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Id

GPS-X-02007-C

11. 2001

Jean-Marie Zogg

1. 2006

Jean-Marie Zogg

/
:

27. 2007

TG

SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS)


GPS
GALILEO
GPS
AGPS DOP
UTM-
DGPS-

GPS

26. 2007

TG



GPS
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DGPS

DGPS

GNSS

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, , www.u-blox.com

, , . u-blox
, . u-blox
, . ,
, . u-blox ,
, .
u-blox , . u-blox
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u-blox , . u-blox, u-blox ,
TIM- GPS , Antaris, SuperSense, "your position is our focus", NavLox, u-center, AssistNow, AlmanacPlus, FixNow
EKF u-blox AG.
. , u-blox . Copyright 2007, u-blox AG.


GPS-X-02007-C


u-blox AG
Zuercherstrasse 68
CH-8800 Thalwil
Switzerland
Phone: +41 44 722 74 44
Fax: +41 44 722 74 47
E-mail: info@u-blox.com
www.u-blox.com


North, Central and South America

Europe, Middle East, Africa

Asia, Australia, Pacific

u-blox America, Inc.

u-blox AG

u-blox Singapore Pte. Ltd.

1902 Campus Commons Drive

Zuercherstrasse 68

435 Orchard Road

Suite 310

CH-8800 Thalwil

#19-02, Wisma Atria,

Reston, VA 20191 USA

Switzerland

Singapore 238877

Phone: +1 (703) 483 3180

Phone: +41 44 722 74 77

Phone: +65 6734 3811

Fax: +1 (703) 483 3179

Fax: +41 44 722 74 47

Fax: +65 6736 1533

E-mail: info_us@u-blox.com

E-mail: info@u-blox.com

Regional Office West Coast:

Technical Support:

Regional Office China:

8600 Lemon Ave #1


La Mesa, CA 91941
USA
Phone: +1 (619) 741 3011
Fax: +1 (619) 741 4334

E-mail: info_ap@u-blox.com
Support: support_ap@u-blox.com

Phone: +41 44 722 74 74


E-mail: support@u-blox.com

Room 716-718
No. 65 Fuxing Road
Beijing, 100036, China

E-mail: info_us@u-blox.com

Phone: +86 10 68 133 545

Technical Support:

Fax: +86 10 68 217 890


E-mail: info_cn@u-blox.com

Phone: +1 (703) 483 3185


E-mail: support_us@u-blox.com

Support: support_cn@u-blox.com
Regional Office Korea:
1258 Ho, Shinhan MetroKhan
#1115, BisanDong
DongAn-Ku
Anyang-si KyungKi-do,
Korea
Phone: +82 31 383 2584
Fax: +82 31 386 2584
E-mail: info_kr@u-blox.com
Support: support_kr@u-blox.com
Regional Office Taiwan:
Room 305
3F, #181, ZouTze Street
Neihu Dis. Taipei,
Taiwan
Phone: +886 2 2657 1090
Fax: +886 2 2657 1097
E-mail: info_cn@u-blox.com
Support: support_tw@u-blox.com


GPS-X-02007-C


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GPS-X-02007-C


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Jean-Marie Zogg_
October 2001
2006

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GPS-X-02007-C


.3
.4
...........................................................................................5
6
..10
1 ...............................................................12
1.1 ......................................................................12
1.1.1 ....................................................................13
1.1.2 ............................................................................................15
1.1.3 .....................................................................................................16
1.1.4 ...............................................................17

2 GNSS : GPS ......................................................................18


2.1 .........................................................................................................18
2.2 ..19
2.2.1 ..........................................................................19
2.2.2 GPS .22
2.2.3 ........................................................................................24
2.3 ...27
2.4 ...........................................................................................................27
2.5 GPS ..31
2.5.1 ..31
2.5.2 ..............................................................................31
2.5.3 ..............................................................................................32
2.5.4 TLM HOW.....................................................................................................................32
2.5.5 25 ....................................................................................................32
2.5.6 ......................................................................32
2.6 GPS..34
2.6.1 , BOC....................................................................................34
2.6.2 GPS..36

3 GLONASS GALILEO.......................................................................................37
3.1 .............................................................................................................................37


GPS-X-02007-C

3.2 : GLONASS............................................................................................ 38
3.2.1 GLONASS.......................................................................................................... 38
3.3 GALILEO............................................................................................................................ 39
3.3.1 ...........................................................................................................................39
3.3.2 GALILEO.......................................................................................... 40
3.3.3 ......................................................................................................................42
3.3.4 GALILEO ..................................................................................................... 43
3.3.5 GNSS ................................................................ 47

4 .....................................................................................48
4.1 .......................................................................................................................... 48
4.2 .48
4.2.1 ( )................. 48
4.2.2 .............................................................................................. 50
4.2.3 ...................................................................................................... 52
4.2.4 ............................................................................................................................ 52
4.2.5 DOP....................................................................................................53

5 .................................................................................57
5.1 .......................................................................................................................... 57
5.2 ............................................................................................................................. 57
5.3 ...58
5.3.1 ................................................................................................................... 58
5.3.2 .....................................................59
5.3.3 ................................................................................. 60
5.3.4 WGS- 84...........................................................................60
5.3.5 .................................... 61
5.3.6 ......................................................................... 62
5.4 , ..................................................................... 63
5.4.1 Gauss-Krger (Transversal Mercator Projection)................................................. 64
5.4.2 UTM ...64
5.4.3 (Conformal Double Projection).............................................. 66
5.4.4 ................................................................................ 67

6 GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS...............................68


6.1 .......................................................................................................................... 68
6.2 GPS68
6.3 ..............................................................................70
6.3.1 DGPS, ...................... 71
6.3.2 DGPS, ............................................................. 73


GPS-X-02007-C

6.3.3 DGPS - ( )............................ 73


6.3.4 ..........................................................................................74
6.3.5 DGPS .......................................75
6.3.6 ................................................................ 75
6.3.7 ........................................................................... 76
6.4 DGPS ................................................... 77
6.4.1 GBAS ...77
6.4.2 GBAS .......................................................................................... 77
6.5 DGPS (WADGPS)...................................................................................... 78
6.5.1 , SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS)....................................... 78
6.5.2 DGPS RTCM SC- 104...........................................81
6.6 DGPS SBAS...................................................................................82
6.7 -GPS (A- GPS)...........................................................................................82
6.7.1 A- GPS............................................................................................................82
6.7.2 A-GPS (Real-time A- GPS).........................................84
6.7.3 A-GPS ( )................................ 84
6.7.4 ............................................................................................................. 84
6.8 GPS (HSGPS).................................................................................. 85
6.8.1 ........................................................... 85
6.8.2 ...................................................................................................................... 85
6.8.3 ............................................................................................................... 85
6.8.4 ..................................................................................86
6.9 GNSS- ................................................................... 87
6.10 .................................................................. 87

7 ............................................88
7.1 .......................................................................................................................... 88
7.2 .......................................................................................................... 89
7.2.1 NMEA-0183................................................................................................. 89
7.2.2 DGPS (RTCM SC- 104)........................................................................99
7.2.3 .................................................................................... 102
7.3 .105
7.3.1 .................................................................................................................... 105
7.3.2 .................................................................................................. 109
7.3.3 : 1PPS ................................................................ 110
7.3.4 TTL RS- 232........................................................................112

8 GNSS ..........................................................................................115
8.1 GNSS ............................................................................................... 115


GPS-X-02007-C

8.2 GNSS ................................................................................................... 116


8.2.1 GNSS ..................................................................................... 116
8.2.2 : u-blox 5.........................................................................................................117

9 GNSS ........................................................................................119
9.1 ........................................................................................................................ 119
9.2 ..................................................................................... 120
9.2.1 LBS............................................................................................................................120
9.2.2 .......................................................................................... 120
9.2.3 ....................................................................................................... 121
9.2.4 ............................................................................... 122
9.2.5 ................................................................................................ 122
9.2.6 / ...........................................................................................................124
9.2.7 ..................................................................................................... 124
9.2.8 .................................................................................................... 124

