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GSM

1 - GSM 1.1.........................................................................................................................5

1.1 .................................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 ............................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 ............................................................................................................................................. 7
1.4 (GSM).......................................................................................................... 8

1.4.1 GSM..............................................................................................................................8
1.4.2 ETSI GSM...........................................................................................................................................................8

1.5 GSM......................................................................................................................................... 9
1.6. ....................................................................................................................................... 10
1.7 GSM.................................................................................................................................. 15
1.8 SS..................................................................................................................................... 15

1.8.1 Mobile Switching Center (MSC).................................................................................................................................................15


1.8.2 Home Location Register (HLR)..................................................................................................................................................15
1.8.3 Visitor Location Register (VLR)..................................................................................................................................................16
1.8.4 Authentication Center (AUC)......................................................................................................................................................16
1.8.5 Equipment Identity Register (EIR)..............................................................................................................................................16

1.9 BSS........................................................................................................................... 16

1.9.1 Base Station Controller (BSC)....................................................................................................................................................16


1.9.2 Base Transceiver Station (BTS).................................................................................................................................................16

1.10 ........................................................................................................................... 16

1.10.1 Operation & Maintenance Center ().................................................................................................................................16


1.10.2 Network Management Center (NMC).......................................................................................................................................16

1.11 (MS)............................................................................................................................................... 16
1.12 GSM........................................................................................................................... 17

1.12.1 (Cell)................................................................................................................................................................................17
1.12.2 (Location Area - LA)...........................................................................................................................17
1.12.3 MSC (MSC Serving Area)......................................................................................................................18
1.12.4 PLMN.....................................................................................................................................................18
1.12.5 GSM.......................................................................................................................................................18

1.13 GSM............................................................................................................................................. 19

1.13.1 900 ...................................................................................................................................................................19


1.13.2 1800 .................................................................................................................................................................19
1.13.3 1900 .................................................................................................................................................................19
1.13.4 GSM 800..................................................................................................................................................................19

1.14 ..................................................................................................................................... 19
1.15 GSM....................................................................................................................................... 20

1.15.1. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).......................................................................................................................20


1.15.2. Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN).................................................................................................................................20
1.15.3. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI).........................................................................................................................21
1.15.4. International Mobile Terminal Identity (IMEI)...........................................................................................................................21
1.15.5. International Mobile Terminal Identity Software Version number (IMEISV).........................................................................21
1.15.6. Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)..............................................................................................................................21
1.15.7. Location Area Identity (LAI).....................................................................................................................................................21
1.15.8. Cell Global Identity CGI...........................................................................................................................................................21
1.15.9 Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)...........................................................................................................................................22

2 - 7.............................................................................................22

2.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 22

2.1.1 ........................................................................................................................................................22
2.1.2. .........................................................................................................................................................23

2.2 ...................................................................................................................................... 23

2.2.1 Channel Associated Signalling...................................................................................................................................................23


2.2.2 Common Channel Signalling......................................................................................................................................................23

2.3 OSI ()........................................................................................................................................................... 24


2.4 7............................................................................................................................................................................ 24

2.4.1 ............................................................................................................................................................................24
2.4.2 7........................................................................................................................................................25

3 - ...................................................................................................................................... 27

3.1. ......................................................................................................................................................................... 27
3.2 MSC/VLR.......................................................................................................................................................................... 27

3.2.1 Mobile Switching Center.............................................................................................................................................................27


3.2.2 Visitor Location Register.............................................................................................................................................................28
3.2.3 Gateway MSC.............................................................................................................................................................................28
3.2.4 Home Location Register.............................................................................................................................................................28
3.2.5 Interworking Location Register...................................................................................................................................................29
3.2.6 AUC EIR.........................................................................29
3.2.6.1 AUC...................................................................................................................................................................29
3.2.6.2 .........................................................................................................................................................................29
3.2.6.3 ..........................................................................................................................................30
3.2.6.4 ................................................................................................................................................30
3.2.6.5 EIR....................................................................................................................................................................31
3.2.6.6 IMEI...................................................................................................................................31
3.2.7 ..................................................................................................................................................31
3.2.8 ()..........................................................................................................................................31

4 - .........................................................................................................32

4.1 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 32

4.1.1. ..........................................................................................................................32
4.1.2. ......................................................................................................................................................................32
4.1.3. .................................................................................................................................33

4.2 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 33

4.2.1 TRC.......................................................................................................................................................33

4.3 (BSC)............................................................................................................................... 33

4.3.1 BSC...........................................................................................................................................................33

4.4 .............................................................................................................................................................. 35

4.4.1 BTS.........................................................................................................................................................................35

4.4.2 BTS..............................................................................................................................................................................35

5 - ........................................................................................................................................ 36

5.1 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 36
5.2 ........................................................................................................................................... 36

5.2.1 .....................................................................................................................................................................36
5.2.2 , .........................................................................................36
5.2.3 (Active mode)................................................................................................................................................36
5.2.4 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)..........................................................................................36
5.2.5 .....................................................................................................................................................36

5.3 (SIM)................................................................................................................ 37

5.3.1 SIM-...........................................................................................................................................................................37
5.3.2 .......................................................................................................................................37
5.3.3 , SIM......................................................................................................................37
5.3.4 MS VV....................................................................................................................................................38

6 - GSM........................................................................................................................................... 38

6.1 Bearer Services................................................................................................................................................................. 38


6.2 Teleservices....................................................................................................................................................................... 39
6.3 GSM.......................................................................................................................................... 39

6.3.1. (Call Forwarding)..............................................................................................................................39


6.3.2. (Call Barring)......................................................................................................................................................39
6.3.3 Call Waiting (CW).......................................................................................................................................................................39
6.3.4 (Call Hold)..................................................................................................................................................40
6.3.5 - (Multiparty call - MPTY)...............................................................................................................................40
6.3.6 ....................................................................................................................................................40
6.3.7 (Closed User Group - CUG)................................................................................................40

6.4 ............................................................................................................................................... 40

7 - General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)............................................................................................................41

7.1 GPRS.................................................................................................................................................. 41
7.2 GPRS............................................................................................................................................................ 41
7.3 (BSS)..................................................................................................................................... 41
7.4 (CSS).............................................................................................................................. 42
7.5 ................................................................................................................................................................ 42
7.6 (PSS)............................................................................................................................... 42

7.6.1 GPRS (SGSN)..................................................................................................................42


7.6.2 GPRS (GGSN).............................................................................................................................44

7.7 GPRS............................................................................................................................. 44

8 - ...................................................................................................................... 45

8.1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

8.1.1 ........................................................................................................................................................................................45
8.1.2 ..............................................................................................................................................................................45
8.1.3 .............................................................................................................................................................45
8.1.4 ....................................................................................................................................................................46
8.1.5 ...................................................................................................................................................................46
8.1.7 ...........................................................................................................46
8.1.8 ...................................................................................................................................................................46
8.1.9 .................................................................................................................................................................................47
8.1.10 : (TDMA)...................................................................................................47

8.2 .................................................................................................................................. 47

8.2.1 ...............................................................................................................................................47
8.2.2 .................................................................................................................................................................47
8.2.3 ............................................................................................................................................................47
8.2.4 ...................................................................................................................................................................47
8.2.5 ...............................................................................................................47

8.3 , ............................................................................................... 48

8.3.1 (Path loss)................................................................................................................................................................48


8.3.2 (Shadowing)........................................................................................................................................................48
8.3.3 (MuItipath fading).............................................................................................................................48
8.3.4 (Time Dispersion).................................................................................................................................48
8.3.5 (Time Alignment)..........................................................................................................................48
8.3.6 (Combined Signal Loss)..................................................................................................49

8.4 , ............................................................................................... 49

