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Trouble under the Articles of Confederation:

Daniel Shays Rebellion-


Farmers, under great debt,
organize and raid government
offices in Mass.
Political leaders recognize
that their new government is
not stable and something
must be done. (or risk
another revolution)

Philadelphia, 1787-
55 delegates meet secretly to
discuss a new system of
government
Proposals:
The New Jersey Plan
-3 Branch central government (legislative, executive,
judicial)
1 house Legislature- Equal representation for all states
The Virginia Plan
-3 Branch central government (legislative more powerful-
would choose members of the other two branches)
2 house Legislature- Representation based on a state’s
population

The big disagreement: How would the states be represented in


Congress?
The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)

• 2 House Legislature (Bicameral);


1. House of Representatives: representation based upon
population
2. Senate: representation based upon equality
Who counts towards the state’s population?
Northern states: Don’t count slaves
Southern states: Count slaves

The Three-Fifths Compromise: 5 slaves count as three


people towards the state’s population
Ratification
The Constitution now had to be approved by a majority of the
states.

Long process, took 2.5 years, as soon as nine approved, it


would take effect. The debate begins!

Federalists-those who supported the


ratification of the new constitution and a
strong federal government. Believed
that a Bill of Rights would limit
individual rights

Anti-Federalists-opposed ratification and a


stronger federal government, wanted a Bill
of Rights to be added to ensure that
individual rights were set in stone.

To gain support the Federalists promised to add the Bill of Rights


to the Constitution, which would be added after ratification.