.......................................................................125
A.1 .................................................................................................125
A.2 GPS.125
A.3 GPS ................................................................................................................. 125
A.4 GNSS .126
A.5 GNSS GNSS ........................................................................ 126

B .....................................................................................................127
B.1 .............................................................................................................. 127
B.2 ..................................................................................................................129
B.3 ....................................................................................................................... 131


GPS-X-02007-C


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GPS-X-02007-C


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GPS-X-02007-C

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GPS-X-02007-C

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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

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GPS-X-02007-C

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GPS-X-02007-C

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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
.32

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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
.33

2.6 GPS
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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
.34

10.23

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. 29: BPSK(1) BOC(1,1) ( 1 W )


GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
.35

2.6.2 GPS
GPS 1978 :
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. 30: GPS

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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS : GPS
.36

3 GLONASS GALILEO
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GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.37

3.2 : GLONASS
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GPS-X-02007-C

. 32:

GLONASS GALILEO
.38

3.3 GALILEO
3.3.1
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GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.39


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( ).

GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.40

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Aviation Organization).

. 33: SARSAT-COSPAS, GALILEO's SAR


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.41

3.3.3
GALILEO [xi].

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3: GALILEO


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.42

3.3.4 GALILEO
GALILEO 30 (3
). 23,616 ,
. ( 680 2.7 x 1.2 x 1.1
) , 56 (. 34)
14 5 .

. 34: GALILEO (: ESA-J.Huart)

GALILEO 15 . 1500
.
100 .

. 35: GALILEO (: ESA-J.Huart)

,
.
.
.
GALILEO [xii].


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.43

German Aerospace (DLR) Center at Oberpfaffenhofen.


30 20 .
Fucino .
- .

30

European Satellite Control Center (ESA/ESOC) Darmstadt, , French National Space Studies Ce
nter (CNES) Toulouse, . 30 (IMS),
.
IMS
.
Arianne 5, (. 36),
, GALILEO,
(MEO).

. 36: Ariane 5 8 GALILEO (GALILEO-industries.net)

3.3.4.1
,
(.
4

. 37).

BPSK BOC.
E5a E5b,

BOC AltBOC.
()
E5: 1191.795
E6 : 1278.75
L1: 1575.42

E5a
E5b
E6b
E6a
L1B
E2 & E1

()
1176.45
1207.14
1278.75
1268.52 & 1288.98
1574.397 & 1576.443
1560.075 & 1590.765

OS, CS
OS, CS, SoL
CS
PRS
OS, CS, SoL
PRS

AltBOC(15, 10)
AltBOC(15, 10)
BPSK(5)
BOC(10, 5)
BOC(1, 1)
BOC (15, 2.5)

(/)
50
250
1000
100
250
100

4: GALILEO


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.44

. 37: GALILEO

E5a, E5b, E6 L1 .
90 .
.

L1, GALILEO GPS

GPS
3 : C/A-, P(Y)- M-. GALILEO
: L1B- E2/E1 .
. , 2004
.
. 38 L1, ,
( 1 ).

. 38: L1 GALILEO GPS ( - 1


)

3.3.4.2

26 2004 .
GALILEO GPS. ,
, , , .
GALILEO GPS . 10 2004
(
[xiii]).
. GALILEO
2008 . 2012 .
[xiv].


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.45

:
. 2003 .

: 28 2005
GIOVE-A (. 39).
GIOVE - GALILEO In-Orbit Validation Element. 12 2006 GIOVEA .
,
ESA [xv].
2007 . GIOVE-A B EU
GALILEO .
, . GIOVE-A
( 10 ) GIOVE-B
- ( 1 ) .
GIOVE-A GIOVE-B
( 21
2004 ). ,
.
2008 ,
1.1 ($US 1.4 ).

. 39: GIOVE-A 28 2005 ( ESA)

:
. (
) ,
. 2011

2.1 ($US 2.75 ). 1/3


2/3 .

: , .
27 3 . ,
.
220 ($US 288 ),
500 ($US 655 ) .
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.46

12 2006 GALILEO.
EU
,
, ,

GALILEO. , , , , ,
.
. [xvi].

3.3.5 GNSS

) GNSS .

GPS
1973

Glonass
1972

GALILEO
2001

22, 1978

12, 1982

28, 2005

10

: 24 / : 32
6
55
20,180
11 58

: 24 + 3

3
64.8
19,100
11 15.8

: 27 + 3

3
56
23,616
14 5


1984 (WGS 84)
GPS-

1990 (PZ-90)
Glonass-

Galileo Terrestrial Reference Fra


me (GTRF)
GST (GALILEO
)

11

12

CDMA

CDMA

FDMA

2 ,

24

2 ,


2 ( + )
/4


2 ( +
)

CS PRS
5

US Department of Defense

Russian Defense Ministry

Civilian Governments of the EU

5: GPS, GLONASS GALILEO

10
11
12

UTC
:
:


GPS-X-02007-C

GLONASS GALILEO
.47

4
. . .
o ,
o ,
o , GPS
o ,
o , GPS
!

4.1
GNSS
, ,
.
, .

4.2
4.2.1 (
)
GPS ,
( 1... 4) t1... t4 (.
20).

.40 4


(. 41).


GPS-X-02007-C


.48

R1, R2, R3 R4
t1, t2, t3 t4 . XSAT, YSAT
ZSAT , .

.41

- ,
.
. , UTC ,
, t0. t0 ,
. t0
R. ,
- - PSR [viii].

R:
C:
t1:
t0:
PSR:


GPS-X-02007-C


.49

R
:

(4) (3)

(t0, XAnw,YAnw,ZAnw),

4 (i= 14)

4.2.2
6a .
,
(. 42).

.42

( x = x-x0)

( 1 )
(6a) x0
x.
GPS , XUser , YUser ZUser
XTotal, YTotal ZTotal (. 43).


GPS-X-02007-C


.50

.43

- x, y z.

4
:

(9) (6) (7) :


GPS-X-02007-C


.51

4.2.3
(11 a) ( i = 1 4) (x, y, z
t0) :

x, y, z XTotal, YTotal
ZTotal (8).

XTotal_New , YTotal_New ZTotal_New (13a),


, , x, y z
(.. 0.1 ). , ,
1 .

4.2.4
( )
,
x, y z.

t0
.

GPS-X-02007-C


.52

4.2.5 DOP
4.2.5.1
. GNSS
:

: , 10
3 .

: 1 5 .

: .
.

: ,
.

: - .

: , ,
.
DOP(. 6).
, 1,
.

(Differential GPS, DGPS),








RMS
RMS ()


DGPS
2.1
2.1
4.0
0.7
1.4
0.5
5.3
5.0

DGPS
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
1.4
0.5
1.5
1.3


GPS-X-02007-C


.53

4.2.5.2 :DOP
, GNSS , ,
, - , , ,
. ,
DOP.
DOP :

GDOP: DOP ( 3-D , )


PDOP: DOP ( 3-D )
HDOP: DOP ( )
VDOP: DOP ( )

DOP. ,
DOP , .

.44 PDOP

DOP ,
(.44 . 45).
, , , PDOP.

. 45: DOP

PDOP GDOP 3 (. 46 . 47).


GPS-X-02007-C


.54

. 46: GDOP

DOP
.

DOP (, HDOP) ,
DOP .
DOP. . 47
HDOP, ( HDOP 1.9). . 48
HDOP ( HDOP 20 !).
180 270 270 180 .

.47: HDOP 24 (. 1.9)


GPS-X-02007-C


.55

. 48: HDOP 24 , (. 20 )

I
DOP ( 2). DOP 6 .
4.2.5.3


DOP .
:

DOP.