8.4.1 (Interleaving)......................................................................................................................................................49
8.4.2 (Antenna Diversity)..................................................................................................................................50
8.4.2.1 ......................................................................................................................................50
8.4.2.2 .......................................................................................................................................50
8.4.3 (Adaptive Equalization).....................................................................................................................50
8.4.4 (Frequency Hopping)............................................................................................................................51
8.4.5 (Timing Advance - )..................................................................................................................51

8.5 GSM................................................................................................................................. 52

8.5.1 - . (Analog To Digital (A/D) Conversion)...........................................................................52


8.5.1.1 (Sampling)..............................................................................................................................................52
8.5.1.2 (Quantization)............................................................................................................................................53
8.5.1.3 (Coding).....................................................................................................................................................53
8.5.2 (Segmentation)....................................................................................................................................................53
8.5.3 2 (Speech Coding)..................................................................................................................................53
8.5.4 (Channel Coding)..............................................................................................................................54
8.5.5 (Interleaving)......................................................................................................................................................54
8.5.6 (Ciphering/Encryption)........................................................................................................................................54
8.5.7 (Burst Formatting)................................................................................................................................55
8.5.8 .............................................................................................................................................................55

9 - GSM......................................................................................56

9.1 ................................................................................................................................... 56

9.1.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................56
9.1.1.1 (Control Channels).........................................................................................................................56
9.1.1.2 .....................................................................................................................................58
9.1.2 (Bursts)..........................................................................................................................................................................58
9.1.2.1 ......................................................................................60

9.2 ............................................................................................ 60

9.2.1 , ...................................................................................................................................................60

9.3 MS............................................................................................................. 61
9.4 GPRS................................................................................................................................................................ 61

9.4.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................61
9.4.2 GPRS........................................................................................................................................................61

10. .........................................................................................63

10.1 : MS IDLE.................................................................................................................. 63
10.1.1 MS .................................................................................................................................................. 63

10.1.1.1 .........................................................................................................................................................................63
10.1.1.2 PLMN..................................................................................................................................................................64
10.1.1.3 (Cell Selection)..........................................................................................................................................64
10.1.1.4 IMSI Attach.....................................................................................................................................................................65
10.1.1.5 (LU), - IMSI attach................................................................................................65
10.1.2 10.1.2.1 (Cell deselection).....................................................................................................65
10.1.2.2 LA..................................................................................................................................................66
10.1.2.3 MSC/VLR...........................................................................................66
10.1.2.4 MSC/VLR...............................................................66
10.1.2.5 ........................................................................................................................................67

10.2 : MS Busy................................................................................ 67

10.2.1 (MS - PSTN)..............................................................................................................................................67


10.2.2 (PSTN - MS)................................................................................................................................................67
10.2.3 (Handover)..............................................................................................................................................................68
10.2.3.1 Locating......................................................................................................................................................68
10.2.3.2 ..................................................................................................................................................68
10.2.3.3 , BSC...................................................................................69
10.2.3.4 , BSC, MSC/VLR........................................69
10.2.3.5 , MSC............................................................................................69

10.3 ......................................................................................................................................... 70

10.3.1 IMSI Attach ........................................................................................................................................................70


10.3.2 MS ....................................................................................................................................................70
10.3.3 ..............................................................................................................................................70
10.3.4 SMS MS...............................................................................................................................................................70
10.3.5 SMS..............................................................................................................................................................................71

10.4 GPRS................................................................................................................ 71

10.4.1 GPRS.....................................................................................................................................................................71
10.4.2 GPRS...........................................................................................................................................................72
10.4.2.1 GPRS Attach..................................................................................................................................................................72
10.4.2.2 Routing Area Update......................................................................................................................................................72
10.4.2.3 PDP Context Activation..................................................................................................................................................72
10.4.2.4 Cell Update.....................................................................................................................................................................73

11 - ............................................................................................................................ 73

11.1 Service Switching Function.............................................................................................................................................. 73


11.2 Service Control Function.................................................................................................................................................. 73
11.3 IN....................................................................................................................................... 74
11.4 MIN................................................................................................................................... 74
11.5 .................................................................................................................. 74

12 - .............................................................................................................................. 75

12.1 ................................................................................................................................................................ 75

12.1.1 : .......................................................................................................................................75
12.1.1.1 ......................................................................................................................................................75
12.1.1.2 ..............................................................................................................................75
12.1.1.3 ( )...................................................................................................................................75
12.1.1.4 ...............................................................................................................................75
12.1.1.5 .............................................................................................................................................76
12.1.1.6 ..............................................................................................................................................................76
12.1.1.7 .........................................................................................................................76
12.1.1.8 ...........................................................................................................................................................76
12.1.2 ..................................................................................................................................................77
12.1.2.1 BS.......................................................................................................................................77
12.1.2.2 ...................................................................................................77
12.1.2.3 ............................................................................................................................78
12.1.2.5 ...............................................................................................................................79
12.1.2.6 ............................................................................................................................................................79
12.1.2.7 GSM 900 .......................................79
12.1.3 ...................................................................................................................80
12.1.3.1 .......................................................................................................................81
12.1.3.2 ............................................................................................................................................81
12.1.3.3 ..........................................................................................................................................81
12.1.3.4 .......................................................................................................................81
12.1.3.5 .......................................................................................................................................82
12.1.3.6 ..............................................................................................................................82
12.1.3.7 ............................................................................................................................................82
12.1.3.8 ........................................................................................................................................................82
12.1.3.9 ............................................................................................................................................82
12.1.4 ..............................................................................................................................................................82
12.1.5 .........................................................................................................................................................82

12.2 .................................................................................................................................................................. 83

12.2.1 ...............................................................................................................................................83
12.2.1.1 ....................................................................................................83
12.2.1.2 .....................................................................................................................83
12.2.1.3 TEMS Investigation........................................................................................83
12.2.2 .....................................................................................................................85

12.3 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 85

1. .....................................................................................................86
2. ........................................................................................................................................... 89

1......................................................................................................................................................................... 89
2......................................................................................................................................................................... 89
3......................................................................................................................................................................... 90
4......................................................................................................................................................................... 91

1 - GSM 1.1
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1981
1983
1985
1986
1991
1991
1993
1992
1994
1995
2000
2001

NMT 450


Nordic Mobile Telephony 450 MHz

AMPS

Advanced Mobile Phone System

TACS

Total Access Communication System

NMT 900

Nordic Mobile Telephony 900 MHz

GSM

Global System for Mobile


communication

TDMA CD-AMPS)
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Time Division Multiple Access


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Code Division Multiple Access


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1800

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PDC

Personal Digital Cellular

PCS 1900

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Universal Mobile Telecommunication


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1.4 (GSM)
1.4.1 GSM.

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1988

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1989

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.

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9

1-2 ETSI

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12




MS - BSS


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1.5 GSM
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1998
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,
50 .
2002
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2002 ., 68 800 , 46 100 - GSM. ""
: 2001 . 2
.
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: 65%
105 000 .
2003
15 . -. , ,
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2004
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280 . 20.3%
, "" .
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70.
26 "" -
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600 000 , , ,
31% .

15

1.7 GSM
GSM 2 .

, ,
.

. 1.2. GSM

:
- Switching System (SS)
- Base Station System (BSS)
. . 1.2
.
, . 1.2.
SS ,
. SS :
AUC Authentication Center
(
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
)
Home Location Register (HLR)
BSC Base Station Controller

Visitor Location Register (VLR)
BTS Base Transceiver Station
Authentication Center (AUC)
()
Equipment Identity Register (EIR).
EIR
Equipment Identity

BSS ,
Register

.
HLR
Home
Location
Register

:

Base Station Controller (BSC)


MS
Mobile Station

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
MSC Mobile Switching Center GSM
()
- NMC Network Management
, ,
Center
, Operation and


Maintenance Center

. VLR Visitor Location Register ,


SS, BSS.

