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HVAC system
H = Heating, V = Ventilation, A = Air, C = Conditioning

...............................................
Course contents
Manual ASHRAE
1- Load Estimation
HAP
2- Different HVAC systems
D-X Direct Expansion

Chilled water system

" " "

"
"

Split
Package

i.e. 4 components in the


Mini , concealed , same package
central split

Window ,central package

3 central package
central split
Chilled water system

selection factor

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Type catalogue
3- Air out lets

Design location, number, type, size

4- Duct design Duct Seizer


Duct Type:Rectangular

Circular

Duct " "


Elbow " "
5- Duct construction Branch \ take off
Accessories: volume, fire damper
Duct weight: manual, Excel
6- Duct connections:
7- Duct test: smoke, light Test
8- Duct insulation: Types, Design
Chilled water net work GPM
Circulation chilled water pump
[Design flow Q, Head H , Pump set]

9- Chilled water system

Balancing system, load variation system


Equipments [Chiller, circulation pump, FCU, AHU, Cooling tower]

101112-

Fans: [ Types, construction]


BMS: Building Manage System design drawings, BOQ
Ventilation:
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Design Package
1- Design Drawings
Grill: number for each size
Pipes: length for each diameter
Duct: weight
Insulation: area

2- BOQ Bill Off Quantities

3- Specification
:
- 9 12 contents Advanced HVAC

(
) (
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1- Load Estimation
*manual

. 1-1 Types of loads:


a) External loads [solar heat gain, transmittion heat gain]
b) Internal loads [people, lighting, equipments, miscellanies equip.]
c) Ventilation [ fresh air CFM ]
1-2 notes on comparison:
a)
Dry bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature
Tdb


sensible heat

Twb


latent heat
Humidity Twb ,Humidity

b)
Humidity Ratio

Twb

Relative Humidity
:

c)

1234567-

Solar
transmittion
internal people
internal lights
internal equipments
internal misc. equipments
ventilation
)4(


Sensible
Sensible
Sensible, latent
Sensible
Sensible
Sensible, latent
Sensible, latent

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!

!

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1-3 BTU Sheet

- Space name: ..
- Space location: .
- Indoor condition Based on application human comfortable temperature; Tdb = 75F Air at 50% RH
- out door condition: Based on project location design condition {HAP, Ashrae, }

Load
1-solar
2-transmittion
a)people
b)light
3-internal
c)equipment
d)Misc. equip.

4-ventilation

sensible

R.S.H

latent

R.L.H

Room Sensible Heat


=

Room Latent Heat

O.A.S.H

O.A.L.H

Outside Air Sensible Heat

Outside Air Latent Heat

G.S.H

G.L.H

Grand Sensible Heat

Grand Latent Heat

= R.S.H + O.A.S.H

= R.L.H + O.A.L.H

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1-4 load estimation:


1-4-1 solar heat gain:
" " Walls " ." Glass
Walls [ solar, transmittion] solar transmittion Qs,t

Qs

Qt

Qs,t

- Solar heat gain through glass:


)Qs = A* F * (Solar heat gain \ feet^2
Where:
BTU\hr

Qs

( ) area of glass window

solar heat gain factor

glass type " curtains"

:
- ( -: 16 )

-:-More safe: F= 1
- More applicable: F = 0.35

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( 15 )

)(Solar heat gain \ feet^2

: ( ) - Location of the project latitude


- Timing month, hour
( ) - Direction

From table 15 we get the follow as standard for our design work:
direction
North
N-E
E
S-E
S-W
W
N-W
H

Magnitude in BTU\hr
33
139
165
163
163
165
139
250

* 15

N-E

N-W

S-E

S-W

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1-4-2 Transmittion load:


transmittion
Roof

transmittion only :

Level 2

a) glass,
"" ", floor ", ceiling" b) Partition"

Partition

Ceiling
Level 1

Floor

solar & transmittion :


" a) wall "

Wall

" b) Roof
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

transmittion only :
a) Glass:
Qt = A * U * T
Where:

( ) area of glass window

over all heat transfer coefficient


:
- ( -: 33 )

-:-More safe: U= 1
- More applicable: U = 0.45

Temp. diff. = 29F, for Egypt


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"" ", floor ", ceiling" b) Partition"


Qt = A * U * T
Where:

( ) area of Partition, ceiling, floor

over all heat transfer coefficient


:
- ( -: 26 )

-:-More safe: U= 1
- More applicable:
*partition U = 0.33
* Ceiling, floor U= 0.1: 0.2

T
3 :

T= Tdb Tdb

T= Tdb Tdb


T = 0
:

room= 75F

room= 75F

Where:

"Tdb = Tdpout

- 2 spaces conditioned
with the same unit
- administration building

Where:

Tdb = Tdpout -10F

Where:

Where:


104F


104F

Tdpout Tdpout

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solar & transmittion :


a) wall ""
b) Roof "
Qs,t = A * U * Teq
Where:

area of wall or roof ) (

over all heat transfer coefficient

Teq = teq + t correction


Where:
teq
from table 20
t correction
from table 20-a
...