Error (1) = 1 Total RMS Value DOP Value


Error (2) = 2 Total RMS Value DOP Value

7 1 (1 = 68%) 2 (2 = 95%).
HDOP = 1.3. (,
(Differential GPS, DGPS (. 6)))
( 1... 2 , 1 ).

DGPS

DGPS

5.0m

1.5m

(1 Sigma (68%) HDOP=1.3)

6.5m

2.0m

(2 Sigma (95%) HDOP=1.3)

13.0m

4.0m

RMS
)

(,

7: HDOP = 1.3

, . US-Federal Aviation Administration ,


95% 7.4
9.0 . 24 .
U.S.DoD ,
13 , 22 ~40 . ,
,DGPS, ( )
.


GPS-X-02007-C


.56

5
. . .
o ,
o ,
o , 200
o , WGS-84
o ,
o
o ,
o , WGS-84
!

5.1
GNSS .
, , GNSS,
.
, GNSS, ,
, .
, , 100
10 . ,
.

5.2
, . ?
.
. .
,
"" . ,
(. 27).

. , ,
,
; .
, - ,
.
.
- "Repere Pierre du Niton (RPN, 373.600 ) .
Marseilles (
0.00 ).


GPS-X-02007-C


.57

( )

. 49

5.3
5.3.1
, , .
. .
- , . (. 50).
:

( )
( )

, , (f).

. 50


GPS-X-02007-C


.58

5.3.2
5.3.2.1
, ,
, .
" " (. 52),
, .
,
(. 51). a b ,
.
5.3.2.2 ,
, ,
. , GPS, ,
.
- 120 - CH-1903 , WGS-84 -
, NAD83 .



( )

. 51

.
.
H, ,
h geoid ondulation N (. 30)

. 52


GPS-X-02007-C


.59

5.3.3
, ,
, . ,
, ( 8).
.

Rauenberg
Pantheon, Paris

a
()
6377397.155
6378249.145

(1:)
299.1528128
293.465

Monte Mario, Rome

6378388.0

297.0

Amersfoort
Hermannskogel
Old Observatory
Bern
Country
independent

6377397.155
6377397.155

299.1528128
299.1528128

6377397.155

299.1528128

6378388.000

297.000

NTF

SI 1940

RD/NAP
MGI

Bessel 1841
Clarke 1880
Hayford
1928
Bessel 1841
Bessel 1841

CH1903

Bessel 1841

Hayford

Hayford

5.3.4 WGS-84
, GPS, WGS-84 .
WGS-84 .
ECEF. WGS-84 - , ,
(= ) ,
.
X- (. 53) (
, ) ,
Greenwich ( 0 ). Y-
900 X-. Z- X Y
.

GreenWich

.53


GPS-X-02007-C


.60

WGS-84
a () b ()
6,378 ,137.00

6,356,752.31

(1:.)
298,257223563

9 WGS-84

(, , h), , (X, Y, Z),


(. 54). , - h , P .

GreenWich

54.

5.3.5
5.3.5.1
, .
(. CH-1903) (.. WGS-84)
. ,
, ,
datum , X, Y, Z.
x, y, z m (. 55) ,
7 .
.


GPS-X-02007-C


.61

.55

( 10) .
[xviii].

X,

Y,

Z,

x()

x()

x()

Germany

Potsdam

586

87

409

-0.52

-0.15

2.82

France

NTF

-168

-60

320

Italy

SI 1940

-225

-65

--

--

--

Netherlands

RD/NAP

565.04

49.91

465.84

0.4094

-0.3597

1.8685

4.0772

Austria

MGI

-577.326

-577.326

-463.919

5.1366

1.4742

5.2970

-2.4232

Switzerland

CH1903

660.077

13.551

369.344

0.8065

0.5789

0.9542

5.66

10

5.3.5.2
(.
WGS-84) (. CH-1 903) , .
.
[xix]
Internet [xx]. ,
.

5.3.6
5.3.6.1
.
.
. , x, y z . [xxi]


GPS-X-02007-C


.62

5.3.6.2
.

5.4 ,
P
( ), (
).
(. )
,
. X Y. ,
.
.
, , .


GPS-X-02007-C


.63

Mercator, Gauss-Kruger, UTM


Lambert. ,
.

5.4.1

(Transverse Mercator Projection)

Gauss-Kruger , , Mercator
. ,
Greenwich .
, Bessel
30. .
, , 900 (. 56).
3 .
.
(e. g. 6, 9, 12, 15, ....).

GreenWich

GreenWich


( Bessel )

1- :

.54 Gauss-Kruger

/ .
/ +500000
().
.
:
:

N:46.86154 E 9.51280

Gauss-Krger ( : 9): N-S: 5191454 W-E: 3539097


5191454 399097 (9).

5.4.2 UTM
Gauss-Krger UTM (Universal Transversal Mercator)
6020 = 1200 .
Gauss-Krger.
UTM WGS84 .
, .
UTM 6 (. 57). ,
1 60, 180 W 180 E. , , 1
180 W 174 W, 177 W, 2
174 W 168, 2 171 W ...

GPS-X-02007-C


.64

3, 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, 69, 75, 81, 87, 93, 99, 105, 111, 11
7, 123, 129, 135, 141, 147, 153, 159, 165, 171, 177 (E)
(W) () (. 58).

-
(
)

8 C.
80 84 . 80 72
C, 72 64 D
..

X 72

84 . 12 .

. 57: ( )

. 58: , UTM,


GPS-X-02007-C


.65

Gauss-Krger , /
.
10,000,000 .
/ ,
( Gauss-Krger ) 500,000 .
UTM WGS 84:
WGS 84: N 46,86074 E 9,51173
UTM: 32 T

5189816 (N-S) 0539006 (W-E)

5.4.3 ( )
Bessel .
,
, . (.
59). ( )
( : YOst = 600,000 XNord = 200,000 ).
( 1:25000):
(X Y ),

( ),
Bessel


( Bessel)

1- :

2- :

.59

4 .

(. 60).

WGS-84

CH-1903

.60

GPS-X-02007-C


.66

5.4.4

[xii].
5.4.4.1 WGS-84 CH-1903 .
( "Bezugssysteme der Praxis" ( ) Urs Marti Dieter Egger,
).
! 1 !
1.
WGS-84 []
:
1. 46 2 38.87 (WGS-84) 165758.87.
B: B = 165758.87.
2. 8 43 49.79 (WGS-84) 31429.79. L: L
= 31429.79.
2.

3. (WE):y
:
y= 700 000.0
4. (SN):x

:
x= 100 000.0
5. H:
:
, WGS-84= 650.60 H = 600


GPS-X-02007-C


.67

6 GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS and HSGPS


. . .

, DGPS

, D-

, DGPS

, EGNOS WAAS

, A-GPS

6.1
GNSS GPS. ,
GPS. GPS
, .
GPS, GNSS.
, GPS

, , ,
, , .. GPS
, .
.

, Differential-GPS (D-GPS).

(
), SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System)
EGNOS WAAS.

,
Assisted-GPS (A-GPS).

GPS ,
GPS (HSGPS).

6.2 GPS
13 95% ( HDOP
1.3 ) ,
. .
GPS.
11.
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.68

2.1

2.1

4.0

0.7

1.4

0.5

RMS

5.3

RMS ()

5.0

11:

:
1 ... 5 .

: 4 ,
-13
. 10 10
. 10 3 .

60 1000 .
. (
!). .
, , .
, .
,
. , ,
GPS .

0... 15 .
.
.
.
(P) (T):
H = Height [m]
-3

T = 288.15 K 6.510

[K]
5,256

P = 1013.25 mbar (T/288.15 K)

[mbar]

: GPS , ..,
. - .
( ),
(. 41)).


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.69

. 61:

: - GPS
. .

, (DOP):
4.2.5.2.

6.3

. .
:

: L1/L2
. GPS L1
,
, ,
.