MSC/VLR
MS ,
.

1.8 SS
1.8.1 Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
MSC .
, .
PSTN, ISDN, , ,
. MSC.
MSC .
MSC . MSC ,
,
(-). MSC ,
. MSC ,
.

16

1.8.2 Home Location Register (HLR)


GSM ,
PLMN. HLR - , , ..
.
HLR (
) ,
HLR. HLR :
() .
, .
, MSC/VLR.
().
HLR MSC/VLR, . HLR
, HLR. HLR
- . .
, HLR, MSC VLR, ,
.

1.8.3 Visitor Location Register (VLR)


VLR ,
MSC. , MSC VLR. VLR
, MSC
, MSC. HLR VLR
, , .
MSC, VLR, MSC,
HLR, . HLR
VLR .
, MS / .

1.8.4 Authentication Center (AUC)



- . AUC - ,
( ).
MSC ,

1.8.5 Equipment Identity Register (EIR)


EIR - , .
. (EIR)
, , .

1.9 BSS
1.9.1 Base Station Controller (BSC)
BSC , GSM. ,
, MS,
. MSC BSC.

1.9.2 Base Transceiver Station (BTS)


BTS MS. BTS , , . BSC
BTS.

1.10
1.10.1 Operation & Maintenance Center ()
GSM.
( .25) , MSC,
BSC .. ,
. ,
.

1.10.2 Network Management Center (NMC)


(NMC).
, .
, NMC
17

, ,
.
NMC ,
.

1.11 (MS)
MS .
MS, .
MS ,
, .
MS , ,
. , ,
, , ,
, , .
MS GSM :
();
(SIM).
GSM, ,
. - SIM. SIM
, GSM. ,
, . ,
.

1.12 GSM

. ,
,
.

1.12.1 (Cell)
, GSM,
.
, .. .
, - ,

GSM (
).
, (CGI).
, , , , .

1.12.2 (Location Area - LA)


(LA) ,
. LA,
. (LAI) VLR.
MS , LA,
LA. , MS Idle.
,
. MS LA,
. MS
, LA.

18

. 1.5 .

19

. 1.6 .

1.12.3 MSC (MSC Serving Area)


MSC LA
, MSC. ,
MS MSC
,
(HLR).

1.12.4 PLMN
PLMN ,
, .
PLMN, .
MS PLMN .
MSC/VLR. . 1.8
.

1.12.5 GSM
GSM ,
GSM. GSM ,
, .
GSM
.
- , , MS
PLMN PLMN.
GSM
PLMN
MSC
(LA)

1.8. GSM

20

1.13 GSM
GSM , : 900, 1800, 1900 .

1.13.1 900

GSM 900 .
. ,
. E-GSM R-GSM,
P-GSM (primary) P-GSM900 890-915/935-960 MHz
E-GSM900 880-915/925-960 MHz
R-GSM900 890-925/935-970 MHz
R-GSM1800 1710-1785/1805-1880 MHz

1.13.2 1800
1990 . ,
GSM, 1800.
.
, , ,
.

, , . 1800
: GSM 1710-1805/1785-1880 MHz.
1997 1800 Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 MHz,
GSM 1800.

1.13.3 1900
1995 PCS (Personal Cellular System).
,
, . PCS ,
,
.
, PCS, 1900 .
GSM 900 - , ,
GSM 1900 .
GSM 1900 GSM 900 , GSM 1900 ANSI.

1.13.4 GSM 800


800 TDMA (AMPS DAMPS). GSM 1800
,
.
2 .


P-GSM 900

E-GSM 900

R-GSM 900

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

Uplink

890 - 915

880 - 915

890 - 925

1710 - 1785

1850 - 1910

Downlink

935 - 960

925 - 960

935 - 970

1805 - 1880

1930 - 1990

1.14
,
. .
Idle: MS , ;
Active (Busy): MS ;
Detached: MS
MS ,
Implicit Detach. detached.
3 , GSM .
21

3 -

IDLE

(Registration)

, MS PLMN, VLR
HLR, ! .

(Roaming)

, LA, MSC/VLR ..
( MSC/VLR PLMN)
PLMN, .


(International Roaming)
Location Update

BUSY


MS.

Cell selection/reselection

/ IDLE.

Paging

, MS , .. MS
MS

Locating

.
BSC , MS BTS.

Handover


MS ,
Detached. MS ,
GSM,
. MS ,
,
MS. , , MS
.
MS ,
,
IDLE. , MS LA, MS
.
MS

.
. 1.10

MS , 1 .
LA, MS Location Update LA
VLR.
! IDLE MS, Busy - BSC.

1.15 GSM
- , GSM
. MS.
, .

1.15.1. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)


IMSI
GSM. GSM
. IMSI SIM, HLR, VLR
AUC. IMSI :
MCC (Mobile Country Code) -
MNC (Mobile Network Code) -
MSIN (Mobile Station Identification Number) -
MS
GSM IMSI 15 .

1.15.2. Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN)


(MSISDN) ,
. .
MSISDN
.
CC (Country Code) -
NDC (National Destination Code) - ( )
SN (Subscriber Number) -
PLMN NDC. NDC + SN
. NDC DEF
22

. PLMN NDC. MSISDN


. 15 , (+7).
Beeline +7 903 XXX 905.

1.15.3. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)


TMSI - IMSI, MS .
. MS
TMSI.
TMSI IMSI, 8 . TMSI
, IMSI, ,
.
, MS (LU,
) MSC/VLR TMSI IMSI, MSC/VLR TMSI MS,
SIM-. MSC/VLR MS TMSI. ,
IMSI . IMSI ,
Location Update TMSI.

1.15.4. International Mobile Terminal Identity (IMEI)


IMEI
.


.
GSM IMEI 15 :
(Type Approval Code) - .
FAC (Final Assembly Code) - , .
SNR (Serial Number) - .
FAC
Spare - . .
MS, 0.

1.15.5. International Mobile Terminal Identity Software Version number (IMEISV)


IMEISV
,
, MS,
.
, ,
MS,
.
, , PLMN MS
(, half rate/full rate, .). IMEISV.
SVN (Software Version Number) - , MS
MS. SVN
99, .

1.15.6. Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)


MSRN - ,
MSC, MS.
MSRN -
,
.
MSRN SN MSC/VLR.

1.15.7. Location Area Identity (LAI)


LAI - (LA), LA
GSM.
Location Area Code (LAC) - ,
LAC 16 , 65536
LA PLMN.

1.15.8. Cell Global Identity CGI


CGI
LA.
Cell Identity (CI) LAI. CI
16 .

23

1.15.9 Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)

BSIC MS . BSIC :
NCC - Network Color Code ( ). ,
,
.
- Base station Color Code ( ).
, ,
.

2 - 7.
,
.
(),
.
- ,
, ,
. , ( ,
) , ,
.

.
, - .
.
( )
:
, ;
(, );
, (, / ).
:
(Access Signalling),
;
(Trunk Signalling), .
,
,

, ,
, ,

.

.
GSM,
, ,

-, ,
. , ,

.

2.1
:
PSTN, ISDN GSM.

2.1.1
( - ,
- ).
:
(Decadic) - / .
(DTMF - Dual Tone Multi Frequency) -
1 4 1 4 ( 2 8).
(:
, , ..).
24

2.1.2.
Digital Signalling System 1 (DSSl).
ISDN
- (OSI).

2.2
.
:
- (Channel Associated Signalling - CAS).

( : , ..), (,
) .
- (Common Channel Signalling - CCS).
.

2.2.1 Channel Associated Signalling.


1
. .
16 ,
.
, ,
. :

..

-

-

..

. 2.3. .

7 2 .
CCITT R1 5 ( 2 6), Rl,5.

