;
1.2.
;
1.3.
;
1.4. ;
1.5. .
89

2.
:
2.1.
;
2.2.
;
2.3. ;
2.4. ;
2.5.
;
2.6.
;
2.7.
.
3.
:
3.1. ;
3.2. ;
3.3. ;
3.4.
;
3.5.
;
3.6. .
4.
:
4.1. ;
4.2.
;
4.3.
;
4.4. ;
4.5. ;
4.6.
;
4.7.
;
4.8. ,
.
5.
:
90

5.1.
;
5.2.
;
5.3.
;
5.4.
;
5.5.
.
6. :
6.1. ;
6.2. ;
6.3. ;
6.4. ;
6.5.
;
6.6.
.
7. :
7.1. ;
7.2. ;
7.3. ;
7.4.
;
7.5. ,

;
7.6.

.
8.
, kT << E d , :
8.1. ;
8.2. ;
8.3. ;
8.4. ;
8.5. ;
8.6. ,
.
9.
, kT E d , :
91

9.1. ;
9.2. ;
9.3. ;
9.4. ;
9.5. .
10.
:
10.1.
;
10.2. ;
10.3. ;
10.4. ;
10.5. .

92

5.

5.1.


(
) (
)

,
.
(4.19).
(
,
)
[10]
d 2 p( x)

p( x)
= g (x ) ,
(5.1)

dx 2
g ( x ) x

R = [(nn 1) (nn + 1)]2 , nn ,


g ( x ) = (1 R )Q exp( x ) ,
(5.2)
- , .. ,
; Q - .
(5.1) d,
L , ..
d >> L , :
g ( x )
x
p ( x) = A exp
.
(5.3)
L L2 2 1
A (5.3)
P( x)
D
= Sp ( x) ,
(5.4)
x

,

93

D
S. (5.3) (5.4)
Sg (0 )
AD g (0 )L2

=
SA ,
L 2 L2 1 2 L2 1

A = g (0 )

L2 + S
2 2

(5.5)

( L 1)( D L + S )
(5.3) (5.2) (5.5)

Q(1 R ) L2 + S
x
(
)

exp
exp
p(x ) =

=
2 2
D
L
+
S
L

L 1
(5.6)
2
g (Q ) L + S
x
x
exp exp ,
=

d
L
2 L2 1 D L + S
d = 1 - .
(5.6) d >> L , d >> 1 = d .

, L >> 1 = d . L >> 1 ,
(5.6) D >> S
g (0 ) D
x
x
(5.7)
p( x ) =
exp exp .

2 2 D L+S

L
d

L

(5.7) . 5.1.
p(x)/p(0)
2

0
5
10
15
x/L
. 5.1.
(D=410-3 2-1, S=20 -1, =106 , L=110-5 , =210-7 )

94

x d p( x )
.
x > d (5.2) ,
(5.7)
g (0 )
x
p ( x) =
exp .
(5.8)
(D L + S )
L
(5.8)
L >> 1 .
d L

p (x) , ,
. p (x)

p ( x) = p ( x )dx d .
0

(5.7)
g (0 )L
g (0 )
1 ed L
1 ed d
p ( x) =
(D L + S ) d
2 L2 d
(5.9)
g (0 )L
g (0 )L
.

=
d ( D L + S ) d ( L + S )
(4.18), (4.20), (5.9),


p (1 + b )L
p (1 + b )L
Ue
Ue
Fp =
(1 R )
=
(1 R )
. (5.10)
(D L + S ) l p 2 hc
( L + S )
l p 2 hc

(5.10)
p , L, , D, b ,

R, S,
(, ), l p U.
F p
p (x) (5.7), (5.8).

,
,
.
,

95

, -
.

, ,

. p( x) < p n

() p (x)
, .


, .

.

,
. (5.6), (5.7)


.
d L

. (5.1)
.
. ,
, , x = d
S.

p (0) ,
Sp (0) .
g (0 ) g (0) = (1 R )Q
.
dp( x )
D
= Sp(d ) , Sp(0 ) + g (0 ) = 0 .
(5.11)
dx x = d
(5.1)
dx
dx
p ( x ) = Ach
,
(5.12)
+ Bsh
L
L
(5.11).

