Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 654

ELECTRICAL

MACHINES II
(AC MACHINES)
Presented by
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE
Velalar College of Engg & Tech,Erode
EMAIL: gokulvlsi@gmail.com

Syllabus
EE6502 Electrical Machines -II

BOOKS Reference

LOCAL AUTHORS: {For THEORY use this books}


1.Electrical Machines-II by Gnanavadivel Anuradha Publication
2. Electrical Machines-II by Godse Technical Publication
For Problems:
Electric Machines by Nagrath & Kothari {Refer Solved Problems}
Electric Machinery by A.E.Fitgerald {Refer Solved Problems}

Important Website Reference


Electrical Machines-II by S. B.
Sivasubramaniyan -MSEC, Chennai
http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.in/
http://www.electricaleasy.com/p/electri
cal-machines.html

NPTEL Reference
Electrical Machines II by Dr. Krishna
Vasudevan & Prof. G. Sridhara Rao
Department of Electrical Engineering , IIT
Madras.
Basic Electrical Technology by Prof. L.
Umanand - IISc Bangalore {video}

BASICS OF
ELECTRICAL
MACHINES

Electrical Machine?
Electrical machine is a device which
can convert

Mechanical energy into electrical


energy (Generators/alternators)
Electrical energy into mechanical
energy (Motors)
AC current from one voltage level to
other voltage level without changing its
frequency (Transformers)
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Fundamental Principle..

Electrical Machines (irrespective of


AC or DC) work on the fundamental
principle of Faradays law of
Electromagnetic Induction.

Faradays Law
Faradays Law of Electromagnetic
Induction states that an EMF is
induced in a coil when the magnetic
flux linking this coil changes with time
or
The EMF generated is proportional to
the rate at which flux is changed.

d
d
e=

=
N
dt
dt

Faradays Law Illustration

Two forms of Induced EMF !


The effect is same if the magnet is
moved and the coil is made stationery
We call it as statically induced EMF
The previous case is referred to as
Dynamically induced EMF

Governing Rules

It becomes evident that there exists a


relationship between mechanical energy,
electrical energy and magnetic field.
These three can be combined and precisely
put as governing rules each for generator
and for motor

Flemings Right hand rule

For Generator

Fleming's Right hand rule(for Generator)

Flemings Left hand rule

For Motor

Fleming's left hand rule (for motors)

First finger - direction of magnetic field (N-S)

Second finger - direction of current

(positive to negative)
Thumb - movements of the wire

Maxwells Corkscrew rule

If the electric current is moving away from the


observer, the direction of lines of force of the
magnetic field surrounding the conductor is
clockwise and that if the electric current is
moving towards an observer, the direction of
lines of force is anti-clockwise

Corkscrew (Screw driver) rule Illustration

Coiling of Conductor

To augment the effect of flux, we coil the conductor


as the flux lines aid each other when they are in the
same direction and cancel each other when they are
in the opposite direction
Many a times, conductor is coiled around a magnetic
material as surrounding air weakens the flux
We refer the magnetic material
as armature core

Electromagnet

The magnetic property of current carrying


conductor can be exploited to make the
conductor act as a magnet Electromagnet

This is useful because it is very difficult to


find permanent magnets with such high field
Also permanent magnets are prone to ageing
problems

AC Fundamentals

AC Fundamentals - continued

Whenever current passes through


a conductor

Opposition to flow of current


Opposition to sudden change in current
Opposition to sudden change in voltage
Flux lines around the conductor

Inductive Effect

Reactance EMF
Lenz Law
An induced current is always in such a
direction as to oppose the motion or
change causing it

Capacitive effect

V=
(t )
i (t )=

Q
C =
V
q (t )
1
=
C
C
dq (t )
=
dt

i (t ) dt

dv (t )
C
dt

Resistive Network Vector diagram

Inductive Network Vector Diagram

Capacitive Network Vector Diagram

Inductive & Capacitive effects combined

Pure L & C networks not at all


possible!

R-L network

Pure L & C networks not at all


possible! contd.

R-C network

Current & Flux

As already mentioned,
As the current, so the flux

3 phase AC

Star and Delta

Star connection

V
L

3V ph

I L = I ph

Delta Connection

V
L

= V ph

IL =

3I ph

Maxwell's Right Hand Grip


Rule

Right Handed Cork Screw


Rule

Generators

Input

The Generator converts mechanical power into


electrical power.

Synchronous generators (Alternator) are


constant speed generators.

The conversion of mechanical power into


electrical power is done through a coupling field
(magnetic field).

Mechanical

Magnetic

Electrical

Output

Electric Generator
Mechanical
Energy

Stationary magnets - rotating magnets - electromagnets

Electrical
Energy

Motor

The Motor converts electrical power into


mechanical power.

Electrical
Energy

Input

Magnetic
Electrical

Mechanical
Energy

Mechanical

Output

Basic Construction
Parts
Stationary Part

Stator

Armature

Electrical

Mechanical

Rotor
Rotating Part

Field

AC MACHINES
Two categories:
1.Synchronous Machines:

Synchronous Generators(Alternator)

Primary Source of Electrical Energy


Synchronous Motor

2.Asynchronous Machines(Induction Machines)

UNIT-1
Synchronous
Generator
(Alternator)

UNIT-1 Syllabus

Synchronous Generators

Generator

Exciter
View of a two-pole round rotor generator and exciter.
(Westinghouse)

Synchronous Machines
Synchronous generators or alternators are used to convert
mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine
to ac electric power
Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical
energy we consume today
Large ac power networks rely almost exclusively on synchronous
generators
Synchronous motors are built in large units compare to induction
motors (Induction motors are cheaper for smaller ratings) and
used for constant speed industrial drives

Construction
Basic parts of a synchronous generator:

Rotor - dc excited winding


Stator - 3-phase winding in which the ac emf is generated

The manner in which the active parts of a synchronous machine


are cooled determines its overall physical size and structure

Armature Windings (On Stator)


Armature windings connected are 3-phase and are
either star or delta connected

It is the stationary part of the machine and is built up of


sheet-steel laminations having slots on its inner
periphery.
The windings are 120 degrees apart and normally use
distributed windings

Field Windings (on Rotor)


The field winding of a synchronous machine is always
energized with direct current
Under steady state condition, the field or exciting
current is given

Ir = Vf/Rf
Vf = Direct voltage applied to the field winding
Rf= Field winding Resistance

Rotor
Rotor is the rotating part of the machine
Can be classified as: (a) Cylindrical Rotor and (b) Salient
Pole rotor

Large salient-pole rotors are made of laminated poles


retaining the winding under the pole head.

Various Types of ROTOR

Salient-pole Rotor

Cylindrical or round rotor

a. Salient-Pole Rotor
1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds
(between 50 and 300 r/min)
2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor
d-axis

Non-uniform
air-gap

D 10 m
q-axis

Turbine
Hydro (water)

Hydrogenerator

Salient pole type rotor is used in low and medium speed


alternators
This type of rotor consists of large number of projected
poles (called salient poles)
Poles are also laminated to minimize the eddy current
losses.
This type of rotor are large in diameters and short in
axial length.

Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

Stator

b. Cylindrical-Rotor(Non-Salient Pole)

D1m

Turbine

L 10 m
Steam

d-axis
Stator winding

High speed

3600 r/min 2-pole

Uniform airgap
Stato
r

1800 r/min 4-pole

Direct-conductor cooling (using


hydrogen or water as coolant)

q-axis

Rotor winding
Roto
r

Rating up to 2000 MVA


S

Turbogenerator

Cylindrical type rotors are used in high


speed alternators (turbo alternators)
This type of rotor consists of a smooth and
solid steel cylinder having slots along its
outer periphery.
Field windings are placed in these slots.

Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

Stator

Cylindrical rotor

Working of Alternator &


frequency of Induced EMF

Working Principle
It works on the principle of Electromagnetic induction
In the synchronous generator field system is rotating and armature
winding is steady.
Its works on principle opposite to the DC generator
High voltage AC output coming from the armature terminal

Working Principle
Armature
Stator
Field
Rotor
No commutator is
required {No need for
commutator because
we need AC only}

Frequency of Induced EMF


Every time a complete pair of poles crosses the conductor, the
induced voltage goes through one complete cycle. Therefore, the
generator frequency is given by

p n
pn
f = . =
2 60 120
N=Rotor speed in r.p.m
P=number of rotor poles
f=frequency of induced EMF in Hz
No of cycles/revolution = No of pairs of poles = P/2
No of revolutions/second = N/60
No of cycles/second {Frequency}= (P/2)*(N/60)=PN/120

Advantages of stationary
armature
At high voltages, it easier to insulate
stationary armature winding(30 kV or more)
The high voltage output can be directly
taken out from the stationary armature.
Rotor is Field winding. So low dc voltage
can be transferred safely
Due to simple construction High speed of
Rotating DC field is possible.
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Winding
Factors( K , Kd)
p

= cos

2
m

sin

m sin

Kd

Pitch factor (Kp)

Consider 4 pole, 3 phase machine having 24


conductors
Pole pitch = 24 / 4 = 6 slots
If Coil Pitch or Coil Span = pole pitch, then it
is referred to as full-pitched winding
If Coil Pitch < pole pitch, it is referred to as
short-pitched winding

Coil Span = 5 / 6 of pole pitch


If falls short by 1 / 6 of pole pitch
or
180 / 6 = 30 degrees

This is done primarily to


Save copper of end connections
Improve the wave-form of the generated emf
(sine wave)
Eliminate the high frequency harmonics
There is a disadvantage attached to it
Total voltage around the coil gets reduced
because, the emf induced in the two sides of
the coil is slightly out of phase
Due to that, their resultant vectorial sum is less
than the arithmetic sum
This is denoted by a factor Pitch factor, Kp or Kc

Pitch factor Kp

Vectorsum
Kp =
Arithmaticsum

Pitch factor contd.

Arithmatic sum

Pitch factor contd.

Vector sum

Pitch factor contd.

Pitch factor contd.

Kp

Vector _ sum
=
Arithmatic _ sum

2 Es cos
2 Es

= cos

Pitch factor - Problem

Distribution factor (Kd)

As we know, each phase consists of


conductors distributed in number of slots to
form polar groups under each pole
The result is that the emf induced in the
conductors constituting the polar group are
not in phase rather differ by an angle equal
to angular displacement of the slots

For a 3 phase machine with 36 conductors, 4 pole,


no. of slots (conductors) / pole / phase is equal to 3
Each phase consists of 3 slots
Angular displacement between any two adjacent
slots = 180 / 9 = 20 degrees
If the 3 coils are bunched in 1 slot, emf induced is
equal to the arithmetic sum (3Es)
Practically, in distributed winding, vector sum has to
be calculated
Kd = Vector sum / Arithmetic sum

emf _ with _ distributed _ winding


Kd =
emf _ with _ concentrated _ winding

180
180
=
no.of _ slots _ per _ pole
n

For calculating Vector sum

Kd

Kd

m
2 r sin
2

=

m 2 r sin
2
m
sin
2

=

m sin
2

Problem:
Distribution factor /Breadth factor

EMF Equation
of Alternator

Equation of Induced EMF

Average emf induced per conductor = d / dt


Here, d = P
If P is number of poles and flux / pole is Weber
dt = time for N revolution = 60 / N second
Therefore,
Average emf = d / dt = P / (60 / N)

NP
60

Equation of Induced EMF contd.


We know,
N = 120 f / P
Substituting, N we get
Avg. emf per conductor = 2 f Volt
If there are Z conductors / ph, then
Avg. emf induced / ph = 2 f Z Volt
Ave emf induced (in turns) / ph = 4 f T Volt

Equation of Induced EMF contd.

We know, RMS value / Avg. Value = 1.11


Therefore,
RMS value of emf induced / ph = 1.11 (4 f T)
V
= 4.44 f T
Volt
This is the actual value, but we have two other
factors coming in the picture, Kc and Kd
These two reduces the emf induced

RMS value of emf induced = (Kd) (Kc) 4.44 f T

Volt

Armature
Reaction of
Alternator

Armature Reaction

Main Flux
Field Winding
Secondary Flux
Armature Winding
Effect of Armature Flux on the Main Flux is
called Armature Reaction

Armature Reaction in alternator


I.) When load p.f. is unity
II.) When load p.f. is zero lagging
III.) When load p.f. is zero leading

Armature Reaction in alternator


I.) When load p.f. is unity
distorted but not weakened.- the average flux in the
air-gap practically remains unaltered.
II.) When load p.f. is zero lagging
the flux in the air-gap is weakened- the field
excitation will have to be increased to compensate
III.) When load p.f. is zero leading

the effect of armature reaction is wholly


magnetizing- the field excitation will have to be
reduced

1. Unity Power Factor Load

Consider a purely resistive load connected to the


alternator, having unity power factor. As induced
e.m.f. Eph drives a current of Iaph and load power
factor is unity, Eph and Iph are in phase with each
other.
If f is the main flux produced by the field
winding responsible for producing Eph then Eph lags
f by 90o .
Now current through armature Ia, produces the
armature flux say a. So flux a and Ia are always in
the same direction.

Phase difference of 90o between the armature flux and the main flux
the two fluxes oppose each other on the left half of each pole while assist
each other on the right half of each pole.
Average flux in the air gap remains constant but its distribution gets
distorted.
Due to such distortion of the flux, there is small drop in the terminal voltage

2. Zero Lagging Power Factor Load

Consider a purely inductive load connected to the


alternator, having zero lagging power factor.
Iaph driven by Eph lags Eph by 90o which is the power
factor angle .
Induced e.m.f. Eph lags main flux f by 90o while
a is in the same direction as that of Ia.
the armature flux and the main flux are exactly in
opposite direction to each other.

As this effect causes reduction in the main flux, the terminal voltage
drops. This drop in the terminal voltage is more than the drop
corresponding to the unity p.f. load.

3. Zero Leading Power Factor Load

Consider a purely capacitive load connected to the


alternator having zero leading power factor.
This means that armature current Iaph driven by Eph,
leads Eph by 90o, which is the power factor angle .
Induced e.m.f. Eph lags f by 90o while Iaph and
a are always in the same direction.
the armature flux and the main field flux are in the
same direction

As this effect adds the flux to the main flux, greater


e.m.f. gets induced in the armature. Hence there is
increase in the terminal voltage for leading power factor
loads.

Phasor Diagram
for Synchronous
Generator/Alternator

Phasor Diagram of loaded


Alternator
Ef which denotes excitation voltage
Vt which denotes terminal voltage
Ia which denotes the armature current
which denotes the phase angle between Vt and Ia
which denotes the angle between the Ef and Ia
which denotes the angle between the Ef and Vt
ra which denotes the armature per phase resistance
Two important points:
(1) If a machine is working as a synchronous generator then
direction of Ia will be in phase to that of the Ef.
(2) Phasor Ef is always ahead of Vt.

Lagging PF

Unity PF

Leading PF

a. Alternator at Lagging PF
Ef by first taking the component of the Vt in the
direction of Ia
Component of Vt in the direction of Ia is Vtcos ,
Total voltage drop is (Vtcos+Iara) along the Ia.
we can calculate the voltage drop along the direction
perpendicular to Ia.
The total voltage drop perpendicular to Ia is
(Vtsin+IaXs).
With the help of triangle BOD in the first phasor
diagram we can write the expression for Ef as

b. Alternator at Unity PF

Ef by first taking the component of the Vt in


the direction of Ia.
= 0 hence we have =.
With the help of triangle BOD in the second
phasor diagram we can directly write the
expression for Ef as

c. Alternator at Leading PF

Component in the direction of Ia is Vtcos.


As the direction of Ia is same to that of the Vt thus
the total voltage drop is (Vtcos+Iara).
Similarly we can write expression for the voltage
drop along the direction perpendicular to Ia.
The total voltage drop comes out to be (Vtsin-IaXs).
With the help of triangle BOD in the first phasor
diagram we can write the expression for Ef as

Determination of the parameters of


the equivalent circuit from test data
The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator
that has been derived contains three quantities that
must be determined in order to completely
describe the behaviour of a real synchronous
generator:
The saturation characteristic: relationship between
If and (and therefore between If and Ef)
The synchronous reactance, Xs
The armature resistance, Ra

VOLTAGE
REGULATION
Voltage regulation of an alternator is
defined as the rise in terminal voltage of the
machine expressed as a fraction of
percentage of the initial voltage when
specified load at a particular power factor is
reduced to zero, the speed and excitation
remaining unchanged.