2.2.2 Common Channel Signalling



( ), . ,
, , ,
, .
, , ( ). .
, ( - 30).
1968 , 6.
7.
7 1980 .
. 7
(, , ).
25

2.3 OSI ()
7
.

.
ISO
(International Standardization Organization) 1977.


.

. 7 ,
7-.
. 2.4.
(Physical Layer)

.
.
(Data Link Layer)
( ).
. /
, (, ).
(Network Layer)
- .
, , -
.
(), .
(Transport Layer)

.
, .
(Session Layer)
( ,
..). ,
.
(Presentation Layer)
, ,
. .
(Application Layer)
, .
: , , ..

2.4 7
, 7 (ITU-T).
ITU-T 7,
7 .
, ,
.

2.4.1 .
. 2.5 7.
Signalling Point (SP) - ()
, ,

.
SP .
(MSC, BSC ..)
SP (Signalling Point Code),

SP.
SP Originating Point
(OP), a - Destination Point (DP).
Signalling Transfer Point (STP) -
. STP
, SP.
26

2-102 STP, .. 2-100 2-101,


2-101.
SP Network Indicator (NI), :
0 - ;
1 - ;
2 - () ;
3 - ( - );
SPC (SP Code), .
SPC 14 ,
:
( 0 16383);
7 + 7 ;
4 + 4 + 6;
..
.
SP ,
, .. .
Signalling Link (SL) - , , .. 64
/. SP , .
Link Set (LS) - () . LS 16 SL.
Signalling Route (Destination) - , Destination Point. , 2-100 2-101, LS=2-102 LS=2-101.
SP ,
.
Signal Unit (SU) - () . 3
:
MSU - Message Signal Unit ( ),
, -;
LSSU - Link Status Signal Unit ( )
, ;
FISU - Fill-in Signal Unit ( ) MSU LSSU.

2.4.2 7
7 , 4
:
. 2.6. 7
:
Message Transfer Part (MTP) -
;
User Parts (UP) -
.
:
-1 -
(Signalling Data Link).

, .. ,
(64 /).
-2 -
(Signalling Link).
SP.

.
-3 - (Signalling
Network).
.
3
:
. ,
2, ,
SP , , SP,
. , SP, - ,
, SP ( ,
4 , SP, ,
2).
27

. ,
, , 5() SP- (DPC). , 2,
, - ( DPC
SP) ( ). ,
, DPC SP,
-. , ( ,
SP), DPC ,
SP-.
(SLS), , .
, , , .. -.
1 2
(OSI). 3 3 OSI , .. ,
.
2.7.
TUP (Telephony User Part) -
,
. ISUP, .. ISDN.
ISUP (ISDN User Part) -
ISDN. ,

ISDN.
SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part)

.


( N1 ).
(
). SCCP.
(
CL). .
SCCP 3 , , ,
3 OSI. SCCP ..
NSP(Network Service Part). NSP SP ,
, 7, ,
. SCCP ,
, , .
(Transaction Capabilities Application Part) ,
( ) CL.
BSSAP (Base Station Subsystem Application Part) ,
GSM.
MAP (Mobile Application Part) - ,
GSM, HLR, VLR .. .
CAP (CAMEL Application Part) -
(MIN).
INAP (Intelligent Network Application Part)
(IN).
(Operation & Maintenance Application Part)
.
7

ASE - Application Service Element


MTP - Message Transfer Part
NSP - Network Service Part
SCCP - Signaling Connection Control Part
TCAP - Transaction Capabilities Application Part

. 2.8. .
28

3 -
3.1.
GSM . 3.1

MSC/ VLR

Mobile services Station Center/


Visitor Location Register

GMSC
HLR
ILR
AUC
EIR
DTI

Gateway MSC
Home Location Register
Interworking Location Register
Authentication Center
Equipment Identity Register
Data Transmission Interface
Message Center

3.2 MSC/VLR
3.2.1 Mobile Switching Center
MSC - GSM.
MS. :
. MSC :
, ,
.
MSC , ,
MS , PSTN.
. MSC .
MSC ,
, ,
. MSC GMSC. MSC HLR
.

. MSC
(Call Barring, Call Forwarding if
Busy ..). (SMS) MSC.
HLR. , MSC HLR
MS. HLR
MSC1.
VLR. .
.
MSC.
, MSC.
BSC. BSS MS SS,
BSS - BSC, MSC.
MSC MSC
BSC. MSC BSC
, , BSC.
. MSC (ISP Internet Service Provider) , PSTN.
MSC , ,
.
, , , TIGRIS Ericsson.
MSC, .

. 3.2 GSM/PSTN ( )

29

. 3.3

3.2.2 Visitor Location Register


VLR GSM
, MSC. ,
MSC VLR. , MSC
HLR ( ) ,
.
. 3.4 HLR - VLR
MS MSC/VLR
:
1. VLR () , ,
MS ( IMSI).
2. , VLR MS, HLR
.
3. HLR VLR, .
HLR VLR MS .
4. VLR , MS (LAI)
(IDLE).
VLR MS MSC MS,
:
(IMSI, MSDISDN).
, .
MS (LA).
MS.
().

3.2.3 Gateway MSC


GMSC
GMSC , HLR
MS. MS.
, (PSTN),
GSM, PSTN GSM GMSC. GMSC,
, HLR , MSC/VLR
.
MS MS.
MSC GMSC,
HLR ,
. MSC GMSC , HLR. GMSC:
1. HLR MSRN.
2. .

3.2.4 Home Location Register


HLR - (), PLMN. HLR
,
. HLR ,
. , HLR, :
(IMSI, MSDISDN).
, .
MS ( MSC/VLR).
().
HLR :
, . HLR
,
, . HLR
.
.
MSC. HLR MS
MSC, MS, (
MSRN).
GMSC. GMSC MS HLR
MS, HLR MSRN,
MSC. MSISDN, GMSC , HLR ,
MS.
AUC. HLR , -
,
() AUC.
VLR/ILR. MS MSC,
30

VLR MS HLR, . HLR


VLR ,
VLR, ,
.
HLR , MSC/VLR,
. .

3.2.5 Interworking Location Register


ILR . ILR
D-AMPS GSM 1900 (PCS, ). ILR
HLR D-AMPS VLR GSM .
D-AMPS, - D-AMPS- HLR
ILR. GSM 1900, HLR VLR
ILR, , .

3.2.6 AUC EIR


,
. , GSM ,
:
.
.
, . ,
MS, . MS , MS.
MS. GSM,
MS. , MS, ,
.
. ,
MS MS (IMSI) ,
, .
, ,
" " - TMSI (Temporary Mobile Station Identity)/
(, ),
IMSI. TMSI
. TMSI
. , TMSI
(LAI), TMSI .
AUC EIR. , MSC/VLR
.

3.2.6.1 AUC
AUC , MSC/VLR
,
MS.
, AUC, :
1. - Random Number - (RAND);
2. - - Signed Response - (5RE5);
3. - Ciphering Key - ().

3.2.6.2
(
)
(Ki).
AUC
IMSI.

.
SIM. AUC
:
1.
RAND;
2.
RAND Ki
SRES
- A3 8
.
3.
RAND, SRES HLR
.

RAND - ;
SRES - ;
- ;
Ki -
IMSI -

. 3.5 AUC

31

3.2.6.3
1. MSC/VLR RAND MS.
2. MS, Ki RAND,
SRES, A3.
3. MS, Ki RAND, RAND
8. MS
.
4. SRES MSC/VLR,
, ,
SRES, MS, SRES,
AUC. MS , .
.
. :
;


.

3.2.6.4
,
,
BTS MS,
.
-

TDMA,


A3.

,
,
, ..

.