96

d
d g (0 )
+ Bsh =
L
L
S
,
L
B = Sp(d ), p(d ) = A

D
Ach


g (0 )
S
B=
A, A =
L
S

1
d S d
ch + sh
L L
L

dx
dx
Lch
+ Ssh
g (0 )
L
L .
p(x ) =
(5.13)
d
d
S
Lch + Ssh
L
L
. 5.2. (5.13)

p( x )
dx
d x
d
d
H p (x ) =
= Lch
+ Ssh
Lch + Ssh
p(0 )
L
L
L
L
-3 2 -1

-7

-5

D=410 , = 410 , L = 10 , d=10


-1

S=20 , S=810
6 -1

-6

7 -1

-5

=10 , S=210 .
. 5.2. ,


d = L,

(5.13)

p(x)
p(0)
1

0.5

x10-6,

. 5.2.


d=L

97

d
d
d d

+ S sh 2 ch 2 ch
g (0 ) L
L
L
L L

.
(5.14)
p = p( x ) dx d =
d
d
S
d

0
Lch + Ssh
L
L
, p (x) (5.13)

p = ( p(0 ) + p(d )) 2 .
(5.15)

(5.14) p = 0,66 g (0) S , (5.15)
p = 0,71g (0 ) S .
p( x ) d L .

(5.14)
d
d
d d

Lsh + S sh 2 ch 2 ch
U e p (1 + b ) (1 R ) L
L
L
L L

Fp =
. (5.16)

2
d
d
hcS
lp
Lch + Ssh
L
L

d >> L (5.10) d L (5.16) ,

.
p d L .
, d < L d << L .
d d
d
sh , ch 1 ,
L L
L

g (0 )
x
d + S
x g (0 ) x S x
=
p(x )
ch
(5.17)

sh
ch sh .

d L S L L
S L
L
L + S

L
(5.17) , ,
d d = 1 , ,
.. p(0 ) p(d ) = g (0 ) S . p
(5.14)
Lsh

g (0 ) L d + Sd 2 L2 g (0 )
=
,
S d L + Sd L
S
(5.16)
p=

98

Fp =

U e p (1 + b )(1 R ) d
.
2
hcS
lp

(5.18)





.
-
.

.
, -
.


, ,
..
.
,
-
.
-


p ( x, t )
2 p ( x, t ) p ( x, t )
=D

,
(5.19)
2
t

x
p( x, t ) - ,
. (5.19)


.
.
, (5.19)


.
p( x, t ) t = 0 ,

99

, ..
.
(5.19) ,

.

g(x)

g ( x ) = g (0 )exp( x ) .
(5.19)
p ( x, t )
2 p ( x, t ) p ( x, t )
=D

+ g (0 )e x .
(5.20)
t

x 2


.

[6]

[11].

:
u 0 = 0 ,
u c > u 0 ,
W0

W = W0 exp( kx ) ,
k .
,
.

u ( x, t )
2 u ( x, t ) W0 e kx
=a
+
, t > 0, 0 < x < ,
2
c

t
x
u ( x,0) = 0, u (, t ) x = 0, u (0, t ) = u c ,

a = c

(5.22)
2 1

- , ; 1

1;

100

(5.21)

; -, ; W0 ,
3 1

.
(5.21)
, (5.20)
p( x, t ) .

(5.21), (5.22).

,


P( X , T ) 2 P ( X , T )
=
P( X , T ) + g (0 )e x ,
(5.23)
T
X 2
P(0,T)=const, P(,T)/X=0, P(X,0)=0,
(5.24)
X=x/L, T=t/ - .
P(0,T)=const
.

P( X ) = g (0 )e x = P(0, T )e x .
(5.21), (5.22) [7]
W0
u ( x, t )
x
x
= erfc

e kx
erfc

uc
2 at k 2u c
2 at
(5.25)
1 k 2 at kx
x 1 k 2 at + kx
x

e
erfc k at
erfc k at +
+ e
.
2
2
2
2
at
at

(5.25) (5.23), (5.24)


.
,
T
P(X,T) (5.23), e
(5.25). (5.23),
(5.24)

P( X , T ) XL e T
=e
+
H (X ,T ) =
2
P(0, T )

2 L2T LX
X

erfc L T

e
2 T

(5.26)
2 2
X

e L T +LX erfc L T +
.
2 T

101

(5.26)
,
,
.