Voltage
Regulation
A convenient way to compare the voltage
behaviour of two generators is by their
voltage regulation (VR). The VR of a
synchronous generator at a given load,
power factor, and at rated speed is defined
as

VR =

Enl V fl
V fl

100%

Voltage
Regulation
Case 1: Lagging power factor:
A generator operating at a lagging power factor has a
positive voltage regulation.

Case 2: Unity power factor:


A generator operating at a unity power factor has a small
positive voltage regulation.

Case 3: Leading power factor:


A generator operating at a leading power factor has a
negative voltage regulation.

Voltage
Regulation
This value may be readily determined from
the phasor diagram for full load operation.
If the regulation is excessive, automatic
control of field current may be employed to
maintain a nearly constant terminal voltage
as load varies

Methods of
Determination of
voltage regulation

Methods of Determination of
voltage regulation
Synchronous Impedance Method / E.M.F.
Method
Ampere-turns method / M.M.F. method
ZPF(Zero Power Factor) Method / Potier
ASA Method

1. Synchronous Impedance
Method / E.M.F. Method
The method is also called E.M.F. method of determining
the regulation. The method requires following data to
calculate the regulation.
1. The armature resistance per phase (Ra).
2. Open circuit characteristics which is the graph of open
circuit voltage against the field current. This is possible by
conducting open circuit test on the alternator.
3. Short circuit characteristics which is the graph of short
circuit current against field current. This is possible by
conducting short circuit test on the alternator.

The alternator is coupled to a prime mover capable


of driving the alternator at its synchronous speed.
The armature is connected to the terminals of a
switch. The other terminals of the switch are short
circuited through an ammeter. The voltmeter is
connected across the lines to measure the open
circuit voltage of the alternator.
The field winding is connected to a suitable d.c.
supply with rheostat connected in series. The field
excitation i.e. field current can be varied with the
help of this rheostat. The circuit diagram is shown
in the Fig.

Circuit Diagram for OC & SC test

a. Open Circuit Test


Procedure to conduct this test is as follows :
i) Start the prime mover and adjust the speed to the synchronous
speed of the alternator.
ii) Keeping rheostat in the field circuit maximum, switch on the d.c.
supply.
iii) The T.P.S.T switch in the armature circuit is kept open.
iv) With the help of rheostat, field current is varied from its
minimum value to the rated value. Due to this, flux increasing
the induced e.m.f.
Hence voltmeter reading, which is measuring line value of open
circuit voltage increases. For various values of field current,
voltmeter readings are observed.

Open-circuit test Characteristics


The generator is turned at the rated speed
The terminals are disconnected from all loads, and
the field current is set to zero.
Then the field current is gradually increased in
steps, and the terminal voltage is measured at each
step along the way.
It is thus possible to obtain an open-circuit
characteristic of a generator (Ef or Vt versus If)
from this information

Connection for Open Circuit Test

Open-Circuit
Characteristic

Short-circuit
test
Adjust the field current to zero and shortcircuit the terminals of the generator
through a set of ammeters.
Record the armature current Isc as the field
current is increased.
Such a plot is called short-circuit
characteristic.

Short-circuit test
After completing the open circuit test observation, the field
rheostat is brought to maximum position, reducing field
current to a minimum value.
The T.P.S.T switch is closed. As ammeter has negligible
resistance, the armature gets short circuited. Then the field
excitation is gradually increased till full load current is
obtained through armature winding.
This can be observed on the ammeter connected in the
armature circuit. The graph of short circuit armature
current against field current is plotted from the observation
table of short circuit test. This graph is called short circuit
characteristics, S.C.C.

Short-circuit
test
Adjust the field current to zero and short-circuit
the terminals of the generator through a set of
ammeters.
Record the armature current Isc as the field current
is increased.
Such a plot is called short-circuit characteristic.

Connection for Short


Circuit Test

Open and short circuit


characteristic

Curve feature
The OCC will be nonlinear due to the
saturation of the magnetic core at higher
levels of field current. The SCC will be
linear since the magnetic core does not
saturate under short-circuit conditions.

Determination of Xs
For a particular field current IfA, the internal voltage Ef (=VA) could be found from
the occ and the short-circuit current flow Isc,A could be found from the scc.
Then the synchronous reactance Xs could be obtained using

Z s ,unsat =
Ef or Vt (V)

Air-gap line
OCC

Vrated

Isc (A)
SCC

VA

IfB

2
s ,unsat

V A (= E f

I scA

X s ,unsat = Z s2,unsat Ra2


: Ra is known from the DC test.

Isc,B

IfA

R +X
2
a

Isc, A
If (A)

Since Xs,unsat>>Ra,

X s ,unsat

Ef
I scA

Vt , oc
I scA

Xs under saturated condition


Ef or Vt (V)

Air-gap line
OCC

Vrated

SCC

VA

Isc,B

At V = Vrated,
Z s , sat =

R +X
2
a

2
s ,sat

Vrated (= E f

Isc (A)

Isc, A
IfA

If (A)
IfB

I scB

X s , sat = Z s2, sat Ra2: Ra is known from the DC test.

Advantages and Limitations of


Synchronous Impedance Method
The value of synchronous impedance Zs for any load
condition can be calculated. Hence regulation of the
alternator at any load condition and load power factor can
be determined. Actual load need not be connected to the
alternator and hence method can be used for very high
capacity alternators.
The main limitation of this method is that the method
gives large values of synchronous reactance. This leads to
high values of percentage regulation than the actual results.
Hence this method is called pessimistic method

Equivalent circuit & phasor diagram under


condition

jXs

Ra
Vt=0

Ef

Ia
Ef

jIaXs

+
Vt=0

Ia

I aR a

Short-circuit Ratio
Another parameter used to describe synchronous generators is the
short-circuit ratio (SCR). The SCR of a generator defined as the ratio
of the field current required for the rated voltage at open circuit to the
field current required for the rated armature current at short circuit.
SCR is just the reciprocal of the per unit value of the saturated
synchronous reactance calculated by
Ef or Vt (V)

Air-gap line

Isc (A)
OCC

Vrated

SCC
Isc,rated

I f _ Vrated
SCR =
I f _ Iscrated
=

If_V rated

If_Isc rated

If (A)

X s _ sat [in p .u .]

Synchronous Generator Capability


Curves
Synchronous generator capability curves are used to
determine the stability of the generator at various points of
operation. A particular capability curve generated in Lab
VIEW for an apparent power of 50,000W is shown in Fig.
The maximum prime-mover power is also reflected in it.

Capability
Curve

2. MMF method (Ampere turns method)


Tests:
Conduct tests to find
OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF
SCC (for rated current)
refer diagram EMF

3. ZPF method (Potier method)


Tests:
Conduct tests to find
OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF
SCC (for rated current)
refer diagram EMF
ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)
Armature Resistance (if required)

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

4. ASA method
Tests:
Conduct tests to find
OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF
SCC (for rated current)
refer diagram EMF
ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)
Armature Resistance (if required)

Losses and
Efficiency
The losses in synchronous generator include:
1. Copper losses in
a) Armature
b) Field winding
c) The contacts between brushes
2. Core losses, Eddy current losses and
Hysteresis losses

Losses
3. Friction and windage losses,the brush
friction at the slip rings.
4. Stray load losses caused by eddy currents in
the armature conductors and by additional
core loss due to the distribution of magnetic
field under load conditions.

synchronous generator power flow


diagram

The three-phase synchronous generator power flow diagram

Synchronization
& Parallel
operation of
Alternator

Parallel operation of synchronous generators

There are several major advantages to operate generators in


parallel:

Several generators can supply a bigger load than one machine


by itself.
Having many generators increases the reliability of the power
system.
It allows one or more generators to be removed for shutdown
or preventive maintenance.

Synchronization
Before connecting a generator in parallel with another
generator, it must be synchronized. A generator is said to be
synchronized when it meets all the following conditions:

The rms line voltages of the two generators must be


equal.
The two generators must have the same phase sequence.
The phase angles of the two a phases must be equal.
The oncoming generator frequency is equal to the
running system frequency.
a
Generator 1

Load

c
Switch

a/
Generator 2

b/
c/

Parallel operation of
synchronous generators
Most of synchronous generators are operating in parallel with other
synchronous generators to supply power to the same power system.
Obvious advantages of this arrangement are:
1. Several generators can supply a bigger load;
2. A failure of a single generator does not result in a total power loss to the load
increasing reliability of the power system;
3. Individual generators may be removed from the power system for maintenance
without shutting down the load;
4. A single generator not operating at near full load might be quite inefficient.
While having several generators in parallel, it is possible to turn off some of
them when operating the rest at near full-load condition.

Conditions required for


paralleling
A diagram shows that Generator 2
(oncoming generator) will be connected
in parallel when the switch S1 is closed.
However, closing the switch at an
arbitrary moment can severely
damage both generators!
If voltages are not exactly the same in both lines (i.e. in a and a, b and b etc.), a
very large current will flow when the switch is closed. Therefore, to avoid this,
voltages coming from both generators must be exactly the same. Therefore, the
following conditions must be met:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The rms line voltages of the two generators must be equal.


The two generators must have the same phase sequence.
The phase angles of two a phases must be equal.
The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher than the
frequency of the running system.

Conditions required for


paralleling
If the phase sequences are different,
then even if one pair of voltages
(phases a) are in phase, the other two
pairs will be 1200 out of phase creating
huge currents in these phases.

If the frequencies of the generators are different, a large power transient may occur
until the generators stabilize at a common frequency. The frequencies of two
machines must be very close to each other but not exactly equal. If frequencies
differ by a small amount, the phase angles of the oncoming generator will change
slowly with respect to the phase angles of the running system.
If the angles between the voltages can be observed, it is possible to close the
switch S1 when the machines are in phase.

General procedure for


paralleling generators
When connecting the generator G2 to the running system, the following steps
should be taken:
1. Adjust the field current of the oncoming generator to make its terminal voltage
equal to the line voltage of the system (use a voltmeter).
2. Compare the phase sequences of the oncoming generator and the running
system. This can be done by different ways:
1) Connect a small induction motor to the terminals of the oncoming generator
and then to the terminals of the running system. If the motor rotates in the
same direction, the phase sequence is the same;
2) Connect three light bulbs across the
open terminals of the switch. As the phase
changes between the two generators, light
bulbs get brighter (large phase difference)
or dimmer (small phase difference). If all
three bulbs get bright and dark together,
both generators have the same phase
sequences.

General procedure for


paralleling generators
If phase sequences are different, two of the conductors on the oncoming
generator must be reversed.
3. The frequency of the oncoming generator is adjusted to be slightly higher than
the systems frequency.
4. Turn on the switch connecting G2 to the system when phase angles are equal.
The simplest way to determine the moment when two generators are in phase is by
observing the same three light bulbs. When all three lights go out, the voltage
across them is zero and, therefore, machines are in phase.
A more accurate way is to use a synchroscope a meter
measuring the difference in phase angles between two a
phases. However, a synchroscope does not check the
phase sequence since it only measures the phase
difference in one phase.
The whole process is usually automated

Synchronization

Generat
or

Load

Rest of the
power system

Xs1
Ef1
Xs2
Ef2

Generato
r

Xsn
Efn

Infinite bus
V, f are
constant
Xs eq = 0

Concept of the infinite bus


When a synchronous generator is connected to a power
system, the power system is often so large that nothing, the
operator of the generator does, will have much of an effect
on the power system. An example of this situation is the
connection of a single generator to the power grid. Our
power grid is so large that no reasonable action on the part
of one generator can cause an observable change in
overall grid frequency. This idea is idealized in the concept
of an infinite bus. An infinite bus is a power system so large
that its voltage and frequency do not vary regardless of
how much real or reactive power is drawn from or supplied
to it.

Steady-state powerangle characteristics

Active and reactive power-angle characteristics

Pm

Pe, Qe
Vt

Fig. Synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus.

P>0: generator operation


P<0: motor operation
Positive Q: delivering inductive vars for a generator action or
receiving inductive vars for a motor action
Negaive Q: delivering capacitive vars for a generator action or
receiving capacitive vars for a motor action

Active and reactive power-angle characteristics


Pm

Pe, Qe
Vt

The real and reactive power delivered by a synchronous


generator or consumed by a synchronous motor can be
expressed in terms of the terminal voltage Vt, generated voltage
Ef, synchronous impedance Zs, and the power angle or torque
angle .
Referring to Fig. 8, it is convenient to adopt a convention that
makes positive real power P and positive reactive power Q
delivered by an overexcited generator.
The generator action corresponds to positive value of , while
the motor action corresponds to negative value of .

Active and reactive power-angle characteristics


Pm

The complex power output of the generator in voltamperes per phase is given by

Pe, Qe
Vt

S = P + jQ = V t I *a

where:
Vt = terminal voltage per phase
Ia* = complex conjugate of the armature current per phase
Taking the terminal voltage as reference
_

V t = Vt + j 0

the excitation( at stator in case of motor) or the generated voltage,


_

E f = E f (cos + j sin )

Active and reactive power-angle characteristics


and the armature current,
_

E f V t
Ia =
=
jX s
_

(E

cos Vt ) + jE f sin

Pm

jX s

where Xs is the synchronous reactance per phase.


_

S = P + jQ = V t I

*
a = Vt

P=
Q=

Vt E f sin
Xs

Vt E f sin
Xs

&

Vt E f cos Vt2
Xs

E f cos Vt jE f sin

jX

s
+j

Vt E f cos Vt2
Xs

Pe, Qe
Vt

Active and reactive power-angle characteristics


Pm

Pe, Qe
Vt

P=

Vt E f sin
Xs

&

Q=

Vt E f cos Vt2
Xs

The above two equations for active and reactive powers hold
good for cylindrical-rotor synchronous machines for negligible
resistance
To obtain the total power for a three-phase generator, the above
equations should be multiplied by 3 when the voltages are line-toneutral
If the line-to-line magnitudes are used for the voltages, however,
these equations give the total three-phase power

Steady-state power-angle or torque-angle characteristic of a


cylindrical-rotor synchronous machine (with negligible
armature resistance).
Real power or
torque
Pull-out
torque as a
generator

generato
r

/2
0

+/2

motor

Pull-out
torque as a
motor

Steady-state stability limit


Total three-phase power:P =

3Vt E f
Xs

sin

The above equation shows that the power produced by a


synchronous generator depends on the angle between the Vt and
Ef. The maximum power that the generator can supply occurs when
=90o.
P=

3Vt E f
Xs

The maximum power indicated by this equation is called steady-state


stability limit of the generator. If we try to exceed this limit (such as by
admitting more steam to the turbine), the rotor will accelerate and lose
synchronism with the infinite bus. In practice, this condition is never
reached because the circuit breakers trip as soon as synchronism is
lost. We have to resynchronize the generator before it can again pick
up the load. Normally, real generators never even come close to the
limit. Full-load torque angle of 15o to 20o are more typical of real
machines.

Pull-out torque
The maximum torque or pull-out torque per phase that a twopole round-rotor synchronous motor can develop is
Tmax =

Pmax
Pmax
=
n
m
2 s
60

where ns is the synchronous speed of the motor in rpm


P or Q
P
Q

Fig. Active and reactive power as a function of the internal angle

BLONDELS TWO REACTION


THEORY

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

BLONDELS TWO REACTION


THEORY
In case of cylindrical pole machines, the direct-axis
and the quadrature axis mmfs act on the same magnetic
circuits, hence they can be summed up as complexors.
However, in a salient-pole machine, the two mmfs do not
act on the same magnetic circuit.
The direct axis component Fad operates over a
magnetic circuit identical with that of the field system,
while the q-axis component Faq is applied across the
interpole space, producing a flux distribution different
from that of Fad or the Field mmf.

The Blondel's two reaction theory hence


considers the results of the cross and directreaction components separately and if saturation
is neglected, accounts for their different effects
by assigning to each an appropriate value for
armature-reaction "reactive" respectively Xaq and
Xad .
Considering the leakage reactance, the combined reactance
values becomes
Xad = X + X ad and X sq = X aq
Xsq < Xsd as a given current component of the q-axis gives rise
to a smaller flux due to the higher reluctance of the magnetic path.