().
1. ( : 5/1 5/2) MSC/VLR BTS.
2. MS.
3. MS , ( , SRES )
TDMA, A3.
4. BTS.
5. BTS , TDMA
A3.
6. ,
MSC. , .
3.2 GSM.

( SIM)

(SIM)

A3; 8; IMSI; Ki; TMSI/LAI;

(AUC)

A3; 8; IMSI/Ki

HLR

IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc

VLR

(MSC)

IMSI/RAND/SRES/Kc,
IMSI/TMSI/LAI/Kc
5, TMSI/IMSI/Kc

(BSC)

5, TMSI/IMSI/Kc

32

3.2.6.5 EIR

MS
IMEI.
:
Type Approval Code. .
FAC Final Assembly Code. ,
.
SNR Serial Number. .
FAC
Spare . . MS,
.

3.2.6.6 IMEI
1.
2.
3.
4.

MSC/VLR IMEI MS.


MS IMEI MSC.
MSC/VLR IMEI EIR.
IMEI, EIR 3 :
.
,
. IMEI, GSM.
. ( ) IMEI , .
5. IMEI MSC/VLR, ,
.

3.2.7
DTI
DTI GSM (InterWorking Function -IWF). , .
:
/ PSTN. DTI ,
GSM , (0,3 - 3,4 )
/ ISDN. ,
.
/ PDN. DTI (CS GSM)
( .25).
. PLMN
DTI (Circuit Switching).
HSCSD. (HSCSD)
( 4-) (1 TS - 9.6 /,
13.4 /).

3.2.8 ()

, ,
, , :
;
;
(Short Message Service - SMS);


.
, .
, .
MS , ,
, ..
, . ,
, ( ).

, . ,
,
.
.
33

(SMS)
160 -
(MS), . SMS
GSM ( CDMA
D-AMPS ). ,
- MS .
, SMS , SMS . SMS
, , .
, GMSC
. SMS GMSC.
. MS.

4 -
4.1
(BSS),
. :
;
MS ;
.
. 4.1 BS
BSS :
(BSC):

BSS,

,
.

(TRC):

() GSM
.
GSM - 13 /, -64 /.
(BTS): BTS ERICSSON RBS (Radio Base
Station) MS . RBS
, .

4.1.1.
BSC TRC:
BSC TRC.
.

.

, .
BSC TRC.

.

,
.

500 .
TRC ,
MSC/VLR
.
. 4.2 TRC

4.1.2.
GSM BTS. , BTS
, , BTS:
BTS ( 3,5 35 )
BTS ( 500 3,5 )
BTS ( 500 )
34

4.1.3.
,
. :
(). ,
MS BTS. BER,
.
(Leaky Cable).
, .
. , BTS. , , Leaky
Cable .

4.2
4.2.1 TRC
:
;
.
1.
,
GSM .
2.
TRC ,
:
13
/, MSC 64 /, TRC.
, GSM 13 /,
- 64 /. TRC
( ) 16 /, .. 1 4
GSM.
GSM ITU-T ,
( V.35, V.35bis ..) 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400
/. TRC, ,
13 /.
3. Half Rate, Full Rate, Enhanced Full Rate Adaptive Multi Rate.
GSM .
TRC BSC.
, , ,
, ..

4.3 (BSC)
4.3.1 BSC
BSC GSM.
. :
(, ..)
BTS
TRC
MS
BSC

:
:
( , , ..)
.
( / ,
, , ..).
Locating ( ) .
(, , ,
, ..).
,
.
35

BTS
BTS: ( ,
, ..)
BTS:
.
BTS. , BTS.
TRC
, TRAU (Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit) TRC, BSC,
GSM, TRAU .
BSC TRC
TRA . , , TRC
. , TRA
BSC.
MS

Paging. BSC , Location Area


(paging).
.

SDCCH. BSC MS .
. SDCCH
BSC .
, BSC .

BSC :
MS BTS. BSC
MS BTS uplink
downlink. MS BTS
480 .
.
Locating. BSC MS
- .
, MS BTS,
, .
(Handover). Locating
, BSC MS BTS ,
.
BSC, MSC/VLR
. BSC MSC
( IMSI/TMSI ). MSC
,
.
(Frequency Hopping). BSC
:
Base Band: ,
BTS BSC.
Synthesized: ,
BTS BSC.
- BSC
- BSC,
. - BSC
:
BSC: , BSC
.
. ,
. , ,
.

36

4.4
4.4.1 BTS
BTS ,

.
. 4.3 BTS RBS 2000 (
ERICSSON)
GSM
BTS. , BTS

,
,

BTS:
BTS ( 3,5 35 )
BTS ( 500 3,5 )
BTS ( 500 )
BTS GSM: 900/1800/1900 .

4.4.2 BTS
BTS :




BTS MS .
:
. BSC
, :


(BSIC)
.
. BSC.
. BTS
MS (,
).
BTS


,
Uplink
.

BTS
.
:
.
.
(Adaptive equalization).
. 4.4 BTS
().
.

BTS BTS BSC, LAP-D,
.

BTS , , BSC
.
BTS
BTS .
BTS, , BSC.

37

5 -
5.1

:
SIM -
- Mobile Terminal ( )
SIM- - - ,
(Ki IMSI). - ( ).

5.2
5.2.1
.
.

5.2.2 ,

, Idle Busy,
, BSC.
Cell Reselection Handover.
.

5.2.3 (Active mode)


MS
SACCH .
MS BTS.
MS Busy
.

BSC .
. 5.5 .

5.2.4
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) MS. MS
DTX () ON
. , MS . MS
, , "Post",
. , MS ,
"Pre", ON . Post
() , TRC .
, , .
MS Post , , BTS
(update) .
DTX , ..
, , .
(DRX) MS
Discontinuous Reception (DRX).
, BTS , .
MS , MS ,
"sleep mode". MS .

5.2.5
MS , , MS .
,
. MS GSM .
MS.
38

5.2 -
,
,
4 GSM 900
1 GSM 1800.

GSM900

GSM1800

20 (43 dBm)

1 (30 dBm)

8 (39 dBm)

0.25 (24
dBm)

5.3
(SIM)

5 (37 dBm)

2 (33 dBm)

GSM1900
1 (30 dBm)
0.25 (24 dBm)
2 (33 dBm)

0.8 (29
GSM 5
dBm)
Subscriber Identity Module - SIM-. SIM - , , , - -,
. SIM- MS .
SIM- :
: , - IMSI, Ki /8.
: LA, , PLMN ...
, .

5.3.1 SIM-
2 SIM-. "ID-1 SIM" "Plug-in SIM".
SIM-.

ID-1 SIM
ID-1 SIM ISO Integrated Circuit (1) -
).
Plug-in SIM
SIM- SIM- ID-1 .
.
. 5.7 SIM

5.3.2
GSM , SIM-.
:
, A3;
, Ki;
, 8;
SRES;
, SIM-.

5.3.3 , SIM
SIM GSM. ,
GSM PLMN. , SIM, :
.

: SIM, ,
( ).
1 , , SIM:
ICCID - . (
). .
IccID=89701+99+010000000001 - 19 ;

:
. ITU-T E.118:
89 -
7 - (. ITU-T E.164) 01 - GSM-900
99 -
01 -
SIM: , SIM (
39

, PLMN);
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI): ,

. IMSI=MCC+MNC+MSIN=250+99+91Xi...X8;
: LAI, ;
(KJ;
;
, ( );
PLMN;
: , ;
,
.
, SIM
:
Personal Identification Number (PIN) - PIN ;
/ PIN ;
PIN ;
PIN Unlock Key (PUK) - PUK ;
PUK .
. , SIM-.
TEMS Investigation
ERICSSON.