(5.26)

-

. (5.26)
,
, ,
.

-
,
, .

1/ L, ..
L = 1. (5.26)

X X
X

H ( X , T ) = e X + 0,5e X erfc T
e erfc T +
. (5.27)
2
T
2
T

(5.27)

H(0, ) = 1,
H( X , ) = e -X .
H (0,0) = 1,
H (0, T ) = 1,
(5.28)
(5.28)
, .. X=0,
,
(5.2)
. L = 1
L,

(5.28).
.


,
.
(5.27)

102

,
H ( X m ,0) = 2

H ( X m , ) = exp( X m ).
(5.26)
X m 0, ..
, ..
H (0,0) | = = 2 .

L = 1
.5.3.
H(X,T)

T1

T2

T3

T4

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

. 5.3.
(T1=0,001, T2=0,02, T3=0,1, T4=0,5)


.5.4.
H(X,T)
1.5
1

T2

T1

0.5
0

X
1
0
0.5
1.5
. 5.4.
( ) ()
T1=0,001, T2=0,1

103



.
,
, Ts
.
Ts

, -


.


(5.27).



X s Ts . ,

{H ( X s , Ts ) H ( X s , )} / H ( X s , ) = 0,05
(5.29)
X s = 1
1
1
) + e 2 erfc( Ts +
) = 0,9,
erf ( Ts
2 Ts
2 Ts
Ts = 1,4 , .. L = 1


t s = 1,4 .
t s ,
, ,
(),


.


(4.21).

- (5.10)
(5.26).
104



X s = 1 / L
1
1
) 0,1353erf (L Ts
)=
erf (L Ts +
2L Ts
2L Ts
(5.30)
2 2

= 0,8647 + 0,01353 eTs ( L 1) .


(5.30)
, .
L > 1
Ts .
L < 1
.
Ts (5.30) .

3,0

2,0

1,0

0,5

0,2

Ts

1,0

1,3

1,4

2,3

3,0



.

P ( X , T ) 2 P ( X , T )
=
+ P( X , T ) ,
2
T
X
P (0, T )
P (, T )
= LP (0, T ),
= 0,
T
X

(5.31)
(5.32)

P( X ,0) = P(0,0)e LX .
(5.33)
(5.31)-(5.33)

P( X , T )
X
= e (X + T ) {erf (
)+
H L ( X ,T ) =
P(0,0)
2 T
(5.34)
X
( X +T )
+e
[1 erf (
+ T )]}.
2 T
TL (5.34)
H (0, TL ) = 0,05 . (5.34) TL = 1,93 .
Ts TL
105


. TI
TI > Ts ,
TL ,


f max = 1 /(1,93 + t s ) ,
(5.35)
t s t s = 1...3 .
(5.35)

.

fmax
.



.
(4.21)
.

. ,
,
,
.

.
5.2. p-n


p-n

(). -

, , ,
,

106

,

p-n
.
,

,
.
[9], [13] .
( )

- .

, ..

p-n .
,

.

.

[9], [13] .
.


.
p-n

.
-
-
[9]
P = gP = 6,7 10 8 E ,

(5.36)
g ,

; P = D / t - D , -1 ;
107

t - , ;

-, ; -

-, 2 1 , - -,

2 1 , - p-n .

,

P ( X , T ) 2 P ( X , T )
=
( P ( X , T ) Pn ) , 0 X
(5.37)
2
T
X
X=x/L ; L ;
T = t / - ; Pn
() p-n . (5.37)
( ).

.

,
P( X ,0) = P = const .
(5.38)
(5.37)
,
,
P(0, T ) = F1 (T ), P(, T ) = F2 (T ).
(5.39)
F1 (T ) F2 (T ) .


P (0, T ) = C1 , P(, T ) = C 2
C1 C 2 - .
P(0, T )
p-n
.
p-n n- (X=0)
.
, , ..
,
,
. ,
p-n

108

10 6 1 p-n
,
.
p-n
,

P (0, T ) = 0 .
(5.40)
x=d, d
p-n . ,
d>L ( )
, (5.40).
(5.37) (5.38)
(5.40) ,
=0
P(d,T).
.
d p-n ,
d/L.

.

,
.