Let lq and Id be the q and d-axis components


of the current I in the armature reference to the
phasor diagram in Figure. We get the following
relationships

Iq= I cos (+) Ia = I cos


Id = I sin (+ ) Ir = I sin
I = (Id2 + Iq2)= = (Id2 + Ir2)
where Ia and Ir are the active and reactive
components of current I.

SLIP TEST

Slip Test (for salient pole machines only)

Short Circuit Transients


for Synchronous
Generator

Short Circuit Phenomenon


Consider a two pole elementary single phase alternator with concentrated
stator winding as shown in Fig. 4. Consider a two pole elementary single
phase alternator with concentrated stator winding as shown in Fig. 4.

The corresponding waveforms for stator and rotor currents are shown in the
Fig

Let short circuit occurs at position of rotor shown in Fig. 4(a)


when there are no stator linkages. After 1/4 Rev as shown Fig. 4(b), it
tends to establish full normal linkage in stator winding. The stator
opposes this by a current in the shown direction as to force the flux in
the leakage path. The rotor current must increase to maintain its flux
constant. It reduces to normal at position (c) where stator current is
again reduces to zero. The waveform of stator current and field current
shown in the Fig. 5. changes totally if the position of rotor at the instant
of short circuit is different. Thus the short circuit current is a function of
relative position of stator and rotor.
Using the theorem of constant linkages a three phase short
circuit can also be studied. After the instant of short circuit the flux
linking with the stator will not change. A stationary image of main pole
flux is produced in the stator. Thus a d.c. component of current is
carried by each phase.
The magnitude of d.c. component of current is different for each
phase as the instant on the voltage wave at which short circuit occurs is
different for each phase. The rotor tries to maintain its own poles

The rotor current is normal each time when rotor poles


occupy the position same as that during short circuit and the
current in the stator will be zero if the machine is previously
unloaded. After one half cycle from this position the stator and
rotor poles are again coincident but the poles are opposite. To
maintain the flux linkages constant, the current in rotor reaches to
its peak value.
The stationary field produced by poles on the stator
induces a normal frequency emf in the rotor. Thus the rotor
current is fluctuating whose resultant a.c. component develops
fundamental frequency flux which rotates and again produces in
the stator winding double frequency or second harmonic
currents. Thus the waveform of transient current consists of
fundamental, a.c. and second harmonic components of currents.
Thus whenever short circuit occurs in three phase generator
then the stator currents are distorted from pure sine wave and
are similar to those obtained when an alternating voltage is
suddenly applied to series R-L circuit.

Stator Currents during Short Circuit

If a generator having negligible resistance, excited and


running on no load is suddenly undergoing short circuit at its
terminals, then the emf induced in the stator winding is used
to circulate short circuit current through it. Initially the
reactance to be taken into consideration is not the
synchronous reactance of the machine. The effect of armature
flux (reaction) is to reduce the main field flux.
But the flux linking with stator and rotor can not change
instantaneously because of the induction associated with the
windings. Thus at the short circuit instant, the armature
reaction is ineffective. It will not reduce the main flux. Thus
the synchronous reactance will not come into picture at the
moment of short circuit. The only limiting factor for short
circuit current at this instant is the leakage reactance.

After some time from the instant of short circuit, the


armature reaction slowly shows its effect and the alternator then
reaches to steady state. Thus the short circuit current reaches to
high value for some time and then settles to steady value.
It can be seen that during the initial instant of short circuit
is dependent on induced emf and leakage reactance which is
similar to the case which we have considered previously of
voltage source suddenly applied to series R-L circuit. The
instant in the cycle at which short occurs also affects the short
circuit current. Near zero e.m.f. (or voltage) it has doubling
effect. The expressions that we have derived are applicable only
during initial conditions of short circuit as the induced emf also
reduces after some tome because of increased armature
reaction.
The short circuit currents in the three phases during short
circuit are as shown in the Fig(next slide)

Capability Curves of
Synchronous
Generators

The rating of synchronous generators is specified in terms of


maximum apparent power in KVA and MVA load at a specified
power factor (normally 80, 85 or 90 percent lagging) and voltage for
which they are designed to operate under steady state conditions.
This load is carried by the alternators continuously without
overheating. With the help of automatic voltage regulators the
terminal voltage of the alternator is kept constant (normally within
5% of rated voltage).

The power factor is also important factor that must be specified.


This is because the alternator that is designed to operate at 0.95 p.f.
lagging at rated load will require more field current when operate at
0.85 p.f. lagging at rated load. More field current results in
overheating of the field system which is undesirable. For this
compounding curves of the alternators can be drawn.

If synchronous generator is supplying power at constant


frequency to a load whose power factor is constant then curve
showing variation of field current versus armature current when
constant power factor load is varied is called compounding curve for
alternator.

To maintain the terminal voltage constant the lagging power factors


require more field excitation that that required for leading power
factors. Hence there is limitation on output given by exciter and
current flowing in field coils because of lagging power factors.
The ability of prime mover decides the active power output of the
alternator which is limited to a value within the apparent power
rating. The capability curve for synchronous generator specifies the
bounds within which it can operate safely.
The loading on generator should not exceed the generator rating as it
may lead to heating of stator. The turbine rating is the limiting factor
for MW loading. The operation of generator should be away from
steady state stability limit ( = 90o). The field current should not
exceed its limiting value as it may cause rotor heating.
All these considerations provides performance curves which are
important in practical applications. A set of capability curves for an
alternator is shown in Fig. 2. The effect of increased Hydrogen
pressure is shown which increases the cooling.

When the active power and voltage are fixed the allowable reactive
power loading is limited by either armature or field winding heating.
From the capability curve shown in Fig. 2, the maximum reactive
power loadings can be obtained for different power loadings with
the operation at rated voltage. From unity p.f. to rated p.f. (0.8 as
shown in Fig. 2), the limiting factor is armature heating while for
lower power factors field heating is limiting factor.
This fact can be derived as follows :

If the alternator is operating is constant terminal voltage and


armature current which the limiting value corresponding to heating
then the operation of alternator is at constant value of apparent
power as the apparent power is product of terminal voltage and
current, both of which are constant.

If P is per unit active power and Q is per unit reactive power


then per unit apparent power is given by,

Similarly, considering the alternator to be operating at constant terminal


voltage and field current (hence E) is limited to a maximum value obtained
by heating limits.

Thus induced voltage E is given by,


If Ra is assumed to be zero then
The apparent power can be written as,
Substituting value of a obtained from (1) in equation (2),
Taking magnitudes,

This equation also represents a circle with centre at (0, -Vt2/Xs). These two circles are
represents in the Fig. 3 (see next post as Fig. 1). The field heating and armature heating
limitation on machine operation can be seen from this Fig. 3 (see next post as Fig.1).
The rating of machine which consists of apparent power and power factor is specified as
the point of intersection of these circles as shown in the Fig. 4. So that the machine operates
safely.

UNIT-2
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Presented by
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE

UNIT 2 Syllabus

Synchronous Motor

3 phase AC supply is given to the stator and


mechanical energy is obtained from the rotor
Reverse of alternator operation
However, field poles are given electrical
supply to excite the poles (electromagnets !)
Rated between 150kW to 15MW with speeds
ranging from 150 to 1800 rpm.
Constant speed motor

Rotating Magnetic Field


(RMF)

Basics Rotating Magnetic Field

When 3 phase supply is given to the stator


winding, 3 phase current flows which
produces 3 phase flux
The MMF wave of the stator will have
rotating effect on the rotor
The effect of the field will be equal to that
produced by a rotating pole

Rotating Magnetic Field (R.M.F)


contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

=
R =
m sin .......................(a)
m sin t

=
m sin (t 120=
) m sin ( 120 ) ...................(b)
Y
=
m sin (t 240=
) m sin ( 240 ) ...................(c)
B

RMF contd.

Looking back at the waveform again, we see


that at any instant, one waveform has zero
magnitude and one has a positive value and
the other, negative value
Let us consider at the following instances
0, 60, 120, 180 degrees

RMF contd.

Case (i) = 0

(look at the waveform)

RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 0 in equations a, b, c

=
R =
=
m sin
m sin 0 0
3
Y =
m sin ( 120 ) =
m sin ( 0 120 ) =
m
2
3
B =
m sin ( 240 ) =
m sin ( 0 240 ) =
+ m
2

RMF contd.

Case (i) - Phasor diagram

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

Case (ii) = 60

(look at the waveform)

RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 60 in equations a, b, c

sin 60
=
R =
m=
m sin

3
m
2

3
Y =
m sin ( 120 ) =
m sin ( 60 120 ) =

m
2
=
m sin ( 240=
) m sin ( 60 240=) 0
B

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

Case (iii) = 120

(look at the waveform)

RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 120 in equations a, b, c

3
=
R =
m sin120
=
m
m sin
2
=
m sin ( 120=
) m sin (120 120=) 0
Y
3
R =
m sin ( 240 ) =
m sin (120 240 ) =

m
2

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

Case (iv) = 180

(look at the waveform)

RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 180 in equations a, b, c

=
R =
m sin180
= 0
m sin
3
=
m sin ( 120=
m
) m sin (180 120=)
Y
2
3
B =
m sin ( 240 ) =
m sin (180 240 ) =

m
2

RMF contd.

RMF contd.

It is found that the resultant flux line is


rotating at constant magnitude
This we refer as rotating field or revolving
field
The speed at which it rotates will be at
synchronous speed Ns = (120 f / P )
Direction of rotation will be in the clockwise
direction as shown in the previous slide

Principle of
operation

Operation

We have a rotating field at the stator


Rotor is another magnet
If properly aligned (?!) these two magnets will
attract each other
Since the stator field is rotating at
synchronous speed, it will carry the rotor
magnet along with it due to attraction
(magnetic locking)

Magnetic Locking - Illustration

Operation contd.

Why - ?

It is true that magnetic locking will make the


rotor run at synchronous speed
Locking cannot happen instantly in a
machine (?)
This makes synchronous motors not self
starting

Not self starting

Due to inertia

How to make Syn. Motor self


starting

If the rotor is moved by external means (to


overcome inertial force acting on it) then
there is a chance for the motor to get started

Procedure to make SM self start

3 ph supply is given to the stator


Motor is driven by external means
Rotor is excited
At an instant rotor poles will be locked with
the stator field and motor will run at syn.
speed

Back EMF &


V Curves ,
Inverted V Curves

EMF generation in a motor ? !

We call it as back emf


Similar to generated emf in an alternator
Rotor rotating at synchronous speed will
induce emf in the stationary armature
conductors
The ac voltage applied has to overcome this
back emf to circulate current through the
armature winding

Back emf

Eb = 4.44 K C K d fT

As given, emf is proportional to flux

Back emf

Slight deviation from the topic (?)

Coming back to Back emf

Increase in Load

In a Synchronous motor with increase in load


increases

Increase in Load, o.k What about


the speed ?

The speed of the Synchronous motor speed


stays constant at synchronous speed even
when the load is increased
Magnetic locking between the stator and
rotor (stiffness of coupling) keeps the rotor
run at synchronous speed
But when the angle of separation () is 90,
then stiffness (locking) is lost and the motor
ceases to run

At constant load, varying the


excitation

Kindly see to it that

In all the cases discussed above, magnitude


of current vector changes
Power factor changes
But the product Icos would be constant so
that active power drawn by the machine
remains constant

What actually happens ?

The resultant air gap flux is due to ac


armature winding and dc field winding
If the field is sufficient enough to set up the
constant air gap flux then the magnetizing
armature current required from the ac source
is zero hence the machine operates at
unity power factor this field current is the
normal field current or normal excitation

What actually happens ?

If the field current is less than the normal


excitation then the machine is under
excited
This deficiency in flux must be made by the
armature mmf so the armature winding
draws magnetizing current or lagging
reactive MVA leaving the machine to
operate at lagging power factor

What actually happens ?

In case the field current is made more than


its normal operation then the machine is
over excited
This excess flux must be neutralized by the
armature mmf so the machine draws
demagnetizing current or leading reactive
MVA leaving the machine to operate at
leading power factor

Better illustration

Better Illustration

Similarly,

Synchronous motor in pf
improvement

This feature of synchronous motor makes it


suitable for improving the power factor of the
system
Motors are overexcited so that it draws
leading current from the supply
The motor here is referred to as synchronous
condenser

V - curves

Inverted V - curves

CIRCLE
DIAGRAM

Circle Diagrams

This offers a quick graphical solution to many


problems

Circle Diagrams contd.

Excitation Circle diagram


It gives the locus of armature current, as the
excitation voltage and load angle are varied

Excitation Circle Diagram

It is based on the voltage equation of a motor


given by

V=t E f + I a Z s

It can be expressed as

I=
a

Ef
Vt

Zs
Zs

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.


I=
a

Ef
Vt

Zs
Zs

Each component in the above expression is


a current component
It can be taken in such a way that they lag
from their corresponding voltage component
by power factor angle

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Same result can be obtained mathematically


as follows
With Vt as reference

I=
a

Ef
Vt

Zs
Zs

Vt 0 E f
=
Ia

Z s
Z s

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.


I=
a

Ef
Vt


Zs
Zs

Ef
Vt

=
cos ( + ) j sin ( + ) )
I a ( cos j sin )
(
Zs
Zs

Re arranging
Ef
Vt

=
I a cos cos ( + ) +
Zs
Zs

Ef
Vt

j sin + sin ( + )
Zs
Zs

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.


Magnitude
2

V
V

I a2 t cos
=
cos ( + ) + t sin +
sin ( + )
Zs
Zs
Zs
Zs

Ef

Ef

Vt E f
Vt E f
I = +
cos ( + ) cos + sin ( + ) sin
2
Zs Zs
Zs Zs
2
a

V Ef
Vt E f

2
I a2 = t +
( cos cos sin sin ) cos + ( sin cos + cos sin ) sin

Z
Z
Z
Z
s
s
s s

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.


2

V Ef
V Ef
I a2 = t + 2 t
( cos cos sin sin ) cos + ( sin cos + cos sin ) sin
Zs Zs
Zs Zs
2

V Ef
V Ef
cos cos 2 sin sin cos + sin cos sin + cos sin 2
I a2 = t + 2 t
Zs Zs
Zs Zs
2

Vt E f
Vt E f
cos cos 2 + cos sin 2
I = + 2
Zs Zs
Zs Zs
2
a

I a2

V
E
V Ef
= t + f 2 t
cos
Z
Z
Z
Z
s
s
s
s

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.


2

Vt E f
Vt E f
cos
I = + 2
Zs Zs
Zs Zs
2
a

The above equation says that Vt / Zs is one


side of a triangle, whose other side is given
by Ef / Zs
The third side is given by Ia

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Coming back to our diagram (kindly verify the


sides)

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

In the diagram, if Vt is assumed constant,


then Vt / Zs is a constant
Now, if Ef (the excitation) is fixed, Ef / Zs
vector and Ia vector follow the path of a circle
as load is changed on the motor
This locus is referred to as Excitation circle
Excitation circle defines the magnitude and
power factor of Ia and the load angle , for
different shaft loads

Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Same old diagram

Power Circle Diagram

This again gives the locus of armature


current, as the mechanical power developed
and power factor is varied

Power Circle Diagram

Power output per phase is given as

=
P Vt I a cos I a2 ra

P is the mechanical power developed


including iron and mechanical losses

Power Circle Diagram

The equation can be written as,


Dividing the whole equation by ra and
rearranging it, we get
Vt
P
I
I a cos +
0
=
ra
ra
2
a

Vt
P
I cos + I sin I a cos + =
0
ra
ra
2
a

2
a

Power Circle Diagram


Vt
P
I cos + I sin I a cos + =
0
ra
ra
2
a

2
a

Subsitituting x = Ia sin and y = Ia cos, the equation


becomes

Vt
P
x +y
y+
=
0
ra
ra
2

This is equation of circle with


=
centre

Vt
radius
0,

&=
2ra

Vt
P

r
ra
2
a

Power Circle Diagram

Power Circle Diagram

Alternatively,
We know,

Vt
P
I I a cos + =
0
ra
ra
Adding Vt / 2 ra on either side we get,

2
a

Vt
P Vt Vt
I I a cos + +
=

ra
ra 2ra 2ra
2
a

Power Circle Diagram


Re arranging ,
2

Vt
Vt
Vt
P
I +
I
cos

a
r
r
r
ra
2
2
a
a
a
2
a

Slight Modification, yields


2

Vt
Vt P
Vt
I +
I a cos =
2

2ra
2ra
2ra ra
2
a

Power Circle Diagram


2

Vt
Vt P
Vt
2
Ia +
I a cos =
2

2ra
2ra
2ra ra

The above expression shows that


2

Vt
P


ra
2ra

is one side of a triangle whose other two


sides are Ia and Vt / 2ra seperated by

Power Circle Diagram

Going back to the power circle diagram

Power Circle Diagram - Inference

At Pmax, armature current is in phase with


Vt/2ra, hence the power factor is unity
Magnitude of armature current is given by
Vt/2ra

Power Circle Diagram - Inference

At Pmax, we know, radius of the power circle


is zero
Substituting, radius = 0, we get
2

Vt Pmax
=
0


ra
2ra

Pmax

Vt 2
=
4ra

Power Circle Diagram- Inference

Maximum power input,

Vt
Pin ,max
= Vt I a cos=
Vt
2ra

Vt 2
=
.1
2ra

Efficiency is given by
2
V
(
Pmax
t / 4ra )
=
=
= 50%
2
Pin ,max (Vt / 2ra )

Power Circle Diagram- Inference

As we see, 50 % efficiency is too low a value


for synchronous motor
At this efficiency, since the losses are about
half of that of the input, temperature rise
reaches the permissible limit
As such, maximum power output presented
earlier cannot be met in practice

Power Circle Diagram- Inference

V curves

(again?!)