From table 20 we get the follow as standard for our design work for teq:

Condition

Magnitude of teq

Exposed to sun wall & roof


Covered with water roof only
Sprayed roof only
Shaded roof only

46
22
18
14

t correction for Egypt = 12



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1-4-3 internal loads:


1-4-3-1 people: sensible, latent

Qs = no. of person * sensible heat gain for each person


Ql = no. of person * latent heat gain for each person
Where:
- No. of person

From table 63 we get No. of person \ feet ^2 which it depends on type of application.

- Sensible, latent heat gain for each person:


It depends on type of application. From table 48
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

1-4-3-2 light: sensible


:
incandescent normal lights

Fluorescent lights

Light load = wattage * 3.4

Light load = wattage * 3.4 * 1.25

Locke @ table 49
: wattage light *
1- Electrical drawing: lighting fixture :
2- Electrical engineer
3- Range Assumption :
Residential
20: 25 wattage\m^2

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Malls
25: 30 wattage\m^2

Factories
35 wattage\m^2

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1-4-3-3 Equipments: sensible

Qs = total wattage of equipments * 3.4


Where:

Qs

BTU
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

1-4-3-4 Miscellanies Equipments: sensible, latent:


Locke @ table 50, 51, 52
S, L :
Electrical burning table 50
Gas burning table 51

" - hooded
- not hooded
* . not hooded
* hooded not hooded
0.5
* : 52 S, L

Qs = sum [sensible load for each equipments].


Ql = sum [latent load for each equipments].
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1-4-4 Ventilation load:


Fresh air CFM

Return CFM

supply CFM

Exhaust CFM
Step (1): calculate Fresh air CFM from table 45

no. of persons * CFM per person


area * CFM per sq.feet

Step (2): calculate load from this air [Qs, Ql]

1) Qs = 1.08 * CFM * T
Where:

Qs
BTU\ hr
T = [ Tdp)out Tdp)in ]
CFM

29 = ) 75 104 (

from table 45

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2) Ql = 0.6 8 * CFM * (Gr \ lb)


Where:

Ql

BTU\ hr

CFM

from table 45

(Gr \ lb)
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] (Gr \ lb) = [(Gr \ lb)out - (Gr \ lb)in


:

Tdb)out = 104F , at 52% RH
5 Tdb)out = 104F , at 52% RH = 165

(Gr \ lb)out = 165


" " :
Tdb)in = 75F , at 50% RH
5 Tdb)in = 75F , at 50% RH "" =65

65

= (Gr \ lb)in

)(Gr \ lb


.



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*
: BTU Sheet -

BTU Sheet

- Space name: ..
- Space location: .
- Indoor condition Based on application human comfortable temperature; Tdb = 75F Air at 50% RH
- out door condition: Based on project location design condition {HAP, Ashrae, }

Load
1-solar
2-transmittion
a)people
b)light
3-internal
c)equipment
d)Misc. equip.

4-ventilation

sensible

R.S.H

latent

R.L.H

Room Sensible Heat


=

Room Latent Heat

O.A.S.H

O.A.L.H

Outside Air Sensible Heat

Outside Air Latent Heat

G.S.H

G.L.H

Grand Sensible Heat

Grand Latent Heat

= R.S.H + O.A.S.H

= R.L.H + O.A.L.H

Air conditioning capacity = G.S.H + G.L.H =

TR 12000 BTU\hr
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1-5 Supply CFM:


1-5-1 By pass factor:
fresh " - " coil

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1-5-2 Effective Sensible Heat Factor ESHF:
E S H F = (room sensible heat \ room total heat) + by pass factor
Where:
sensible + latent

Room total heat

]))E S H F = [(R.S.H + 0.1 O.A.S.H) \ (R.S.H + R.L.H + O.1 (O.A.S.H + O.A.L.H


,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
1-5-2 Temperature Apparatus Dew Point TADP:
coil
- TADP 65 ESHF

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
])Supply CFM = [(R.S.H + 0.1 O.A.S.H) \ ((1.08 * 0.9) (Tdp in TADP
CFM

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2- Cooling cycle & Different HVAC Systems

2-1 cooling cycle:

Liquid

Liquid

outdoor unit
Condenser

Evaporator

Expansion valve

Compressor

Indoor unit
Vapor

vapor

Low pressure zone

high pressure zone


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2-2 HVAC Systems:


2-2-1 Types of HVAC Systems
Chilled water system

D-X Direct Expansion

"
"

" " "

wall
ceiling
free stand

Split

Package
i.e. 4 components in the
Mini , central split, same package
concealed

Window ,central package

ducted unit grill mini Ducted

return duct

" free return


,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2-2-2 comparison between central package & central split:


central package

central split

Disadvantage:

Advantage:

- required additional space for duct


risers
- no separate control

- dont required additional space for


duct risers
- separate control

Advantage:

Disadvantage:

- easier in installation
- no oil trap is required

- high cost for refrigerant pipes pipes,


welding, test, insulation
- oil trap is required
" S " S

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2-2-3 Factor affecting for selection:


2-2-3a Block load full project load:
required System

Available Full load

Window & mini split


Concealed
Central package, split
Chiller

7 TR
7: 15 TR
15: 70 TR
> 70 TR

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2-2-3b Capital cost:


L.E per TR

Window

mini

1000

1500

concealed central package central split

2000

3000

3500

chiller

4500

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2-2-3c Running cost:


L.E per TR

Window

mini

concealed central package central split

chiller

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2-2-3d Available duct space:


central package, central split -

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2-2-3e previous design:



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2-3 load control system:


3 :
VRV

VAV

CAV

Variable Refrigerant
Volume

Variable Air Volume


system

Constant Air Volume


system

compressor

- control in air flow

chilled water system

damper

:
damper

- control in chilled
water flow



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3- Air out lets


3-1 functions of air out lets:
Its function is; diffusion for air inside the space.
- Air out lets called diffuser, air terminals
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3-2 types of air out lets:






" "
4
"
"
" "
grill

- Colure, Shape
3-2-1 ceiling diffuser
3-2-2 linear grill
3-2-3 jet diffuser
3-2-4 fresh air lover
3-2-5 exhaust air valve

* Exhaust air
:
exhaust air-


100
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3-3 factors roles affecting air out lets design:


3-3-1 types of ceiling:
" ":
3-3-1a ceiling tiles:
( ) 24 * 24 ( cm ) 60 * 60" " Neck area

" Effective area

" Register

" Face area

Ex:
- Grill 24 * 24 face area
- Grill 18 * 18 neck area
:
- neck inch 3 ~ face

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3-3-1b gypsum pored:


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3-3-2 CFM for each air out let :


)CFM each air terminal = (total CFM \ no. of air terminal
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3-3-3 size of grill


,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3-3-4 noise level:


Max. Accurate sound
db 32 =
: db 48 =

ceiling diffuser CFM each air terminal : size Nc size .


,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3-3-5 air through:

X = (3\4) L
Where:

L ........... Grill

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3-4 air out lets design:


:
Reflected ceiling plane
Architectural plane
RCP
CFM noise
: RCP grill Grill
noise
grill noise
CFM each air terminal...
size RCP CFM each air terminal Size


.
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4- Duct design Duct Seizer


4-1 Duct Type: - width
Depth

Circular

Rectangular

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Rectangular depth plane depth -:
D

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Rectangular width plane -:

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

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4-2 The factors which affected on design of ducts:


CFM
Size W * D , diameter
Velocity V
Friction f

1234-

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
4-3 Rules of duct sizing selection:

= 4-3-1 Aspect Ratio A.R

heat losses

duct weight

Aspect Ratio

- round square

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
2-3-4 width depth

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
3-3-4

D2 > D1 - D1 = D2 Tee

- The role is: D1 > D2 2


depth width branch depth main " "

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4-3-4 Reduction:

. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

4-4 steps of design:


4-4-1 load estimation

TR

4-4-2 air out lets design

CFM for each grill

4-4-3 design drawing

CFM

single line from ACU to air out lets simple, symmetrical

4-4-4 calculate CFM in each duct section


4-4-5 use the Duct Sizer program
4-4-6 constant friction
4-4-7 @ each section by CFM, f we get sizing

Note that:
*@ van which is nearest to compressor;
- max. Velocity 1200 fpm.
- CFM = total CFM
- By max. Velocity, total CFM; we get duct sizing friction

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duct sizer

-1
75F Air at 50% RH and 1 atm

-2 CFM 500 Flow


rate 1200 velocity .

