EE6504 Electrical Machines-II

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MACHINES II

(AC MACHINES)

Presented by

C.GOKUL

AP/EEE

Velalar College of Engg & Tech,Erode

EMAIL: gokulvlsi@gmail.com

Syllabus

EE6502 Electrical Machines -II

BOOKS Reference

1.Electrical Machines-II by Gnanavadivel Anuradha Publication

2. Electrical Machines-II by Godse Technical Publication

For Problems:

Electric Machines by Nagrath & Kothari {Refer Solved Problems}

Electric Machinery by A.E.Fitgerald {Refer Solved Problems}

Electrical Machines-II by S. B.

Sivasubramaniyan -MSEC, Chennai

http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.in/

http://www.electricaleasy.com/p/electri

cal-machines.html

NPTEL Reference

Electrical Machines II by Dr. Krishna

Vasudevan & Prof. G. Sridhara Rao

Department of Electrical Engineering , IIT

Madras.

Basic Electrical Technology by Prof. L.

Umanand - IISc Bangalore {video}

BASICS OF

ELECTRICAL

MACHINES

Electrical Machine?

Electrical machine is a device which

can convert

energy (Generators/alternators)

Electrical energy into mechanical

energy (Motors)

AC current from one voltage level to

other voltage level without changing its

frequency (Transformers)

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Fundamental Principle..

AC or DC) work on the fundamental

principle of Faradays law of

Electromagnetic Induction.

Faradays Law

Faradays Law of Electromagnetic

Induction states that an EMF is

induced in a coil when the magnetic

flux linking this coil changes with time

or

The EMF generated is proportional to

the rate at which flux is changed.

d

d

e=

=

N

dt

dt

The effect is same if the magnet is

moved and the coil is made stationery

We call it as statically induced EMF

The previous case is referred to as

Dynamically induced EMF

Governing Rules

relationship between mechanical energy,

electrical energy and magnetic field.

These three can be combined and precisely

put as governing rules each for generator

and for motor

For Generator

For Motor

(positive to negative)

Thumb - movements of the wire

observer, the direction of lines of force of the

magnetic field surrounding the conductor is

clockwise and that if the electric current is

moving towards an observer, the direction of

lines of force is anti-clockwise

Coiling of Conductor

as the flux lines aid each other when they are in the

same direction and cancel each other when they are

in the opposite direction

Many a times, conductor is coiled around a magnetic

material as surrounding air weakens the flux

We refer the magnetic material

as armature core

Electromagnet

conductor can be exploited to make the

conductor act as a magnet Electromagnet

find permanent magnets with such high field

Also permanent magnets are prone to ageing

problems

AC Fundamentals

AC Fundamentals - continued

a conductor

Opposition to sudden change in current

Opposition to sudden change in voltage

Flux lines around the conductor

Inductive Effect

Reactance EMF

Lenz Law

An induced current is always in such a

direction as to oppose the motion or

change causing it

Capacitive effect

V=

(t )

i (t )=

Q

C =

V

q (t )

1

=

C

C

dq (t )

=

dt

i (t ) dt

dv (t )

C

dt

possible!

R-L network

possible! contd.

R-C network

As already mentioned,

As the current, so the flux

3 phase AC

Star connection

V

L

3V ph

I L = I ph

Delta Connection

V

L

= V ph

IL =

3I ph

Rule

Rule

Generators

Input

electrical power.

constant speed generators.

electrical power is done through a coupling field

(magnetic field).

Mechanical

Magnetic

Electrical

Output

Electric Generator

Mechanical

Energy

Electrical

Energy

Motor

mechanical power.

Electrical

Energy

Input

Magnetic

Electrical

Mechanical

Energy

Mechanical

Output

Basic Construction

Parts

Stationary Part

Stator

Armature

Electrical

Mechanical

Rotor

Rotating Part

Field

AC MACHINES

Two categories:

1.Synchronous Machines:

Synchronous Generators(Alternator)

Synchronous Motor

UNIT-1

Synchronous

Generator

(Alternator)

UNIT-1 Syllabus

Synchronous Generators

Generator

Exciter

View of a two-pole round rotor generator and exciter.

(Westinghouse)

Synchronous Machines

Synchronous generators or alternators are used to convert

mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine

to ac electric power

Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical

energy we consume today

Large ac power networks rely almost exclusively on synchronous

generators

Synchronous motors are built in large units compare to induction

motors (Induction motors are cheaper for smaller ratings) and

used for constant speed industrial drives

Construction

Basic parts of a synchronous generator:

Stator - 3-phase winding in which the ac emf is generated

are cooled determines its overall physical size and structure

Armature windings connected are 3-phase and are

either star or delta connected

sheet-steel laminations having slots on its inner

periphery.

The windings are 120 degrees apart and normally use

distributed windings

The field winding of a synchronous machine is always

energized with direct current

Under steady state condition, the field or exciting

current is given

Ir = Vf/Rf

Vf = Direct voltage applied to the field winding

Rf= Field winding Resistance

Rotor

Rotor is the rotating part of the machine

Can be classified as: (a) Cylindrical Rotor and (b) Salient

Pole rotor

retaining the winding under the pole head.

Salient-pole Rotor

a. Salient-Pole Rotor

1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds

(between 50 and 300 r/min)

2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor

d-axis

Non-uniform

air-gap

D 10 m

q-axis

Turbine

Hydro (water)

Hydrogenerator

alternators

This type of rotor consists of large number of projected

poles (called salient poles)

Poles are also laminated to minimize the eddy current

losses.

This type of rotor are large in diameters and short in

axial length.

Stator

b. Cylindrical-Rotor(Non-Salient Pole)

D1m

Turbine

L 10 m

Steam

d-axis

Stator winding

High speed

Uniform airgap

Stato

r

hydrogen or water as coolant)

q-axis

Rotor winding

Roto

r

S

Turbogenerator

speed alternators (turbo alternators)

This type of rotor consists of a smooth and

solid steel cylinder having slots along its

outer periphery.

Field windings are placed in these slots.

Stator

Cylindrical rotor

frequency of Induced EMF

Working Principle

It works on the principle of Electromagnetic induction

In the synchronous generator field system is rotating and armature

winding is steady.

Its works on principle opposite to the DC generator

High voltage AC output coming from the armature terminal

Working Principle

Armature

Stator

Field

Rotor

No commutator is

required {No need for

commutator because

we need AC only}

Every time a complete pair of poles crosses the conductor, the

induced voltage goes through one complete cycle. Therefore, the

generator frequency is given by

p n

pn

f = . =

2 60 120

N=Rotor speed in r.p.m

P=number of rotor poles

f=frequency of induced EMF in Hz

No of cycles/revolution = No of pairs of poles = P/2

No of revolutions/second = N/60

No of cycles/second {Frequency}= (P/2)*(N/60)=PN/120

Advantages of stationary

armature

At high voltages, it easier to insulate

stationary armature winding(30 kV or more)

The high voltage output can be directly

taken out from the stationary armature.

Rotor is Field winding. So low dc voltage

can be transferred safely

Due to simple construction High speed of

Rotating DC field is possible.

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Winding

Factors( K , Kd)

p

= cos

2

m

sin

m sin

Kd

conductors

Pole pitch = 24 / 4 = 6 slots

If Coil Pitch or Coil Span = pole pitch, then it

is referred to as full-pitched winding

If Coil Pitch < pole pitch, it is referred to as

short-pitched winding

If falls short by 1 / 6 of pole pitch

or

180 / 6 = 30 degrees

Save copper of end connections

Improve the wave-form of the generated emf

(sine wave)

Eliminate the high frequency harmonics

There is a disadvantage attached to it

Total voltage around the coil gets reduced

because, the emf induced in the two sides of

the coil is slightly out of phase

Due to that, their resultant vectorial sum is less

than the arithmetic sum

This is denoted by a factor Pitch factor, Kp or Kc

Pitch factor Kp

Vectorsum

Kp =

Arithmaticsum

Arithmatic sum

Vector sum

Kp

Vector _ sum

=

Arithmatic _ sum

2 Es cos

2 Es

= cos

conductors distributed in number of slots to

form polar groups under each pole

The result is that the emf induced in the

conductors constituting the polar group are

not in phase rather differ by an angle equal

to angular displacement of the slots

no. of slots (conductors) / pole / phase is equal to 3

Each phase consists of 3 slots

Angular displacement between any two adjacent

slots = 180 / 9 = 20 degrees

If the 3 coils are bunched in 1 slot, emf induced is

equal to the arithmetic sum (3Es)

Practically, in distributed winding, vector sum has to

be calculated

Kd = Vector sum / Arithmetic sum

Kd =

emf _ with _ concentrated _ winding

180

180

=

no.of _ slots _ per _ pole

n

Kd

Kd

m

2 r sin

2

=

m 2 r sin

2

m

sin

2

=

m sin

2

Problem:

Distribution factor /Breadth factor

EMF Equation

of Alternator

Here, d = P

If P is number of poles and flux / pole is Weber

dt = time for N revolution = 60 / N second

Therefore,

Average emf = d / dt = P / (60 / N)

NP

60

We know,

N = 120 f / P

Substituting, N we get

Avg. emf per conductor = 2 f Volt

If there are Z conductors / ph, then

Avg. emf induced / ph = 2 f Z Volt

Ave emf induced (in turns) / ph = 4 f T Volt

Therefore,

RMS value of emf induced / ph = 1.11 (4 f T)

V

= 4.44 f T

Volt

This is the actual value, but we have two other

factors coming in the picture, Kc and Kd

These two reduces the emf induced

Volt

Armature

Reaction of

Alternator

Armature Reaction

Main Flux

Field Winding

Secondary Flux

Armature Winding

Effect of Armature Flux on the Main Flux is

called Armature Reaction

I.) When load p.f. is unity

II.) When load p.f. is zero lagging

III.) When load p.f. is zero leading

I.) When load p.f. is unity

distorted but not weakened.- the average flux in the

air-gap practically remains unaltered.

II.) When load p.f. is zero lagging

the flux in the air-gap is weakened- the field

excitation will have to be increased to compensate

III.) When load p.f. is zero leading

magnetizing- the field excitation will have to be

reduced

alternator, having unity power factor. As induced

e.m.f. Eph drives a current of Iaph and load power

factor is unity, Eph and Iph are in phase with each

other.

If f is the main flux produced by the field

winding responsible for producing Eph then Eph lags

f by 90o .

Now current through armature Ia, produces the

armature flux say a. So flux a and Ia are always in

the same direction.

Phase difference of 90o between the armature flux and the main flux

the two fluxes oppose each other on the left half of each pole while assist

each other on the right half of each pole.

Average flux in the air gap remains constant but its distribution gets

distorted.

Due to such distortion of the flux, there is small drop in the terminal voltage

alternator, having zero lagging power factor.

Iaph driven by Eph lags Eph by 90o which is the power

factor angle .

Induced e.m.f. Eph lags main flux f by 90o while

a is in the same direction as that of Ia.

the armature flux and the main flux are exactly in

opposite direction to each other.

As this effect causes reduction in the main flux, the terminal voltage

drops. This drop in the terminal voltage is more than the drop

corresponding to the unity p.f. load.

alternator having zero leading power factor.

This means that armature current Iaph driven by Eph,

leads Eph by 90o, which is the power factor angle .

Induced e.m.f. Eph lags f by 90o while Iaph and

a are always in the same direction.

the armature flux and the main field flux are in the

same direction

e.m.f. gets induced in the armature. Hence there is

increase in the terminal voltage for leading power factor

loads.

Phasor Diagram

for Synchronous

Generator/Alternator

Alternator

Ef which denotes excitation voltage

Vt which denotes terminal voltage

Ia which denotes the armature current

which denotes the phase angle between Vt and Ia

which denotes the angle between the Ef and Ia

which denotes the angle between the Ef and Vt

ra which denotes the armature per phase resistance

Two important points:

(1) If a machine is working as a synchronous generator then

direction of Ia will be in phase to that of the Ef.

(2) Phasor Ef is always ahead of Vt.

Lagging PF

Unity PF

Leading PF

a. Alternator at Lagging PF

Ef by first taking the component of the Vt in the

direction of Ia

Component of Vt in the direction of Ia is Vtcos ,

Total voltage drop is (Vtcos+Iara) along the Ia.

we can calculate the voltage drop along the direction

perpendicular to Ia.

The total voltage drop perpendicular to Ia is

(Vtsin+IaXs).

With the help of triangle BOD in the first phasor

diagram we can write the expression for Ef as

b. Alternator at Unity PF

the direction of Ia.

= 0 hence we have =.

With the help of triangle BOD in the second

phasor diagram we can directly write the

expression for Ef as

c. Alternator at Leading PF

As the direction of Ia is same to that of the Vt thus

the total voltage drop is (Vtcos+Iara).

Similarly we can write expression for the voltage

drop along the direction perpendicular to Ia.

The total voltage drop comes out to be (Vtsin-IaXs).

With the help of triangle BOD in the first phasor

diagram we can write the expression for Ef as

the equivalent circuit from test data

The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator

that has been derived contains three quantities that

must be determined in order to completely

describe the behaviour of a real synchronous

generator:

The saturation characteristic: relationship between

If and (and therefore between If and Ef)

The synchronous reactance, Xs

The armature resistance, Ra

VOLTAGE

REGULATION

Voltage regulation of an alternator is

defined as the rise in terminal voltage of the

machine expressed as a fraction of

percentage of the initial voltage when

specified load at a particular power factor is

reduced to zero, the speed and excitation

remaining unchanged.

Voltage

Regulation

A convenient way to compare the voltage

behaviour of two generators is by their

voltage regulation (VR). The VR of a

synchronous generator at a given load,

power factor, and at rated speed is defined

as

VR =

Enl V fl

V fl

100%

Voltage

Regulation

Case 1: Lagging power factor:

A generator operating at a lagging power factor has a

positive voltage regulation.