5.3.4 MS VV
, (Mobile Terminal)
, SIM- MS.
PIN PUK .
PIN-
PIN 4 8 . PIN
. ,
, PIN- .
PIN-.
PIN- .
PIN- SIM . ,
PIN- SIM-
, SIM- PIN-, .. SIM PIN.
/ SIM
SIM- , GSM .
SIM PIN-
(Unblocking Key) PUK. PUK 8- . PUK
, . 10
PUK , MS.
MS SIM-.

6 - GSM
GSM :
(Basic Services) - , ,
. :
(Bearer Services) - (,
) . , ,
13/ - .
.

(Teleservices) - , ,
(, SMS ..).
(Supplementary Services) - , ()
.
, .
(Intelligent Services) - ,
, Pre-Paid.
(GPRS)
.

40

6.1 Bearer Services


GSM
(V.35, V.35bis, V.90 ..).
GSM PSTN
0,3 -3,4 ( ).
ISDN ,
( Non transparent).
GSM ( )
(, .25) / - PAD (Packet
Assembler-Disassembler).

6.2 Teleservices
GSM , :
(Speech), .
(Emergency Call). GSM
, . ETSI 112,
GSM 900/1800 SIM-.
3 (Facsimile group
3). GSM ITU.
3 .
MSC (DTI).
/ (Alternative Speech/ Fax). ,

. GSM, ..
.
Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF).
( ) .
,
..
Short Message Service (SMS). /
160 .
, , .

6.3 GSM.
6.3.1. (Call Forwarding).
, . GSM
/ (
, .., SMS). :
(Call Forwarding Unconditional) - ,
MS.
(Call Forwarding Not Reachable) - ,
. ,
MS Detached .
(Call Forwarding on Busy) -
, MS Busy. ,
Call Waiting ( ).
(Call Forwarding on No Reply) - ,
- .
, , .

6.3.2. (Call Barring).


, (Operator Determined Barring) ,
(Subscriber Determined Barring).
, :
(Outgoing Call Barring) - ,
:
(Barring of All Outgoing Calls - BAOC).
- (Barring of all Outgoing International Calls - BOIC).
, (Barring
of all Outgoing International calls EXcept those directed to the Home PLMN country - BOIEXH).
(Incoming Calls Barring) - ,
:
(Barring of All Incoming Calls - BAIC).
(Barring of all Incoming Calls
41

when Roaming Outside home PLMN - BICRO).

6.3.3 Call Waiting (CW).


,
. , , MS
.

6.3.4 (Call Hold).


, ,
. , .. MSC
.

6.3.5 - (Multiparty call - MPTY).


, ,
( ). MSC,
MS .

6.3.6 .

(Calling Line Identification Presentation - CLIP) -


, (MSISDN)
.
(Calling Line Identification Restriction - CLIR) - ,
.
:
CLIP, - CLIR. ,
Private Number (
).
(Connected Line identification Presentation - COLP) -
,
. , ,
, ,
.
(Connected Line identification Restriction - COLR) -
, CLIR, .

6.3.7 (Closed User Group - CUG)


,
(/, ).

6.4 .
,
.
, , .

.
:
Pre-paid SIM.
.
, .
Free Phone. ,
.
800 (.. 8 800 ...., ).
Universal Access Number. ,
, .
, . , ,
, , .
Premium Rate Call.
( , ..) .
809.
Televoting ().
. , ,
,
- . Voting,
() (MSC),
, .
42

7 - General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).


GPRS GSM .
GPRS , GSM.
,
. GPRS ,
.
GPRS ,
GSM , GPRS
. . , GPRS
.

7.1 GPRS
GPRS. GPRS
GSM, GSM
. GPRS ,
GPRS .
GPRS
GSM, BSC,
(. . 7.1).
GSM
:
GPRS - Serving GPRS
Support Node (SGSN)
GPRS - Gateway
GPRS Support Node (GGSN).

.
GPRS, , ,

GPRS,
SGSN GGSN.

SGSN GGSN.
, GPRS GSM
GPRS .
SSGN G (Gb, Gr ..), ETSI.
.
UMTS (3G) I (Iu, Iur ..).

7.2 GPRS
MS, GPRS.
A: MS GPRS GSM. MS
/ .
: MS GPRS GSM,
/ ,
.
: MS GSM
GPRS. . -
-1-, .

, , .

7.3 (BSS)
GPRS MS,
BSS. BSS : ,
. GPRS
BTS .
BSS ,
, ,
MSC. GPRS.

43

7.4 (CSS)
CSS SS GSM,
(. 1, 1.7: GSM).
GPRS MSC,
GSM/GPRS, , MS
(Attach): IMSI/GPRS. GPRS GMSC.
HLR , , ,
GPRS. , HLR , ,
. , , /
GPRS , (Access Point Name - APN) (Internet
Service Provider - ISP), , MS IP .
GPRS HLR PDP (Packet Data Protocol) . HLR
5 PDP . HLR
SGSN. HLR,
SGSN.
HLR GPRS .
AUC - GPRS. AUC
GPRS , SGSN.
SMS-IW-MSC MS GPRS SMS GPRS.
SMS-IW-MSC GPRS.

7.5
(Billing Gateway - BGw).
BGw GPRS ,
GPRS .
GPRS
, . ,
/ , . GPRS
,
.

.
SGSN GGSN, ,
MSC CDR .
CDR :
S-CDR, SGSN.
G-CDR, GGSN.
CDR, , GPRS.
GPRS S-CDR G-CDR.
BGw
. BGw ,
,
, .

, .

7.6 (PSS)
PSS , GPRS.
(IP). , GSN (GPRS
Support Node). GPRS: GPRS
(SGSN) GPRS (GGSN). SGSN
GSM, , MSC/BSC, GGSN
, , .
GPRS
GPRS SGSN GGSN,
GPRS. .

7.6.1 GPRS (SGSN)


SGSN GPRS, . 7.2. BSC, MSC/VLR,
SMS-G HLR. (backbone network)
GGSN SGSN.
SGSN GPRS,
.SGSN. SGSN GPRS , , MSC GSM.
, MS, ..
GPRS SGSN .
44

. 7.2 SGSN

SGSN GPRS,

.SGSN. SGSN GPRS


, , MSC
GSM.
, MS,
.. GPRS
SGSN
.
SGSN.
GPRS SGSN
. MS
(MM - Mobility Management). ,
,
IMSI GPRS,
,
,
GSM GPRS, .
. MS
, SGSN ,
SGSN GPRS.
Location Area GPRS. GPRS Routing
Area - RA. , LA - GSM, a RA - GPRS. RA
LA. RA LA.

PLMN, PLMN. SGSN Gs
MSC/VLR MS , :
/ GPRS/IMSI. attach
SGSN, SGSN MSC/VLR
.
. MS Gs .
. MS GSM/GPRS ,
MSC/VLR SGSN.
. ,

GPRS GPRS.
( LA RA)
GSM GPRS. MS
, LA MSC RA
SGSN. RA, a SGSN Gs
MSC LA.
.
(Session Management - SM)
GPRS PDP .
SM (PDP),
.
PDP
, MS GGSN.
SGSN , :
PDP - , PDP .
PDP. PDP . IPv6.
PDP. IP MS.
APN (Access Point Name). , , : wap.beeline.ru
QoS (Quality of Service) - . QoS, ,
, ( ).
PDP SGSN , - PDU ( )
MS MS.
SGSN PDP ,
.
SGSN . SGSN ,
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
( APN).

: SGSN GGSN.
IP , ,
. IP,
GPRS.
45

, , GPRS, GPRS. GPRS : RIP v2, OSPF v2, BGP v7.


OSPF v2.
GGSN
SGSN GGSN ( ) PDP , APN
. (Domain Name Server - DNS)
GGSN, APN. SGSN
GTP (GPRS tunneling protocol) GGSN .