.
.
.

Differential GPS (DGPS):


.
, (RT).
Real Time (RT DGPS)
. DGPS :


L2.
.
,

RT DGPS, RTCM SC104

DGPS
,


1 )

DGPS ( 1 )

-( ).


(. DOP 4.2.5).


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.70

6.3.1 DGPS,
, 15 - 20 . ,
1 , .
: GPS (DGPS). DGPS . GPS
. GPS
. ,
. ( )
GPS 200 .
,
GPS (. 62).
.

, ,
GPS.
, .

.

GPS
GPS

. 62 GPS

6.3.1.1
DGPS
. :
1.
2. GPS
3. -,
6.3.1.2
, , L1
GPS (. 63) - (
). ,
( ) GPS


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.71

-
( ).
GPS GPS
.
GPS

GPS

RF

RF

.63

6.3.1.3

-,
(, , , ..) GPS (. 39).

GPS

GPS

RF

RF

.64

6.3.1.4 -
GPS
, - (. 65).
.
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.72

GPS

GPS

RF

RF

.65 -

6.3.2 DGPS,
- 1
.
. 19 . ,
(. 66).

N
D

.66

, N .

( ),
.

6.3.3 DGPS - ( )
DGPS - ,
, .
. ,
( , ..)
, , .


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.73

6.3.4
DGPS
. .

, DGPS ( 12).

(LW, MW)

100 - 600

(1000
)

RTCM SC104

283 - 315

(1000
)

RTCM SC104

255 - 415

(1000
)

RTCM SC104

(KW)

3 30

RTCM SC104

VHF UKW

30 - 300

RTCM SC104

/
(GSM, GPRS)

450, 900, 1800

RTCM SC104

GEO

1.2 1.5

RTCM SC104 (for


MSAT, Omnistar, L
andstar, Starfire)
RTCA DO229C ( SBAS

WAAS, EGNOS
, MSAS)

12: ( )

.
.
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.74

6.3.5 DGPS
DGPS
:

DGPS: Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS).


Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS).

DGPS

DGPS (WADGPS) Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS):


DGPS .
.

6.3.6
DGPS .
GBAS

WADGPS (LandStarDGPS, MSAT, Omnistar Starfire) DGPS


RTCM SC-104. ,
. Augmentation Systems
WAAS, EGNOS MSAS RTCA DO-229. RTCA
GPS, GNSS RTCA
, RTCM (. 67).
13 , DGPS ,
, GNSS.

RTCM SC 104:

RTCA:

GNSS
Radio Technical Comm
ission for Maritime Ser
vices, Special Committ
ee 104

RTCM
Differential Navstar GPS Service, 2.0 2.1

Radio Technical Comm


ission for Aeronautics

DO- 229C, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for


Global
Positioning System/Wide Area Augmentation System Airborne
Equipment.


GNSS Service, 2.2 2.3

13: DGPS


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.75

GPS

GPS

GPS

GPS

. 67: DGPS RTCM RTCA

6.3.7

-
(+)


(+)

(+)


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.76

6.4 DGPS

(LW, KW, UKW, , GSM, ,


, ...).
DGPS
.

DGPS .

GBAS. DGPS .

6.4.1 GBAS

DGPS

Ground Based Augmentation Services (GBAS), .


. GBAS ,
.

6.4.2 GBAS

SAPOS: (German Surveying and Mapping Administration Satellite Positioning Service) DGP
S . .
GPS.
, , GSM
(VHF) .
RASANT (Radio Aided Satellite Navigation Technique) .

RTCM 2.0
Radio Data System (RDS)
. SAPOS
:
o

SAPOS EPS:

SAPOS HEPS:

SAPOS GPPS:

SAPOS GHPS:

ALF: (Accurate Positioning by Low Frequency)


50
Mainflingen, (
).
DCF42 (LW, 123.7 ) 600
1000 . (USB) (Bi-Phase-ShiftKeying BPSK).
German Telecom service (DTAG) .

. -
,

, .

AMDS: (Amplitude Modulated Data System)

600 1000 .

Swipos-NAV: (Swiss Positioning Service)

FM-RDS GSM. Radio Data System RDS

(FM, 87-108 ). RDS


. RDS
57 FM . RDS
DGPS.
.
.

: , ,
. DGPS 300
. 100 200
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.77

6.5 DGPS (WADGPS)


6.5.1 Satellite Based Augmentation Systems, SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS)
6.5.1.1
Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) GPS, GLONASS
GALILEO (

).

GPS GLONASS GNSS.


6.5.1.2 SBAS
SBAS GPS, . SBAS,
GPS,
.

: SBAS

GNSS.

,
. .

. SBAS
() .

: SBAS GNSS
6 . / ,
.

: SBAS , GNSS,
. GNSS ,
pseudoranging.

6.5.1.3

Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS)

(, ), , SBAS
.
RTCA DO-229C. SBAS ,

(. 68):

(WAAS,
Wide
Area
Augmentation
System):
US
Federal
Aviation
Administration (FAA) Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS),
, . WAAS POR AOR-W.
2007/2008 .
, 133W 107W.
CWAAS.

(EGNOS,
European
Geostationary
Overlay
Service):

,
ESA,

EUROCONTROL, EGNOS, European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service. EGNOS


European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC). 2006 EGNOS
(, ).
2007/2008 . EGNOS [xxiii].

(MSAS,
Multifunctional
Satellite
Based
Augmentation
System):
Civil Aviation MTSAT Augmentation System (MSAS),
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.78

(GAGAN, GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation): Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
, SBAS . 4 GSAT, 2007 . GNSS
Indian Regional Navigational Stellite System (IRNSS).

(Beidou): Beidou (140E, 110.5E and 80E),


,
COMPASS. .

. 68: WAAS, EGNOS, GAGAN MSAS

( 14) 36,000
. Pseudo Random Number (PRN)
. GPS (L1, 1575.42 ).

PRN

WAAS

Inmarsat 3F3 POR ( )

178 E

134

WAAS

Inmarsat 3F4 AOR-W ( )

54 W

122

WAAS

Intelsat Galaxy XV

133 W

135

WAAS

TeleSat Anik F1R

107.3 W

138

EGNOS

Inmarsat 3F2 AOR-E ( )

15.5 W

120

EGNOS

Artemis

21.5 E

124

EGNOS

Inmarsat 3F5 IOR-W ( )

25 E

126

GAGAN

GSAT-4

111.5 E

127

MSAS

MTSAT-1R

140 E

129

MSAS

MTSAT-2

145 E

137

14: , WAAS, EGNOS MSAS


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.79

6.5.1.4
,
2-3 (. 69).
. 15 .

EGNOS

WAAS

MSAS

RIMS: Reference and Integrity


Monitoring Station

WRS: Wide Area Base

GMS: Ground Monitor

station

Station

MCC: Mission Control Center

WMS: WAAS Master Station

MCS: Master Control Station

NLES: Navigation Land Earth

GES: Ground Earth Station

NES/GES: Navigation Earth


Station/Ground Earth Station

Station

15: SBAS


GPS

SBAS
GEO

GPS

SB AS
,

. 69: l Satellite Based Augmentation Systems SBAS

:
SBAS

,
. GNSS.
.
().
.

:
, GNSS ,
, ,
GNSS.
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.80

GEO : SBAS GEO ()

GNSS.

GNSS , GEO ,
, ,
. (1575.42 ). SBAS
GNSS .

6.5.2 DGPS RTCM SC-104


.
. RTCM SC-104
.

MSAT:
National Research Council
,

Wide DGPS (CDGPS) , .

Canada-

Omnistar (Fugro Group) LandStar-DGPS,


(Thales Company),

6 GEO (. 70).

. Omnistar Landstar

L-band (1-2 )
. .
(10 ... 30).
.