A generator operating at a unity power factor has a small

positive voltage regulation.

A generator operating at a leading power factor has a

negative voltage regulation.

Voltage

Regulation

This value may be readily determined from

the phasor diagram for full load operation.

If the regulation is excessive, automatic

control of field current may be employed to

maintain a nearly constant terminal voltage

as load varies

Methods of

Determination of

voltage regulation

Methods of Determination of

voltage regulation

Synchronous Impedance Method / E.M.F.

Method

Ampere-turns method / M.M.F. method

ZPF(Zero Power Factor) Method / Potier

ASA Method

1. Synchronous Impedance

Method / E.M.F. Method

The method is also called E.M.F. method of determining

the regulation. The method requires following data to

calculate the regulation.

1. The armature resistance per phase (Ra).

2. Open circuit characteristics which is the graph of open

circuit voltage against the field current. This is possible by

conducting open circuit test on the alternator.

3. Short circuit characteristics which is the graph of short

circuit current against field current. This is possible by

conducting short circuit test on the alternator.

of driving the alternator at its synchronous speed.

The armature is connected to the terminals of a

switch. The other terminals of the switch are short

circuited through an ammeter. The voltmeter is

connected across the lines to measure the open

circuit voltage of the alternator.

The field winding is connected to a suitable d.c.

supply with rheostat connected in series. The field

excitation i.e. field current can be varied with the

help of this rheostat. The circuit diagram is shown

in the Fig.

Procedure to conduct this test is as follows :

i) Start the prime mover and adjust the speed to the synchronous

speed of the alternator.

ii) Keeping rheostat in the field circuit maximum, switch on the d.c.

supply.

iii) The T.P.S.T switch in the armature circuit is kept open.

iv) With the help of rheostat, field current is varied from its

minimum value to the rated value. Due to this, flux increasing

the induced e.m.f.

Hence voltmeter reading, which is measuring line value of open

circuit voltage increases. For various values of field current,

voltmeter readings are observed.

The generator is turned at the rated speed

The terminals are disconnected from all loads, and

the field current is set to zero.

Then the field current is gradually increased in

steps, and the terminal voltage is measured at each

step along the way.

It is thus possible to obtain an open-circuit

characteristic of a generator (Ef or Vt versus If)

from this information

Open-Circuit

Characteristic

Short-circuit

test

Adjust the field current to zero and shortcircuit the terminals of the generator

through a set of ammeters.

Record the armature current Isc as the field

current is increased.

Such a plot is called short-circuit

characteristic.

Short-circuit test

After completing the open circuit test observation, the field

rheostat is brought to maximum position, reducing field

current to a minimum value.

The T.P.S.T switch is closed. As ammeter has negligible

resistance, the armature gets short circuited. Then the field

excitation is gradually increased till full load current is

obtained through armature winding.

This can be observed on the ammeter connected in the

armature circuit. The graph of short circuit armature

current against field current is plotted from the observation

table of short circuit test. This graph is called short circuit

characteristics, S.C.C.

Short-circuit

test

Adjust the field current to zero and short-circuit

the terminals of the generator through a set of

ammeters.

Record the armature current Isc as the field current

is increased.

Such a plot is called short-circuit characteristic.

Circuit Test

characteristic

Curve feature

The OCC will be nonlinear due to the

saturation of the magnetic core at higher

levels of field current. The SCC will be

linear since the magnetic core does not

saturate under short-circuit conditions.

Determination of Xs

For a particular field current IfA, the internal voltage Ef (=VA) could be found from

the occ and the short-circuit current flow Isc,A could be found from the scc.

Then the synchronous reactance Xs could be obtained using

Z s ,unsat =

Ef or Vt (V)

Air-gap line

OCC

Vrated

Isc (A)

SCC

VA

IfB

2

s ,unsat

V A (= E f

I scA

: Ra is known from the DC test.

Isc,B

IfA

R +X

2

a

Isc, A

If (A)

Since Xs,unsat>>Ra,

X s ,unsat

Ef

I scA

Vt , oc

I scA

Ef or Vt (V)

Air-gap line

OCC

Vrated

SCC

VA

Isc,B

At V = Vrated,

Z s , sat =

R +X

2

a

2

s ,sat

Vrated (= E f

Isc (A)

Isc, A

IfA

If (A)

IfB

I scB

Synchronous Impedance Method

The value of synchronous impedance Zs for any load

condition can be calculated. Hence regulation of the

alternator at any load condition and load power factor can

be determined. Actual load need not be connected to the

alternator and hence method can be used for very high

capacity alternators.

The main limitation of this method is that the method

gives large values of synchronous reactance. This leads to

high values of percentage regulation than the actual results.

Hence this method is called pessimistic method

condition

jXs

Ra

Vt=0

Ef

Ia

Ef

jIaXs

+

Vt=0

Ia

I aR a

Short-circuit Ratio

Another parameter used to describe synchronous generators is the

short-circuit ratio (SCR). The SCR of a generator defined as the ratio

of the field current required for the rated voltage at open circuit to the

field current required for the rated armature current at short circuit.

SCR is just the reciprocal of the per unit value of the saturated

synchronous reactance calculated by

Ef or Vt (V)

Air-gap line

Isc (A)

OCC

Vrated

SCC

Isc,rated

I f _ Vrated

SCR =

I f _ Iscrated

=

If_V rated

If_Isc rated

If (A)

X s _ sat [in p .u .]

Curves

Synchronous generator capability curves are used to

determine the stability of the generator at various points of

operation. A particular capability curve generated in Lab

VIEW for an apparent power of 50,000W is shown in Fig.

The maximum prime-mover power is also reflected in it.

Capability

Curve

Tests:

Conduct tests to find

OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF

SCC (for rated current)

refer diagram EMF

Tests:

Conduct tests to find

OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF

SCC (for rated current)

refer diagram EMF

ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)

Armature Resistance (if required)

4. ASA method

Tests:

Conduct tests to find

OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF

SCC (for rated current)

refer diagram EMF

ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)

Armature Resistance (if required)

Losses and

Efficiency

The losses in synchronous generator include:

1. Copper losses in

a) Armature

b) Field winding

c) The contacts between brushes

2. Core losses, Eddy current losses and

Hysteresis losses

Losses

3. Friction and windage losses,the brush

friction at the slip rings.

4. Stray load losses caused by eddy currents in

the armature conductors and by additional

core loss due to the distribution of magnetic

field under load conditions.

diagram

Synchronization

& Parallel

operation of

Alternator

parallel:

by itself.

Having many generators increases the reliability of the power

system.

It allows one or more generators to be removed for shutdown

or preventive maintenance.

Synchronization

Before connecting a generator in parallel with another

generator, it must be synchronized. A generator is said to be

synchronized when it meets all the following conditions:

equal.

The two generators must have the same phase sequence.

The phase angles of the two a phases must be equal.

The oncoming generator frequency is equal to the

running system frequency.

a

Generator 1

Load

c

Switch

a/

Generator 2

b/

c/

Parallel operation of

synchronous generators

Most of synchronous generators are operating in parallel with other

synchronous generators to supply power to the same power system.

Obvious advantages of this arrangement are:

1. Several generators can supply a bigger load;

2. A failure of a single generator does not result in a total power loss to the load

increasing reliability of the power system;

3. Individual generators may be removed from the power system for maintenance

without shutting down the load;

4. A single generator not operating at near full load might be quite inefficient.

While having several generators in parallel, it is possible to turn off some of

them when operating the rest at near full-load condition.

paralleling

A diagram shows that Generator 2

(oncoming generator) will be connected

in parallel when the switch S1 is closed.

However, closing the switch at an

arbitrary moment can severely

damage both generators!

If voltages are not exactly the same in both lines (i.e. in a and a, b and b etc.), a

very large current will flow when the switch is closed. Therefore, to avoid this,

voltages coming from both generators must be exactly the same. Therefore, the

following conditions must be met:

1.

2.

3.

4.

The two generators must have the same phase sequence.

The phase angles of two a phases must be equal.

The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher than the

frequency of the running system.

paralleling

If the phase sequences are different,

then even if one pair of voltages

(phases a) are in phase, the other two

pairs will be 1200 out of phase creating

huge currents in these phases.

If the frequencies of the generators are different, a large power transient may occur

until the generators stabilize at a common frequency. The frequencies of two

machines must be very close to each other but not exactly equal. If frequencies

differ by a small amount, the phase angles of the oncoming generator will change

slowly with respect to the phase angles of the running system.

If the angles between the voltages can be observed, it is possible to close the

switch S1 when the machines are in phase.

paralleling generators

When connecting the generator G2 to the running system, the following steps

should be taken:

1. Adjust the field current of the oncoming generator to make its terminal voltage

equal to the line voltage of the system (use a voltmeter).

2. Compare the phase sequences of the oncoming generator and the running

system. This can be done by different ways:

1) Connect a small induction motor to the terminals of the oncoming generator

and then to the terminals of the running system. If the motor rotates in the

same direction, the phase sequence is the same;

2) Connect three light bulbs across the

open terminals of the switch. As the phase

changes between the two generators, light

bulbs get brighter (large phase difference)

or dimmer (small phase difference). If all

three bulbs get bright and dark together,

both generators have the same phase

sequences.

paralleling generators

If phase sequences are different, two of the conductors on the oncoming

generator must be reversed.

3. The frequency of the oncoming generator is adjusted to be slightly higher than

the systems frequency.

4. Turn on the switch connecting G2 to the system when phase angles are equal.

The simplest way to determine the moment when two generators are in phase is by

observing the same three light bulbs. When all three lights go out, the voltage

across them is zero and, therefore, machines are in phase.

A more accurate way is to use a synchroscope a meter

measuring the difference in phase angles between two a

phases. However, a synchroscope does not check the

phase sequence since it only measures the phase

difference in one phase.

The whole process is usually automated

Synchronization

Generat

or

Load

Rest of the

power system

Xs1

Ef1

Xs2

Ef2

Generato

r

Xsn

Efn

Infinite bus

V, f are

constant

Xs eq = 0

When a synchronous generator is connected to a power

system, the power system is often so large that nothing, the

operator of the generator does, will have much of an effect

on the power system. An example of this situation is the

connection of a single generator to the power grid. Our

power grid is so large that no reasonable action on the part

of one generator can cause an observable change in

overall grid frequency. This idea is idealized in the concept

of an infinite bus. An infinite bus is a power system so large

that its voltage and frequency do not vary regardless of

how much real or reactive power is drawn from or supplied

to it.

Pm

Pe, Qe

Vt

P<0: motor operation

Positive Q: delivering inductive vars for a generator action or

receiving inductive vars for a motor action

Negaive Q: delivering capacitive vars for a generator action or

receiving capacitive vars for a motor action

Pm

Pe, Qe

Vt

generator or consumed by a synchronous motor can be

expressed in terms of the terminal voltage Vt, generated voltage

Ef, synchronous impedance Zs, and the power angle or torque

angle .

Referring to Fig. 8, it is convenient to adopt a convention that

makes positive real power P and positive reactive power Q

delivered by an overexcited generator.

The generator action corresponds to positive value of , while

the motor action corresponds to negative value of .

Pm

The complex power output of the generator in voltamperes per phase is given by

Pe, Qe

Vt

S = P + jQ = V t I *a

where:

Vt = terminal voltage per phase

Ia* = complex conjugate of the armature current per phase

Taking the terminal voltage as reference

_

V t = Vt + j 0

_

E f = E f (cos + j sin )

and the armature current,

_

E f V t

Ia =

=

jX s

_

(E

cos Vt ) + jE f sin

Pm

jX s

_

S = P + jQ = V t I

*

a = Vt

P=

Q=

Vt E f sin

Xs

Vt E f sin

Xs

&

Vt E f cos Vt2

Xs

E f cos Vt jE f sin

jX

s

+j

Vt E f cos Vt2

Xs

Pe, Qe

Vt

Pm

Pe, Qe

Vt

P=

Vt E f sin

Xs

&

Q=

Vt E f cos Vt2

Xs

The above two equations for active and reactive powers hold

good for cylindrical-rotor synchronous machines for negligible

resistance

To obtain the total power for a three-phase generator, the above

equations should be multiplied by 3 when the voltages are line-toneutral

If the line-to-line magnitudes are used for the voltages, however,

these equations give the total three-phase power

cylindrical-rotor synchronous machine (with negligible

armature resistance).

Real power or

torque

Pull-out

torque as a

generator

generato

r

/2

0

+/2

motor

Pull-out

torque as a

motor

Total three-phase power:P =

3Vt E f

Xs

sin

synchronous generator depends on the angle between the Vt and

Ef. The maximum power that the generator can supply occurs when

=90o.

P=

3Vt E f

Xs

stability limit of the generator. If we try to exceed this limit (such as by

admitting more steam to the turbine), the rotor will accelerate and lose

synchronism with the infinite bus. In practice, this condition is never

reached because the circuit breakers trip as soon as synchronism is

lost. We have to resynchronize the generator before it can again pick

up the load. Normally, real generators never even come close to the

limit. Full-load torque angle of 15o to 20o are more typical of real

machines.

Pull-out torque

The maximum torque or pull-out torque per phase that a twopole round-rotor synchronous motor can develop is

Tmax =

Pmax

Pmax

=

n

m

2 s

60

P or Q

P

Q

THEORY

THEORY

In case of cylindrical pole machines, the direct-axis

and the quadrature axis mmfs act on the same magnetic

circuits, hence they can be summed up as complexors.

However, in a salient-pole machine, the two mmfs do not

act on the same magnetic circuit.