-3 head loss 0.276


.
-4 head loss
. 0.276
friction .
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-5 flow rate 500

-6 Duct size Equivalent diameter

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-7

"< branch 2

-8 D D .
-9 Duct size .
- Section flow rate.987

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Ex1: - Grill grill CFM 500

single line from ACU to air out lets simple, symmetrical

- Design drawing

- calculate CFM in each duct section

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- use the Duct Sizer program


- Constant friction
- @ each section by CFM, f we get sizing
- 9

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Ex2:
700 CFM for each air out let:

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single line from AHU to air out lets simple, symmetrical

- Design drawing

- use the Duct Sizer program


- Constant friction
- @ each section by CFM, f we get sizing
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""split depth

- calculate CFM in each duct section

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-:

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

600 CFM for each grill

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5- Duct construction :
5-1 Volume damper:
duct -

5-1-1 Function:
- Balance for air quantities inside duct network

- Equalizing to friction or pressure drop in all baths


,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

5-1-2 Type of volume damper:

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5-1-3 Location volume damper:


- Supply ducts at entering of each branch.

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

5-1-4 Smacna cad standard:

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Note that:
volume damper .

- Volume damper must be accessible BY access panel from air outlet.


Because of:

Testing & commissioning


- TAB

Testing & Balancing & Adjustment




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5-2 fire damper: smoke damper


" " Spring

spring
:

Return branch
" "Fire rated wall" "
Fire rated wall " " duct ( ) Duct
Fire sealant material Fire damper

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Note that:
- Return CFM is from supply CFM for the same space.
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5-3 Branch take off:
curve flow

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5-4 Reducer:
: 10 duct .-Its location: After 10cm from the branch take off
- Its length:

)L= 4(W1 W2

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
5-5 Elbow:

Guide vanes

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Design of Guide vanes: from table as shown

width plane
riser depth
Table of Guide vanes

Depth for the elbow

No. of Guide vanes

Up to 10
12 : 16
16 : 24
More than 24

No Guide vanes
one Guide vanes
two Guide vanes
three Guide vanes

Ex:
1

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

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- Guide vanes

width

or

Where:
Rt
) throat radius ( 3 : 6
RH
Heel radius
RH= Rt +

Depth
Rt RH -:
:
Guide vanes Rt RH Guide vanes R2 R1


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5-6 Canvas:
AHU Supply Return

AHU

(To prevent Horizontal Vibration

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
- Vertical Vibration construction element

Rubber bad

spring cup

Floating floor

AHURubber bad

AHUspring



AHU
( )

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6- Duct test: smoke, light Test


Smoke Test
-

light Test
:-

fire damper 1- fall darkness


2- Test to be done for separate straight
: - Network branches need to be closes duct.
3- when silica used it must be opaque
before test.
- Smoke equipment to be provides

In case of leakage
- Reconstruction or used Silica (opaque or Transparent)
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

In case of no leakage
Contractor

WIR

consultant

Work inspection Request

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7- Duct insulation: Types, Design


7-1 Sound insulation
- In supply Duct branch.
- In return Duct branch.
- Elbow
* Sound insulation is in side duct.
Duct Arm flex -

** Its Function is damping sound level


It from 1cm to 3cm
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
7-2 Heat insulation:
- For the whole network
* Heat insulation is outside the duct
Fiber glass Duct installation -

** Its Function is:


- Decrease heat transfer.
- Prevent water vapor condensation on the outer duct surface.
Return Supply . Duct

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*** Density of Heat insulation:


3
12

Density
24 3

48

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
**** Thickness of Heat insulation:
1

2
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Duct insulation
In door duct
Air condition region

- Density 12

- Thickness 1

outdoor duct
- duct is on roof or shaft
- Density 24 3
- Thickness 2
- Density 48 3
- Thickness 4
) (outdoor duct
) ( Cladding

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***** Duct insulation steps


- 1 " " foster
- 2 4

5
over lap
5 duct tape:
- 3
- 4 5

Duct tape
- 5 Duct Belt:

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8- Design Package
1- Design Drawings
2- BOQ Bill Off Quantities

Grill: number for each size


Pipes: length for each diameter
Duct: weight
Insulation: area

3- Specification SPCS

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
8-1 Duct: weight

2- General
3-
W= 0.4 (w + H) T * L

1- equations
excel sheet -

@ duct Rectangular:
W D L T
@ Elbow:
Rt RH

Kg

inch mm m

1.1 safety factor

**
:
- Branch , - Reducer , - Take off

Larger size

Duct thickness T
Required thickness

Up to 12
14 : 30
32 : 40
More than 40

0.6 mm
0.7 mm
0.8 mm
1 mm

- Scrap percentage:

15 : 25 %
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8-2 Insulation area:

A = .05 ( W + H ) L
m

inch

A = A * 1.1 safety factor


=

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

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