. 70: LandStar-DGPS Omnistar

Starfire Property of NavCom Technology, Inc.,

3 Inmarsat GEO .
/ . Starfire Lband (1-2 ) .
. 76 .


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.81

6.6 DGPS SBAS


16 DGPS/SBAS.

DGPS/SBAS

DGPS/SBAS

2.1

0.1

2.1

0.1

4.0

0.2

0.7

0.2

1.4

1.4

0.5

0.5

RMS

5.3

1.5

RMS ()

5.0

1.3

(1-Sigma (68%) HDOP=1.3)

6.5

1.7

(2-Sigma (95%) HDOP=1.3)

13.0

3.4

16: DGPS/SBAS

6.7 Assisted-GPS (A-GPS)


6.7.1 A-GPS
, Location Based Services (LBS, . 9.2.1) .
, GNSS,
. GNSS
, ,
. 2
. GNSS 8-36
. ( ,
)
.

GNSS

, . GPS ( ) - . 1 (1 C/A )
--. 50 (

(2 x 6000 / 50 = 240 ),

1023 x 50 = 51,150 , 51 . . 6.8.



GNSS ,

, ,
GSM, GPRS, CDMA UMTS.

Aiding()
Assisted-GPS. Assisted-GPS ( A-GPS) ,
. GNSS
.
:

()

(, )

() GNSS


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.82

GNSS
.
. GNSS-.
, - ,
. GNSS

.
AGPS GNSS .
, . ,

GNSS (. 71). .

. 71: A-GPS

. ( AssistNow Online by ublox AG)

(
) GNSS .
.

(AssistNow Offline by u-blox AG).

GNSS (GNSS Reference Network),


.
A-GPS (. 72),

GNSS ,
,

A-GPS
(GNSS
). GNSS
.
( )
GNSS .


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.83

GPS


(GSM,GPRS,UMTS,
CDMA,

(
)

( )

GPS-
A-GPS

. 72: Assisted-GPS

6.7.2 A-GPS (Real-time A-GPS)


.
(GPRS, , 30 )
.
6.7.3 A-GPS (Predicted Orbits)

A-GPS , GNSS
(Predicted Orbits).
, . GNSS
,
. , ,
, . ,
10 ,
.
6.7.4

, A-GPS ,
,
.
.

International GNSS-Service (IGS, International GPSService [xxiv]), (. 73).


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.84

Figure 73: IGS reference stations (as of October 2006) with approx. 340 active stations

6.8 GPS (HSGPS)


Location Based Services,
, GNSS-
. :


( , TTFF)
(
)

.
, :

6.8.1

, , ,
.
(TCXO).
, ,
-9
10 .
. - , FrequencyCode-Level .
.

6.8.2

GNSS .

6.8.3
(NF) , , /
.

GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.85

(LNA)
.
. ,
(. 74) LNA (SS):

NF: ()
G:

GPS -

. 74:

20 1.6
, developments [xxvi].
.

6.8.4
GNSS 16
(. . 16). GNSS
GG 43 (. . 24).

)
GNSS .
, GNSS .
k GR :
GR = log10 (k)
3 .
20 .
. ,
1 , , ,
.
.

GNSS

160 . GPS (US Department of Defense)


130 , GNSS , , 30 .


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.86

6.9 GNSS-
GNSS- ( ) GNSS
, (,
). GNSS .
. GNSS- (. 75):

( )
( )

. 75: GNSS ( , ,
)

6.10

GNSS . .
,
.


GPS-X-02007-C

GPS: DGPS, SBAS, A-GPS HSGPS


.87

7
. . .
o , NMEA RTCM
o ,
o , GNSS
o ,
o , GNSS
!

7.1
GNSS (. 76).
, .

(NMEA RTCM), .

(NMEA )

DGPS
(RTCM SC -104)

GNSS

( )


(1PPS)

.76 GNSS


GPS-X-02007-C


.88

7.2
7.2.1 NMEA-0183
GNSS, , , ..
(. , , ), GPS
( TTL RS-232).
.
(NMEA), .
NMEA-0183. NMEA
. GNSS ( ), GPS,
Loran, Omega, Transit .
GNSS GNSS[XXVII]:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

GGA(GPS Fix , GPS )


GLL( /)
GSA
GSV
RMC( GNSS )
VTG( , )
ZDA( )


GPS-X-02007-C


.89

7.2.1.1 NMEA
NMEA 4800 8- ASCII.
( ),
( ). .

.77 NMEA( TTL RS-232)

,
GNSS - TTL RS-232 (. 77):

TTL, 0
(+3.3... +5)
RS-232 ,
(+3... +1 5) - (-3... -1 5).

GPS TTL RS-232,


(. 7.3.4).
GPS 38400 .
GPS :
$GPDTS,inf_1 ,inf_2, inf_3,inf_4,inf_5,inf_6,inf_n*CS<CR><LF>
17.


GPS-X-02007-C


.90


$
GP
DTS
lnf_1 bis lnf_n
,
*
CS
<CR><LF>


GPS
(.. RMC)
1 n (.. 175.4 )


( )
: (<CR>) , (<[F>)

17. NMEA DATA SET

79.
$ <CR><[F> .
NMEA , GNSS ( 18):
$GPRMC,1 30303.0,A,471 7.1 1 5,N,00833.91 2,E,000.03,043.4,200601 ,01 .3,W*7D<CR><LF>
$GPZDA,1 30304.2,20,06,2001 *56<CR><LF>
$GPGGA,1 30304.0,471 7.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,1 ,08,0.94,00499,M,047,M,,*59<CR><LF>
$GPG[[,471 7.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,1 30304.0,A*33<CR><LF>
$G PVTG,205.5,T,206.8,M,000.04,N,000.08,K*4C<C R><LF>
$GPGSA,A,3,1 3,20,1 1,29,01 ,25,07,04,,,,, 1 .63,0.94,1 .33*04<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,1 ,8,1 3,1 5,208,36,20,80,358,39,11 ,52,1 39,43,29,1 3,044,36*42<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,2,8,01 ,52,1 87,43,25,25,074,39,07,37,286,40,04,09,306,33*44<CR><LF>
$GPRMC,1 30304.0,A,471 7.1 1 5,N,00833.91 2,E,000.04,205.5,200601 ,01 .3,W*7C<CR><LF>
$GPZDA,1 30305.2,20,06,2001 *57<CR><LF>
$GPGGA,1 30305.0,471 7.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,1 ,08,0.94,00499,M,047,M,,*58<CR><LF>
$GPG[[,471 7.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,1 30305.0,A*32<CR><LF>
$GPVTG,01 4.2,1,01 5.4,M,000.03,N,000.05,K*4F<CR><LF>
$GPGSA,A,3,1 3,20,1 1,29,01 ,25,07,04,,,,, 1 .63,0.94,1 .33*04<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,1 ,8,1 3,1 5,208,36,20,80,358,39,11 ,52,1 39,43,29,1 3,044,36*42<CR><LF>
$GPGSV,2,2,8,01 ,52,1 87,43,25,25,074,39,07,37,286,40,04,09,306,33*44<CR><LF>
18 NMEA


GPS-X-02007-C


.91

7.2.1.2 GGA
GGA , , ,
.
GGA :
$GPGGA,1 30305.0,4717.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,1 ,08,0.94,00499,M,047,M,,*58<CR><LF>

19.

$
GP
GGA
130305.0
4717.115
N
00833.912
E
1
08
0.94
00499
M
047
M

0000
*
58
<CR><LF>


GNSS

UTC : 13 03 05.O .
: 470 17.115 .
(N=, S= )
Latitude: 8 33.91 2 .
(E= , W=)
GPS (0= GPS, 1 = GPS, 2=DGPS)
,
(HDOP)
( )
(M= )

(M= )
DGPS ( DGPS )
DGPS


19. GGA


GPS-X-02007-C


.92

7.2.1.3 GLL
GLL ( - /) ,
.
GLL:
$GPGLL,471 7.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,1 30305.0,A*32<CR><LF>
20.