The direct axis component Fad operates over a

magnetic circuit identical with that of the field system,

while the q-axis component Faq is applied across the

interpole space, producing a flux distribution different

from that of Fad or the Field mmf.

considers the results of the cross and directreaction components separately and if saturation

is neglected, accounts for their different effects

by assigning to each an appropriate value for

armature-reaction "reactive" respectively Xaq and

Xad .

Considering the leakage reactance, the combined reactance

values becomes

Xad = X + X ad and X sq = X aq

Xsq < Xsd as a given current component of the q-axis gives rise

to a smaller flux due to the higher reluctance of the magnetic path.

of the current I in the armature reference to the

phasor diagram in Figure. We get the following

relationships

Id = I sin (+ ) Ir = I sin

I = (Id2 + Iq2)= = (Id2 + Ir2)

where Ia and Ir are the active and reactive

components of current I.

SLIP TEST

for Synchronous

Generator

Consider a two pole elementary single phase alternator with concentrated

stator winding as shown in Fig. 4. Consider a two pole elementary single

phase alternator with concentrated stator winding as shown in Fig. 4.

The corresponding waveforms for stator and rotor currents are shown in the

Fig

when there are no stator linkages. After 1/4 Rev as shown Fig. 4(b), it

tends to establish full normal linkage in stator winding. The stator

opposes this by a current in the shown direction as to force the flux in

the leakage path. The rotor current must increase to maintain its flux

constant. It reduces to normal at position (c) where stator current is

again reduces to zero. The waveform of stator current and field current

shown in the Fig. 5. changes totally if the position of rotor at the instant

of short circuit is different. Thus the short circuit current is a function of

relative position of stator and rotor.

Using the theorem of constant linkages a three phase short

circuit can also be studied. After the instant of short circuit the flux

linking with the stator will not change. A stationary image of main pole

flux is produced in the stator. Thus a d.c. component of current is

carried by each phase.

The magnitude of d.c. component of current is different for each

phase as the instant on the voltage wave at which short circuit occurs is

different for each phase. The rotor tries to maintain its own poles

occupy the position same as that during short circuit and the

current in the stator will be zero if the machine is previously

unloaded. After one half cycle from this position the stator and

rotor poles are again coincident but the poles are opposite. To

maintain the flux linkages constant, the current in rotor reaches to

its peak value.

The stationary field produced by poles on the stator

induces a normal frequency emf in the rotor. Thus the rotor

current is fluctuating whose resultant a.c. component develops

fundamental frequency flux which rotates and again produces in

the stator winding double frequency or second harmonic

currents. Thus the waveform of transient current consists of

fundamental, a.c. and second harmonic components of currents.

Thus whenever short circuit occurs in three phase generator

then the stator currents are distorted from pure sine wave and

are similar to those obtained when an alternating voltage is

suddenly applied to series R-L circuit.

running on no load is suddenly undergoing short circuit at its

terminals, then the emf induced in the stator winding is used

to circulate short circuit current through it. Initially the

reactance to be taken into consideration is not the

synchronous reactance of the machine. The effect of armature

flux (reaction) is to reduce the main field flux.

But the flux linking with stator and rotor can not change

instantaneously because of the induction associated with the

windings. Thus at the short circuit instant, the armature

reaction is ineffective. It will not reduce the main flux. Thus

the synchronous reactance will not come into picture at the

moment of short circuit. The only limiting factor for short

circuit current at this instant is the leakage reactance.

armature reaction slowly shows its effect and the alternator then

reaches to steady state. Thus the short circuit current reaches to

high value for some time and then settles to steady value.

It can be seen that during the initial instant of short circuit

is dependent on induced emf and leakage reactance which is

similar to the case which we have considered previously of

voltage source suddenly applied to series R-L circuit. The

instant in the cycle at which short occurs also affects the short

circuit current. Near zero e.m.f. (or voltage) it has doubling

effect. The expressions that we have derived are applicable only

during initial conditions of short circuit as the induced emf also

reduces after some tome because of increased armature

reaction.

The short circuit currents in the three phases during short

circuit are as shown in the Fig(next slide)

Capability Curves of

Synchronous

Generators

maximum apparent power in KVA and MVA load at a specified

power factor (normally 80, 85 or 90 percent lagging) and voltage for

which they are designed to operate under steady state conditions.

This load is carried by the alternators continuously without

overheating. With the help of automatic voltage regulators the

terminal voltage of the alternator is kept constant (normally within

5% of rated voltage).

This is because the alternator that is designed to operate at 0.95 p.f.

lagging at rated load will require more field current when operate at

0.85 p.f. lagging at rated load. More field current results in

overheating of the field system which is undesirable. For this

compounding curves of the alternators can be drawn.

frequency to a load whose power factor is constant then curve

showing variation of field current versus armature current when

constant power factor load is varied is called compounding curve for

alternator.

require more field excitation that that required for leading power

factors. Hence there is limitation on output given by exciter and

current flowing in field coils because of lagging power factors.

The ability of prime mover decides the active power output of the

alternator which is limited to a value within the apparent power

rating. The capability curve for synchronous generator specifies the

bounds within which it can operate safely.

The loading on generator should not exceed the generator rating as it

may lead to heating of stator. The turbine rating is the limiting factor

for MW loading. The operation of generator should be away from

steady state stability limit ( = 90o). The field current should not

exceed its limiting value as it may cause rotor heating.

All these considerations provides performance curves which are

important in practical applications. A set of capability curves for an

alternator is shown in Fig. 2. The effect of increased Hydrogen

pressure is shown which increases the cooling.

When the active power and voltage are fixed the allowable reactive

power loading is limited by either armature or field winding heating.

From the capability curve shown in Fig. 2, the maximum reactive

power loadings can be obtained for different power loadings with

the operation at rated voltage. From unity p.f. to rated p.f. (0.8 as

shown in Fig. 2), the limiting factor is armature heating while for

lower power factors field heating is limiting factor.

This fact can be derived as follows :

armature current which the limiting value corresponding to heating

then the operation of alternator is at constant value of apparent

power as the apparent power is product of terminal voltage and

current, both of which are constant.

then per unit apparent power is given by,

voltage and field current (hence E) is limited to a maximum value obtained

by heating limits.

If Ra is assumed to be zero then

The apparent power can be written as,

Substituting value of a obtained from (1) in equation (2),

Taking magnitudes,

This equation also represents a circle with centre at (0, -Vt2/Xs). These two circles are

represents in the Fig. 3 (see next post as Fig. 1). The field heating and armature heating

limitation on machine operation can be seen from this Fig. 3 (see next post as Fig.1).

The rating of machine which consists of apparent power and power factor is specified as

the point of intersection of these circles as shown in the Fig. 4. So that the machine operates

safely.

UNIT-2

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

Presented by

C.GOKUL

AP/EEE

UNIT 2 Syllabus

Synchronous Motor

mechanical energy is obtained from the rotor

Reverse of alternator operation

However, field poles are given electrical

supply to excite the poles (electromagnets !)

Rated between 150kW to 15MW with speeds

ranging from 150 to 1800 rpm.

Constant speed motor

(RMF)

winding, 3 phase current flows which

produces 3 phase flux

The MMF wave of the stator will have

rotating effect on the rotor

The effect of the field will be equal to that

produced by a rotating pole

contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

=

R =

m sin .......................(a)

m sin t

=

m sin (t 120=

) m sin ( 120 ) ...................(b)

Y

=

m sin (t 240=

) m sin ( 240 ) ...................(c)

B

RMF contd.

that at any instant, one waveform has zero

magnitude and one has a positive value and

the other, negative value

Let us consider at the following instances

0, 60, 120, 180 degrees

RMF contd.

Case (i) = 0

RMF contd.

=

R =

=

m sin

m sin 0 0

3

Y =

m sin ( 120 ) =

m sin ( 0 120 ) =

m

2

3

B =

m sin ( 240 ) =

m sin ( 0 240 ) =

+ m

2

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

Case (ii) = 60

RMF contd.

sin 60

=

R =

m=

m sin

3

m

2

3

Y =

m sin ( 120 ) =

m sin ( 60 120 ) =

m

2

=

m sin ( 240=

) m sin ( 60 240=) 0

B

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

3

=

R =

m sin120

=

m

m sin

2

=

m sin ( 120=

) m sin (120 120=) 0

Y

3

R =

m sin ( 240 ) =

m sin (120 240 ) =

m

2

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

=

R =

m sin180

= 0

m sin

3

=

m sin ( 120=

m

) m sin (180 120=)

Y

2

3

B =

m sin ( 240 ) =

m sin (180 240 ) =

m

2

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

rotating at constant magnitude

This we refer as rotating field or revolving

field

The speed at which it rotates will be at

synchronous speed Ns = (120 f / P )

Direction of rotation will be in the clockwise

direction as shown in the previous slide

Principle of

operation

Operation

Rotor is another magnet

If properly aligned (?!) these two magnets will

attract each other

Since the stator field is rotating at

synchronous speed, it will carry the rotor

magnet along with it due to attraction

(magnetic locking)

Operation contd.

Why - ?

rotor run at synchronous speed

Locking cannot happen instantly in a

machine (?)

This makes synchronous motors not self

starting

Due to inertia

starting

overcome inertial force acting on it) then

there is a chance for the motor to get started

Motor is driven by external means

Rotor is excited

At an instant rotor poles will be locked with

the stator field and motor will run at syn.

speed

V Curves ,

Inverted V Curves

Similar to generated emf in an alternator

Rotor rotating at synchronous speed will

induce emf in the stationary armature

conductors

The ac voltage applied has to overcome this

back emf to circulate current through the

armature winding

Back emf

Eb = 4.44 K C K d fT

Back emf

Increase in Load

increases

the speed ?

stays constant at synchronous speed even

when the load is increased

Magnetic locking between the stator and

rotor (stiffness of coupling) keeps the rotor

run at synchronous speed

But when the angle of separation () is 90,

then stiffness (locking) is lost and the motor

ceases to run

excitation

of current vector changes

Power factor changes

But the product Icos would be constant so

that active power drawn by the machine

remains constant

armature winding and dc field winding

If the field is sufficient enough to set up the

constant air gap flux then the magnetizing

armature current required from the ac source

is zero hence the machine operates at

unity power factor this field current is the

normal field current or normal excitation

excitation then the machine is under

excited

This deficiency in flux must be made by the

armature mmf so the armature winding

draws magnetizing current or lagging

reactive MVA leaving the machine to

operate at lagging power factor

its normal operation then the machine is

over excited

This excess flux must be neutralized by the

armature mmf so the machine draws

demagnetizing current or leading reactive

MVA leaving the machine to operate at

leading power factor

Better illustration

Better Illustration

Similarly,

Synchronous motor in pf

improvement

suitable for improving the power factor of the

system

Motors are overexcited so that it draws

leading current from the supply

The motor here is referred to as synchronous

condenser

V - curves

Inverted V - curves

CIRCLE

DIAGRAM

Circle Diagrams

problems

It gives the locus of armature current, as the

excitation voltage and load angle are varied

given by

V=t E f + I a Z s

It can be expressed as

I=

a

Ef

Vt

Zs

Zs

I=

a

Ef

Vt

Zs

Zs

a current component

It can be taken in such a way that they lag

from their corresponding voltage component

by power factor angle

as follows

With Vt as reference

I=

a

Ef

Vt

Zs

Zs

Vt 0 E f

=

Ia

Z s

Z s

I=

a

Ef

Vt

Zs

Zs

Ef

Vt

=

cos ( + ) j sin ( + ) )

I a ( cos j sin )

(

Zs

Zs

Re arranging

Ef

Vt

=

I a cos cos ( + ) +

Zs

Zs

Ef

Vt

j sin + sin ( + )

Zs

Zs

Magnitude

2

V

V

I a2 t cos

=

cos ( + ) + t sin +

sin ( + )

Zs

Zs

Zs

Zs

Ef

Ef

Vt E f

Vt E f

I = +

cos ( + ) cos + sin ( + ) sin

2

Zs Zs

Zs Zs

2

a

V Ef

Vt E f

2

I a2 = t +

( cos cos sin sin ) cos + ( sin cos + cos sin ) sin

Z

Z

Z

Z

s

s

s s

2

V Ef

V Ef

I a2 = t + 2 t

( cos cos sin sin ) cos + ( sin cos + cos sin ) sin

Zs Zs

Zs Zs

2

V Ef

V Ef

cos cos 2 sin sin cos + sin cos sin + cos sin 2

I a2 = t + 2 t

Zs Zs

Zs Zs

2

Vt E f

Vt E f

cos cos 2 + cos sin 2

I = + 2

Zs Zs

Zs Zs

2

a

I a2

V

E

V Ef

= t + f 2 t

cos

Z

Z

Z

Z

s

s

s

s

2

Vt E f

Vt E f

cos

I = + 2

Zs Zs

Zs Zs

2

a

side of a triangle, whose other side is given

by Ef / Zs

The third side is given by Ia

sides)

then Vt / Zs is a constant

Now, if Ef (the excitation) is fixed, Ef / Zs

vector and Ia vector follow the path of a circle

as load is changed on the motor

This locus is referred to as Excitation circle

Excitation circle defines the magnitude and

power factor of Ia and the load angle , for

different shaft loads

current, as the mechanical power developed

and power factor is varied

=

P Vt I a cos I a2 ra

including iron and mechanical losses

Dividing the whole equation by ra and

rearranging it, we get

Vt

P

I

I a cos +

0

=

ra

ra

2

a

Vt

P

I cos + I sin I a cos + =

0

ra

ra

2

a

2

a

Vt

P

I cos + I sin I a cos + =

0

ra

ra

2

a

2

a

becomes

Vt

P

x +y

y+

=

0

ra

ra

2

=

centre

Vt

radius

0,

&=

2ra

Vt

P

r

ra

2

a

Alternatively,

We know,

Vt

P

I I a cos + =

0

ra

ra

Adding Vt / 2 ra on either side we get,

2

a

Vt

P Vt Vt

I I a cos + +

=

ra

ra 2ra 2ra

2

a

Re arranging ,

2

Vt

Vt

Vt

P

I +

I

cos

a

r

r

r

ra

2

2

a

a

a

2

a

2

Vt

Vt P

Vt

I +

I a cos =

2

2ra

2ra

2ra ra

2

a

2

Vt

Vt P

Vt

2

Ia +

I a cos =

2

2ra

2ra

2ra ra

2

Vt

P

ra

2ra

sides are Ia and Vt / 2ra seperated by

Vt/2ra, hence the power factor is unity

Magnitude of armature current is given by

Vt/2ra

is zero

Substituting, radius = 0, we get

2

Vt Pmax

=

0

ra

2ra

Pmax

Vt 2

=

4ra

Vt

Pin ,max

= Vt I a cos=

Vt

2ra

Vt 2

=

.1

2ra

Efficiency is given by

2

V

(

Pmax

t / 4ra )

=

=

= 50%

2

Pin ,max (Vt / 2ra )

for synchronous motor

At this efficiency, since the losses are about

half of that of the input, temperature rise

reaches the permissible limit

As such, maximum power output presented

earlier cannot be met in practice

V curves

(again?!)

locus of armature current as a function of

excitation voltage

Power circle diagram shows locus of

armature current as a function of power

When these two circles are super imposed

V curves contd.