We know, excitation circle diagram shows


locus of armature current as a function of
excitation voltage
Power circle diagram shows locus of
armature current as a function of power
When these two circles are super imposed

V curves contd.

TORQUE EQUATION
& POWER
EQUATION

Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

Consider the phasor diagram

Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

In a motor power developed can be given as

Pm = Eb I a cos

Looking at the phasor diagram again

Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

We need to manipulate the vector diagram to


arrive at the expression

Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

Torque Developed by Synchronous


Motor

We know(e), T (2 Ns) = P if Ns is in rps


So, T = P / (2 Ns)
or T = P / (2 Ns) if Ns is in rpm

Maximum power developed

Condition for maximum power developed can


be found by differentiating the power
expression by and equating it to zero (as
usual)
2
EbV
Eb
=
cos ( )
cos
Pm
Zs
Zs

Differentiating ,
dPm
EbV
=

sin (
d
Zs

0
)=

Maximum power developed condition


EbV
sin (

Zs

0
)=

sin ( ) =
0

=
0
=

Maximum power developed

Substituting = , in the power expression,


we get,

EbV Eb2
cos

Pm=
,max
Zs
Zs
or
Pm=
,max

EbV Eb2

cos
Zs
Zs

Maximum power developed

If

Ra 0
Pm ,max

EbV
=
Zs

Substituting, cos = Ra / Zs
Pm=
,max

EbV Eb2 Ra

Zs
Zs Zs

Maximum power developed

Pm=
,max

Solving ,
Zs
E=
b
2 Ra

EbV
Eb2 Ra

Zs
Zs Zs

V V 2 4 R ( P

)
a
m ,max

Maximum power developed


condition

As the equation says, Power developed


depends on excitation

EbV
Eb2
cos ( )
cos
=
Pm
Zs
Zs

Differentiating with respect to Eb

dPm
Eb
d EbV
=

cos ( )=
cos 0

dEb dEb Z s
Zs

Maximum power developed condition


2

dPm
Eb
d EbV
=
cos ( )=

cos 0

dEb dEb Z s
Zs

Eb

VZ s
=
2 Ra

Maximum power developed condition


Eb

VZ s
=
2 Ra

This is the value of Eb which will make


developed power to be maximum
The maximum power is given by substituting
the condition (Eb) in Pm expression
Pm=
,max

V2
V2

2 Ra 4 Ra

Operation of
infinite bus
bars
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Operation of AC Generators in Parallel


with Large Power Systems
Isolated synchronous generator supplying its own load is very
rare (emergency generators)
In general applications more than one generator operating in
parallel to supply loads
In Iran national grid hundreds of generators share the load on
the system
Advantages of generators operating in parallel:
1- several generators can supply a larger load
2- having many generators in parallel increase the
reliability of power system
3- having many generators operating in parallel allows
one or more of them to be removed for shutdown &
preventive maintenance
4- if only one generator employed & not operating near full load, it
will be relatively inefficient

Operation of AC Generators in Parallel


with Large Power Systems
INFINITE BUS

When a Syn. Gen. connected to power system,


power sys. is so large that nothing operator of
generator does, have much effect on pwr. sys.
Example: connection of a single generator to a
large power grid (i.e. Iran grid), no reasonable
action on part of one generator can cause an
observable change in overall grid frequency
This idea belong to definition of Infinite Bus
which is: a so large power system, that its
voltage & frequency do not vary, (regardless of
amount of real and reactive power load)

Operation of AC Generators in Parallel


with Large Power Systems
When a syn. Gen.
connected to a
power system:
1-The real power
versus frequency
characteristic of
such a system
2-And the reactive
power-voltage
characteristic

Operation of AC Generators in Parallel


with Large Power Systems
Behavior of a generator
connected to a large
system
A generator connected in
parallel with a large
system as shown
Frequency & voltage of
all machines must be the
same, their real powerfrequency (& reactive
power-voltage)
characteristics plotted
back to back

Operation of AC Generators in Parallel


with Large Power Systems
Assume generator just been paralleled with
infinite bus, generator will be floating on the
line, supplying a small amount of real power
and little or no reactive power
Suppose generator paralleled, however its
frequency being slightly lower than systems
operating frequency
At this frequency power supplied by
generator is less than systems operating
frequency, generator will consume energy and
runs as motor

Operation of AC Generators in Parallel


with Large Power Systems
In order that a generator comes on line and
supply power instead of consuming it, we
should ensure that oncoming machines
frequency is adjusted higher than running
systems frequency
Many generators have reverse-power trip
system
And if such a generator ever starts to consume
power it will be automatically disconnected from
line

Starting Methods
of Syn Motor

As seen earlier, synchronous motor is not self


starting. It is necessary to rotate the rotor at a
speed very near to synchronous speed. This is
possible by various method in practice. The
various methods to start the synchronous motor
are,
1. Using pony motors
2. Using damper winding
3. As a slip ring induction motor
4. Using small d.c. machine coupled to it.

1. Using pony motors


In this method, the rotor is brought to the
synchronous speed with the help of some
external device like small induction motor. Such
an external device is called 'pony motor'.

Once the rotor attains the synchronous


speed, the d.c. excitation to the rotor is switched
on. Once the synchronism is established pony
motor is decoupled. The motor then continues to
rotate as synchronous motor.

2. Using Damper Winding

3. As a Slip Ring Induction Motor


Refer Unit 3 for detail understanding

4. Using Small D.C. Machine


Many a times, a large synchronous motor are provided
with a coupled d.c. machine. This machine is used as a
d.c. motor to rotate the synchronous motor at a
synchronous speed. Then the excitation to the rotor is
provided. Once motor starts running as a synchronous
motor, the same d.c. machine acts as a d.c. generator
called exciter. The field of the synchronous motor is then
excited by this exciter itself.

Current loci for constant


power input, constant
excitation and constant power
developed
Refer Book for
detail study

Current loci for constant power input

Current loci for constant power


developed(PM)

Current locus for constant Excitation

HUNTING

Natural
frequency of
oscillations
Refer Book

Damper
windings
Refer Book for
detail study

Synchronous motors are not self starting machines. These


machines are made self starting by providing a special winding in the
rotor poles, known as damper winding or squirrel cage windings. The
damper winding consists of short circuited copper bars embedded in the
face of the rotor poles
When an ac supply is provided to stator of a 3-phase
synchronous motor, stator winding produces rotating magnetic field.
Due to the damper winding present in the rotor winding of the
synchronous motor, machine starts as induction motor (Induction
machine works on the principle of induction. Damper windings in
synchronous motor will carryout the same task of induction motor rotor
windings.
Therefore due to damper windings synchronous motor starts as
induction motor and continue to accelerate). The exciter for synchronous
motor moves along with rotor. When the motor attains about 95% of the
synchronous speed, the rotor windings is connected to exciter terminals
and the rotor is magnetically locked by the rotating magnetic field of
stator and it runs as a synchronous motor.

Functions of Damper Windings:


Damper windings helps the synchronous motor to start
on its own (self starting machine) by providing starting
torque
By providing damper windings in the rotor of
synchronous motor "Hunting of machine can be
suppressed.
When there is change in load, excitation or change in
other conditions of the systems rotor of the synchronous
motor will oscillate to and fro about an equilibrium
position. At times these oscillations becomes more
violent and resulting in loss of synchronism of the motor
and comes to halt.

Synchronous
Condensers

When synchronous motor is over excited it takes leading


p.f. current. If synchronous motor is on no load, where
load angle is very small and it is over excited (Eb > V)
then power factor angle increases almost up to 90o. And
motor runs with almost zero leading power factor
condition.

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

This characteristics is similar to a normal capacitor


which takes leading power factor current. Hence over
excited synchronous motor operating on no load
condition is called as synchronous condenser or
synchronous capacitor. This is the property due to which
synchronous motor is used as a phase advancer or as
power improvement device.
Disadvantage of Low Power Factor

In various industries, many machines are of induction motor


type. The lighting and heating loads are supplied through
transformers. The induction motors and transformers draw lagging
current from the supply. Hence the overall power factor is very low
and lagging in nature.

. ..

The power is given by,


P = VI cos
.............. single phase
I = P/(Vcos)

The high current due to low p.f. has following disadvantages


:
1. For higher current, conductor size required is more which
increases the cost.
2. The p.f. is given by
cos = Active power/ Apparent = (P in KW)/ (S in KVA)
Thus for fixed active power P, low p.f. demands large KVA
rating
alternators and transformers. This increases the cost.
3. Large current means more copper losses and poor
efficiency.
4. Large current causes large voltage drops in transmission
lines, alternators and other equipments. This results into poor
regulation.

Unit-3
Three phase Induction
Motor

Presented By
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE

UNIT 3 Syllabus

Construction of
Induction Motor

Types of Rotor

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Principle of
Operation
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

SLIP(s)

Compare
Induction motor &
Transformer

Equivalent circuit

Losses &
Efficiency

Losses - Summary

Efficiency () =

Poutput
Pinput
356

Motor Torque
Tm =

9.55 Pm
n
9.55 (1 s) Pr

=
ns (1 s)
= 9.55 Pr / ns
Tm = 9.55 Pr / ns

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

357

I2R losses in the rotor


Pjr = s Pr
Pjr = rotor I2R losses [W]
s = slip
Pr = power transmitted to the rotor [W]

Mechanical Power
Pm = Pr - Pjr
= Pr - s Pr
= (1 s) Pr
358

Torque-Slip
Characteristics

Condition for
Maximum Torque

LOAD TEST

LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

NO LOAD TEST

No Load Test or Running Light Test or


Open Circuit Test
This test gives
1. Core loss
2. F & W loss
R
3. No load current I0
4. No load power factor
STATOR
5. Ic, Rc, I, Xm
6. Mechanical faults, noise

W0

I0

A
N
V0 V
B

Y
ROTOR

Rated per voltage V0, with


rated freq is given to stator.
Motor is run at NO LOAD
P0, I0 and V0 are recorded
P0 = I02r1+Pc+Pfw

P0
Cos0 =
V0 I0

1. Ic=I0cos0

No load power factor is small,


0.05 to 0.15
provided x1 is known

2. I=I0sin0

I0

Ic
V0

Rc

I
jXm

open circuit

E0
E0
, E 0 =V 0 I 0 (r 1 + jx 1)
3. R c =
4. X m =
Ic
I
On No load, Motor runs near to syn speed
So, s zero 1/s= or open circuit
jx2
r1 I jx1
I
2
0

r2/s

The F & W loss Pfw, can be obtained from this


test.
Vary input voltage and note input power
Input Power

Pfw
Input Voltage
Thus Pc=P0 - I02r1 - Pfw
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

BLOCKED
ROTOR TEST

Blocked Rotor test or Short Circuit Test


Rotor is blocked, Speed = 0, slip = 1
Wsc
I
sc

IM

V Vsc
B

3-ph Variac

Y
Rotor is blocked or held stationary by
belt pulley or by hand

Low voltage is applied upto rated stator current


Voltage Vsc, Current Isc and Power Psc are measured.

Since slip is 1, secondary is short circuited


r1

jx1
Ic

Vsc

Isc
I0

Rc

This test gives copper loss


Mechanical loss =0
Core loss negligible
Rc and Xm >> r2+jx2
Hence omitted

r2

I
jXm

jx2

1 s
r2

Therefore, Zsc = Vsc / Isc


=Rsc+jXsc
P sc
cossc =
=0.8 to 0.9
VscI sc

Rsc= Psc/Isc2 = r1+r2

r2= Rsc r1

X sc= Z sc R sc
2

=x 1+x 2

For wound rotor motor, x1 = x2 = Xsc /2


For squirrel cage motor,
Class of motor

x1

x2

1.

Class A (normal Tst and Ist)

0.5

0.5

2.

Class B (normal Tst and low Ist)

0.4

0.6

3.

Class C (high Tst and low Ist)

0.3

0.7

4.

Class D (high Tst and high slip)

0.5

0.5

CIRCLE
DIAGRAM

Circle Diagram of Ind Motor

Graphical representation

The equivalent ckt., operating ch. can be obtained


by computer quickly and accurately
But the advantage of circle diagram is that
extremities or Limits of stator current, Power,
torque and slip can be known from circle diagram
The circle diagram is constructed with the help of
1. No load test (I0 & 0)
2. Blocked rotor test (Isc & sc)

y
Isc

V1

Output line

sc
O

0 I
0

x
4. Join I0 and Isc

1. Draw x and y axes(V1 on y axis)


Line I0Isc is
2. Draw I0 and Isc(=V1/Zsc)
output line
3. Draw parallel line to x axis from I0.
This line indicates constant loss vertically

y
Isc

V1

Output line
T

sc
0 I
0

L1

O
L2
5. Draw perpendicular bisector to output line

6. Draw circle with C as a centre


7. Draw perpendicular from Isc on x axis..
I scT r2'
Rotor Cu Loss
=
=
8. Divide IscL1 in such a way that.
T L1
r1 Stator Cu Loss

rated output power


Isc

V1

Output line
T Torque line

sc
O

0 I
0

L1
L2

9. Join I0T. This is called as Torque Line.


10. Suppose 1cm=Xamp, so 1cm=V1.X= power scale
Rated output power/V1X = Total cm for rated o/p power
Total cm for rated output power=IscR

y
P
V1
P
1
sc

Isc
Output line
T Torque line

O
T
L1
0 I

L
1
0
C
x
O
L2
L2
11. From R, draw line parallel to output line crossing at P & P.
P is operating point
12. Join O and P. Cos1 is operating pf.
13. From P draw perpendicular on x axis
Lebel O, T , L1 and L2

y
P

Isc

V1
P

Output line

1
sc
O

0 I
0

O
T
L1
L2

T Torque line
C

L1
L2

14. Determine the following


1. Constant Losses and copper losses
L1L2=L1L2=constant losses =Core loss + F & W loss
no load current I0

y
P

Isc

V1
P

Output line

1
sc
O

0 I
0

O
T
L1
L2

At standstill, input power = IscL2

T Torque line
C

L1
L2

L1L2=Constant Loss

Constant loss= Stator core loss +rotor core loss (f)


F & W loss=0

y
P

Isc

V1
P

Output line

1
sc
O

0 I
0

O
T
L1
L2

T Torque line
C

L1
L2

At operating point P, input power = PL2, L1L2=Constant Loss


Constant loss = Stator core loss + F & W loss
Rotor core loss 0 (sf)
Thus L1L2=L1L2= Constant loss

y
P

Isc

V1
P

Output line

1
sc
O

0 I
0

O
T
L1
L2

At standstill, Stator Cu loss=TL1


At P, stator Cu loss =TL1 and

T Torque line
C

L1
L2

rotor Cu loss = IscT

rotor Cu loss = OT

y
Pmax

V1
P
1

Isc
Output line
T Torque line

O
O
T T
L1
0 I
L

L
1
1
0
C
O
L2 L2
LP2max
2. Output Power and Torque
Output Power = OP
The gap betn output line and circle is OUTPUT
Power.
0
Speed
At I0, o/p=0, at Isc, o/p=0
1
Slip
Max output power=PmaxO
sc