$
GP
GLL
4717.115
N
00833.912
E
130305.0
A
*
32
<CR><LF>


GNSS

: 4700 17.115
(N=, S= )
: 8 33.91 2
(E=, W=)
UTC : 13 03 05.0 c
: A (V= )


20 GLL


GPS-X-02007-C


.93

7.2.1.4 GSA
GSA (GNSS DOP ) (2D
3D), ,
(DOP).
GSA :
$GPGSA,A,3,1 3,20,11,29,01,25,07,04,,,,, 1.63,0.94,1 .33*04<CR><LF>
21.

$
GP
GSA
A
3
13
20
11
29
01
25
07
04
,,,,,
1 .63
0.94
1 .33
*
04
<CR><L
F>


GNSS

(A= 2D/3D , M=
2D/3D )
(1= , 2=2D, 3=3D)
ID ,
ID ,
ID ,
ID ,
ID ,
ID ,
ID ,
ID ,
ID ( )
PDOP
HDOP
VDOP


21 GSA


GPS-X-02007-C


.94

7.2.1.5 GSV
GSV , ,
-.
GSA :
$GPGSV,2,2,8,01 ,52, 1 87,43,25,25,074,39,07,37,286,40,04,09,306,33*44<CR><LF>
22.

$
GP
GSV
2
2
09
01
52
187
43
25
25
074
39
07
37
286
40
04
09
306
33
*
44
<CR><LF>


GNSS

GVS ( 1 . 9)
GVS ( 1 . 9)


(0 90)
(0 360)
- - (1 99, 0, )

(0. 90)
(0 360)
- - (1 99, 0, )

(0. 90)
(0. 360)
- - (1. 99, 0, )

(0. 90)
(0.. 360)
- - (1. 99, 0, )


22 GSV


GPS-X-02007-C


.95

7.2.1.6 RMC
RMC ( GNSS) , , ,
, , . GPS.
RMC:
$GPRMC,1 30304.0,A,471 7.11 5,N,00833.91 2,E,000.04,205.5,200601 ,01 .3,W*7C<CR><LF>
23.

$
GP
RMC
130304.0
A
4717.115
N
00833.912
E
000.04
205.5
200601
01.3
W
*
7C
<CR><LF>


GNSS

( UTC): 13 03 04.0
: A (V= )
: 4700 17.115
(N=, S= )
: 8 33.912
(E=, W=)
: 0.04
: 205.5
: 20 2001
: 1.3
(E =)


23 RMC


GPS-X-02007-C


.96

7.2.1.7 VTG
VTG
VTG :
$GPVTG,01 4.2,T,01 5.4,M,000.03,N,000.05,K*4F<CR><LF>
24.

$
GP
VTG
014.2
T
015.4
M
000.03
N
000.05
K
*
4F
<CR><LF>


GNSS

14.2 (T)

15.40 (M)

(N)

(/)
/


24 VTG


GPS-X-02007-C


.97

7.2.1.8 ZDA
ZDA ( ) UTC , .

ZDA :
$GPZDA,1 30305.2,20,06,2001 *57<CR><LF>
25.

$
GP
ZDA
130305.2
20
06
2001

*
57
<CR><LF>


GPS

UTC : 13 03 05.2
(00...31)
(1 ... 12)

(),
(),


25 ZDA

7.2.1.9
-, 8 (
) , .
- ( $)
(: *).
8- 2 4 (),
(0... 9, A... F).
, ASCII.
:
NMEA (CS) .
$GPRTE,1 ,1 ,c,*07
(07 - )
:
1. $ * : GPRTE,1,1,,0
2. 13 ASKII 8 (. 26)
3. 13 ASCII - (
: , -
)
4.
5.
6. ASKII ,


GPS-X-02007-C


.98


G
P
R
T
E
,
1
,
1
,
C
,
0
-


ASCII CS (!)

ASCII
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0000
0
0

(8 )
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 1
0111
7
7

26 NMEA

7.2.2 DGPS ( RTCM SC-104)


RTCM SC-104 . RTCM SC-104
"Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services Special Committee 104"
[xvi]. RTCM,
Differential NAVSTAR GPS .
2.0 ( 1990)
2.1 ( 1994)
2.1 - 2.0 , ,
(Real Time Kinematic, RTK).
63 , 1, 2, 3 9
.


GPS-X-02007-C


.99

7.2.2.1 RTCM
30 ,
, ( 1 2).
, [xi], ,
(. 78 [x].

ID

10

Z
13

.78 RTCM


ID


ID

Z

Z-, .



27 RTCM

( 3... n) .


GPS-X-02007-C


.100

7.2.2.2 1 RTCM
1 - ( PSR,
) GNSS, ,
. 1 (. 79
[xxi], 3.. 6).

UDRE
ID

16

UDRE
ID

16

UDRE


ID ( )

.79 RTCM 1


GPS-X-02007-C


.101

UDRE
ID



ID

PSR




28 RTCM 1

7.2.2.3 RTCM 29
2..9 :

2 PSR ,
. GPS,
. 2
.

3 .
9 , 1,
(. 3). ,
.

DGPS
1060 ( , . [xxxii]).
.
LW Mainflingen, , ( 1 .3)
0.5 - 1.5 250 1 - 3 600 [xxxiii].

7.2.3

GNSS . NMEA
:

; ,
NMEA.

:
, .
, , .
.

GNSS .

GNSS .
-.


GPS-X-02007-C


.102

GNSS
, .

, .

.
ASCII .

, :

NMEA :

NMEA ( , ..). ,

(
)

. GNSS
. NMEA , ,
-
.

(, u-blox UBX).

7.2.3.1 : UBX u-blox 5 GNSS

NMEA RTCM, ANTARIS u-blox 5 GNSS


UBX. NMEA, :

SYNC CHAR 1,
2

CLASS

ID

LENGTH

PAYLOAD

()

LENGTH


. 80: UBX

(
: B5, 62).

. , CLASS ID,
.
.
,
, NAV.

,
POSLLH (CLASS 01, ID 02), .
. u-blox .
.
.


GPS-X-02007-C


.103

NAV (01)

RXM (02)

:
GNSS

, , , DGPS SBAS

GNSS , ..
, , ,

CFG (06)

(
)

,
,
,

ACK (05)

MON (0A)

GNSS

CPU,
,
,

AID (0B)

, ,
, , ,

INF (04)

TIM (0D)

UPD (09)

USR (4*)

29: ( )

. , ANTARIS u-blox-5
, , NMEA UBX
.


GPS-X-02007-C


.104

7.3
7.3.1
GNSS (RHCP).

. GNSS .
LNA () . GNSS
RF.

(, GSM/FM GNSS).
, , ,
. .
/.
.
, GNSS.
7.3.1.1

GNSS .
.
.
,
, , .
, ,
(70 x 70 ). -
.

. 81:


GPS-X-02007-C


.105

7.3.1.2
, GNSS .
, .
.
,
. , (60 45
).
. 18 10 .
, .

. 82:

7.3.1.3 -
.
(11.0 x 1.6 x 1.6 ). ,
.
.
.

. 83:


GPS-X-02007-C


.106

7.3.1.4 - Fractal Element Antennas (FEA)

,
( ),
.
. 3 -
. .

. 84: :

7.3.1.5

,
. .
.
, .
3 GPS,
, .

.85:


GPS-X-02007-C


.107

7.3.1.6

, , ,
. ,
. ,
.

. 86: , 775

7.3.1.7 - Inverted F Antenna (PIFA)

PIFA a 'F', ,
,'tail' () . PIFAs
, ,
. . PIFA
(E-911),
.

. 87: - inverted-f-antenna (PIFA)

. 88: inverted-f-antenna (PIFA) PIFA


GPS-X-02007-C


.108

7.3.1.8 GNSS

, ,
. ,

GNSS .
( , MLA).
. GNSS ,
.
.
7.3.1.8.1 Choke Ring Pinwheel

TM

(Novatel)

GPS .
, .
Pinwheel
.