TORQUE EQUATION

& POWER

EQUATION

Motor

Motor

Pm = Eb I a cos

Motor

arrive at the expression

Motor

Motor

So, T = P / (2 Ns)

or T = P / (2 Ns) if Ns is in rpm

be found by differentiating the power

expression by and equating it to zero (as

usual)

2

EbV

Eb

=

cos ( )

cos

Pm

Zs

Zs

Differentiating ,

dPm

EbV

=

sin (

d

Zs

0

)=

EbV

sin (

Zs

0

)=

sin ( ) =

0

=

0

=

we get,

EbV Eb2

cos

Pm=

,max

Zs

Zs

or

Pm=

,max

EbV Eb2

cos

Zs

Zs

If

Ra 0

Pm ,max

EbV

=

Zs

Substituting, cos = Ra / Zs

Pm=

,max

EbV Eb2 Ra

Zs

Zs Zs

Pm=

,max

Solving ,

Zs

E=

b

2 Ra

EbV

Eb2 Ra

Zs

Zs Zs

V V 2 4 R ( P

)

a

m ,max

condition

depends on excitation

EbV

Eb2

cos ( )

cos

=

Pm

Zs

Zs

dPm

Eb

d EbV

=

cos ( )=

cos 0

dEb dEb Z s

Zs

2

dPm

Eb

d EbV

=

cos ( )=

cos 0

dEb dEb Z s

Zs

Eb

VZ s

=

2 Ra

Eb

VZ s

=

2 Ra

developed power to be maximum

The maximum power is given by substituting

the condition (Eb) in Pm expression

Pm=

,max

V2

V2

2 Ra 4 Ra

Operation of

infinite bus

bars

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

with Large Power Systems

Isolated synchronous generator supplying its own load is very

rare (emergency generators)

In general applications more than one generator operating in

parallel to supply loads

In Iran national grid hundreds of generators share the load on

the system

Advantages of generators operating in parallel:

1- several generators can supply a larger load

2- having many generators in parallel increase the

reliability of power system

3- having many generators operating in parallel allows

one or more of them to be removed for shutdown &

preventive maintenance

4- if only one generator employed & not operating near full load, it

will be relatively inefficient

with Large Power Systems

INFINITE BUS

power sys. is so large that nothing operator of

generator does, have much effect on pwr. sys.

Example: connection of a single generator to a

large power grid (i.e. Iran grid), no reasonable

action on part of one generator can cause an

observable change in overall grid frequency

This idea belong to definition of Infinite Bus

which is: a so large power system, that its

voltage & frequency do not vary, (regardless of

amount of real and reactive power load)

with Large Power Systems

When a syn. Gen.

connected to a

power system:

1-The real power

versus frequency

characteristic of

such a system

2-And the reactive

power-voltage

characteristic

with Large Power Systems

Behavior of a generator

connected to a large

system

A generator connected in

parallel with a large

system as shown

Frequency & voltage of

all machines must be the

same, their real powerfrequency (& reactive

power-voltage)

characteristics plotted

back to back

with Large Power Systems

Assume generator just been paralleled with

infinite bus, generator will be floating on the

line, supplying a small amount of real power

and little or no reactive power

Suppose generator paralleled, however its

frequency being slightly lower than systems

operating frequency

At this frequency power supplied by

generator is less than systems operating

frequency, generator will consume energy and

runs as motor

with Large Power Systems

In order that a generator comes on line and

supply power instead of consuming it, we

should ensure that oncoming machines

frequency is adjusted higher than running

systems frequency

Many generators have reverse-power trip

system

And if such a generator ever starts to consume

power it will be automatically disconnected from

line

Starting Methods

of Syn Motor

starting. It is necessary to rotate the rotor at a

speed very near to synchronous speed. This is

possible by various method in practice. The

various methods to start the synchronous motor

are,

1. Using pony motors

2. Using damper winding

3. As a slip ring induction motor

4. Using small d.c. machine coupled to it.

In this method, the rotor is brought to the

synchronous speed with the help of some

external device like small induction motor. Such

an external device is called 'pony motor'.

speed, the d.c. excitation to the rotor is switched

on. Once the synchronism is established pony

motor is decoupled. The motor then continues to

rotate as synchronous motor.

Refer Unit 3 for detail understanding

Many a times, a large synchronous motor are provided

with a coupled d.c. machine. This machine is used as a

d.c. motor to rotate the synchronous motor at a

synchronous speed. Then the excitation to the rotor is

provided. Once motor starts running as a synchronous

motor, the same d.c. machine acts as a d.c. generator

called exciter. The field of the synchronous motor is then

excited by this exciter itself.

power input, constant

excitation and constant power

developed

Refer Book for

detail study

developed(PM)

HUNTING

Natural

frequency of

oscillations

Refer Book

Damper

windings

Refer Book for

detail study

machines are made self starting by providing a special winding in the

rotor poles, known as damper winding or squirrel cage windings. The

damper winding consists of short circuited copper bars embedded in the

face of the rotor poles

When an ac supply is provided to stator of a 3-phase

synchronous motor, stator winding produces rotating magnetic field.

Due to the damper winding present in the rotor winding of the

synchronous motor, machine starts as induction motor (Induction

machine works on the principle of induction. Damper windings in

synchronous motor will carryout the same task of induction motor rotor

windings.

Therefore due to damper windings synchronous motor starts as

induction motor and continue to accelerate). The exciter for synchronous

motor moves along with rotor. When the motor attains about 95% of the

synchronous speed, the rotor windings is connected to exciter terminals

and the rotor is magnetically locked by the rotating magnetic field of

stator and it runs as a synchronous motor.

Damper windings helps the synchronous motor to start

on its own (self starting machine) by providing starting

torque

By providing damper windings in the rotor of

synchronous motor "Hunting of machine can be

suppressed.

When there is change in load, excitation or change in

other conditions of the systems rotor of the synchronous

motor will oscillate to and fro about an equilibrium

position. At times these oscillations becomes more

violent and resulting in loss of synchronism of the motor

and comes to halt.

Synchronous

Condensers

p.f. current. If synchronous motor is on no load, where

load angle is very small and it is over excited (Eb > V)

then power factor angle increases almost up to 90o. And

motor runs with almost zero leading power factor

condition.

which takes leading power factor current. Hence over

excited synchronous motor operating on no load

condition is called as synchronous condenser or

synchronous capacitor. This is the property due to which

synchronous motor is used as a phase advancer or as

power improvement device.

Disadvantage of Low Power Factor

type. The lighting and heating loads are supplied through

transformers. The induction motors and transformers draw lagging

current from the supply. Hence the overall power factor is very low

and lagging in nature.

. ..

P = VI cos

.............. single phase

I = P/(Vcos)

:

1. For higher current, conductor size required is more which

increases the cost.

2. The p.f. is given by

cos = Active power/ Apparent = (P in KW)/ (S in KVA)

Thus for fixed active power P, low p.f. demands large KVA

rating

alternators and transformers. This increases the cost.

3. Large current means more copper losses and poor

efficiency.

4. Large current causes large voltage drops in transmission

lines, alternators and other equipments. This results into poor

regulation.

Unit-3

Three phase Induction

Motor

Presented By

C.GOKUL

AP/EEE

UNIT 3 Syllabus

Construction of

Induction Motor

Types of Rotor

Principle of

Operation

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

SLIP(s)

Compare

Induction motor &

Transformer

Equivalent circuit

Losses &

Efficiency

Losses - Summary

Efficiency () =

Poutput

Pinput

356

Motor Torque

Tm =

9.55 Pm

n

9.55 (1 s) Pr

=

ns (1 s)

= 9.55 Pr / ns

Tm = 9.55 Pr / ns

357

Pjr = s Pr

Pjr = rotor I2R losses [W]

s = slip

Pr = power transmitted to the rotor [W]

Mechanical Power

Pm = Pr - Pjr

= Pr - s Pr

= (1 s) Pr

358

Torque-Slip

Characteristics

Condition for

Maximum Torque

LOAD TEST

NO LOAD TEST

Open Circuit Test

This test gives

1. Core loss

2. F & W loss

R

3. No load current I0

4. No load power factor

STATOR

5. Ic, Rc, I, Xm

6. Mechanical faults, noise

W0

I0

A

N

V0 V

B

Y

ROTOR

rated freq is given to stator.

Motor is run at NO LOAD

P0, I0 and V0 are recorded

P0 = I02r1+Pc+Pfw

P0

Cos0 =

V0 I0

1. Ic=I0cos0

0.05 to 0.15

provided x1 is known

2. I=I0sin0

I0

Ic

V0

Rc

I

jXm

open circuit

E0

E0

, E 0 =V 0 I 0 (r 1 + jx 1)

3. R c =

4. X m =

Ic

I

On No load, Motor runs near to syn speed

So, s zero 1/s= or open circuit

jx2

r1 I jx1

I

2

0

r2/s

test.

Vary input voltage and note input power

Input Power

Pfw

Input Voltage

Thus Pc=P0 - I02r1 - Pfw

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

BLOCKED

ROTOR TEST

Rotor is blocked, Speed = 0, slip = 1

Wsc

I

sc

IM

V Vsc

B

3-ph Variac

Y

Rotor is blocked or held stationary by

belt pulley or by hand

Voltage Vsc, Current Isc and Power Psc are measured.

r1

jx1

Ic

Vsc

Isc

I0

Rc

Mechanical loss =0

Core loss negligible

Rc and Xm >> r2+jx2

Hence omitted

r2

I

jXm

jx2

1 s

r2

=Rsc+jXsc

P sc

cossc =

=0.8 to 0.9

VscI sc

r2= Rsc r1

X sc= Z sc R sc

2

=x 1+x 2

For squirrel cage motor,

Class of motor

x1

x2

1.

0.5

0.5

2.

0.4

0.6

3.

0.3

0.7

4.

0.5

0.5

CIRCLE

DIAGRAM

Graphical representation

by computer quickly and accurately

But the advantage of circle diagram is that

extremities or Limits of stator current, Power,

torque and slip can be known from circle diagram

The circle diagram is constructed with the help of

1. No load test (I0 & 0)

2. Blocked rotor test (Isc & sc)

y

Isc

V1

Output line

sc

O

0 I

0

x

4. Join I0 and Isc

Line I0Isc is

2. Draw I0 and Isc(=V1/Zsc)

output line

3. Draw parallel line to x axis from I0.

This line indicates constant loss vertically

y

Isc

V1

Output line

T

sc

0 I

0

L1

O

L2

5. Draw perpendicular bisector to output line

7. Draw perpendicular from Isc on x axis..

I scT r2'

Rotor Cu Loss

=

=

8. Divide IscL1 in such a way that.

T L1

r1 Stator Cu Loss

Isc

V1

Output line

T Torque line

sc

O

0 I

0

L1

L2

10. Suppose 1cm=Xamp, so 1cm=V1.X= power scale

Rated output power/V1X = Total cm for rated o/p power

Total cm for rated output power=IscR

y

P

V1

P

1

sc

Isc

Output line

T Torque line

O

T

L1

0 I

L

1

0

C

x

O

L2

L2

11. From R, draw line parallel to output line crossing at P & P.

P is operating point

12. Join O and P. Cos1 is operating pf.

13. From P draw perpendicular on x axis

Lebel O, T , L1 and L2

y

P

Isc

V1

P

Output line

1

sc

O

0 I

0

O

T

L1

L2

T Torque line

C

L1

L2

1. Constant Losses and copper losses

L1L2=L1L2=constant losses =Core loss + F & W loss

no load current I0

y

P

Isc

V1

P

Output line

1

sc

O

0 I

0

O

T

L1

L2

T Torque line

C

L1

L2

L1L2=Constant Loss

F & W loss=0

y

P

Isc

V1

P

Output line

1

sc

O

0 I

0

O

T

L1

L2

T Torque line

C

L1

L2

Constant loss = Stator core loss + F & W loss

Rotor core loss 0 (sf)

Thus L1L2=L1L2= Constant loss

y

P

Isc

V1

P

Output line

1

sc

O

0 I

0

O

T

L1

L2

At P, stator Cu loss =TL1 and

T Torque line

C

L1

L2

rotor Cu loss = OT

y

Pmax

V1

P

1

Isc

Output line

T Torque line

O

O

T T

L1

0 I

L

L

1

1

0

C

O

L2 L2

LP2max

2. Output Power and Torque

Output Power = OP

The gap betn output line and circle is OUTPUT

Power.