Ns
0

y
Pmax

V1
P
1

P
Tmax

Isc
Output line
T Torque line

O
O
T T T
L1
L1
0 I

L
1
1
0
C
x
L

O
L2 L2 2
L2
Tmax
2. Output Power and Torque
Output Torque = TP
The gap betn torque line and circle is OUTPUT torque.
Ns
0
Speed
At I0, torque=0, but at
Isc, torque=T Isc=Starting torque
1
Slip
0
Max output torque=TmaxT
sc

y
Pmax

V1
P
1

P
Tmax

O
O
T T T
L1
0 I

L
1
1
0
C
L

O
L2 L2 2
2. Output Power and Torque
sc

Isc
Output line
T Torque line
L1
L2

Max Power and Max Torque are not occurring at same time
Contradiction to max power transfer theorem

y
Pmax

V1

sc

O
T
0 I
L1
0
O
L2
3. Slip, Power factor and

Isc

Tmax

P
1

Output line

T Torque line

T
T
L1 L1
C
L

L2 2
Efficiency

L1
L2

Air gap power Pg = Input power Stator Cu loss- core loss


=PL2-TL1-L1L2 = PT
s = rotor Cu loss/Pg =OT/PT

smp

O"T "
=
Pmax T "

O" ' T " '


smt =
Tmax T " '

y
Pmax

V1

Tmax

P
1
sc

O
T
0 I
L1
0
O
L2
3. Slip, Power factor and

T
T
L1 L1
C
L

L2 2
Efficiency

Power factor cos1 = PL2/OP


Efficiency= PO/PL2

Isc
Output line
T Torque line
L1
L2

y
Pmax

V1

Tmax

P
1
sc
O

0 I
0

4. Braking Torque

O
T
L1
L2

Isc
Output line
braking torque
T Torque line

T
C

s=1
Te L
1
L2

s=
Speed
s=0
0
Ns
1
The gap betn circle and T & s= is braking
Slip 0
torque

y
Pmax

V1

Tmax

P
1
sc

O
T
0 I
L1
0
O
L2
5. Induction Generator
s=0

Isc
Output line
braking torque
T Torque line
s=1

T
C

L1
L2

x
s=

y
Pmax

V1

P
Tmax

Isc
Output line
braking torque

O
O
T
T
0 I
L1
0
C
O
L2
5. Induction Generator
s=0
G
s= -ve
G
(Generator)
sc

PGmax

T Torque line
s=1

L1
L2

x
s=

OG=Gen Current
OG=Mech I/p
L2G=Active power

OL2=reactive power

y
Pmax

V1

P
Tmax

P
1

Isc
Output line
braking torque
T Torque line

O
O
s=1
T
T
L1
0 I

L
1
Te
0
C
x
O
L2
L2
5. Induction Generator
s=
Speed
Speed
s=0
0
Ns
2Ns
G
OG=Gen
Current
1
Slip 0
Slip -1

OG=Mech I/p
s=
-ve
G
(Generator)
L2G=Active power
sc

PGmax

OL2=reactive power

CIRCLE DIAGRAM OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR- Summary


T

Fig. 3.3

Separation of
Losses
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES


The separation of core loss and mechanical loss (windage and friction) can be obtained by
no load test conducted from variable voltage, rated frequency supply. Step by step reduce
the voltage till the machine slip suddenly start to increase and the motor tends to rest
(stall). The core loss decrease almost square of the voltage and windage and friction loss
remains almost constant. Plot the curve between applied voltage (V) and power (Po),
extended to V=0 which gives mechanical loss.

Mechanical loss will be obtained from graph


Magnetic loss + mechanical loss = output power
Therefore., magnetic loss = output power mechanical loss

Formulae for calculating the equivalent circuit parameters:


Z0 = Voc /(Ioc / 3)
R0 = Woc / (Ioc) 2
X0 = [( Z0)2 - (R0)2
0 = cos-1 [Woc / (3 * Voc * Ioc )]
RBR = Wsc / (Isc)2
ZBR = Vsc / (Isc/ 3)
XBR = [( ZBR)2 - (RBR)2]
RiWF Resistance accounting for rotational losses
R1 = 1.2 * stator winding resistance (dc)
Pr = Woc Ioc2 * R1 (since Pr = P0 3 * (Ioc / 3)2 * R1)
RiWF = Voc2 / Pr
Xm Magnetizing reactance
IiWF = Voc / Riwf
Im = (Ioc2 - IiWF2)1/2
Xm = Voc / Im

Equivalent Circuit:

Double cage
Induction Motors

DOUBLE CAGE ROTOR


Double Cage Rotor has two independent cages on the same rotor slots,
one inside the other for the production of high starting torque. The
outer cage (alloy) in the rotor has high resistance and low reactance
which is used for starting purpose. The inner cage (copper) has a low
resistance and high reactance which is used for running purpose. The
constructional arrangement and torque-speed characteristics as shown
in fig. 3.5.
Advantages:
High starting torque.
Low I2R loss under running conditions and high efficiency.

Double Cage construction


Fig. 3.5

Slip
Torque-Slip Characteristics

Equivalent Circuit:

If the magnetising current is neglected, then the equivalent circuit is reduced to

Rotor

Induction
Generators

INDUCTION GENERATOR

Principle of operation
Induction generators and motors produce electrical power when
their rotor is rotated faster than the synchronous speed. For a fourpole motor operating on a 50 Hz will have synchronous speed equal
to 1500 rpm.
In normal motor operation, stator flux rotation is faster than the
rotor rotation. This is causing stator flux to induce rotor currents,
which create rotor flux with magnetic polarity opposite to stator. In
this way, rotor is dragged along behind stator flux, by value equal to
slip.
In generator operation, a prime mover (turbine, engine) is driving
the rotor above the synchronous speed. Stator flux still induces
currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting
the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils and motor
is now operating as a generator and sending power back to the
electrical grid.

a. Sub-synchronous (motor)

b. Super-synchronous (generator)

Fig. 3.4 current Locus for Induction Machine

Fig.3.5 Phasor Diagram

Fig. 3.6 Torque-Slip Characteristics


When the machine runs as induction generator, the vector diagram shown in fig.3.5. This is
possible only if the machine is mechanically driven above the synchronous speed.
OA-no load current
AB-stator current to overcome rotor mmf
OB-total stator current

The torque-slip curve is shown in fig.3.6.Torque will become zero at synchronous speed. If the
speed increases above the synchronous speed, the slip will be negative.
Fig.3.4b the point P in the lower half of the circle shows operating point as an induction
generator.
PT-stator electrical output
ST-Core, friction and windage losses
RS-Stator copper loss
QR-Rotor copper loss
PQ-Mechanical input
PR-Rotor input
Slip
Efficiency

rotor copper loss QR


=
rotor input
PR

output PT
=
=
input
PQ

Induction generator differs from the synchronous generator as


Dc current excitation is not required.
Synchronisation is not required.

Advantages:
It does not hunt or drop out of synchronism
Simple in construction
Cheaper in cost
Easy maintenance
Induction regulators provide a constant voltage adjustment depending on the
loading of the lines.
Disadvantages:
Cannot be operated independently.
Deliver only leading current.
Dangerously high voltages may occur over long transmission lines if the
synchronous machines at the far end become disconnected and the line capacitance
excites the induction machines.
The induction generator is not helpful in system stability.
Applications:
For installation in small power stations where it can be operated in parallel and
feeding into a common mains without attendant.
For braking purpose in railway work.

Synchronous
Induction Motor

SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR


It is possible to make the slip ring induction motor to run at synchronous speed when its
secondary winding is fed from a dc source. Such motors are then called as synchronous
induction motor.
Stator

3
Supply

Fig. 3.3

Rotor connections for dc excitation:

Fig 3.4
Heating will always occur with normal three phase rotor winding as in fig.3.4. The two phase
windings (e and f) gives uniform heating but produce large harmonics and noise. In those
machines primary chording is commonly employed to reduce the effect of harmonics.
The synchronous induction motor is generally built for outputs greater than 30HP because of its
higher cost of the dc exciter. These motors are employed in applications where a constant speed
is desirable such as compressors, fans, pumps, etc., If load torque is high and the machines goes
out of synchronism, it continues to run as an induction motor. As soon as the load torque falls
sufficiently low, the machines will automatically synchronize.

Advantages:
It will start and synchronise itself against heavy loads.
No separate damper winding is required.
The exciter may be small unit due to smaller air-gap.

Problems in
Induction
Motors

Example 5.1 A 3-phase, 460 V, 100 hp, 60 Hz, four-pole induction machine delivers
rated output power at a slip of 0.05. Determine the:
(a) Synchronous speed and motor speed.
(b) Speed of the rotating air gap field.
(c) Frequency of the rotor circuit.
(d) Slip rpm.
(e) Speed of the rotor field relative to the
(i) rotor structure.
(ii) Stator structure.
(iii) Stator rotating field.
(f) Rotor induced voltage at the operating speed, if the stator-to-rotor turns ratio is 1 :
0.5.
Solution:

120 f

120 * 60
ns =
=
= 1800 rpm
p
4
n = (1 s )ns = (1 0.05) *1800 = 1710 rpm
(b) 1800 (same as synchronous speed)

Example 4.2 A no-load test conducted on a 30 hp, 835 r/min, 440 V, 3-phase, 60 Hz squirrel-cage
induction motor yielded the following results:
No-load voltage (line-to-line): 440 V
No-load current: 14 A
No-load power: 1470 W
Resistance measured between two terminals: 0.5
The locked-rotor test, conducted at reduced voltage, gave the following results:
Locked-rotor voltage (line-to-line): 163 V
Locked-rotor power: 7200 W
Locked-rotor current: 60 A
Determine the equivalent circuit of the motor.
Solution:
Assuming the stator windings are connected in way, the resistance per phase is:

R1 = 0.5 / 2 = 0.25
From the no-load test:

VLL 440
V1 =
=
= 254 V / Phase
3
3

Z NL

V1 254
= =
= 18.143
I1 14

R NL =

PNL
3I12

1470

3 *14

= 2.5

2
2
X NL = Z NL
RNL
= 18.1432 2.52 = 17.97

X 1 + X m = X NL = 17.97
From the blocked-rotor test

RBL =

PBL
3I12

7200
3 * 60

= 0.6667

BL

The blocked-rotor reactance is:

X BL =

(Z

2
BL

2
RBL
= 1.5685 2 0.6667 2 = 1.42

X BL X 1 + X 2 = 1.42

X 1 = X 2 = 0.71

X m = X NL X 1 = 17.97 0.71 = 17.26


R = RBL R1 = 0.6667 0.25 = 0.4167
X 2 + X m
R2 =
Xm

0
.
71
17
.
26
+

R =
* 0.4167 = 0.4517

17.26

Example 5.3 The following test results are obtained from a three-phase 60 hp, 2200
V, six-pole, 60 Hz squirrel-cage induction motor.
(1) No-load test:
Supply frequency = 60 Hz, Line voltage = 2200 V
Line current = 4.5 A, Input power = 1600 W
(2) Blocked-rotor test:
Frequency = 15 Hz, Line voltage = 270 V
Line current = 25 A, Input power = 9000 W
(3) Average DC resistance per stator phase: 2.8
(a) Determine the no-load rotational loss.
(b) Determine the parameters of the IEEE-recommended equivalent circuit
(c) Determine the parameters (Vth, Rth, Xth) for the Thevenin equivalent circuit of
Fig.5.16.

2200
V1 =
= 1270.2 V / Phase
3

RNL

Z NL

V1 1270.2
= =
= 282.27
4.5
I1

PNL
1600
= 2 =
= 26.34
2
3I1 3 * 4.5

(a) No-Load equivalent Circuit

(b) Locked rotor equivalent circuit

2
2
X NL = Z NL
RNL
= 282.27 2 26.34 2 = 281

X 1 + X m = X NL = 281
PBL
9000
RBL = 2 =
= 4.8
2
3I1 3 * 25

R2 = RBL R1 = 4.8 2.8 = 2

281.0 = .

impedance at 15 Hz is:

Z BL

270
V1
= =
= 6.24
I1
3 * 25

The blocked-rotor reactance at 15 Hz is


Its value at 60 Hz is

X BL = 3.98 *

X BL =

(6.24

60
= 15.92
15

X BL X 1 + X 2
15.92
X 1 = X 2 =
= 7.96
2

X m = 281 7.96 = 273.04


R = RBL R1 = 4.8 2.8 = 2

7.96 + 273.04

R2 =
2 = 2.12
273.04
2

4.82 = 3.98

at 60 Hz

)c (

273.04
Vth
V1 = 0.97 V1
7.96 + 273.04

Rth 0.97 R1 = 0.97 * 2.8 = 2.63


2

X th X 1 = 7.96

Example 4.4 A three-phase, 460 V, 1740 rpm, 60 Hz, four-pole


wound-rotor induction motor has the following parameters per
phase:

R1 = 0.25 , R2 = 0.2 , X 1 = X 2 = 0.5 , X m = 30


The rotational losses are 1700 watts. With the rotor terminals
short-circuited, find
(a)

(i) Starting current when started direct on full voltage.


(ii) Starting torque.

(b)

(i) Full-load slip.


(ii) Full-load current.
(iii) Ratio of starting current to full-load current.
(iv) Full-load power factor.
(v) Full-load torque.
(iv) Internal efficiency and motor efficiency at full load.

(c)

(i) Slip at which maximum torque is developed.


(ii) Maximum torque developed.

(d)

How much external resistance per phase should be

connected in the rotor circuit so that maximum torque occurs at


start?

=163.11 N.m

28022.3
motor =
*100 = 87.5%
32022.4
int ernal = (1 s ) *100 = (1 0.0333) *100 = 96.7%
(c) (i)

(c) (ii)

Note that for parts (a) and (b) it is not necessary to use Thevenin
equivalent circuit. Calculation can be based on the equivalent circuit of
Fig.5.15 as follows:

A three-phase, 460 V, 60 Hz, six-pole wound-rotor induction motor


drives a constant load of 100 N - m at a speed of 1140 rpm when
the rotor terminals are short-circuited. It is required to reduce the
speed of the motor to 1000 rpm by inserting resistances in the
rotor circuit. Determine the value of the resistance if the rotor
winding resistance per phase is 0.2 ohms. Neglect rotational
losses. The stator-to-rotor turns ratio is unity.

Example

The following test results are obtained from three

phase 100hp,460 V, eight pole star connected induction machine


No-load test : 460 V, 60 Hz, 40 A, 4.2 kW. Blocked rotor test is
100V, 60Hz, 140A 8kW. Average DC resistor between two stator
terminals is 0.152
(a) Determine the parameters of the equivalent circuit.
(b) The motor is connected to 3 , 460 V, 60 Hz supply and runs
at 873 rpm. Determine the input current, input power, air
gap power, rotor cupper loss, mechanical power developed,
output power and efficiency of the motor.
(c) Determine the speed of the rotor field relative to stator
structure and stator rotating field

Solution:

From no load test:

(a ) Z NL =
RNL =

460 / 3
= 6.64
40

PNL
2
3 * I1

4200

3 * 40

= 0.875

X NL = 6.64 2 0.8752 = 6.58

X 1 + X m = 6.58
From blocked rotor test:

RBL =
Z BL =

8000
3 *140 2

= 0.136

100 / 3
= 0.412
140

0.152
R1 =
= 0.076
2

X BL = 0.412 2 0.136 2 = 0.389

X 1 + X 2 = 0.389

0.389
= 0.1945
X 1 = X 2 =
2
X m = 6.58 0.1945 = 6.3855

R = RBL R1 = 0.136 0.076 = 0.06


0.1945 + 6.3855

R2 =
* 0.06 = 0.0637
6.3855

0.076

j0.195

j6.386

j0.195

0.0637
s

(b )

120 f 120 * 60
ns =
=
= 900rpm
P
8

ns n 900 873
=
= 0.03
s=
900
ns
R2 0.0637
=
= 2.123
s
0.03
Input impedance

Z1 = 0.076 + j 0.195 +

( j 6.386)(2.123 + j 0.195)
= 2.12127.16o
2.123 + j (6.386 + 0.195)

V1
460 / 3
o
=
= 125.22 27.16
I1 =
Z1 2.1227.16
Input power:

460
Pin = 3 *
*125.22 cos 27.16o = 88.767 kW
3

Stator CU losses:

Pst = 3 *125.22 2 * 0.076 = 3.575 kW


Air gap power

Pag = 88.767 3.575 = 85.192 kW

Rotor CU losses

P2 = sPag = 0.03 * 85.192 = 2.556 kW

Mechanical power developed:

Pmech = (1 s ) Pag = (1 0.03) * 85.192 = 82.636 kW

Pout = Pmech Prot


From no load test:

Prot = PNL 3I12 * R1 = 4200 3 * 40 2 * 0.076 = 3835.2 W

Pout = 82.636 *103 3835.2 = 78.8 kW

Pout
78.8
=
*100 =
*100 = 88.77 %
88.767
Pin

Example

A three phase, 460 V 1450 rpm, 50 Hz, four pole

wound rotor induction motor has the following parameters per


phase ( R1 =0.2, R2 =0.18 , X 1 = X 2 =0.2, X m =40). The
rotational losses are 1500 W. Find,
(a)

Starting current when started direct on full load voltage.


