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World Cultures

Unit III: Southeast Asia, Oceania and Austrialia

Name: Austin Gaber

SOUTHEAST ASIA [Page 705 709]


A Long History of Diversity:
1. In a paragraph, explain how the early history [prior to 1000 AD] was highly diversified.
The early history was highly diverse because china ruled Vietnam, Hinduism and Buddhism
spread from India and influenced religion along with spreading to Southeast Asia while
Southeast Asia kept some of their own traditions such as equal marriage. Furthermore,
Southeast Asian states didnt have set borders and were split into mandalas which are rings of
power organized around a central court. Finally, Southeast Asia overall was very diversified
because of the many countries that had influenced it.
2. How was the area of Southeast Asia organized and governed during their early history?
They were organized through Mandalas which were states organized and ruled by a central
power in the middle.
3. How did this change from 1300-1800?
Five powerful states were erected and they were larger than mandalas and more complex.
They dealt with trade a lot and their economy was more important to them.
Colonialism and its aftermath
1. What is colonialism?
The act of influencing another country or area by taking it over and showing them their
ways.
2. What was the only country in the region that wasnt a colony?
Thailand was the only country to not be a colony.
3. Identify and explain the three ways colonialism changed Southeast Asia.
First, Colonial rulers set up governments, regulations and routines. Second is the Europeans
forced people to produce rubber, sugar, rice, tea and coffee to help out their economy. Finally,
nationalism kicked in and groups started allying against European rule. Southeast Asians
learned about self-rule and western education.
4. Skillbuilder: Interpreting Maps [p. 706] -- Answer #1 and #2
#1 west of French Indochina. #2. Sumatra can access both pacific and Indian oceans
5. What changes came to Southeast Asia during WWII?
Wanting to take back Asia for Asians. Also, they sought independence right after the war.
6. How was control of the area in Southeast Asia by Japan different than European
control?
The Japanese put Southeast Asians in leadership roles. This gave them valuable experience.
7. After WWII, Southeast Asia gained their independence differently. Briefly explain
this statement with examples.
They gained their independence peacefully. This is very different because many countries like the
Indonesians, Vietnamese, and Indochina all had to fight in little wars or suffer decades of turmoil.
An Uneven Economy

1. Southeast Asia has a traditional economy. Explain that statement with specific
examples to back it up.
A traditional economy is mostly rural based where beliefs and simple trading shape the
economy. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in Southeast Asia. The people
Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam all depend heavily on agriculture for income with rice being
the chief food crop.
2. What is ASEAN? How has it helped to create a region within a region?
The association of Southeast Asian Nations. It has helped because these specific
nations promote economic growth and peace in their specific nation. Manufacturing also
grew quickly in these areas as well.
A Rich Mosaic of Culture
1. How is this area a mosaic of religions? Identify the different religions and where they
are practiced.
Because there is Buddhism that is widespread in Southeast Asia. The Philippines are Catholic
because of Spanish rule. Hinduism is somewhat practiced in Southeast Asia. Muslim is
practiced in Indonesia and Brunei. Finally, local beliefs are practiced in any region.
2. Are there more rural or urban communities in this area?
Rural areas are more dominant in this area.
3. Interpret the picture of page 709. What does this scene show about diversity in
Malaysia?
There is a lot of diversity because you can see some kids in modern American like clothing while
some others are still in old Muslim attire.
OCEANIA [P. 711-715]
1. Identify these terms and explain their importance in the region:
a. Micronesia: Tiny Islands and U.S has a island there
b. Melanesia: Black islands
c. Polynesia: Many islands
d. Subsistence activities: A family only producing food, clothing and shelter and not
getting paid. Importance is that they dont have an economy and use trade instead of
currency.
e. Copra: The dried meat of coconuts. Many islands dont have a good source of
agriculture and use this for food.
f. Taro: A plant with a Starchy root. In the islands in Polynesia, this root is very helpful
because it can be made into bread, puddings, paste and it can be boiled.
2. What type of migration is happening within Oceania today?
Oceania has been growing because many people are moving there for education and jobs.
3. How did contact with Europeans and Americans affect the societies of the Pacific Islands?
It affected them because it unified countries of smaller groups. Also, they can help link Oceania
to the rest of the world.
4. What is distinctive about Oceania in terms of its languages?
There are about 1,100 languages spoken there in total. People of Papua New Guinea speak 823
different languages.

5. How has modern technology both helped and harmed Oceania?


Rapid growth has people giving up traditional way of life. Also, with the rapid urban growth, there
has been poor sanitation. The good side is that it is attracting people and they are moving towards
a more economic stable area.
AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALIND & ANTARCTICA [P.717-723]
1. What prevents Australia from benefiting completely from its mining industry?
Their mining caves are located far from their cities so long, far transportation is an issue
2. What historic actions demonstrated New Zealanders concern for equal rights and social
welfare?
First country to let women vote as well as being the first to allow pension for its senior citizens.
3. What is the major activity conducted in Antarctica?
Research is the main activity done there because it is too cold for anything else.