0

Speed

At I0, o/p=0, at Isc, o/p=0

1

Slip

Max output power=PmaxO

sc

Ns

0

y

Pmax

V1

P

1

P

Tmax

Isc

Output line

T Torque line

O

O

T T T

L1

L1

0 I

L

1

1

0

C

x

L

O

L2 L2 2

L2

Tmax

2. Output Power and Torque

Output Torque = TP

The gap betn torque line and circle is OUTPUT torque.

Ns

0

Speed

At I0, torque=0, but at

Isc, torque=T Isc=Starting torque

1

Slip

0

Max output torque=TmaxT

sc

y

Pmax

V1

P

1

P

Tmax

O

O

T T T

L1

0 I

L

1

1

0

C

L

O

L2 L2 2

2. Output Power and Torque

sc

Isc

Output line

T Torque line

L1

L2

Max Power and Max Torque are not occurring at same time

Contradiction to max power transfer theorem

y

Pmax

V1

sc

O

T

0 I

L1

0

O

L2

3. Slip, Power factor and

Isc

Tmax

P

1

Output line

T Torque line

T

T

L1 L1

C

L

L2 2

Efficiency

L1

L2

=PL2-TL1-L1L2 = PT

s = rotor Cu loss/Pg =OT/PT

smp

O"T "

=

Pmax T "

smt =

Tmax T " '

y

Pmax

V1

Tmax

P

1

sc

O

T

0 I

L1

0

O

L2

3. Slip, Power factor and

T

T

L1 L1

C

L

L2 2

Efficiency

Efficiency= PO/PL2

Isc

Output line

T Torque line

L1

L2

y

Pmax

V1

Tmax

P

1

sc

O

0 I

0

4. Braking Torque

O

T

L1

L2

Isc

Output line

braking torque

T Torque line

T

C

s=1

Te L

1

L2

s=

Speed

s=0

0

Ns

1

The gap betn circle and T & s= is braking

Slip 0

torque

y

Pmax

V1

Tmax

P

1

sc

O

T

0 I

L1

0

O

L2

5. Induction Generator

s=0

Isc

Output line

braking torque

T Torque line

s=1

T

C

L1

L2

x

s=

y

Pmax

V1

P

Tmax

Isc

Output line

braking torque

O

O

T

T

0 I

L1

0

C

O

L2

5. Induction Generator

s=0

G

s= -ve

G

(Generator)

sc

PGmax

T Torque line

s=1

L1

L2

x

s=

OG=Gen Current

OG=Mech I/p

L2G=Active power

OL2=reactive power

y

Pmax

V1

P

Tmax

P

1

Isc

Output line

braking torque

T Torque line

O

O

s=1

T

T

L1

0 I

L

1

Te

0

C

x

O

L2

L2

5. Induction Generator

s=

Speed

Speed

s=0

0

Ns

2Ns

G

OG=Gen

Current

1

Slip 0

Slip -1

OG=Mech I/p

s=

-ve

G

(Generator)

L2G=Active power

sc

PGmax

OL2=reactive power

T

Fig. 3.3

Separation of

Losses

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

The separation of core loss and mechanical loss (windage and friction) can be obtained by

no load test conducted from variable voltage, rated frequency supply. Step by step reduce

the voltage till the machine slip suddenly start to increase and the motor tends to rest

(stall). The core loss decrease almost square of the voltage and windage and friction loss

remains almost constant. Plot the curve between applied voltage (V) and power (Po),

extended to V=0 which gives mechanical loss.

Magnetic loss + mechanical loss = output power

Therefore., magnetic loss = output power mechanical loss

Z0 = Voc /(Ioc / 3)

R0 = Woc / (Ioc) 2

X0 = [( Z0)2 - (R0)2

0 = cos-1 [Woc / (3 * Voc * Ioc )]

RBR = Wsc / (Isc)2

ZBR = Vsc / (Isc/ 3)

XBR = [( ZBR)2 - (RBR)2]

RiWF Resistance accounting for rotational losses

R1 = 1.2 * stator winding resistance (dc)

Pr = Woc Ioc2 * R1 (since Pr = P0 3 * (Ioc / 3)2 * R1)

RiWF = Voc2 / Pr

Xm Magnetizing reactance

IiWF = Voc / Riwf

Im = (Ioc2 - IiWF2)1/2

Xm = Voc / Im

Equivalent Circuit:

Double cage

Induction Motors

Double Cage Rotor has two independent cages on the same rotor slots,

one inside the other for the production of high starting torque. The

outer cage (alloy) in the rotor has high resistance and low reactance

which is used for starting purpose. The inner cage (copper) has a low

resistance and high reactance which is used for running purpose. The

constructional arrangement and torque-speed characteristics as shown

in fig. 3.5.

Advantages:

High starting torque.

Low I2R loss under running conditions and high efficiency.

Fig. 3.5

Slip

Torque-Slip Characteristics

Equivalent Circuit:

Rotor

Induction

Generators

INDUCTION GENERATOR

Principle of operation

Induction generators and motors produce electrical power when

their rotor is rotated faster than the synchronous speed. For a fourpole motor operating on a 50 Hz will have synchronous speed equal

to 1500 rpm.

In normal motor operation, stator flux rotation is faster than the

rotor rotation. This is causing stator flux to induce rotor currents,

which create rotor flux with magnetic polarity opposite to stator. In

this way, rotor is dragged along behind stator flux, by value equal to

slip.

In generator operation, a prime mover (turbine, engine) is driving

the rotor above the synchronous speed. Stator flux still induces

currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting

the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils and motor

is now operating as a generator and sending power back to the

electrical grid.

a. Sub-synchronous (motor)

b. Super-synchronous (generator)

When the machine runs as induction generator, the vector diagram shown in fig.3.5. This is

possible only if the machine is mechanically driven above the synchronous speed.

OA-no load current

AB-stator current to overcome rotor mmf

OB-total stator current

The torque-slip curve is shown in fig.3.6.Torque will become zero at synchronous speed. If the

speed increases above the synchronous speed, the slip will be negative.

Fig.3.4b the point P in the lower half of the circle shows operating point as an induction

generator.

PT-stator electrical output

ST-Core, friction and windage losses

RS-Stator copper loss

QR-Rotor copper loss

PQ-Mechanical input

PR-Rotor input

Slip

Efficiency

=

rotor input

PR

output PT

=

=

input

PQ

Dc current excitation is not required.

Synchronisation is not required.

Advantages:

It does not hunt or drop out of synchronism

Simple in construction

Cheaper in cost

Easy maintenance

Induction regulators provide a constant voltage adjustment depending on the

loading of the lines.

Disadvantages:

Cannot be operated independently.

Deliver only leading current.

Dangerously high voltages may occur over long transmission lines if the

synchronous machines at the far end become disconnected and the line capacitance

excites the induction machines.

The induction generator is not helpful in system stability.

Applications:

For installation in small power stations where it can be operated in parallel and

feeding into a common mains without attendant.

For braking purpose in railway work.

Synchronous

Induction Motor

It is possible to make the slip ring induction motor to run at synchronous speed when its

secondary winding is fed from a dc source. Such motors are then called as synchronous

induction motor.

Stator

3

Supply

Fig. 3.3

Fig 3.4

Heating will always occur with normal three phase rotor winding as in fig.3.4. The two phase

windings (e and f) gives uniform heating but produce large harmonics and noise. In those

machines primary chording is commonly employed to reduce the effect of harmonics.

The synchronous induction motor is generally built for outputs greater than 30HP because of its

higher cost of the dc exciter. These motors are employed in applications where a constant speed

is desirable such as compressors, fans, pumps, etc., If load torque is high and the machines goes

out of synchronism, it continues to run as an induction motor. As soon as the load torque falls

sufficiently low, the machines will automatically synchronize.

Advantages:

It will start and synchronise itself against heavy loads.

No separate damper winding is required.

The exciter may be small unit due to smaller air-gap.

Problems in

Induction

Motors

Example 5.1 A 3-phase, 460 V, 100 hp, 60 Hz, four-pole induction machine delivers

rated output power at a slip of 0.05. Determine the:

(a) Synchronous speed and motor speed.

(b) Speed of the rotating air gap field.

(c) Frequency of the rotor circuit.

(d) Slip rpm.

(e) Speed of the rotor field relative to the

(i) rotor structure.

(ii) Stator structure.

(iii) Stator rotating field.

(f) Rotor induced voltage at the operating speed, if the stator-to-rotor turns ratio is 1 :

0.5.

Solution:

120 f

120 * 60

ns =

=

= 1800 rpm

p

4

n = (1 s )ns = (1 0.05) *1800 = 1710 rpm

(b) 1800 (same as synchronous speed)

Example 4.2 A no-load test conducted on a 30 hp, 835 r/min, 440 V, 3-phase, 60 Hz squirrel-cage

induction motor yielded the following results:

No-load voltage (line-to-line): 440 V

No-load current: 14 A

No-load power: 1470 W

Resistance measured between two terminals: 0.5

The locked-rotor test, conducted at reduced voltage, gave the following results:

Locked-rotor voltage (line-to-line): 163 V

Locked-rotor power: 7200 W

Locked-rotor current: 60 A

Determine the equivalent circuit of the motor.

Solution:

Assuming the stator windings are connected in way, the resistance per phase is:

R1 = 0.5 / 2 = 0.25

From the no-load test:

VLL 440

V1 =

=

= 254 V / Phase

3

3

Z NL

V1 254

= =

= 18.143

I1 14

R NL =

PNL

3I12

1470

3 *14

= 2.5

2

2

X NL = Z NL

RNL

= 18.1432 2.52 = 17.97

X 1 + X m = X NL = 17.97

From the blocked-rotor test

RBL =

PBL

3I12

7200

3 * 60

= 0.6667

BL

X BL =

(Z

2

BL

2

RBL

= 1.5685 2 0.6667 2 = 1.42

X BL X 1 + X 2 = 1.42

X 1 = X 2 = 0.71

R = RBL R1 = 0.6667 0.25 = 0.4167

X 2 + X m

R2 =

Xm

0

.

71

17

.

26

+

R =

* 0.4167 = 0.4517

17.26

Example 5.3 The following test results are obtained from a three-phase 60 hp, 2200

V, six-pole, 60 Hz squirrel-cage induction motor.

(1) No-load test:

Supply frequency = 60 Hz, Line voltage = 2200 V

Line current = 4.5 A, Input power = 1600 W

(2) Blocked-rotor test:

Frequency = 15 Hz, Line voltage = 270 V

Line current = 25 A, Input power = 9000 W

(3) Average DC resistance per stator phase: 2.8

(a) Determine the no-load rotational loss.

(b) Determine the parameters of the IEEE-recommended equivalent circuit

(c) Determine the parameters (Vth, Rth, Xth) for the Thevenin equivalent circuit of

Fig.5.16.

2200

V1 =

= 1270.2 V / Phase

3

RNL

Z NL

V1 1270.2

= =

= 282.27

4.5

I1

PNL

1600

= 2 =

= 26.34

2

3I1 3 * 4.5

2

2

X NL = Z NL

RNL

= 282.27 2 26.34 2 = 281

X 1 + X m = X NL = 281

PBL

9000

RBL = 2 =

= 4.8

2

3I1 3 * 25

281.0 = .

impedance at 15 Hz is:

Z BL

270

V1

= =

= 6.24

I1

3 * 25

Its value at 60 Hz is

X BL = 3.98 *

X BL =

(6.24

60

= 15.92

15

X BL X 1 + X 2

15.92

X 1 = X 2 =

= 7.96

2

R = RBL R1 = 4.8 2.8 = 2

7.96 + 273.04

R2 =

2 = 2.12

273.04

2

4.82 = 3.98

at 60 Hz

)c (

273.04

Vth

V1 = 0.97 V1

7.96 + 273.04

2

X th X 1 = 7.96

wound-rotor induction motor has the following parameters per

phase:

The rotational losses are 1700 watts. With the rotor terminals

short-circuited, find

(a)

(ii) Starting torque.

(b)

(ii) Full-load current.

(iii) Ratio of starting current to full-load current.

(iv) Full-load power factor.

(v) Full-load torque.

(iv) Internal efficiency and motor efficiency at full load.

(c)

(ii) Maximum torque developed.

(d)

start?

=163.11 N.m

28022.3

motor =

*100 = 87.5%

32022.4

int ernal = (1 s ) *100 = (1 0.0333) *100 = 96.7%

(c) (i)

(c) (ii)

Note that for parts (a) and (b) it is not necessary to use Thevenin

equivalent circuit. Calculation can be based on the equivalent circuit of

Fig.5.15 as follows:

drives a constant load of 100 N - m at a speed of 1140 rpm when

the rotor terminals are short-circuited. It is required to reduce the

speed of the motor to 1000 rpm by inserting resistances in the

rotor circuit. Determine the value of the resistance if the rotor

winding resistance per phase is 0.2 ohms. Neglect rotational

losses. The stator-to-rotor turns ratio is unity.

Example

No-load test : 460 V, 60 Hz, 40 A, 4.2 kW. Blocked rotor test is

100V, 60Hz, 140A 8kW. Average DC resistor between two stator

terminals is 0.152

(a) Determine the parameters of the equivalent circuit.

(b) The motor is connected to 3 , 460 V, 60 Hz supply and runs

at 873 rpm. Determine the input current, input power, air

gap power, rotor cupper loss, mechanical power developed,

output power and efficiency of the motor.

