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Districts are split according to population, ~650,000

in each
1. Malapportionment: Too many or too few
in the district
-Too many: takes away representation
(few districts)
-Too few: gives more presentation (more
2. Gerrymandering: An
unusually large or small
percentage of one group
in a district, giving that
group an advantage (oddly
shaped districts are often the

“Packing and Cracking”

Cracking: Columbus, OH
Packing: All areas in lies in the middle of these
this district are heavily three districts, spliting its
Democratic mostly Democratic voters
among the more
Republican suburbs