Also find starting torque.

(b)

(b) Slip, current, power factor, load torque and efficiency


at full load conditions.

(c)

Maximum torque and slip at which maximum torque will


be developed.

(d)

How much external resistance per phase should be


connected in the rotor circuit so that maximum torque
occurs at start?

460
V1 =
= 265.6 V / phase
3

j 40 * (0.18 + 0.2 )
o
= 0.5546.59
Z1 = 0.2 + j 0.2 +
0.18 + j 40.2
V1
265.6
o
= 482.91 46.3
I st = =
o
I1 0.5546.59
1500 1450
s=
= 0.0333
1500
R2
0.18
=
= 5.4
s 0.0333

j 40 * (5.4 + j 0.2 )
= 4.959 10.83o
Z1 = 0.2 + j 0.2 +
5.4 + j 45.4

I1 FL

265.6
o
=
= 53.56 10.83 A
o
4.95910.83

Then the power factor is: cos 10.83 = 0.9822 lag.


o

sys

1500
=
* 2 = 157.08 rad / sec .
60

265.6 * ( j 40 )
= 264.275 0.285o V
Vth =
(0.2 + j 40.2)
Then,

j 40 * (0.2 + j 0.2 )
= 0.281432 45.285o = 0.198 + j 0.2
Z th =
0.2 + j 40.2

T =

3 * (264.275) * 5.4
2

157.08 * (0.198 + 5.4 ) + (0.2 + 0.2 )


2

= 228.68 Nm

Then, Pag = T * sys = 228.68 *157.08 = 35921.1W


Then, P2 = sPag = 0.0333 * 35921.1 = 1197 W
And, Pm = (1 s )Pag = 34723.7W
Then, Pout = Pm Prot = 34723.7 1500 = 33223.7W

Pin = 3 * 265.6 * 53.56 * 0.9822 = 41917 W


Then, =

Tm =

Pout 33223.7
=
= 79.26 %
41914
Pin
3 * (264.275)2

2 *188.5 0.198 + 0.1982 + (0.2 + 0.2 )

sTmax =

[0.198

0.18
2

)]

2 1/ 2

+ (0.2 + 0.2 )

2 1/ 2

= 862.56 Nm

= 0.4033

(d) sTmax = 1 =

[0.198

R2 + Rext
2

+ (0.2 + 0.2 )

2 1/ 2

= 0.446323
Then, R2 + Rext
= 0.446323 0.18 = 0.26632
Then, Rext

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Example 5.6 The rotor current at start of a three-phase, 460 volt,


1710 rpm, 60 Hz, four pole, squirrel-cage induction motor is six
times the rotor current at full load.
(a) Determine the starting torque as percent of full load torque.
(b) Determine the slip and speed at which the motor develops
maximum torque.
(c) Determine the maximum torque developed by the motor as
percent of full load torque.
Note that the equivalent circuit parameters are not given. Therefore equivalent circuit
parameters cannot be used directly for computation.(a) The synchronous speed is

2
2

2
2

I R2 I R2

T=
s syn
s

Example 4.9 A 4 pole 50 Hz 20 hp motor has, at rated voltage


and frequency a starting torque of 150% and a maximum torque of
200 % of full load torque. Determine (i) full load speed (ii) speed
at maximum torque.
Solution:

Tst
Tst
Tmax
1.5
=
= 0.75
= 2 then,
= 1.5 and
TFL
TFL
Tmax
2
2 sTmax
Tst
=
= 0.75
2
Tmax 1 + sTmax
Then,

2
0.75 sTmax

2 sTmax + 0.75 = 0

Then sTmax = 2.21525 (unacceptable) Or sTmax = 0.451416

2
sT2max + s FL

Tmax
=
=2
TFL 2sTmax * s FL
But sTmax = 0.451416
2
Tmax
0.4514162 + s FL
=
=2
Then
TFL 2 * 0.451416 * s FL
2
s FL
4 * 0.451416 s FL + 0.451416 2 = 0
2
s FL

1.80566 s FL + 0.203777 = 0

s FL = 1.6847 (unacceptable) or s FL = 0.120957

120 * 50
ns =
= 1500 rpm
4
then (a) nFL = (1 s FL ) * ns

nFL = (1 0.120957 ) *1500 = 1319 rpm

(b) nTmax = 1 sTmax * ns = (1 0.451416) *1500 = 823 rpm

Example 4.10 A 3, 280 V, 60 Hz, 20 hp, four-pole induction


motor has the following equivalent circuit parameters.

R1 = 0.12 , R2 = 0.1 , X 1 = X 2 = 0.25 , and X m = 10


The rotational loss is 400 W. For 5% slip, determine (a) The
motor speed in rpm and radians per sec. (b) The motor current. (c)
The stator cu-loss. (d) The air gap power. (e) The rotor cu-loss. (f)
The shaft power. (g) The developed torque and the shaft torque.
(h) The efficiency.
Solution:

120 * 60
1800
ns =
* 2 = 188.5 rad / sec
= 1800 rpm , s =
4
60

0.12

j0.25

j0.25

j10

0.1
=2
0.05

Z1 = 0.12 + j 0.25 + Re + X e
j10 * (2 + j 0.25)
Z1 = 0.12 + j 0.25 +
= 2.131423.55o
2 + j10.25
V1 =

208

= 120.1 V

120.1
o
I1 =
=
2
.
1314

23
.
55
A
o
2.131423.55
(c) P1 = 3 * 56.3479 * 0.12 = 1143.031W
2

(d) Ps = 3 *120.1 * 56.3479 * cos 23.55

) = 18610.9794 W

Pag = Ps P1 = 17467.9485 W
(e) P2 = sPag = 0.05 *17467.9785 = 873.3974 W
(f) Pm = (1 s ) Pag = 16594.5511W

Pag

17467.9485
(g) T =
=
= 92.6682 N .m
188.5
188.5
Pshaft

16194.5511
Tshaft =
=
= 85.9127 Nm
188.5
188.5
Pshaft
(h) =
*100 = 87.02%
Ps

Example 4.11 A 30, 100 WA, 460 V, 60 Hz, eight-pole induction


machine has the following
equivalent circuit parameters:

R1 = 0.07 , R2 = 0.05 , X 1 = X 2 = 0.2 , and X m = 6.5


(a)

Derive the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the

induction machine.
(b) If the machine is connected to a 30, 460 V, 60 Hz supply,
determine the starting torque, the maximum torque the machine
can develop, and the speed at which the maximum torque is
developed.
(c) If the maximum torque is to occur at start, determine the
external resistance required in each rotor phase. Assume a
turns ratio (stator to rotor) of 1.2.

Solution:

Vth =

Xm
6.5
* V1 =
* 265.6 = 257.7 V
X1 + X m
0.2 + 6.5

Rth + jX th =

( j 6.5) * ( j 0.2 + 0.07 ) = 0.06589 +


0.07 + j 0.2 + j 6.5

0.06589 j0.1947

j0.2

257.7V

(b) Tst =

Tmax =

0.05
s
3 * 257.7 2 * 0.05

94.25 (0.06589 + 0.05) + (0.1947 + 0.2 )


2

= 624.7 Nm

3 * 257.7 2

2 * 94.25 0.06589 + 0.06589 2 + (0.1947 + 0.2 )2

= 2267.8 Nm
sTmax =

j 0.1947

0.05
0.06589 2 + (0.1947 + 0.2 )2

= 0.1249

Speed

in

rpm

for

which

max

torque

= 1 sTmax * ns = (1 0.1249 ) * 900 = 787.5 rpm


(c) sTmax =
or R2

start

R2

R12

+ ( X 1 + X 2 )

s start = 1
sTmax

* R2 =

1
0.1249

R2
* 0.05 = 0.4

Then Rext = (0.4 0.05) / 1.2 2 = 0.243

occurs

UNIT-4
Starting & Speed control
of 3ph Induction Motor
Presented by
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE

UNIT-4 Syllabus

Necessity of
Starters / NEED
FOR STARTING

Why we need starters?

As it is seen that a 3 phase induction motor has


positive finite starting torque T when slip s=1. this
mean that 3-pahse induction motor is a self-starting
motor and begins to rotate on its own when
connected to a 3-phase supply.
At the instant of starting 3-phase induction motor
behaves like a transformer with a short-circuited
secondary.
Consequently, a 3-pahse induction motor takes high
starting current if started at full voltage. In order to
limit this high starting current to reasonable limits
starting methods are used.

STARTING
METHODS OF
INDUCTION
MACHINE

Methods of Starting
There are primarily two methods of starting the
induction motor:a) Full voltage starting.
b) Reduced voltage starting.
Full voltage starting methods consist of:a) DOL (Direct-on-line starting)
Reduced voltage starting consist of:a) Stator resistor (or reactor) starting.
b) Auto-transformer starting.
c) Star-delta starting.

AUTO
TRANSFORMER
STARTER

V1
IL

xV1

xV1
I st = xI sc

Rotor
Stator

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


The fraction of xV1 is applied to the stator wdg at starting.
As speed increases, gradually voltage is increased
Finally full voltage is applied to the motor.
Advantages 1. Voltage is changed by transformer action
and not by dropping voltage as that of reactor
2. So power loss and input current are less.

V1
IL

xV1

xV1

Rotor
Stator

I st = xI sc

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


The stator starting current is I st = xV1 / z1 = xI sc
For auto-transformer, input VA= output VA
ILV1=Ist (xV1)
Therefore, line current at
IL=xIst
input is x2 times the DOL
current.
IL=x2Isc
Thus,

Test
Tefl

I1st
=
I1fl

sfl

2 I sc
= x
Ifl

sfl

V1
IL

xV1

xV1

Rotor
Stator

I st = xI sc

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


Line current at input due to auto-transformer starting
=x
Line current at input due to stator reactor starting
V1
IL

xV1

xV1
I st = xI sc

Rotor
Stator

V1
IL

xV1

xV1
I st = xI sc

Rotor
Stator

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


Line current at input due to auto-transformer starting
=x
Line current at input due to stator reactor starting
Starting torque with auto transformer starting
2
=x
Starting torque with DOL starting
Starting torque with auto transformer starting
=1
Starting torque with stator reactor starting

STAR DELTA
STARTER

Star-Delta starting
For star, 3 terminals of stator wdg are required.
For delta, 6 terminals are required.
Now make delta
Connection.
R Y B

Stator
2- Run - Delta
TPDT
1- Start - Star

Rotor

Fig.: Star-Delta starting

At starting TPDT to 1, wdg in star


Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3
Motor rotates.
The starting current is
Now TPDT to 2- Delta
I st.y =VL / 3z 1
Line voltage applied
R Y B
Starting
=
I
L.y
to wdg. Motor runs at rated speed
Line current
Stator
2- Run - Delta
TPDT
1- Start - Star

Rotor

Fig.: Star-Delta starting

At starting TPDT to 1, wdg in star


Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3
Motor rotates.
The starting current is
Now TPDT to 2- Delta
I st.y =VL / 3z 1
Line voltage applied
R Y B
Starting
=
I
L.y
to wdg Motor runs at rated speed
Line current
Stator
2- Run - Delta
TPDT
1- Start - Star

Rotor

Fig.: Star-Delta starting

At starting TPDT to 1, wdg in star


Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3
Motor rotates.
The starting current is
Now TPDT to 2- Delta
I st.y =VL / 3z 1
Line voltage applied
Starting
=
I
L.y
to wdg Motor runs at rated speed
Line current
At starting, if, wdg in delta
The starting current is
I st.d =VL / z 1 = I sc.d
I L.d = 3 I st.d
1
I st.y =
I st.d
3

Ist.y
Starting line current with Y- starter
=
Starting line current with stator in 3 Ist.d

Thus Ist.y in star is one third of that current in delta.

1
3

(V1/3)2
Starting torque with Y- starting
=
=
2
Starting torque with stator in
V1

1
3

This shows that Tst.y in star is one third of starting torque


in delta.
In case of auto-transformer, if turn ratio x = 1/3
Then starting line current and is starting torque are
reduced to one third of their values with delta.
This shows that
Star delta starting is equivalent to auto transformer
if auto transformer turn ratio x=1/3=0.58 or 58% tapping
This method is cheap, effective and used extensively
Used for tool drives, pumps, motor-generator set.
Used up to rating of 3.3kV,
After this voltage, m/c becomes expensive for delta winding

Example
Determine the % tapping of the auto-transformer so
that the supply current during starting of IM does not
exceed 1.5 times full load current. The short circuit current
on normal voltage is 4.5 times the full load current and the
full load slip is 3%. Calculate the ratio of starting torque
full load torque.
Solution
V1

IL=1.5IFL
Isc=4.5IFL
IL/Isc=0.333

IL

xV1

xV1

In auto-transformer

I st = xI sc

IL/Isc=x2

Hence % tapping is 57%

Rotor
Stator
x=0.577

Test

Now

Tefl

I1st
=
I1fl

2 I sc
sfl = x
I

fl

sfl

= 0.333 (4.5 ) 0.03


2

= 0.202

V1
IL

xV1

xV1
I st = xI sc

Rotor
Stator

Example
The short circuit line current of a 6hp IM is 3.5 times
its full load current, the stator of which is arranged for star
delta starting. The supply voltage is 400V, full load effn is
82% and full load power factor is 0.85% (lag).
Calculate the line current at the instant of starting.
Neglect magnetizing current.
Solution
P=3 VLILcos
6hp IM,
1
6 746
Isc=3.5IFL
IFL= I L =

0.82 3 400 0.85


Star-delta starting
=9.26A (line current for
Isc (line) =3.5 IFL
delta)
Voltage =400V
=5.34A (phase current
for delta)
=82%, pf=0.85 (lag)
FL

Isc=3.5IFL=3.5x5.34
=18.73A
At the instant of starting, motor wdg is in star
For star, line current is equal to phase current.
IL at the instant of start =18.73A for delta (400V)
IL at the instant of start =18.73/3 A for star (400/3)
=10.81A

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

DOL(Direct-on-line)
Starter

DOL(Direct-on-line)starting

This method involves direct switching of


poly-phase stator on to the supply mains.
The motor takes starting current of 5 to 7 times its
full load current depending upon its size and
design.
Such large current of short duration dont harm the
rugged squirrel cage motor, but the high currents
may cause objectionable voltage drop in power
supply feeding the induction motor
These large voltage drop causes undesirable dip in
the supply line voltage, consequently affecting the
other equipments connected to the same supply.

The relation between the starting torque Ts and full


load torque Tf is now obtained .
Let Is and If be the per phase stator currents drawn
from the supply mains corresponding to starting
and full load conditions respectively.
We know:1 2 r2
Te = .I 2 .
s
s
Therefore:2
2
Ts I s r2 1 I s
.s f
= 2
=

------Eqn(1)
T f I f r2 s f I f
Now

V1
I st =
= I sc
Z sc

V1 is per-phase stator voltage &


=(r1+r2)+j(x1+x2), is the leakage impedance.

Therefore Eqn(1) can be written as:2

Ts I sc
.s f
=

Tf I f
----Eqn(2)

Zsc

Stator
resistance(reactor)
Starter

Stator resistance(reactor)method
In this method, a resistor or a reactor is inserted in
between motor terminals and supply mains.
At the time of starting some voltage drop occurs
across the starting resistor and therefore only a
fraction x of supply voltage appears across it.
This reduces the per phase starting currents Is
drawn by the motor from the supply mains.
As the motor speeds up, the
reactor is cut out in steps
and finally short-circuited
when the motor speed is
near to synchronous speed.