(c) Determine the speed of the rotor field relative to stator

structure and stator rotating field

Solution:

(a ) Z NL =

RNL =

460 / 3

= 6.64

40

PNL

2

3 * I1

4200

3 * 40

= 0.875

X 1 + X m = 6.58

From blocked rotor test:

RBL =

Z BL =

8000

3 *140 2

= 0.136

100 / 3

= 0.412

140

0.152

R1 =

= 0.076

2

X 1 + X 2 = 0.389

0.389

= 0.1945

X 1 = X 2 =

2

X m = 6.58 0.1945 = 6.3855

0.1945 + 6.3855

R2 =

* 0.06 = 0.0637

6.3855

0.076

j0.195

j6.386

j0.195

0.0637

s

(b )

120 f 120 * 60

ns =

=

= 900rpm

P

8

ns n 900 873

=

= 0.03

s=

900

ns

R2 0.0637

=

= 2.123

s

0.03

Input impedance

Z1 = 0.076 + j 0.195 +

( j 6.386)(2.123 + j 0.195)

= 2.12127.16o

2.123 + j (6.386 + 0.195)

V1

460 / 3

o

=

= 125.22 27.16

I1 =

Z1 2.1227.16

Input power:

460

Pin = 3 *

*125.22 cos 27.16o = 88.767 kW

3

Stator CU losses:

Air gap power

Rotor CU losses

From no load test:

Pout

78.8

=

*100 =

*100 = 88.77 %

88.767

Pin

Example

phase ( R1 =0.2, R2 =0.18 , X 1 = X 2 =0.2, X m =40). The

rotational losses are 1500 W. Find,

(a)

Also find starting torque.

(b)

at full load conditions.

(c)

be developed.

(d)

connected in the rotor circuit so that maximum torque

occurs at start?

460

V1 =

= 265.6 V / phase

3

j 40 * (0.18 + 0.2 )

o

= 0.5546.59

Z1 = 0.2 + j 0.2 +

0.18 + j 40.2

V1

265.6

o

= 482.91 46.3

I st = =

o

I1 0.5546.59

1500 1450

s=

= 0.0333

1500

R2

0.18

=

= 5.4

s 0.0333

j 40 * (5.4 + j 0.2 )

= 4.959 10.83o

Z1 = 0.2 + j 0.2 +

5.4 + j 45.4

I1 FL

265.6

o

=

= 53.56 10.83 A

o

4.95910.83

o

sys

1500

=

* 2 = 157.08 rad / sec .

60

265.6 * ( j 40 )

= 264.275 0.285o V

Vth =

(0.2 + j 40.2)

Then,

j 40 * (0.2 + j 0.2 )

= 0.281432 45.285o = 0.198 + j 0.2

Z th =

0.2 + j 40.2

T =

3 * (264.275) * 5.4

2

2

= 228.68 Nm

Then, P2 = sPag = 0.0333 * 35921.1 = 1197 W

And, Pm = (1 s )Pag = 34723.7W

Then, Pout = Pm Prot = 34723.7 1500 = 33223.7W

Then, =

Tm =

Pout 33223.7

=

= 79.26 %

41914

Pin

3 * (264.275)2

sTmax =

[0.198

0.18

2

)]

2 1/ 2

+ (0.2 + 0.2 )

2 1/ 2

= 862.56 Nm

= 0.4033

(d) sTmax = 1 =

[0.198

R2 + Rext

2

+ (0.2 + 0.2 )

2 1/ 2

= 0.446323

Then, R2 + Rext

= 0.446323 0.18 = 0.26632

Then, Rext

1710 rpm, 60 Hz, four pole, squirrel-cage induction motor is six

times the rotor current at full load.

(a) Determine the starting torque as percent of full load torque.

(b) Determine the slip and speed at which the motor develops

maximum torque.

(c) Determine the maximum torque developed by the motor as

percent of full load torque.

Note that the equivalent circuit parameters are not given. Therefore equivalent circuit

parameters cannot be used directly for computation.(a) The synchronous speed is

2

2

2

2

I R2 I R2

T=

s syn

s

and frequency a starting torque of 150% and a maximum torque of

200 % of full load torque. Determine (i) full load speed (ii) speed

at maximum torque.

Solution:

Tst

Tst

Tmax

1.5

=

= 0.75

= 2 then,

= 1.5 and

TFL

TFL

Tmax

2

2 sTmax

Tst

=

= 0.75

2

Tmax 1 + sTmax

Then,

2

0.75 sTmax

2 sTmax + 0.75 = 0

2

sT2max + s FL

Tmax

=

=2

TFL 2sTmax * s FL

But sTmax = 0.451416

2

Tmax

0.4514162 + s FL

=

=2

Then

TFL 2 * 0.451416 * s FL

2

s FL

4 * 0.451416 s FL + 0.451416 2 = 0

2

s FL

1.80566 s FL + 0.203777 = 0

120 * 50

ns =

= 1500 rpm

4

then (a) nFL = (1 s FL ) * ns

motor has the following equivalent circuit parameters.

The rotational loss is 400 W. For 5% slip, determine (a) The

motor speed in rpm and radians per sec. (b) The motor current. (c)

The stator cu-loss. (d) The air gap power. (e) The rotor cu-loss. (f)

The shaft power. (g) The developed torque and the shaft torque.

(h) The efficiency.

Solution:

120 * 60

1800

ns =

* 2 = 188.5 rad / sec

= 1800 rpm , s =

4

60

0.12

j0.25

j0.25

j10

0.1

=2

0.05

Z1 = 0.12 + j 0.25 + Re + X e

j10 * (2 + j 0.25)

Z1 = 0.12 + j 0.25 +

= 2.131423.55o

2 + j10.25

V1 =

208

= 120.1 V

120.1

o

I1 =

=

2

.

1314

23

.

55

A

o

2.131423.55

(c) P1 = 3 * 56.3479 * 0.12 = 1143.031W

2

) = 18610.9794 W

Pag = Ps P1 = 17467.9485 W

(e) P2 = sPag = 0.05 *17467.9785 = 873.3974 W

(f) Pm = (1 s ) Pag = 16594.5511W

Pag

17467.9485

(g) T =

=

= 92.6682 N .m

188.5

188.5

Pshaft

16194.5511

Tshaft =

=

= 85.9127 Nm

188.5

188.5

Pshaft

(h) =

*100 = 87.02%

Ps

machine has the following

equivalent circuit parameters:

(a)

induction machine.

(b) If the machine is connected to a 30, 460 V, 60 Hz supply,

determine the starting torque, the maximum torque the machine

can develop, and the speed at which the maximum torque is

developed.

(c) If the maximum torque is to occur at start, determine the

external resistance required in each rotor phase. Assume a

turns ratio (stator to rotor) of 1.2.

Solution:

Vth =

Xm

6.5

* V1 =

* 265.6 = 257.7 V

X1 + X m

0.2 + 6.5

Rth + jX th =

0.07 + j 0.2 + j 6.5

0.06589 j0.1947

j0.2

257.7V

(b) Tst =

Tmax =

0.05

s

3 * 257.7 2 * 0.05

2

= 624.7 Nm

3 * 257.7 2

= 2267.8 Nm

sTmax =

j 0.1947

0.05

0.06589 2 + (0.1947 + 0.2 )2

= 0.1249

Speed

in

rpm

for

which

max

torque

(c) sTmax =

or R2

start

R2

R12

+ ( X 1 + X 2 )

s start = 1

sTmax

* R2 =

1

0.1249

R2

* 0.05 = 0.4

occurs

UNIT-4

Starting & Speed control

of 3ph Induction Motor

Presented by

C.GOKUL

AP/EEE

UNIT-4 Syllabus

Necessity of

Starters / NEED

FOR STARTING

positive finite starting torque T when slip s=1. this

mean that 3-pahse induction motor is a self-starting

motor and begins to rotate on its own when

connected to a 3-phase supply.

At the instant of starting 3-phase induction motor

behaves like a transformer with a short-circuited

secondary.

Consequently, a 3-pahse induction motor takes high

starting current if started at full voltage. In order to

limit this high starting current to reasonable limits

starting methods are used.

STARTING

METHODS OF

INDUCTION

MACHINE

Methods of Starting

There are primarily two methods of starting the

induction motor:a) Full voltage starting.

b) Reduced voltage starting.

Full voltage starting methods consist of:a) DOL (Direct-on-line starting)

Reduced voltage starting consist of:a) Stator resistor (or reactor) starting.

b) Auto-transformer starting.

c) Star-delta starting.

AUTO

TRANSFORMER

STARTER

V1

IL

xV1

xV1

I st = xI sc

Rotor

Stator

The fraction of xV1 is applied to the stator wdg at starting.

As speed increases, gradually voltage is increased

Finally full voltage is applied to the motor.

Advantages 1. Voltage is changed by transformer action

and not by dropping voltage as that of reactor

2. So power loss and input current are less.

V1

IL

xV1

xV1

Rotor

Stator

I st = xI sc

The stator starting current is I st = xV1 / z1 = xI sc

For auto-transformer, input VA= output VA

ILV1=Ist (xV1)

Therefore, line current at

IL=xIst

input is x2 times the DOL

current.

IL=x2Isc

Thus,

Test

Tefl

I1st

=

I1fl

sfl

2 I sc

= x

Ifl

sfl

V1

IL

xV1

xV1

Rotor

Stator

I st = xI sc

Line current at input due to auto-transformer starting

=x

Line current at input due to stator reactor starting

V1

IL

xV1

xV1

I st = xI sc

Rotor

Stator

V1

IL

xV1

xV1

I st = xI sc

Rotor

Stator

Line current at input due to auto-transformer starting

=x

Line current at input due to stator reactor starting

Starting torque with auto transformer starting

2

=x

Starting torque with DOL starting

Starting torque with auto transformer starting

=1

Starting torque with stator reactor starting

STAR DELTA

STARTER

Star-Delta starting

For star, 3 terminals of stator wdg are required.

For delta, 6 terminals are required.

Now make delta

Connection.

R Y B

Stator

2- Run - Delta

TPDT

1- Start - Star

Rotor

Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3

Motor rotates.

The starting current is

Now TPDT to 2- Delta

I st.y =VL / 3z 1

Line voltage applied

R Y B

Starting

=

I

L.y

to wdg. Motor runs at rated speed

Line current

Stator

2- Run - Delta

TPDT

1- Start - Star

Rotor

Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3

Motor rotates.

The starting current is

Now TPDT to 2- Delta

I st.y =VL / 3z 1

Line voltage applied

R Y B

Starting

=

I

L.y

to wdg Motor runs at rated speed

Line current

Stator

2- Run - Delta

TPDT

1- Start - Star

Rotor

Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3

Motor rotates.

The starting current is

Now TPDT to 2- Delta

I st.y =VL / 3z 1

Line voltage applied

Starting

=

I

L.y

to wdg Motor runs at rated speed

Line current

At starting, if, wdg in delta

The starting current is

I st.d =VL / z 1 = I sc.d

I L.d = 3 I st.d

1

I st.y =

I st.d

3

Ist.y

Starting line current with Y- starter

=

Starting line current with stator in 3 Ist.d

1

3

(V1/3)2

Starting torque with Y- starting

=

=

2

Starting torque with stator in

V1

1

3

in delta.

In case of auto-transformer, if turn ratio x = 1/3

Then starting line current and is starting torque are

reduced to one third of their values with delta.

This shows that

Star delta starting is equivalent to auto transformer

if auto transformer turn ratio x=1/3=0.58 or 58% tapping

This method is cheap, effective and used extensively

Used for tool drives, pumps, motor-generator set.

Used up to rating of 3.3kV,

After this voltage, m/c becomes expensive for delta winding

Example

Determine the % tapping of the auto-transformer so

that the supply current during starting of IM does not

exceed 1.5 times full load current. The short circuit current

on normal voltage is 4.5 times the full load current and the

full load slip is 3%. Calculate the ratio of starting torque

full load torque.

Solution

V1

IL=1.5IFL

Isc=4.5IFL

IL/Isc=0.333

IL

xV1

xV1

In auto-transformer

I st = xI sc

IL/Isc=x2

Rotor

Stator

x=0.577

Test

Now

Tefl

I1st

=

I1fl

2 I sc

sfl = x

I

fl

sfl

2

= 0.202

V1

IL

xV1

xV1

I st = xI sc

Rotor

Stator

Example

The short circuit line current of a 6hp IM is 3.5 times

its full load current, the stator of which is arranged for star

delta starting. The supply voltage is 400V, full load effn is

82% and full load power factor is 0.85% (lag).

Calculate the line current at the instant of starting.

Neglect magnetizing current.

Solution

P=3 VLILcos

6hp IM,

1

6 746

Isc=3.5IFL

IFL= I L =

Star-delta starting

=9.26A (line current for

Isc (line) =3.5 IFL

delta)

Voltage =400V

=5.34A (phase current

for delta)

=82%, pf=0.85 (lag)

FL

Isc=3.5IFL=3.5x5.34

=18.73A

At the instant of starting, motor wdg is in star

For star, line current is equal to phase current.

IL at the instant of start =18.73A for delta (400V)

IL at the instant of start =18.73/3 A for star (400/3)

=10.81A

DOL(Direct-on-line)

Starter

DOL(Direct-on-line)starting

poly-phase stator on to the supply mains.

The motor takes starting current of 5 to 7 times its

full load current depending upon its size and

design.

Such large current of short duration dont harm the

rugged squirrel cage motor, but the high currents

may cause objectionable voltage drop in power

supply feeding the induction motor

These large voltage drop causes undesirable dip in

the supply line voltage, consequently affecting the

other equipments connected to the same supply.

load torque Tf is now obtained .

Let Is and If be the per phase stator currents drawn

from the supply mains corresponding to starting

and full load conditions respectively.