TM

. 89: Leica Choke AT504 Pinwheel

(Novatel)

7.3.2

GNSS 3.3
6 . .


GPS-X-02007-C


.109

7.3.3 : 1 PPS
GNSS - 1 PPS (1
), UTC. TTL (. 90).

.90 1PPS

(
).
GNSS ,
GNSS:
7.3.3.1 (TAI)

,
GNSS. 1967
, Cs .
9 192 631 770 .
, , . 01
.01.1958 00.00 .
7.3.3.2 (UTC)
UTC , ,
, , .
TAI, , UTC = TAI - n, n = 1
1 .
7.3.3.3 GPS
GNSS .
- , 6- 1980 0.00 (UTC). GNSS
,
. , GNSS UTC
.
7.3.3.4
- GNSS,
GNSS.
, .
GNSS.


GPS-X-02007-C


.110

7.3.3.5
.
UTC .
( 30) 21 2001 ()


UTC
GPS
TAI

(::)
08:31:26
06:31:26
06:31:39
06:31:58

n UTC ()
7200 (=2 )
0
+13
+32

30

( 2006):
TAI UTC = +33 .
GPS UTC = +l3 .
TAI GPS = +l9 .


GPS-X-02007-C


.111

7.3.4 TTL RS-232


7.3.4.1
RS-232 :
( , )

PC , . GSM , GNSS ..
PC . ,
,
.
. .
- 110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 38400 ,
. . ,
-.
7 8
ASCII. .
, 1 2
.
, . , ,
( ). ,
. , ,
.
7.3.4.2
TxD RxD. T , R
.
, :
0 = , : +5 +15 ,
:+3+15
1 = , : -5.-15 , : -3 15
,
, 2 .
TTL (UART) RS-232
(. MAX3221 ). (. 91)
TTL RS-232 . .


GPS-X-02007-C


.112

TTL

RS-232

.91 TTL RS-232

7.3.4.3 TTL RS-232


GPS NMEA
TTL (0 Vcc = +3.3 +5 ).
PC, RS 232.
,
,
( ).
, "Maxim MAX3221" [xxxiv]
(. 92). 3 ... 5
(ESD) 15 . C1...C4
.

.92 MAX3221


GPS-X-02007-C


.113

(. 93) .
, TTL (0 ... 3.3 ) T_IN.
5 T_OUT R_IN RS-232.

.93 MAX3221


GPS-X-02007-C


.114

8 GNSS
. . .
o , GNSS
o , GPS
o , HF
o ,
o ,
o , GNSS
!

8.1 GNSS
GNSS (. 61):

1575.42

.94 GNSS


GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS
.115

: 1572.42 .
163 dBW. () 3 .
LNA 1: (LNA) 15 ... 20 .
RF : GNSS 2 . HF .
HF GNSS
.
RF : GNSS . IF
(AGC)
IF : , 2 . ,
, .
: 16
. C/A.
HF .
(RTC).
( )
.
.
: , , , ..
.
( , , ..), R.
ROM.
: ,
(. ) .
: (, ) .
7- .
, .
:

8.2 GNSS
8.2.1 GNSS
GNSS , ,
.
, . UTC.
, ,
. GNSS , ,
..
. 95 GNSS .
(1 575.42 )
.
.
2- ADC.
GNSS
PRN. PRN
. ,
PRN.
[xxxv]. 16 .
PRN .

.


GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS
.116

RF

A/D

PRN

. 95 GNSS

8.2.2 : u-blox 5
u-blox 5 ,
,

,
. ,
50 . ,
. u-blox 5 . 1

. 1
160 .

.
GNSS 16 .

(PMU)

DC/DC .
/ LDOs (Low-Drop-Out).
GALILEO-L1, u-blox 5

GALILEO ,
. ,
, GNSS.
u-blox 5

,
'SiP' System in Package.

RF-IC baseband-IC. RF-IC 0.18 RF-CMOS ,


baseband-IC 0.13 CMOS. ,
.
. - . 96.


GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS
.117

. 96: - u-blox 5


GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS
.118

9 GNSS
. . .
o , , GNSS
o , GNSS
o ,
!

9.1
GNSS :
( , ) 20 1
( , UTC) 60 1 .
,
:





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.119

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.122

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GPS-X-02007-C

GNSS
.124

A
. . .
o , GNSS
o , GNSS
o GPS
!

A.1
Global Positioning System Overview by Peter H. Dana, University of Colorado
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html
U

Global Positioning System (GPS) Resources by Sam Wormley,


http://www.edu-observatory.org/gps/gps.html
U

NMEA-0183 and GPS Information by Peter Bennett,


http://vancouver-webpages.com/peter/
U

Joe Mehaffey, Yeazel and Dale DePriests GPS Information


http://gpsinformation.net
U

The Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Resource Library


http://www.gpsy.com/gpsinfo/
U

GPS SPS Signal Specification, 2nd Edition (June 2, 1995), USCG Navigation Center
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/default.htm
U

A.2 GPS
Differential GPS (DGPS) by Sam Wormley,
http://www.edu-observatory.org/gps/dgps.html
U

DGPS corrections over the Internet


http://www.wsrcc.com/wolfgang/gps/dgps-ip.html
U

EGNOS Operations Manager


http://www.essp.be/
U

Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS), Stanford University


http://waas.stanford.edu/
U

A.3 GPS
Institute for applied Geodesy: GPS information and observing system
http://gibs.leipzig.ifag.de/cgi-bin/Info_hom.cgi?de
U


GPS-X-02007-C

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.125

GPS PRIMER :Aerospace Corporation


http://www.aero.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/index.html
U

U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Navigation Center


http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/
U

U.S. Naval Observatory


http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gps.html
U

Royal Institute of Navigation, London


http://www.rin.org.uk/
U

The Institute of Navigation


http://www.ion.org/
U

University NAVSTAR Consortium (UNAVCO)


http://www.unavco.org
U

A.4 GNSS
REEL Reinheimer Electronic Ltd.
http://www.reinheimer-elektronik.de/
U

WISI, WILHELM SIHN JR. KG


http://www.wisi.de/
U

Matsushita Electric Works (Europe) AG


http://www.mew-europe.com/gps/en/news.html
U

Kyocera Industrial Ceramic Corporation


http://www.kyocera.com/kicc/industrial/products/dielectric.htm
U

M/A-COM
http://www.macom.com/
U

EMTAC Technology Corp.


http://www.emtac.com.tw/
U

Allis Communications Company, Ltd.


http://www.alliscom.com.tw/
U

A.5 GNSS GNSS


Newsgroup: sci.geo.satellite-nav
http://groups.google.com/groups?oi=djq&as_ugroup=sci.geo.satellite-nav
U

Technical journal : GPS World (appears monthly)


http://www.gpsworld.com
U


GPS-X-02007-C

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.126

B.1
. 1: ................................................................................................................10
. 2: GPS ..............................................................................................................................................11
. 3: ............................................................................................................12
. 4: .........................................13
. 5: .....................................14
. 6: , , .....................................................14
. 7: .............................................................................................................15
. 8: ..........................................................................................................16
. 9: ...........................................................................................16
. 10: 3-D ..............................................................17
. 11: GNSS.................................................................................................................19
. 12: GPS 6 ......................................................................................20
. 13: 24 GPS .........................................................................20
. 14: GPS 12:00 UTC 14 l 2001......................................................................................21
. 15: GPS ..........................................................................................................................................................22
. 16: ...........................................................23
. 17: ...........................................................................................................................................24
. 18: ...............................................................................................................25
. 19: GPS ...25
. 20: GPS .26
. 21: .27
. 22: 30 .........................................................................................28
. 23: ..........................................................................29
. 24: ...................................29
. 25: ........................................................................................................31
. 26: ...............................................................................................................................................33
. 27: BPSK .............................................................................34
. 28: : BOC(10,5).............................................................................................................................35
. 29: BPSK(1) BOC(1,1) ( 1 ).........................35
. 30: GPS .............................................................................................36
. 31: GLONASS-M ( ESA).......................................................................................................................38
. 33: SARSAT-COSPAS, GALILEO's .........................................41
. 34: GALILEO (: ESA-J.Huart).......................................................................................43
. 35: GALILEO (: ESA-J.Huart)................................................................................................................43
. 36: Ariane 5 Rocket 8 GALILEO (GALILEO-industries.net).....................................................44
. 37: GALILEO........................................................................................................................................45
. 38: L1 GALILEO GPS ( 1 )...........45
. 39: GIOVE-A 28 2005 ( ESA)......................................................................................46


