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Trouble under the Articles of Confederation:

Daniel Shays Rebellion-

Farmers, under great debt,
organize and raid government
offices in Mass.
Political leaders recognize
that their new government is
not stable and something
must be done. (or risk
another revolution)

Philadelphia, 1787-
55 delegates meet secretly to
discuss a new system of
The New Jersey Plan
-3 Branch central government (legislative, executive,
1 house Legislature- Equal representation for all states
The Virginia Plan
-3 Branch central government (legislative more powerful-
would choose members of the other two branches)
2 house Legislature- Representation based on a state’s

The big disagreement: How would the states be represented in

The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)

• 2 House Legislature (Bicameral);

1. House of Representatives: representation based upon
2. Senate: representation based upon equality
Who counts towards the state’s population?
Northern states: Don’t count slaves
Southern states: Count slaves

The Three-Fifths Compromise: 5 slaves count as three

people towards the state’s population
The Constitution now had to be approved by a majority of the

Long process, took 2.5 years, as soon as nine approved, it

would take effect. The debate begins!

Federalists-those who supported the

ratification of the new constitution and a
strong federal government. Believed
that a Bill of Rights would limit
individual rights

Anti-Federalists-opposed ratification and a

stronger federal government, wanted a Bill
of Rights to be added to ensure that
individual rights were set in stone.

To gain support the Federalists promised to add the Bill of Rights

to the Constitution, which would be added after ratification.