We know:1 2 r2

Te = .I 2 .

s

s

Therefore:2

2

Ts I s r2 1 I s

.s f

= 2

=

------Eqn(1)

T f I f r2 s f I f

Now

V1

I st =

= I sc

Z sc

=(r1+r2)+j(x1+x2), is the leakage impedance.

Ts I sc

.s f

=

Tf I f

----Eqn(2)

Zsc

Stator

resistance(reactor)

Starter

Stator resistance(reactor)method

In this method, a resistor or a reactor is inserted in

between motor terminals and supply mains.

At the time of starting some voltage drop occurs

across the starting resistor and therefore only a

fraction x of supply voltage appears across it.

This reduces the per phase starting currents Is

drawn by the motor from the supply mains.

As the motor speeds up, the

reactor is cut out in steps

and finally short-circuited

when the motor speed is

near to synchronous speed.

per phase starting current is:xV1

Is =

= xI sc

Z sc

Now we know:-

Therefore we have:-

1 I 22 r2

.

T=

s s

2

Therefore:-

Ts

2 I sc

sf

=x

-----Eqn(1)

Tf

If

2

= x 2

=

starting torque with direct switching V1

Rotor resistance

Starter

slip ring induction motor)

(and hence stator) current reduced at starting, but at

the same time, the starting torque is also increased

due to improvement in power factor.

The introduction of additional external resistance in

the rotor circuit enables a slip-ring motor to develop

a high starting torque with reasonably moderate

starting current.

Hence, such motors can be started under load. This

additional resistance is for starting purpose only. It is

gradually cut out as the motor comes up to speed.

Speed control of

3 phase Induction Motor

Speed Control of IM

Given a load T characteristic, the steady-state speed can be

changed by altering the T curve of the motor

'

r

3R

Vs

Te =

' 2

ss

Rr

2

Rs + + ( X ls + X lr )

s

2

4

s = = f

P

P

Varying voltage

(amplitude)

Varying line

frequency

Pole Changing

501

then sX2 is so small that it can be neglected. Therefore, T

sE22 where E2 is rotor induced emf and E2 V

& hence T V2, thus if supplied voltage is decreased,

torque decreases and hence the speed decreases.

This method is the easiest & cheapest, still rarely used because1) A large change in supply voltage is required for

relatively small change in speed.

2) Large change in supply voltage will result in large

change in flux density, hence disturbing the magnetic

conditions of the motor.

Synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field of

induction motor is given by,

Thus, synchronous speed changes with change in

supply frequency, and thus running speed also

changes. However, this method is not widely used.

This method is used where, only the induction motor

is supplied by a generator (so that frequency can be

easily change by changing the speed of prime

mover).

V/F control

Speed control above rated (base) speed

Frequency increased (i.e. s increased)

Stator voltage held constant at rated value

Air gap flux and rotor current decreases

Developed torque

decreases

Te (1/s)

base speed

use Constant

Volts/Hz method

506

Airgap flux in the motor is related to the induced stator

voltage E1 :

E1 Vs

ag =

f

f

across Rs and Lls

(f ,ag and enters saturation region oh B-H curve):

- excessive stator currents flow

- distortion of flux wave

- increase in core losses and stator copper loss

Hence, keep ag = rated flux

stator voltage Vs must be reduced proportional to reduction

in f (i.e. maintaining Vs / f ratio)

507

Max. torque remains almost

constant

For low speed operation:

Rs and Lls (i.e. E1 Vs)

poor torque capability

(i.e. torque decreased at low

speeds shown by dotted lines)

stator voltage must be boosted

to compensate for voltage

drop at Rs and Lls and maintain

constant ag

E1 Vs

ag =

f

f

Tmax

Vs

(f > frated):

stator voltage maintained at

rated value

Same as Variable Frequency

control (refer to slide 13)

508

Vs

compensate for

voltage drop at Rs

and Lls

Vrated

for high-starting

torque loads

employed for most

applications

Linear offset

Boost

Non-linear offset

curve

for low-starting

torque loads

frated

f

509

For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:

fs = Kfs,rated s = Ks,rated

(1)

(Note: in (1) , speed is given as mechanical speed)

Stator voltage:Vs =

(2)

Vs ,rated , when f s > f s ,rated

d=

Vs,rated

s,rated

(3)

510

For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:

Te =

'

r

Vs

3R

' 2

s s

Rr

2

2

Rs + + K ( X ls + X lr )

s

(4)

respectively.

511

For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:

smax =

Rr'

(5)

Rs + K 2 ( X ls + X lr )

2

Tmax =

Vs

2 s R R + K 2 ( X + X )

s

ls

lr

s

(6)

respectively.

512

Rated (Base)

frequency

Constant

Torque Area

Torque reduces

(above base speed)

Note:

Operation restricted

between synchronous

speed and Tmax for

motoring and braking

regions, i.e. in the

linear region of the

torque-speed curve.

513

Constant Torque Area

514

synchronous speed(Ns) (and hence, running speed) can be changed

by changing the number of stator poles. This method is generally used

for squirrel cage induction motors, as squirrel cage rotor adapts itself for

any number of stator poles. Change in stator poles is achieved by two or

more independent stator windings wound for different number of poles in

same slots.

For example, a stator is wound with two 3phase windings, one for 4 poles

and other for 6 poles.

For supply frequency of 50 Hz

i) synchronous speed when 4 pole winding is connected,

Ns = 120*50/4 = 1500 RPM

ii) synchronous speed when 6 pole winding is connected,

Ns = 120*50/6 = 1000 RPM

CASCADING OPERATION

Cascaded connection

In this method of speed control, two motors

are used. Both are mounted on a same shaft

so that both run at same speed.

One motor is fed from a 3phase supply and

other motor is fed from the induced emf in

first motor via slip-rings.

motor.

Let, Ns1 = frequency of motor A

Ns2 = frequency of motor B

P1 = number of poles stator of motor A

P2 = number of stator poles of motor B

N = speed of the set and same for both motors

f = frequency of the supply

Now, slip of motor A, S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1.

frequency of the rotor induced emf in motor A, f1 = S1f

now, auxiliary motor B is supplied with the rotor induce emf

therefore, Ns2 = (120f1) / P2 = (120S1f) / P2.

now putting the value of S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1

At no load, speed of the auxiliary rotor is almost same as its synchronous speed.

i.e. N = Ns2.

1. when only motor A works, corresponding

speed = Ns1 = 120f / P1

2. when only motor B works, corresponding

speed = Ns2 = 120f / P2

3. if cummulative cascading is done,

speed of the set = N = 120f / (P1 + P2)

4. if differential cascading is done,

speed of the set = N = 120f (P1 - P2)

Slip power

recovery

Kramer

Scherbius

1) Kramer System

RYB

Voltage

regulating

device

f

MIM

ACM

Power flows from ACM-Rotor of MIM.

MIM operates at Super-Synchronous speed

If brush emf is less than slip voltage

Power flows from Rotor of MIM- ACM.

MIM operates at Sub-Synchronous speed

Since power is flowing from one machine to another with one

shaft, it is constant power drive.

2) Scherbius System

RYB

RYB

f

MIM

Voltage

regulating

device

ACM

AIM

(Motor) - ACM -rotor of MIM.

At Sub-Synchronous speed, power flows from rotor of MIM

- ACM AIM (Gen) - supply.

Power changes

Braking of 3ph

Induction

Motors

Plugging

Dynamic Braking

Regenerative Braking

Braking Methods

Regenerative Braking

Plugging or reverse voltage braking

Dynamic ( or rheostatic ) braking :

a)

b)

c)

d)

ac dynamic braking

Self-excited braking using capacitor

dc dynamic braking

zero-sequence braking

1. Regenerative Braking

If an induction motor is forced to run at speeds in

excess of the synchronous speed, the load

torque exceeds the machine torque and the slip

is negative, reversing the rotor induced EMF and

rotor current. In this situation the machine will

act as a generator with energy being returned to

the supply.

If the AC supply voltage to the stator excitation is

simply removed, no generation is possible

because there can be no induced current in the

rotor.

Regenerative braking

In traction applications, regenerative braking is

not possible below synchronous speed in a

machine fed with a fixed frequency supply. If

however the motor is fed by a variable frequency

inverter then regenerative braking is possible by

reducing the supply frequency so that the

synchronous speed becomes less than the

motor speed.

AC motors can be microprocessor controlled to

a fine degree and can regenerate current down

to almost a stop

TL

A

Te

8 poles 4 poles

0 Speed

1 Slip

C

TL

D

A

Ns

0

B

-Te

+Te

Regenerative braking

Power input to induction motor:

Pin=3VIscoss

Motoring operation s<90

Braking s>90

m> ms

m< ms

Regenerative braking

Advantage: Generated power is usefully

employed

Disadvantage: It can not be employed

below synchronous speed when fed from

constant frequency source.

Speed Range : Between synchronous

speed and the speed for which braking

torque is maximum.

2. Plugging

Plugging induction motor braking is done by reversing

the phase sequence of the motor. Plugging braking of

induction motor is done by interchanging connections

of any two phases of stator with respect of supply

terminals. And with that the operation of motoring shifts

to plugging braking.

During plugging the slip is (2 - s), if the original slip of the

running motor is s, then it can be shown in the following

way.

the torque is not zero at zero speed.

Thats why when the motor is needed to

be stopped, it should be disconnected

from the supply at near zero speed.

reverse direction and the torque is not

zero at zero or any other speed, and as a

result the motor first decelerates to zero

and then smoothly accelerates in the

opposite direction.

3. DC Dynamic Braking

or Rheostatic or AC Dynamic Braking

The disadvantages of plugging are removed in dynamic

braking.

Dynamic braking requires less power.

Under normal operating condition

Stator - Rotating Magnetic Field - Ns

Faster sNs

Rotor - Te -

Slower

Rotates - Nr

Stator - Stationary Magnetic Field -Ns =0

Slower

Rotor - Teb

Rotates - Nr

Faster Ns(1-s)=

NsS

This Teb is dynamic braking torque.

Teb depends on 1. DC source. 2. Rotor resistance 3. Speed

Stator is excited by DC

The relative speed between stator field and

rotor is Ns.

Slip = (Relative speed Ns)/Ns = 1

This is equivalent to IM with a rotor at STANDSTILL

Now consider, rotor is at rest and stator is excited by DC

Stationary flux induces no rotor emf

This is equivalent to IM with a rotor RUNNING at Syn speed

Conclusions

1. Rotor at syn speed with DC dynamic braking is similar to

rotor at rest during IM operation

2. Rotor at rest with DC dynamic braking is similar to

rotor running at syn speed during IM operation

Circuit Diagram

DC

AC

R1

Stator

Rotor

R1 is connected to limit

stator current

Additional rotor resistance

is also connected to limit

the current and to obtain

braking characteristics

Circuit Diagram

AC

Rectifier

R1

Stator

Rotor

Transformer

Rotor speed w r t stator field under DC dynamic

braking is Ns(1-s) = NsS

In the equivalent ckt diagram, replace s by S

In phasor diadram

jx2

I1

I2

also replace s by S

V1

I

VDC

jXm

r2/S

I1

I1

I0

I2r2

SE2

I2 jI2Sx2

Ted =

Te

I2

r2

S

R2 < R2< R2

TL

Ns

0

r2

Ted

R2

R2

R2

Ted increases with increase in rotor circuit resistance

0 Speed

1 Slip

The entire power developed in rotor is dissipated in R2

MMFAC = 3 I m N

2

The resultant MMF produced due to DC

IDC N

60

IDC N

3IDC N

3

I m N = 3IDC N

2

3

I1 N

IDC =

2

MMFDC =

3IDC N

A bank of capacitors is connected across

three phases of stator wdg.

IG receives AC excitation from bank of capacitor

The generated electrical energy is

dissipated as heat in rotor circuit

AC

Due to high cost of capacitor, this

method is not used in practice.

C

Stator

Rotor

Advantages of

Dynamic Braking

1. Smooth stop

loss

C

3. No tendency to

reverse

Disadvantage: Less quick than plugging

UNIT-5

Single phase Induction

Motor & Special Machines

Presented by

C.GOKUL

AP/EEE

Single phase

Induction Motor

Introduction

What is single phase induction motors?

is an induction motor having a squirrel cage

rotor and a single phase stator winding.

Working Principle

Suppose the rotor is at rest and a single phase

supply is given to the stator winding. Now the current

flowing in the stator winding will produce a m.m.f

with in the stator and this m.m.f induces a current in

the rotor. Again the induced current inside the rotor

will produce a m.m.f with in the rotor itself which is

equal in magnitude and opposite in direction with the

stator m.m.f. Thus the two m.m.f cancel out each

other and as a result there will be no net torque

acting on the rotor. There for the rotor will stay at

rest. So due to this effect, we have to find another

method to start the motor.

Depending on the method used to start the

motor : 1) Capacitor-start motors

2) Capacitor-run motors

3) Capacitor start-and run motors

4) Shaded-pole motors

motor

induction motor with a starting capacitor

inserted in series with the start winding

creating an LC Circuit which is capable of

producing a much greater torque.

An Lc circuit refers to a circuit containing

an inductor w/c connected together they

can act as an electrical resonator w/c

stores electrical energy.

capacitor-start motor

the motor to handle heavy start loads by increasing

the strength of the magnetic field created by the

windings. The capacitor is individually mounted

outside of the motor as a separate unit either on the

top or side of the motor with a centrifugal switch

located between the capacitor and the start winding.

The switch connects the capacitor with the motor at

startup and disconnects them when the motor has

reached about 75% of its operating speed. And during

startup period when the centrifugal switch is closed,

capacitor-start motors typically deliver from 250-350%

of the full load torque.

motors

motor

Among this the basic types include:A) Single voltage externally reversible

B) Single voltage non reversible

capacitor-start motors

Capacitor-start from high torque (>175%

full load) are used: Operation having high starting loads

such as: - Elevators

- Compressors &

- Refrigerators

full load) are used: Operation having low starting

loads such as:- Fans

- Blowers &

- Small pumps.