Since the per phase voltage is reduced to xV1 the


per phase starting current is:xV1
Is =
= xI sc
Z sc

Now we know:-

Therefore we have:-

1 I 22 r2
.
T=
s s
2

Therefore:-


Ts
2 I sc
sf
=x

-----Eqn(1)
Tf
If
2

starting torque with reactor starting xV1


= x 2
=
starting torque with direct switching V1

Rotor resistance
Starter

ROTOR RESISTANCE STARTER(only for


slip ring induction motor)

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Increasing the rotor resistance, not only is the rotor


(and hence stator) current reduced at starting, but at
the same time, the starting torque is also increased
due to improvement in power factor.
The introduction of additional external resistance in
the rotor circuit enables a slip-ring motor to develop
a high starting torque with reasonably moderate
starting current.
Hence, such motors can be started under load. This
additional resistance is for starting purpose only. It is
gradually cut out as the motor comes up to speed.

Speed control of
3 phase Induction Motor

Speed Control of IM
Given a load T characteristic, the steady-state speed can be
changed by altering the T curve of the motor
'
r

3R
Vs
Te =
' 2
ss

Rr
2
Rs + + ( X ls + X lr )
s

2
4
s = = f
P
P

Varying voltage
(amplitude)

Varying line
frequency

Pole Changing
501

a) By changing the applied voltage:

Torque equation of induction motor is

Rotor resistance R2 is constant and if slip s is small


then sX2 is so small that it can be neglected. Therefore, T
sE22 where E2 is rotor induced emf and E2 V
& hence T V2, thus if supplied voltage is decreased,
torque decreases and hence the speed decreases.
This method is the easiest & cheapest, still rarely used because1) A large change in supply voltage is required for
relatively small change in speed.
2) Large change in supply voltage will result in large
change in flux density, hence disturbing the magnetic
conditions of the motor.

b) By changing the applied frequency


Synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field of
induction motor is given by,

f = frequency & P = number of stator poles.


Thus, synchronous speed changes with change in
supply frequency, and thus running speed also
changes. However, this method is not widely used.
This method is used where, only the induction motor
is supplied by a generator (so that frequency can be
easily change by changing the speed of prime
mover).

V/F control

Variable Frequency Control of IM (v/f control)


Speed control above rated (base) speed

Requires the use of PWM inverters to control frequency of motor


Frequency increased (i.e. s increased)
Stator voltage held constant at rated value
Air gap flux and rotor current decreases
Developed torque
decreases
Te (1/s)

For control below


base speed
use Constant
Volts/Hz method

506

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


Airgap flux in the motor is related to the induced stator
voltage E1 :
E1 Vs
ag =

f
f

Assuming small voltage drop


across Rs and Lls

For below base speed operation:

Frequency reduced at rated Vs - airgap flux saturates


(f ,ag and enters saturation region oh B-H curve):
- excessive stator currents flow
- distortion of flux wave
- increase in core losses and stator copper loss
Hence, keep ag = rated flux
stator voltage Vs must be reduced proportional to reduction
in f (i.e. maintaining Vs / f ratio)
507

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


Max. torque remains almost
constant
For low speed operation:

cant ignore voltage drop across


Rs and Lls (i.e. E1 Vs)
poor torque capability
(i.e. torque decreased at low
speeds shown by dotted lines)
stator voltage must be boosted
to compensate for voltage
drop at Rs and Lls and maintain
constant ag

E1 Vs
ag =

f
f

Tmax

Vs

For above base speed operation


(f > frated):
stator voltage maintained at
rated value
Same as Variable Frequency
control (refer to slide 13)

508

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


Vs

Vs vs. f relation in Constant Volts/Hz drives Boost - to

compensate for
voltage drop at Rs
and Lls

Vrated

Linear offset curve


for high-starting
torque loads
employed for most
applications

Linear offset

Boost

Non-linear offset
curve
for low-starting
torque loads

Non-linear offset varies with Is


frated

f
509

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:

fs = Kfs,rated s = Ks,rated
(1)
(Note: in (1) , speed is given as mechanical speed)

KVs ,rated , when f s < f s ,rated


Stator voltage:Vs =
(2)
Vs ,rated , when f s > f s ,rated

Voltage-to-frequency ratio = d = constant:


d=

Vs,rated

s,rated

(3)
510

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:

Hence, the torque produced by the motor:


Te =

'
r

Vs
3R
' 2
s s

Rr
2
2
Rs + + K ( X ls + X lr )
s

(4)

where s and Vs are calculated from (1) and (2)


respectively.
511

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:

The slip for maximum torque is:


smax =

Rr'

(5)

Rs + K 2 ( X ls + X lr )
2

The maximum torque is then given by:


Tmax =

Vs

2 s R R + K 2 ( X + X )
s
ls
lr
s

(6)

where s and Vs are calculated from (1) and (2)


respectively.
512

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


Rated (Base)
frequency

Constant
Torque Area

(below base speed)

Field Weakening Mode (f > frated)

Reduced flux (since Vs is constant)


Torque reduces

Constant Power Area


(above base speed)

Note:
Operation restricted
between synchronous
speed and Tmax for
motoring and braking
regions, i.e. in the
linear region of the
torque-speed curve.
513

Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control


Constant Torque Area

Constant Power Area


514

c) By changing No. of poles


synchronous speed(Ns) (and hence, running speed) can be changed
by changing the number of stator poles. This method is generally used
for squirrel cage induction motors, as squirrel cage rotor adapts itself for
any number of stator poles. Change in stator poles is achieved by two or
more independent stator windings wound for different number of poles in
same slots.
For example, a stator is wound with two 3phase windings, one for 4 poles
and other for 6 poles.
For supply frequency of 50 Hz
i) synchronous speed when 4 pole winding is connected,
Ns = 120*50/4 = 1500 RPM
ii) synchronous speed when 6 pole winding is connected,
Ns = 120*50/6 = 1000 RPM

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

CASCADING OPERATION

Cascaded connection
In this method of speed control, two motors
are used. Both are mounted on a same shaft
so that both run at same speed.
One motor is fed from a 3phase supply and
other motor is fed from the induced emf in
first motor via slip-rings.

Motor A is called main motor and motor B is called auxiliary


motor.
Let, Ns1 = frequency of motor A
Ns2 = frequency of motor B
P1 = number of poles stator of motor A
P2 = number of stator poles of motor B
N = speed of the set and same for both motors
f = frequency of the supply
Now, slip of motor A, S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1.
frequency of the rotor induced emf in motor A, f1 = S1f
now, auxiliary motor B is supplied with the rotor induce emf
therefore, Ns2 = (120f1) / P2 = (120S1f) / P2.
now putting the value of S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1

At no load, speed of the auxiliary rotor is almost same as its synchronous speed.

i.e. N = Ns2.

Four different speeds can be obtained


1. when only motor A works, corresponding
speed = Ns1 = 120f / P1
2. when only motor B works, corresponding
speed = Ns2 = 120f / P2
3. if cummulative cascading is done,
speed of the set = N = 120f / (P1 + P2)
4. if differential cascading is done,
speed of the set = N = 120f (P1 - P2)

Slip power
recovery
Kramer
Scherbius

1) Kramer System
RYB

Voltage
regulating
device

f
MIM

ACM

If brush emf is more than slip voltage


Power flows from ACM-Rotor of MIM.
MIM operates at Super-Synchronous speed
If brush emf is less than slip voltage
Power flows from Rotor of MIM- ACM.
MIM operates at Sub-Synchronous speed
Since power is flowing from one machine to another with one
shaft, it is constant power drive.

2) Scherbius System
RYB

RYB
f
MIM

Voltage
regulating
device

ACM

AIM

At Super-Synchronous speed, power flows from supply-AIM


(Motor) - ACM -rotor of MIM.
At Sub-Synchronous speed, power flows from rotor of MIM
- ACM AIM (Gen) - supply.
Power changes

Constant torque drive

Braking of 3ph
Induction
Motors
Plugging
Dynamic Braking
Regenerative Braking

Braking Methods

Regenerative Braking
Plugging or reverse voltage braking
Dynamic ( or rheostatic ) braking :
a)
b)
c)
d)

ac dynamic braking
Self-excited braking using capacitor
dc dynamic braking
zero-sequence braking

1. Regenerative Braking
If an induction motor is forced to run at speeds in
excess of the synchronous speed, the load
torque exceeds the machine torque and the slip
is negative, reversing the rotor induced EMF and
rotor current. In this situation the machine will
act as a generator with energy being returned to
the supply.
If the AC supply voltage to the stator excitation is
simply removed, no generation is possible
because there can be no induced current in the
rotor.

Regenerative braking
In traction applications, regenerative braking is
not possible below synchronous speed in a
machine fed with a fixed frequency supply. If
however the motor is fed by a variable frequency
inverter then regenerative braking is possible by
reducing the supply frequency so that the
synchronous speed becomes less than the
motor speed.
AC motors can be microprocessor controlled to
a fine degree and can regenerate current down
to almost a stop

TL
A

Te

8 poles 4 poles

0 Speed
1 Slip
C

TL

D
A
Ns
0
B

-Te

+Te

Two quadrant operation

Regenerative braking
Power input to induction motor:
Pin=3VIscoss
Motoring operation s<90
Braking s>90
m> ms

m< ms

Regenerative braking
Advantage: Generated power is usefully
employed
Disadvantage: It can not be employed
below synchronous speed when fed from
constant frequency source.
Speed Range : Between synchronous
speed and the speed for which braking
torque is maximum.

2. Plugging
Plugging induction motor braking is done by reversing
the phase sequence of the motor. Plugging braking of
induction motor is done by interchanging connections
of any two phases of stator with respect of supply
terminals. And with that the operation of motoring shifts
to plugging braking.
During plugging the slip is (2 - s), if the original slip of the
running motor is s, then it can be shown in the following
way.

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

From the figure beside we can see that


the torque is not zero at zero speed.
Thats why when the motor is needed to
be stopped, it should be disconnected
from the supply at near zero speed.

The motor is connected to rotate in the


reverse direction and the torque is not
zero at zero or any other speed, and as a
result the motor first decelerates to zero
and then smoothly accelerates in the
opposite direction.

3. DC Dynamic Braking
or Rheostatic or AC Dynamic Braking
The disadvantages of plugging are removed in dynamic
braking.
Dynamic braking requires less power.
Under normal operating condition
Stator - Rotating Magnetic Field - Ns

Faster sNs

Rotor - Te -

Slower

Rotates - Nr

If DC supply is given to stator


Stator - Stationary Magnetic Field -Ns =0

Slower

Rotor - Teb
Rotates - Nr
Faster Ns(1-s)=
NsS
This Teb is dynamic braking torque.
Teb depends on 1. DC source. 2. Rotor resistance 3. Speed

Consider rotor is running at syn speed Ns


Stator is excited by DC
The relative speed between stator field and
rotor is Ns.
Slip = (Relative speed Ns)/Ns = 1
This is equivalent to IM with a rotor at STANDSTILL
Now consider, rotor is at rest and stator is excited by DC
Stationary flux induces no rotor emf
This is equivalent to IM with a rotor RUNNING at Syn speed
Conclusions
1. Rotor at syn speed with DC dynamic braking is similar to
rotor at rest during IM operation
2. Rotor at rest with DC dynamic braking is similar to
rotor running at syn speed during IM operation

Circuit Diagram
DC

AC

R1
Stator

Rotor

R1 is connected to limit
stator current
Additional rotor resistance
is also connected to limit
the current and to obtain
braking characteristics

Circuit Diagram
AC

Rectifier
R1
Stator
Rotor

Transformer

Under normal operating condition


Rotor speed w r t stator field under DC dynamic
braking is Ns(1-s) = NsS
In the equivalent ckt diagram, replace s by S
In phasor diadram
jx2
I1
I2
also replace s by S
V1

I
VDC

jXm

r2/S

I1

I1
I0

x1 = 0, and no stator core loss

I2r2

SE2
I2 jI2Sx2

The dynamic braking torque is


Ted =
Te

I2

r2
S

The T-s ch is similar to IM but with slip scale reversed


R2 < R2< R2
TL

Ns
0
r2
Ted
R2
R2
R2
Ted increases with increase in rotor circuit resistance
0 Speed
1 Slip

Due to this it is also called as RHEOSTATIC braking


The entire power developed in rotor is dissipated in R2

MMF produced by 3-ph wdg due to AC


MMFAC = 3 I m N
2

MMF produced by single ph due to DC = IDC N


The resultant MMF produced due to DC

IDC N

60

IDC N
3IDC N

For equal MMF due to AC and DC


3
I m N = 3IDC N
2
3
I1 N
IDC =
2

MMFDC =

3IDC N

AC dynamic braking in nothing but SEIG operation


A bank of capacitors is connected across
three phases of stator wdg.
IG receives AC excitation from bank of capacitor
The generated electrical energy is
dissipated as heat in rotor circuit
AC
Due to high cost of capacitor, this
method is not used in practice.
C
Stator
Rotor

Advantages of
Dynamic Braking
1. Smooth stop

2. Less rotor ckt


loss
C
3. No tendency to
reverse
Disadvantage: Less quick than plugging

UNIT-5
Single phase Induction
Motor & Special Machines
Presented by
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE

Single phase
Induction Motor

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Introduction
What is single phase induction motors?
is an induction motor having a squirrel cage
rotor and a single phase stator winding.

Working Principle
Suppose the rotor is at rest and a single phase
supply is given to the stator winding. Now the current
flowing in the stator winding will produce a m.m.f
with in the stator and this m.m.f induces a current in
the rotor. Again the induced current inside the rotor
will produce a m.m.f with in the rotor itself which is
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction with the
stator m.m.f. Thus the two m.m.f cancel out each
other and as a result there will be no net torque
acting on the rotor. There for the rotor will stay at
rest. So due to this effect, we have to find another
method to start the motor.

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


Depending on the method used to start the
motor : 1) Capacitor-start motors
2) Capacitor-run motors
3) Capacitor start-and run motors
4) Shaded-pole motors

1) Capacitor-Start phase induction


motor

A capacitor-Start motor is a spilt phase


induction motor with a starting capacitor
inserted in series with the start winding
creating an LC Circuit which is capable of
producing a much greater torque.
An Lc circuit refers to a circuit containing
an inductor w/c connected together they
can act as an electrical resonator w/c
stores electrical energy.

Working Principle of single phase


capacitor-start motor

In capacitor-start motors the capacitor enables


the motor to handle heavy start loads by increasing
the strength of the magnetic field created by the
windings. The capacitor is individually mounted
outside of the motor as a separate unit either on the
top or side of the motor with a centrifugal switch
located between the capacitor and the start winding.
The switch connects the capacitor with the motor at
startup and disconnects them when the motor has
reached about 75% of its operating speed. And during
startup period when the centrifugal switch is closed,
capacitor-start motors typically deliver from 250-350%
of the full load torque.

Equivalent circuit of capacitor-start


motors

Types of single phase capacitor-start


motor
Among this the basic types include:A) Single voltage externally reversible
B) Single voltage non reversible

Applications of single phase


capacitor-start motors
Capacitor-start from high torque (>175%
full load) are used: Operation having high starting loads
such as: - Elevators
- Compressors &
- Refrigerators

Capacitor-start moderate torque (<175%


full load) are used: Operation having low starting
loads such as:- Fans
- Blowers &
- Small pumps.

2) Capacitor run motors


Capacitor-run motors are motors having a
capacitor connected in series with the start
winding in order to increase the running
efficiency.
Capacitor-run motors use run-capacitors
that are designed for continuous duty which
are energized the entire time during
operation of the motor.

Working principle of single phase


capacitor-run motors

In capacitor-run motors, a run-capacitor


is connected to the start winding of the
motor and it constantly energizes the start
winding while the motor is running. And this
creates a 90o phase change between the start
winding current and the run winding current
making a two phase motor. As a result a
rotating magnetic field is created within the
motor which causes the rotor to rotate more
efficiently.

Advantages and disadvantages of


capacitor-run motors
Advantages
The capacitor remains in the circuit at all
times thus no centrifugal switch is required.
They can be designed to have low vibration
and less noise under full load condition.
If properly designed, they are more efficient
than other type of motors.