H P (X,T)
T=0
p-n
T=0,1

T=0,2

(5.37),
0.5
T=0,3
(5.38) (5.40).

P( X , T ) = Pn erf ( X / 2 T )e T , (5.41)

T=

Pn

. 5.5. ,

(5.36).
. 5.5
.
H p ( X , T ) = P( X , T ) / Pn = erf ( X / 2 T )e T .

109

p-n
(5.41)

P ( X , T )
qDP( X , T )e T
.
(5.42)
=
j (T ) = qD
X
L T
X =0


[1]

qDP( X , T ) e T
(5.43)
erfc T .
j s (T ) =
T

(5.42) (5.43)
j (T )
erfc T
H (T ) =
= 1
T ,
(5.44)
T
j s (T )
e
..
p-n
, ,
, T>0,2.

p-n
.
(5.42) (5.43) , T=0
p-n .
(5.40),
.

.
(5.42)

j(0) T1,
(5.42) ,
.

p-n
[9] .
I i = qgP S ( p L p + n Ln + W ),
(5.45)

S p-n , L p , Ln -
p n , W , p , n -
p n , 0,40,8
110

P
. (5.45)
p n
.
T1 I i

ji (T1 ) = I i / S .
(5.42) T1 << 1

e

T1

= 1 T1 ,

2
2 1 + 2k
T1 + 1 = 0 ,
T1
2

(5.46)

k = qDPS / LI i .
, -

k 0,4t / p ,
(5.47)
(5.11) 0 < T1 0,12 .
, t 0 < t < p . ,
T1
,

ji (T1 ) = 0,4t e

T1

ji (T ) = ji (T1 )e T / 1 + T / T1 ,

/ p S T1

(5.48)

. (5.48)

j (T )
= e T / 1 + T / T1 .
(5.49)
H j (T ) = i
ji (T1 )
. 5.6. (5.49) H j (T )
(5.46) T1 . ,
k T2
.
T2
0,1 (5.49) H j (T2 ) = 0,1 ,

111

e 2 / 1 + T2 / T1 = 0,1 .
(5.50)
(5.50)

T2 (T1 ) .

Hj(T)


p-n
2,
0.5

3
2
1
2.

2
,
. 5.6. p-n ,


: T1=0,0001(1);

(5.40).
T1=0,001(2); T1=0,01 (3); T1=0,1 (4)
,
(5.37)-(5.40) p-n
, d>X2.
0

2,
0,9
2, (2.6)
X 2 = 2,33 T2 ,
(5.51)

X 2 = 2,33 Dt 2
(5.52)
(5.51), (5.52) ,
p-n
d X 2 . p-n

X2
.
. 5.7
10

2(k) X2(k) (5.50) (5.51)


0

T2

. 5.7. 2 2

112

D=210

-5

2 -1

t = 1,5 10 8 . . 5.7 ,

k, t
,
2 2.
,

p-n
-

.
(5.40),
.

-
. -

,
.


.
-
- n- , ..

.

P( X ,0) = Pn = const,
(5.53)
P - - n- ; , = x/L, x ; L -
.

p-n . j
p-n :
P( X , T )
L P(0, T )
j = qD
,
= q
X

X
X =0

q - ; D - ; -
; - ; =t/,

P(0, T )
U + U (T )
=
= const,
(5.54)
X
qRSL
113

U - ; U(T) - p-n
; S - - .
(5.53)
: E, , t .

:
P = gD t = 6,7 108 E ,
(5.55)
g - - ,
1
-3 -1

, ; D - , ; t -
, ; - -2

-1

, ; E - -, ;
-2 -1
- -, c .

P( X , T ) 2 P ( X , T )
=
(P( X , T ) Pn )
(5.56)
T
X 2
(5.53) (5.54)
,

.


. ,
,
- .


p-n .

(5.53), (5.54), (5.56)

P( X , T )
H p ( X ,T ) =
=
P
(5.57)
2

T
X
2

e (X / 4T ) X 1 erf
= e T 1 e
,
T
2
P

114

Pe = jL qD - p-n
, j; erf -
.
. 5.8

(5.57)




.

1
,
p-n

. 5.8. (0,T1)=0 /.