Capacitor-run motors are motors having a

capacitor connected in series with the start

winding in order to increase the running

efficiency.

Capacitor-run motors use run-capacitors

that are designed for continuous duty which

are energized the entire time during

operation of the motor.

capacitor-run motors

is connected to the start winding of the

motor and it constantly energizes the start

winding while the motor is running. And this

creates a 90o phase change between the start

winding current and the run winding current

making a two phase motor. As a result a

rotating magnetic field is created within the

motor which causes the rotor to rotate more

efficiently.

capacitor-run motors

Advantages

The capacitor remains in the circuit at all

times thus no centrifugal switch is required.

They can be designed to have low vibration

and less noise under full load condition.

If properly designed, they are more efficient

than other type of motors.

Disadvantages

Since capacitor start motors have low

starting torque they cannot be used in

applications with severe starting conditions.

are mainly used for applications requiring

low starting torque and high efficiency

such as:- Small compressors,

Pumps &

Fans.

Capacitor-start-and-run motors or permanentsplit capacitor motors

are single phase induction motors having

the starting and the running period. In this type

of motors both the start winding and the run

windings are permanently connected to the

power source through a capacitor at all times.

Depending on the number of capacitors

used: 1. Single value capacitor start-and-run

motors:

motors

The two values of capacitance can be obtained

using two different methods.

a. By using two capacitors in parallel

b. By using a step up transformer

Advantage

Ability to develop 25% overload capacity

Higher efficiency and power factor

Extremely quiet operation

start-and-run motors

Two value capacitor start and run motors are

variable speed such as : Air handlers,

Blowers and

Fanes.

motors are used in applications requiring

low starting torque such as: Fans

Blowers &

Voltage regulators.

A shaded pole motor is a single phase induction

motor having one or more short circuited

windings acting only on a portion of the

magnetic circuit.

Generally the winding is a closed copper ring

embedded in the face of the pole together

known as the shaded pole which provides the

required rotating field for starting purpose.

shaded pole motors

the field or main winding surrounding the whole pole, the

magnetic axis of the pole shifts from the unshaded part to

the shaded part. which is analogous with the actual

physical movement of the pole. As a result the rotor starts

rotating in the direction of this shift from the unshaded

part to the shaded part.

phase shaded pole motors

Advantages

Simple in construction

Tough surface

Reliable and cheap

Disadvantages

Low starting torque

Very little overload capacity

Low efficiency (5% for tiny sizes 35%

for higher ratings)

Because of its low starting torque, the shaded

pole motor is generally used for

Small fans,

Toys,

Hairdryers,

Ventilators etc.

Special Machines

There are variety of special machines available

Here, our territory includes

Stepper Motor

Hysteresis Motor

AC series Motor

Linear Reluctance Motor

Repulsion Motor

Stepper

Motor

Stepper Motor

Stepper Motor, derives its name from the fact that it follows

definitive step in response to input pulses

See to it, that the input is in the form of pulses

Straightaway it is understood that the input, being pulses, can

be controlled and in turn the output gets controlled

Wherever precise positioning is required stepper motors are

widely employed

Typical values stepper motors develop torque ranging from 1

N-m upto 40 N-m power output range from 1 W to 2500 W

available in the literature

They are

Variable Reluctance stepper motor

Permanent magnet stepper motor

Hybrid stepper motor

Reluctance Stepper Motor

Operating principle

1. Variable Reluctance

Stepper Motor

As usual, it has

Stator

Rotor

- Stator

periphery houses salient poles

- Rotor

periphery has salient poles

performed is 1-phase-ON mode we indirectly

mean that we have something called as 2phase-ON mode and so on

As the name goes, 2-phase-ON mode

denotes 2 phases being switched ON at the

same time

2-phase-ON mode

would have thought that step angle would be

15 deg

But the table in the previous slide shows the

step angle is same as that of the previous

case (30 deg, maintained)

But the position of the rotor is changed,

which is a desirable factor in some of the

position control experiments

would add much to the application side of our machine

Can we bring any other step size here?

Is it possible, first of all?

The answer is yes, it is possible

There is no restriction imposed on us in altering the

combination of switching pulses

In fact, the 2-phase-ON mode is the child of our manipulation of

combination of phases involved in switching

the combination of 1-phase-ON mode and 2phase-ON mode we will end up with some

interesting operation

discussion has no end in it

We have something called as micro-stepping

and the reader is advised to do it as an

assignment

Reluctance Stepper Motor can be confined to

what is referred to as single-stack variable

reluctance stepper motor

It becomes clear by now that we have

something called as multi-stack variable

reluctance stepper motor

2. Permanent Magnet

Stepper Motor

stepper motor

The only difference being that the rotor is

made up of permanent magnet

In VR motors, the rotor is a magnetic material

(It can carry the flux lines through it)

positive current or negative current

Positive current in phase A will create a set

of poles while the negative current will create

opposite poles

Similar is the case with phase B

Advantages

Permanent magnets require no external

exciting current low power loss

High inertia

Develops more torque than VR motor

Disadvantages

It is very difficult to produce permanent

magnet rotor with more number of poles

This makes the design of PM motors with

higher step angle

VR and PM stepper motors

The stator is an electromagnet

The rotor is a permanent magnet

The difference in the rotor is that the rotor

magnet is axial with one end completely

north pole and other, south pole

illustrated with the schematic representation

given below

in the rotor is shown below

reader

The reader can build on this idea that the

rotor alignment would be based on the

attraction between formed stator poles (this

being electromagnet) and permanent rotor

poles

Applications

Type-writers

Tape drives

Floppy disk drivers

Process control systems

X-Y plotters

Hysteresis Motor

Hysteresis Motor

This is based on the principle of hysteresis

Basically this is a constant speed motor

similar to synchronous motor

As is always the case

It has a

Stator and a Rotor

phase induction motor

The stator winding can be either split phase

type of shaded pole type

Materials of high resistivity comparable to

that of an insulator are normally chosen to

make the eddy current loss zero which make

the core loss equal only to hysteresis loss

The concept of hysteresis is the basis

of such motor

As we know, hysteresis is the lagging

of magnetic flux density (B) with

respect to magnetizing field strength

(H)

Hysteresis loss

It looks as shown

Hysteresis loss

attempt is made to induce pole in a magnetic

material with higher retentivity the induced pole will

not loose its magnetic property even though the

induction is taken out completely

It is like remembering some event even after the

event is over (retaining something)

Hysteresis loss

rotor material

motor has some interesting points to note

Applications

Record players

Electric clocks

Tele-printers

AC series Motor

AC series motor

assembly is referred to as commutator motor

(Remember commutator and brush assembly

in the wound rotor of an Induction motor)

There are two types of commutator motor

AC series motor

Universal motor

AC series motor

ac supply?

The motor will run normally as the torque will still be

unidirectional

This is due to the fact that current and flux will change direction

simultaneously (dealt during 3 ph IM)

But, power factor would be very poor due to very high

inductance of armature and field windings

At the same time, alternating flux would induce eddy emf in the

core leading to heavy eddy current loss in the machine

Also, sparking occur at brushes during the commutation period

due to heavy voltage and current

AC series motor

unsuitable with AC supply

Proper modifications can make the machine

suitable with AC supply

Modifications

loss can be overcome by properly laminating

the machines armature core and field core

The power factor can be controlled by

decreasing the reactance of armature

winding and field winding

Elaborated

increases the speed of the machine due to reduction

in the air gap flux

Increase in the speed gives rise to decreased torque

Now to improve the torque, armature turns has to be

increased proportionately

But this will again increase the effective reactance of

the machine which is undesirable

Elaborated

associated armature reaction reactance effect, a

special compensating winding is provided

The compensating winding is connected in such a

way so that the flux produced by the compensating

winding will be exactly in opposition to the flux

produced by the armature winding

This will neutralize the armature reaction reactance

effect

Implementation

Based on the connection it is referred as conductively

compensated and inductively compensated

Implementation

with commutation

In dc motors, this is overcome by commutating

poles (com poles) or inter poles

The voltage induced in the short circuited armature

winding is huge enough (this voltage is absent in the

case of dc motors) which creates undesirable

sparking even when inter poles are provided

Implementation

resistance with the commutating winding of the

machine

By adjusting the resistance, voltage across the

compole winding is adjusted

similar to dc series motor

Repulsion Motor

Repulsion Motor

It has a

Stator

Rotor

houses armature conductors

Winding is excited with single phase supply

conductors

It is very similar to the armature of the dc motor with

commutator and brush arrangement

The brushes are short circuited by low resistance

jumper (why?)

stator designed as salient pole type

The operation will remain same with stator discussed

as salient pole type

But take it that the stator is distributed type with slots

carrying single phase armature conductors

To make it clear

It becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load

Working power factor is very poor

Likely sparking at brushes

It becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load

Working power factor is very poor

Likely sparking at brushes

disadvantages

given way to new types of Repulsion motor

Compensated Repulsion Motor

Here, an extra winding called the compensating

winding is added in series with the armature winding

This winding is placed in the inner slots of the stator

The main purpose of compensating winding is to

improved the power factor (as in the case of

compensation provided in the AC series motor) and

to improve the speed regulation

disadvantages

As the name indicates the motor starts as a

repulsion motor and after attaining 75 percent of the

speed the brushes are lifted and the armature

winding is shorted as Induction Motor

This arrangement is advantageous as the brushes

would not any current during operation

There are also designs in which the brushes ride on

the commutator throughout the operation

disadvantages

This is the third design in which stator is the same as

in normal repulsion motor

But the rotor has two separate windings

One winding carries commutator and brush

arrangement similar to dc motor

Other winding is squirrel cage winding similar to

cage induction motor

Both these windings operate during the entire period

of operation of the motor

disadvantages

rotor and remains inactive during start due to its high

reactance

When the rotor attains 85 % of the speed, squirrel

cage windings takes control

Commutated windings provide the starting torque

which is seen to well above 350 percent of the fullload torque

Linear Induction

Motor

assignment

Interested people can this important points before

taking up the assignment

Stator is a hollow cylinder with conductors in its inner

periphery

Rotor is a solid cylinder with conductors on its outer

periphery

look as english alphabet U from the front end), the

motor is referred to as sector Induction Motor

The important to note is that the motor will work

developing almost 30 % of its power rating

Anyway the voltage has to be reduced to prevent

saturation since the number of conductors has been

reduced to half of its original value

flat, then the machine is referred to as Linear

Induction Motor

As a passing reference, the reader can note that this

type of machine is employed in trains which operate

on the principle of Magnetic Levitation

Servo

Motor

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Introduction

They are also called control motors and have high-torque

capabilities

Basic principle of operation is the same as that of other

electromagnetic motors. However, their construction, design

and mode of operation are different.

Their power ratings vary from a fraction of a watt up to a few

100 W.

Both DC and AC (2-phase and 3-phase) servomotors are used.

Applications

In radar , tracking and guidance systems, process controllers,

computers and machine tools.

DC Servomotors

The schematic diagram of a separately-excited DC motor along with its

armature and field MMFs and torque/speed characteristics is shown in

Fig. 39.26. The speed of DC servomotors is normally controlled by

varying the armature voltage. Their armature is deliberately designed

to have large resistance so that torque-speed characteristics are linear

and have a large negative slope as shown in Fig. 39.26 (c). The

negative slope serves the purpose of providing the viscous damping

for the servo drive system.

As shown in Fig. 39.26 (b), the armature mmf. and excitation field mmf

are in quadrature. This fact provides a fast torque response because

torque and flux become decoupled.

Accordingly, a step change in the armature voltage or current

produces a quick change in the position or speed of the rotor.

AC Servomotors

Hz (for airborne systems). The stator has two distributed

windings which are displaced from each other by 90

(electrical).

The main winding (also called the reference or fixed

phase) is supplied from a constant voltage source,

Vm 0 (Fig. 39.27). The other winding (also called the

control phase) is supplied with a variable voltage of the

same frequency as the reference phase but is phasedisplaced by 90 (electrical).

The control phase voltage is controlled by an electronic

controller. The speed and torque of the rotor are

controlled by the phase difference between the main and

control windings. Reversing the phase difference from

leading to lagging (or vice-versa) reverses the motor

direction.

Magnetic

Levitation

System

- Introduction

Introduction

What are Magnetic levitation systems?

Maglev. are devices that suspend

ferromagnetic materials with the aid of

electromagnetism. It has wide number

of applications such as high-speed

trains, aerospace shuttles, magnetic

bearings and high-precision platforms.

Set point

Reference

Interface

input + E(s) Circuit

Intel micrcontroller

Ts

Digital z

Controller o

E*(s)

h

Actual Ball position Y(s)

Interface Magnetic

Circuit U(s)Levitation

System

References

Electrical Machines-II by S. B.

Sivasubramaniyan -MSEC, Chennai

http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.in/

http://www.electricaleasy.com/p/electricalmachines.html

www.scribd.com

www.slideshare.net

References

Armature Reaction of Alternator by N.Karthikeyan

EE20A - Electromechanical Energy Conversion

Alternators and Synchronous Motors by Amit Mishra

Electrical Machines www.utm.my

INDUCTION MOTOR by MUHAMMAD WAQAR

Single phase Induction Motor

Magnetic Levitation by Tori Johnson and Jenna Wilson

Books Reference

Electric Machinery by A.E. Fitzgerald Charles

Kingsley, Jr.Stephen D. Umans

Electrical Machines by Nagrath & Kothari

Electrical Machines by P.S.Bimbhra

Electrical Machines-II by Godse

Electrical Machines-II by Gnanavadivel

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