GPS-X-02007-C

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. 40: ........................................................................................48
. 41: .....................................................................................................................49
. 42: ...................................................................................................50
. 43: ...................................................................................................................................51
. 44: PDOP....................................................................................................................................54
. 45: DOP..............................................................................................54
. 46: GDOP ...........................................................55
. 47: HDOP 24 , (. 1.9)...................................................................55
. 48: HDOP 24 (. 20)..................................................56
. 49: .................................................................................................58
. 50: ........................................................................................................................58
. 51: ................................................................................................................................59
. 52: ..................................................................................................................59
. 53: ..............................................................................................................60
. 54: .....................................................................................................61
. 55: .......................................................................................................................................62
. 56: Gauss-Krger ..................................................................................................................................64
. 57: ( ).65
. 58: , UTM, .......65
. 59: ....................................................................................................................66
. 60: ...............................................66
. 61: ..........................................70
. 62: DGPS GPS .........................................................71
. 63: .............................................................72
. 64: .........................................................72
. 65: ............................................................73
. 66: ..................................................................................73
. 67: DGPS RTCM RTCA ...................................................................76
. 68: WAAS, EGNOS, GAGAN MSAS............................................................................79
. 69: SBAS.....................................................................................80
. 70: LandStar-DGPS Omnistar ................................81
. 71: A-GPS ........................................83
. 72: Assisted-GPS ..................................................................................................................................84
. 73: IGS ( 2006) 340 ............................................85
. 74: ......................................................................86
. 75: GNSS ( , , ).....87
. 76: GNSS ...................................................................................88
. 77: NMEA (TTL RS-232 )................................................................................................................90
. 78: RTCM ......................................................................................................100
. 79: RTCM 1.............................................................................................................101
. 80: UBX .......................................................................................................103
. 81: ........................................................................................................................................105
. 82: .....................................................................................................................................106


GPS-X-02007-C

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. 83: ........................................................................................................................................................106
. 84: : ........................................................................................107
. 85: .................................................................................................107
. 86: , 775...................................................................................................108
. 87: inverted-f- (PIFA)......................................................................................................................108
. 88: inverted-f- (PIFA) PIFA .....................................................108
. 89: Leica Choke AT504 PinwheelTM (Novatel)...........................................................................109
. 90: 1PPS ....................................................................................................................................................110
. 91: TTL RS-232.................................................................................................113
. 92: MAX32121 ..................................................................................113
. 93: MAX3221 ................................................................................................114
. 94: GNSS ..............................................................................115
. 95: GNSS ................................................................................................117
. 96: u-blox 5 chipset.......................................................................................................................118

B.2

1: L1, C/A..........................................................................................22
2: ................................................................................................33
3: GALILEO.......................................................................................42
4: GALILEO ..........................................................................................................44
5: GPS, GLONASS GALILEO............................................................47
6: ( ).........................................................................................53
7: HDOP = 1.3...56
8: ............................................................60
9: WGS-84 ...............................................................................................................................61
10: .....................................62
11: ..........................................69
12: ( )......................................................74
13: DGPS .............................................75
14: GEO , WAAS, EGNOS MSAS......................................................................................79
15: SBAS ........................................................................................................................80
16: DGPS/SBAS..82
17: NMEA DATA SET ......................91
18: NMEA ..........................................................................................................................91
19: GGA ...............................................................................92
20: GGL .................93
21: GSA .......................................................94
22: GSV .............................................................................95
23: RMC ................................................................96
24: VTG ............................................................97
25: ZDA .........................................................................98
26: NMEA ....................................................99


GPS-X-02007-C

.129

27: RTCM .................................................................................................100


28: RTCM 1................................................................................................................102
29: ( )................................................................104
30: ................................................................................................................................111


GPS-X-02007-C

.130

B.3
[i] Global Positioning System, Standard Positioning System Service, Signal Specification, 2
n.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/gpssps1.pdf

nd
P
P

Edition, 1995, page 18, http://www.navce


U

[ii] NAVCEN: GPS SPS Signal Specifications, 2

nd
P
P

Edition, 1995, http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/sigspec/gpssps1.pdf


U

[iii] Lemme H.: Schnelles Spread-Spectrum-Modem auf einem Chip, Elektronik 1996, H. 15 p. 38 to p. 45
[iv] http://www.maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/1890
U

[v] Parkinson B., Spilker J.: Global Positioning System, Volume 1, AIAA-Inc.
[vi] GPS Standard Positioning Service Signal Specification, 2nd Edition, June 2, 1995
[vii] Journal of the Institute of Navigation, 2002, Vol.48, No. 4, pp 227-246, Author: John W. Betz
[viii] http://www.glonass-center.ru/nagu.txt
[ix] http://www.dlr.de/dlr/News/pi_191004.htm
[x] http://www.cospas-sarsat.org/Status/spaceSegmentStatus.htm
[xi] http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/documents/brochure_en.htm
[xii] http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMT498A9HE_Austria_0.html
[xiii] http://europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/de/lvb/l24004.htm
[xiv] http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/weltraum/0,1518,392467,00.html
[xv] http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMQ36MZCIE_Improving_0.html
[xvi] http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEM0198A9HE_Germany_0.html
[xvii] Manfred Bauer: Vermessung und Ortung mit Satelliten, Wichman-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1997, ISBN 3-87907-309-0
[xviii] http://www.geocities.com/mapref/mapref.html
U

[xix] B. Hofmann-Wellenhof: GPS in der Praxis, Springer-Verlag, Wien 1994, ISBN 3-211-82609-2
[xx] Bundesamt fr Landestopographie: http://www.swisstopo.ch
U

[xxi] Elliott D. Kaplan: Understanding GPS, Artech House, Boston 1996, ISBN 0-89006-793-7
[xxii] http://www.tandt.be/wis
U

[xxiii] http://www.egnos-pro.esa.int/IMAGEtech/imagetech_realtime.html
U

[xxiv] http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/
[xxv] GPS-World, November 2003: Vittorini und Robinson: Optimizing Indoor GPS Performance, page 40
[xxvi] www.maxim-ic.com/quick_view2.cfm Datenblatt MAX2640, MAX2641
U


GPS-X-02007-C

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[xxvii] NMEA 0183, Standard For Interfacing Marine Electronics Devices, Version 2.30
[xxviii] http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/dgps/rctm104/Default.htm
U

[xxix] Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Volume II, Bradford W. Parkinson, page 31
[xxx] User Manual: Sony GXB1000 16-channel GPS receiver module
[xxxi] User Manual: Sony GXB1000 16-channel GPS receiver module
[xxxii] swipos, Positionierungsdienste auf der Basis von DGPS, page 6, Bundesamt fr Landestopographie
[xxxiii] http://www.potsdam.ifag.de/potsdam/dgps/dgps_2.html
U

[xxxiv] http://www.maxim-ic.com
U

[xxxv] Satellitenortung und Navigation, Werner Mansfield, page 157, Vieweg Verlag
[xxxvi] http://www.alliedworld.com
U


GPS-X-02007-C

.132