=1(1) =2(2)
P/Pe=2(3)
P/Pe =5(4)

P

j1. p-n (5.57)
=0
P
T
.
P(0, T ) = Pe T 1 e 2
(5.58)

P(0,T1) = 0 (5.58)

(5.55) , Pe:
2

P( X , T )
.
T1 =
4 Pe
(5.55) (5.59)
t1 = q 2 g 2 P2 D 2 4 j 2 ,

(5.59)

(5.60)

t1 - . (5.60)

D, , j, P t1.
115

(5.54) , U U(T)
I1
p-n U(T)
U(0) U(T1) = 0. -
U (T ) = T ln(P(0, T ) Pn ),
T =kT/q - .
(5.58) (5.59), P >> Pn

T
,
U (T ) = U (0) T T ln1

T1

(5.61)

U(0) = Tln[P(0,0)/Pn] - p-n .


(5.61)

T
I (T )
m
,
=1
(5.62)
T ln1
H I (T ) = 1

1
1 + n
T
I1(0 )
1

I1(0) = (U+U(0))/R - ; = U(0)/U;


m = T /U.
(5.62) ,
0<T0,95T1,
1.
0<T0,97T1 3% (5.62)

H I (T ) = 1 m(T + 3,5)T (n + 1)T1 .
1


p-n .
(5.56)
P(0,T1) = 0 ,
(5.57) = 1 (5.59)
2
2

2
P
X P

4 P
P

e + Pe X 1 erf X P . (5.63)
P( X , T1 ) = Pe e 1 e

P
P
e

116

(5.63)
(5.56). (5.63)
. = 1,

X 1 = 4 P Pe ,

(5.64)

P

4 P
P( X 1 , T1 ) = Pe e

16

4 P

+ 4 1 erf
Pe e
1 e

0,1%.
1
,
. (5.59)
(5.64) 1 1
p-n
T
(5.65)
X1 = 8 1 .

(5.63) , 1%

0,05 X 2 T
1 e 1 e 5 X X 1 ,
P( X , T ) = Pe

(5.66)


.
0,05 X 12 T
X 1 4 X X 1 16T X 12
X
+

P( X , T ) = Pe
e erf
e
1
erf
e

2
T
2
T
2


X
4 T
4 T 1 4 X X 1 16T X 12

.
+ e

+
(5.67)
1
e
erf

2 T

X
X 1 2
1

p-n (5.65)
(T + T1 ) T 4T1
1
Pe
e
T
P( X , T )
,
=
1 erf

T
X
2

2
T
T
1
X =0

j 2 max = qDP e T 1 2 T1
T=0,

117

T (11 4 T1 )

1
T
.
(5.68)
1 erf

T
2

.
5.9

(5.68) ,


.



p-n
,

. 5.9. - ,


H I
2


.
1

,
. ,

,
.

,

.
,


( ).

H I (T , T1 ) = e
2

5.3.

1.
p-n
.
118

2.

.
3.

.
4.
p-n
.
5. ,

.
6.

.
7.
.
8.

.
9.

.
10. ,


.
11. ,


.
12. ,
.
13. .
14. ,
.
15.

pn .
119

16.
p-n .
17.

p-n .
18. p-n
,
.
19.

p-n .
20.
p-n
.
21. ,

p-n .
22. p-n
p-n .
23.
pn
p-n .
24. p-n
.

120

p-n

.

-
p-n
( ,
) -
.




.
p-n

,

.
,
,

.



,
.

,
.

.


.

121

.

,
,

,
.

,
, ,

,
.


.
,

.
.

( 20) ,
.

.
.

.

122

1. ..
. - .: , 1968. 264 .
2. ..
. .: , 1973. 608 .
3. / .. ,
.. , .. ; . .. . .: .
, 1979. 336 .
4. - .., .. .
.: , 1977. 672 .
5. .. .
.: , 1963. 496 .
6. .., .. .
.: , 1977. 736 .
7. .., .. .
.: , 1969. 288.
8. .., .., .. -
. .: . ., 1984. 240 .
9. .., ..
. .: , 1989. 144 .
10. .
: . / . .. .
.: . , 1970. 292 .
11. .. . .: . ., 1973.
296 .
12. .., ..
. .: , 1968. 303 .
13. .., .., ..
/ . ..
. .: , 1989. 256 .
14. .. . .: . ., 1967.
599 .

123



..


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.

.
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E-mail: rio-m2@vpti.vladimir.su