Disadvantages
Since capacitor start motors have low
starting torque they cannot be used in
applications with severe starting conditions.

Application of single phase capacitorrun motors


are mainly used for applications requiring
low starting torque and high efficiency
such as:- Small compressors,
Pumps &
Fans.

3) Capacitor start-and-run motors


Capacitor-start-and-run motors or permanentsplit capacitor motors
are single phase induction motors having

capacitors connected in the circuit during both


the starting and the running period. In this type
of motors both the start winding and the run
windings are permanently connected to the
power source through a capacitor at all times.

Types of single phase capacitor startand-run motors


Depending on the number of capacitors
used: 1. Single value capacitor start-and-run
motors:

2. Two value capacitor start-and-run


motors
The two values of capacitance can be obtained
using two different methods.
a. By using two capacitors in parallel
b. By using a step up transformer

Advantage

Ability to start heavy loads


Ability to develop 25% overload capacity
Higher efficiency and power factor
Extremely quiet operation

Applications of single phase capacitor


start-and-run motors
Two value capacitor start and run motors are

frequently used in applications requiring


variable speed such as : Air handlers,
Blowers and
Fanes.

Single value capacitor start-and-run


motors are used in applications requiring
low starting torque such as: Fans
Blowers &
Voltage regulators.

4) Shaded pole motors


A shaded pole motor is a single phase induction
motor having one or more short circuited
windings acting only on a portion of the
magnetic circuit.
Generally the winding is a closed copper ring
embedded in the face of the pole together
known as the shaded pole which provides the
required rotating field for starting purpose.

Working principles of single phase


shaded pole motors

Now when an alternating current is passed through


the field or main winding surrounding the whole pole, the
magnetic axis of the pole shifts from the unshaded part to
the shaded part. which is analogous with the actual
physical movement of the pole. As a result the rotor starts
rotating in the direction of this shift from the unshaded
part to the shaded part.

Advantages and disadvantages of single


phase shaded pole motors
Advantages
Simple in construction
Tough surface
Reliable and cheap

Disadvantages
Low starting torque
Very little overload capacity
Low efficiency (5% for tiny sizes 35%
for higher ratings)

Applications of single phase shadedpole motors


Because of its low starting torque, the shaded
pole motor is generally used for
Small fans,
Toys,
Hairdryers,
Ventilators etc.

Special Machines
There are variety of special machines available
Here, our territory includes
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
AC series Motor
Linear Reluctance Motor
Repulsion Motor

Stepper
Motor

Stepper Motor

Stepper Motor, derives its name from the fact that it follows
definitive step in response to input pulses
See to it, that the input is in the form of pulses
Straightaway it is understood that the input, being pulses, can
be controlled and in turn the output gets controlled
Wherever precise positioning is required stepper motors are
widely employed
Typical values stepper motors develop torque ranging from 1
N-m upto 40 N-m power output range from 1 W to 2500 W

Stepper Motor types

There are three designs of stepper motors


available in the literature
They are
Variable Reluctance stepper motor
Permanent magnet stepper motor
Hybrid stepper motor

Stepper Motor Variable


Reluctance Stepper Motor

Operating principle

1. Variable Reluctance
Stepper Motor

As usual, it has
Stator
Rotor

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor


- Stator

Stator is a hollow cylinder whose inner


periphery houses salient poles

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor


- Rotor

Rotor is a solid cylinder whose outer


periphery has salient poles

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

When we emphasize that the operation just


performed is 1-phase-ON mode we indirectly
mean that we have something called as 2phase-ON mode and so on
As the name goes, 2-phase-ON mode
denotes 2 phases being switched ON at the
same time

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

2-phase-ON mode

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

When we started, 2-phase-ON mode, many


would have thought that step angle would be
15 deg
But the table in the previous slide shows the
step angle is same as that of the previous
case (30 deg, maintained)
But the position of the rotor is changed,
which is a desirable factor in some of the
position control experiments

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

If the step angle is altered from the original intended design, it


would add much to the application side of our machine
Can we bring any other step size here?
Is it possible, first of all?
The answer is yes, it is possible
There is no restriction imposed on us in altering the
combination of switching pulses
In fact, the 2-phase-ON mode is the child of our manipulation of
combination of phases involved in switching

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

Going by the same discussion, if we resort to


the combination of 1-phase-ON mode and 2phase-ON mode we will end up with some
interesting operation

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

It is interesting to note here that this


discussion has no end in it
We have something called as micro-stepping
and the reader is advised to do it as an
assignment

Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

All the previous slides regarding Variable


Reluctance Stepper Motor can be confined to
what is referred to as single-stack variable
reluctance stepper motor
It becomes clear by now that we have
something called as multi-stack variable
reluctance stepper motor

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

2. Permanent Magnet
Stepper Motor

It is very similar to Variable Reluctance


stepper motor
The only difference being that the rotor is
made up of permanent magnet
In VR motors, the rotor is a magnetic material
(It can carry the flux lines through it)

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Stator and Rotor

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

The stator phases can be excited with either


positive current or negative current
Positive current in phase A will create a set
of poles while the negative current will create
opposite poles
Similar is the case with phase B

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Consider positive current in phase A

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Advantages
Permanent magnets require no external
exciting current low power loss
High inertia
Develops more torque than VR motor

Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Disadvantages
It is very difficult to produce permanent
magnet rotor with more number of poles
This makes the design of PM motors with
higher step angle

3. Hybrid Stepper Motor

Hybrid stepper motor combine the features of


VR and PM stepper motors
The stator is an electromagnet
The rotor is a permanent magnet
The difference in the rotor is that the rotor
magnet is axial with one end completely
north pole and other, south pole

Hybrid Stepper Motor

The confusion, if any, can be better


illustrated with the schematic representation
given below

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Hybrid Stepper Motor

The side view of the axial permanent magnet


in the rotor is shown below

Hybrid Stepper Motor

The operation is left as an assignment for the


reader
The reader can build on this idea that the
rotor alignment would be based on the
attraction between formed stator poles (this
being electromagnet) and permanent rotor
poles

Applications

Type-writers
Tape drives
Floppy disk drivers
Process control systems
X-Y plotters

Hysteresis Motor

Hysteresis Motor
This is based on the principle of hysteresis
Basically this is a constant speed motor
similar to synchronous motor
As is always the case
It has a
Stator and a Rotor

Hysteresis Motor - Stator

Stator of hysteresis motor is similar to single


phase induction motor
The stator winding can be either split phase
type of shaded pole type

Hysteresis Motor - Rotor

Rotor is a smooth cylinder made of chromesteel


Materials of high resistivity comparable to
that of an insulator are normally chosen to
make the eddy current loss zero which make
the core loss equal only to hysteresis loss

Hysteresis Motor Operating Principle


The concept of hysteresis is the basis
of such motor
As we know, hysteresis is the lagging
of magnetic flux density (B) with
respect to magnetizing field strength
(H)

Hysteresis loss

Remember, the very old hysteresis curve


It looks as shown

Hysteresis loss

At the outset, what we can elaborate is that if an


attempt is made to induce pole in a magnetic
material with higher retentivity the induced pole will
not loose its magnetic property even though the
induction is taken out completely
It is like remembering some event even after the
event is over (retaining something)

Hysteresis loss

Where this come in the machine?

The typical hysteresis loop for the


rotor material

Torque Slip characteristics

The torque slip characteristics of hysteresis


motor has some interesting points to note

Applications

Precision Audio equipments


Record players
Electric clocks
Tele-printers

AC series Motor

AC series motor

An AC motor with commutator and brush


assembly is referred to as commutator motor
(Remember commutator and brush assembly
in the wound rotor of an Induction motor)
There are two types of commutator motor
AC series motor
Universal motor

AC series motor

What would happen if a normal dc series motor is connected to


ac supply?
The motor will run normally as the torque will still be
unidirectional
This is due to the fact that current and flux will change direction
simultaneously (dealt during 3 ph IM)
But, power factor would be very poor due to very high
inductance of armature and field windings
At the same time, alternating flux would induce eddy emf in the
core leading to heavy eddy current loss in the machine
Also, sparking occur at brushes during the commutation period
due to heavy voltage and current

AC series motor

These disadvantages make the machine


unsuitable with AC supply
Proper modifications can make the machine
suitable with AC supply

AC series motor Required


Modifications

Eddy current loss and the associated heating


loss can be overcome by properly laminating
the machines armature core and field core
The power factor can be controlled by
decreasing the reactance of armature
winding and field winding

AC series motor Modifications


Elaborated

Decreasing the reactance of the field winding


increases the speed of the machine due to reduction
in the air gap flux
Increase in the speed gives rise to decreased torque
Now to improve the torque, armature turns has to be
increased proportionately
But this will again increase the effective reactance of
the machine which is undesirable

AC series motor Modifications


Elaborated

To keep the armature reactance minimum and the


associated armature reaction reactance effect, a
special compensating winding is provided
The compensating winding is connected in such a
way so that the flux produced by the compensating
winding will be exactly in opposition to the flux
produced by the armature winding
This will neutralize the armature reaction reactance
effect

AC series motor Modifications


Implementation

This compensating winding can be connected in two ways


Based on the connection it is referred as conductively
compensated and inductively compensated

AC series motor Modifications


Implementation

Another major set back is the sparking associated


with commutation
In dc motors, this is overcome by commutating
poles (com poles) or inter poles
The voltage induced in the short circuited armature
winding is huge enough (this voltage is absent in the
case of dc motors) which creates undesirable
sparking even when inter poles are provided

AC series motor Modifications


Implementation

One method to reduce sparking connecting a shunt


resistance with the commutating winding of the
machine
By adjusting the resistance, voltage across the
compole winding is adjusted

AC series motor Characteristics

The characteristics of AC series motor are very


similar to dc series motor

Repulsion Motor

Repulsion Motor

It has a
Stator
Rotor

Repulsion Motor - Stator

Stator is a hollow cylinder whose inner periphery


houses armature conductors
Winding is excited with single phase supply

Repulsion Motor - Motor

Rotor is a solid cylinder whose outer periphery has


conductors
It is very similar to the armature of the dc motor with
commutator and brush arrangement
The brushes are short circuited by low resistance
jumper (why?)

Repulsion Motor - Operation

The operation of the repulsion motor is shown with


stator designed as salient pole type
The operation will remain same with stator discussed
as salient pole type
But take it that the stator is distributed type with slots
carrying single phase armature conductors

Repulsion Motor - Operation

To make it clear

Repulsion Motor - Operation

Then, how to make the motor start?

Repulsion Motor - Shortcomings

Speed changes as the load is changed


It becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load
Working power factor is very poor
Likely sparking at brushes

Repulsion Motor - Shortcomings

Speed changes as the load is changed


It becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load
Working power factor is very poor
Likely sparking at brushes

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Repulsion Motor Overcoming the


disadvantages

An attempt in overcoming the disadvantages has


given way to new types of Repulsion motor
Compensated Repulsion Motor
Here, an extra winding called the compensating
winding is added in series with the armature winding
This winding is placed in the inner slots of the stator
The main purpose of compensating winding is to
improved the power factor (as in the case of
compensation provided in the AC series motor) and
to improve the speed regulation

Repulsion Motor Overcoming the


disadvantages

Repulsion-start Induction-Run Motor


As the name indicates the motor starts as a
repulsion motor and after attaining 75 percent of the
speed the brushes are lifted and the armature
winding is shorted as Induction Motor
This arrangement is advantageous as the brushes
would not any current during operation
There are also designs in which the brushes ride on
the commutator throughout the operation

Repulsion Motor Overcoming the


disadvantages

Repulsion Induction Motor


This is the third design in which stator is the same as
in normal repulsion motor
But the rotor has two separate windings
One winding carries commutator and brush
arrangement similar to dc motor
Other winding is squirrel cage winding similar to
cage induction motor
Both these windings operate during the entire period
of operation of the motor

Repulsion Motor Overcoming the


disadvantages

Squirrel cage windings are placed deep inside the


rotor and remains inactive during start due to its high
reactance
When the rotor attains 85 % of the speed, squirrel
cage windings takes control
Commutated windings provide the starting torque
which is seen to well above 350 percent of the fullload torque

Linear Induction
Motor

Linear Induction Motor

The readers are advised to do this part as an


assignment
Interested people can this important points before
taking up the assignment

Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Linear Induction Motor

A normal Induction motor has a stator and a rotor


Stator is a hollow cylinder with conductors in its inner
periphery
Rotor is a solid cylinder with conductors on its outer
periphery

Linear Induction Motor

If the stator is cut in to half parallel to its axis (It will


look as english alphabet U from the front end), the
motor is referred to as sector Induction Motor
The important to note is that the motor will work
developing almost 30 % of its power rating
Anyway the voltage has to be reduced to prevent
saturation since the number of conductors has been
reduced to half of its original value

Linear Induction Motor

If the U shaped stator and cylindrical rotor is made


flat, then the machine is referred to as Linear
Induction Motor
As a passing reference, the reader can note that this
type of machine is employed in trains which operate
on the principle of Magnetic Levitation

Servo
Motor
Presented by C.GOKUL,AP/EEE Velalar College of Engg & Tech , Erode

Introduction
They are also called control motors and have high-torque
capabilities
Basic principle of operation is the same as that of other
electromagnetic motors. However, their construction, design
and mode of operation are different.
Their power ratings vary from a fraction of a watt up to a few
100 W.
Both DC and AC (2-phase and 3-phase) servomotors are used.
Applications
In radar , tracking and guidance systems, process controllers,
computers and machine tools.

DC Servomotors

These motors are either separately-excited dc motors or permanentmagnet dc motors.


The schematic diagram of a separately-excited DC motor along with its
armature and field MMFs and torque/speed characteristics is shown in
Fig. 39.26. The speed of DC servomotors is normally controlled by
varying the armature voltage. Their armature is deliberately designed
to have large resistance so that torque-speed characteristics are linear
and have a large negative slope as shown in Fig. 39.26 (c). The
negative slope serves the purpose of providing the viscous damping
for the servo drive system.
As shown in Fig. 39.26 (b), the armature mmf. and excitation field mmf
are in quadrature. This fact provides a fast torque response because
torque and flux become decoupled.
Accordingly, a step change in the armature voltage or current
produces a quick change in the position or speed of the rotor.

AC Servomotors

Such motors normally run on a frequency of 60 Hz or 400


Hz (for airborne systems). The stator has two distributed
windings which are displaced from each other by 90
(electrical).
The main winding (also called the reference or fixed
phase) is supplied from a constant voltage source,
Vm 0 (Fig. 39.27). The other winding (also called the
control phase) is supplied with a variable voltage of the
same frequency as the reference phase but is phasedisplaced by 90 (electrical).
The control phase voltage is controlled by an electronic
controller. The speed and torque of the rotor are
controlled by the phase difference between the main and
control windings. Reversing the phase difference from
leading to lagging (or vice-versa) reverses the motor
direction.

Magnetic
Levitation
System
- Introduction

Introduction
What are Magnetic levitation systems?
Maglev. are devices that suspend
ferromagnetic materials with the aid of
electromagnetism. It has wide number
of applications such as high-speed
trains, aerospace shuttles, magnetic
bearings and high-precision platforms.

System Block Diagram


Set point

Reference
Interface
input + E(s) Circuit

Intel micrcontroller
Ts
Digital z
Controller o
E*(s)
h

Maglev Front Panel


Actual Ball position Y(s)

Interface Magnetic
Circuit U(s)Levitation
System

References
Electrical Machines-II by S. B.
Sivasubramaniyan -MSEC, Chennai
http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.in/
http://www.electricaleasy.com/p/electricalmachines.html
www.scribd.com
www.slideshare.net

References
Armature Reaction of Alternator by N.Karthikeyan

BEE2123 ELECTRICAL MACHINES Muhamad Zahim


EE20A - Electromechanical Energy Conversion
Alternators and Synchronous Motors by Amit Mishra
Electrical Machines www.utm.my
INDUCTION MOTOR by MUHAMMAD WAQAR
Single phase Induction Motor
Magnetic Levitation by Tori Johnson and Jenna Wilson

Books Reference
Electric Machinery by A.E. Fitzgerald Charles
Kingsley, Jr.Stephen D. Umans
Electrical Machines by Nagrath & Kothari
Electrical Machines by P.S.Bimbhra
Electrical Machines-II by Godse
Electrical Machines-II by Gnanavadivel