7.6.2 GPRS (GGSN)


GGSN IP . GGSN
, , ISP RADIUS,
. IP GGSN
IP , GPRS. SGSN
GGSN.
GGSN
GGSN GPRS:
IP.
GGSN IP .
RADIUS DHCP IP .
IP.
IP.
GPRS (VPN).
IP .
,
.
, IP.
IP
SGSN, GGSN ( ,
). IPv4 IPSEC,
MD5 (ESP),
(DES-CBC).
(,
..)
.
. SGSN.
.
GGSN ( ,
PDP ). SGSN. .
.
GGSN CDR MS. CDR
,
.

7.7 GPRS
SMS GPRS
SGSN Gd SMS-GMSC SMS-IW-MSC.
SMS GPRS SGSN, MSC/VLR.
SMS GPRS
, SMS .
MS, GPRS,
GPRS. MS, GPRS,
GSM, GPRS.
MS, GPRS, GSM,
GPRS, GSM.
SMS GPRS, MS
SMS SGSN.
SMS GPRS:
1. SMS-C , MS. SMS-C
SMS-GMSC.
2. SMS-GMSC HLR
SMS ( : SGSN MSC SGSN MSC,
).
3. HLR , SGSN,
MS, MSC
. MSC,
SMS GSM.
46

4.
5.

SGSN, SMS-GMSC SMS SGSN.


SGSN SMS MS, SMS-C.

8 -
8.1
. 8.1 , .

1 - GSM

P-GSM 900

E-GSM 900

GSM 1800

Uplink

Downlink
, .
(Bandwidth),
(Duplex Distance),
(Channel Separation),
1
(ARFCN)
, /.

890-915 935-960

880-915 925-960

1710-1785
1805-1880

~33
25
45
200
124
1..124
270

~33
35
45
200
174
0, 975.. 1023
270

~17
75
95
200
374
512..885
270

GSM 1900
1850-1910
1930-1990
~1
60
80
200
299
512..810
270

GSM 1 ,
. .

8.1.1
,
.
- . . 1 - .
:



..

. (
). , , .

8.1.2
.
, . X -
. X .
(8 /.).
8.1.
, GSM 900 :
8.1 , ,
. , .
, ,
. FM .
- , ,
.

8.1.3
, , ,
uplink - MS BTS.
.
, , ,
.

47

8.1.4
,
(Frequency Division Multiple Access - FDMA).
GSM - ,
(Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number - ARFCN)
.
2 .
2 -

(Simplex)
(Half Duplex)
(Full Duplex)

, FM

, ( )

, , FM,
. , , , :
, -
.
uplink,
- downlink.
. .

8.1.5
(uplink, downlink),
.

.

. . 8.3,
GSM 900.
, .
-
FDMA.

.
, .
. 8.4 .
, 895.4 895.6
.
200 .

.

8.1.7
.
, . ,
, .

.
, ,
.
, - .
.
,
.
.

. . 8.5
. . 8.5 ,
,
.
, .
, , .

8.1.8
, ,
. , /.
/, GSM 270 /.
48

8.1.9
, GSM 900 .
, ,
(, , ),
, .
:
.


, : ,
. .
,
.
: 1 /. 1 .
200 /, 200 .
, 1 / 1 .
GSM Gaussian modulation with
Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) - ,
270 / 200 .
GSM GMSK
.
,
(, NMT-450).

8.1.10 : (TDMA)
(FDMA) GSM (Time
Division Multiple Access - TDMA) .
TDMA
. ,
. TS - time slots (
). MS
TS uplink, downlink.
, TS, (burst).
TDMA GSM 8 .
, GSM 8
,
, . . 8.6
TDMA.

8.2
8.2.1
- .
.

8.2.2
- ,
.

8.2.3
- .
. ,
, .

8.2.4
-

8.2.5
- . ( ),
( ).

()
. -
, ,
.
49

, , , .

. .
,
.
, .
. ,
.
, ,
, .

8.3 ,
, .
.

8.3.1 (Path loss)


Path Loss (PL) - , ,
- MS BTS. PL (dropped calls),
, BTS PL
, , .

8.3.2 (Shadowing)
, MS BTS
, , , , .. ,
(signal strength). MS
MS BTS.
.
(fading dips).
. 8.10 ,
MS BTS.

8.3.3 (MuItipath fading)


,
MS BTS , , .
, , ,
, .
( ),

(Rayleigh fading).
,
.
, .
MS .

. , GSM 900
17.

8.3.4 (Time Dispersion)


,
MS BTS.
,
, , .
(Inter-Symbol Interference - ISI),
() ,
.
8.12,
1, 0 BTS.

,
1
. 1
MS ,
.

8.3.5 (Time Alignment)


MS TS TDMA. ..,
, MS BTS.
50

,
, MS,
TS.

TS, ,
,
MS, TS (. 8.13).

MS BTS.

.

8.3.6 (Combined Signal Loss)


,
, , ,
.

.

MS .
. 8.14 .

, - , .

(path loss),
.

.
. 8.14
, 8.15.
,

( 8.15 ).
,
-100 dBm,
(-104 dBm), ,
.
,
, ,

dB, dB .
.

8.4 ,

.
, ,
(BER - Bit Error Ratio). BER
.
Transmitted bits 1 1 0 10 0 0 1 1 0
Received bits
10 0 10 0 10 10
Errors
t
t. t
3/10 = 30% BER
. , ,
, .
, BER.

, , ,
, .

8.4.1 (Interleaving)

. ,


.

. ,

.
8.16

51


Interleaving
( ).
, - . 8.17
.
, (1234).
, ,
BER 25%, 100%.
.
, 8.16,
, .
, 25%.
, BER 25%.
, ,
.
8.16

8.4.2 (Antenna Diversity)


.
:

8.4.2.1

BTS

.
2 .
2 ,
,
,
, .
,
3 dB,

12 -18 X
25*(12 - 18*?0 .

.
900
6 , 1800 , -
( 3 ).


.
. 8.18 .

8.4.2.2
(pol). , , , .
- , 45.
Tx/Rx . ,
,
- .

8.4.3 (Adaptive Equalization)


- , ,
.
:
1. ,
(training sequence). BTS, MS. BTS
MS
BTS.
2. MS BTS ( . 8.19,
"S"). ,
, ( ).
3. BTS MS
52

4.

. BTS

, MS BTS.
, ,
, .
, BTS
.
, .
.

BTS
,


100% - .
,

. ,
GSM
(Viterbi
equalizer).
. 8.19

8.4.4 (Frequency Hopping)


,
. ,

.
GSM
Frequency Hopping MS BTS
,
.
MS BTS
.

GSM

64

, 63 -, .
. 8.20, . N-ro TDMA
1, N+1 2. ,
,
.

8.4.5 (Timing Advance - )


(
- ).
, BTS MS.
BSC MS .
GSM (3,69 ),
0 63.
,
MS BTS
MS BTS (Uplink).
( - access
burst) (RACH -random
access channel).
,
RACH,
FACCH (Fast Associated Common Control Channel).
, ,
49 39 . ,
(GB - guard
period), 68.25
, - 252 .

,

.
53

. 8.22 TB(tail bits) ,


.
MS , BTS ,
, . ,
,
252 ,
.

.
GSM 35 .
(63 ).
,
,
, 8.2.
- ; DRT -
,
v- -108[*/]; t= 1 = 48/13 [].

8.5 GSM
GSM .
- ():
()





()


8.5.1 - . (Analog To Digital (A/D) Conversion)


MS
: A/D Conversion.
( )

( ).
:


8.5.1.1 (Sampling)


.
"", ,
. .
,
(), ,
l/2fm.
, , ,
.
-
.
, ,
,
.
, , , 300 3400 .
, .
2*3.4 = 6.8
. 8 ,
.
54

8.5.1.2 (Quantization)
- .
( )
.
,
, ,
-
.
. 8.26.
.
, .
. ,
256 ,
GSM 8192 .

8.5.1.3 (Coding)
1/0.
13 (2 13=8192). , 2157
0100001101101.
12 11
10 9 8 7 6 5
4 3 2 1 0 Total
- - Bit
8000 Set to
0
1
0 0 0 0
1 1
0 1 1 0 I

0
2048 0 0 0 0 64 32 0 8 4 0 1 2157
13 Value
.
104 /.
8.27 2157
, 8 ( ),
8*104 / = 832 /.
, ( )
1 , , 200 , , 8
832 /.
GSM
.

8.5.2 (Segmentation)
, ,
, , GSM
.

.
50 8000,
- . :
,
( ) ..
MS,
.
.
,
20 . GSM
20 .

8.5.3 2 (Speech Coding)


2

, ,

-
13 , - ,

260 . ,
260/20
=
13
/.

,

PSTN.


(waveform coders - ).
8.29
, (vocoders).
GSM (Hybrid Coders),
.
55

.
(waveform coders - ).
, (vocoders).
GSM (Hybrid Coders),
.
GSM 13 / .
, 8 8*13 /
= 104 /.
- 832 /.

. :

()

8.5.4 (Channel Coding)


GSM 260 , ,
, , 456 .
260
:
1: 50 -
2: 132 -
3: 78 -
, 50 ,
( ),
3 , , 53 . 3
.
53 132 4 (
189 ) 1:2, 378 .
.
78 .

8.5.5 (Interleaving)

,
456 20
. ,
8 57 . . 8.31.
8.32 (normal burst)
( 57 ).
.
, ,
25 % BER
20 (2/8 = 25%)
. 8.32. Normal burst ( )

. 8.33.
,

25%. .
BER 12.5 %
57 20 ,
20
20 .
20 , MS 20 .
(burst) 12.5% ,
.

8.5.6 (Ciphering/Encryption)
(Ciphering/Encryption) (burst) ,

. GSM 5.
- , , 456
20 .
56

8.5.7 (Burst Formatting)


, MS/BTS
( ).
( ) ,
, ,
.
GSM
456 . 136 20 ,
592 .
TDMA 0.577 , ,
156.25 ), 3.69 ),
148 .
8.25 (Guard Period GP). MS/BTS , ,
MS/BTS.
156.25 ( ) 625 ( )
20 . , ,
. 676
20 .
33,6 /, 8- - 270.4 /,
, GSM ~270/.

8.5.8
676 20 ,
, . , GSM GMSK.
(, 916.4 ) .

57

9 - GSM
9.1
(time slot - TS) TDMA .
GSM 8 .

,
.
. , .
, , .

,
.
,
,

TCH (Traffic CHannel).
- BSC
, ,
FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel).

9.1.1
GSM ,
/ MS.
, MS (burst).
. 9.2.

. 9.2

9.1.1.1 (Control Channels)


,
. , (
).
.
MS . ,
, (LA), ..
MS .
, MS,
. Broadcast Channel () .
58

, MS ,
, . , MS
( - roaming),
, FCCH, SCH, .
MS,
Common Control CHannels ()
9.1 - .
Broadcast Channels () -

BTS

MS

FCCH
Downlink -

BTS MS, Point-to(Frequency Correction Channel) multipoint


,
.

SCH

(Synchronization
Channel)


TDMA
( )
BTS
(Base Station Identity
Code -BSIC).




,

GSM ,
BSIC MS.


:
-
(LAI);
-

;
-
,
;
-
..


,
,
GSM
IDLE.

Downlink -
BTS MS, Point-tomultipoint

Downlink -

BTS MS, Point-to
multipoint
(Broadcast Control
Channel)

9.2 - .
Common Control Channel (CCCH)

MS (Paging
Channel)

Downlink,
BTS MS, Point-topoint

BTS
,
MS

SMS. IMSI
TMSI ,

.

MS
MS
,

(IMSI/TMSI), .
i

RACH

(Random Access
Channel)

Uplink, MS
BTS, Point-to-point

MS

(-
,
..)

AGCH -


(Access Grant Channel)

Downlink,
BTS MS, Point-topoint


SDCCH MS.

.


SDCCH.
.

MS BSS . MS BSS
- DCCH (Dedicated Control channel).
9.3 - DCCH.
Dedicated Control

hannel (DCCH)

SDCCH
(Stand
alone
Dedicated Control Channel)


(Uplink, Downlink),
Point-to-point

SDCCH,

.
BSC
TCH.SDCCH

SMS, MS
IDLE.

BTS

SMS (Cell
Broadcast Channel)

Downlink,
BTS MS, Point-tomultipoint


MS


(SMS) ( ).
MS, .

59

MS
SDCCH,
.
MS
(
). SDCCH
SMS, MS
IDLE.

SACCH

(Slow
Associated Control Channel)

(Uplink,
Downlink),
Point-to-point

FACCH

(Fast
Associated Control Channel)

(Uplink,
Downlink),
Point-to-point


( ). BSC MS
,
,
(
,
MS), a


( SMS, Call
Waiting ..)



. MS

BUSY
( SMS, Hold ..)

9.1.1.2
, MS
, . TCH (Traffic
Channel). :
(Full Rate TCH): 13 /.
.
(Half Rate TCH): 6,5 /.
HRTCH ,
.

9.1.2 (Bursts)
TDMA ,
, 5 (bursts):
9.4 -

Normal Burst

,
,
AGCH,
SDCCH,
,
SACCH,
FACCH,

- 57 ,
.
- (26 ).
- (Steal flags) 1 ,
, FACCH 57 .
- (Tail bits) ( 000)
- (Guard period)
9.25 .

Frequency
Correction Burst


MS

FCCH

142 .
- .
- : 9.25 .

Synchronizati on
Burst

SCH
MS

Dummy Burst

,



.

Access Burst


eTS
(1-7)

RACH, FACCH

- 39
TDMA.
64 .
- .
- : 9.25 .
-
,
.

- 41 .
- 36
(Random Reference).
- .
- (GP): 69.25 . GP
- ,
.

- NB (Normal Burst)
NB ,
RACH, FCCH, SCH FACCH. 114
(GP) 8,25 30,46 .
114 57 ,
26 1 .
NB (Steeling Flag), ,
60

: .
(Traffic Channel) ,
.
NB 26
, . :

. RXQUAL,
. , , ,
. RXQUAL
(, );
NB
;

. ,
.
,
.
- FCB (Frequency Correction Burst)
FCB . 142
-, 1625/24
.
(200 ), 0,022%
900 . FCB 8,25 , .
(FCB) (FCCH).
- SB (Synchronization Burst)
SB .
64 , TDMA
. .
(SCH).
- DB (Dummy Burst)
DB . DB NB (.
9.3) 26 . DB ,
. DB ,
.
- (Access Burst)
.
. ,
, . .
8 , - (41
), 36 .
(68,25 , 252 ),
( )
.

. GSM 35 .
233,3 .

61

9.1.2.1

. 9.3.

9.2
, .
mapping.
, ,
1 TS.

TDMA.
,

,
.
. 9.4. ,
DCCH -
.

9.2.1 ,
.
, MS , , ,
.
BTS MS (downlink)
. ,

MS BTS (uplink), RACH.
RACH , MS
.

9.4 (1)
.
,
TS
.
8 SDCCH 4 SACCH ,
8- (
, SMS ..).
62

. 9.6 SDCCH SACCH.


,
. ,
,
(
).
,
/
: , DCCH. ,

7
.
, ,
, .
.
MS
.
SACCH, .
. 9.7

9.3 MS
. 9.8 MS
.
1.
MSC/VLR , LA MS.
/ BSC, /
LA.
2.
BSC
LA. ,
.
3.
MS ,
RACH.
4.
BSC AGCH MS ,
SDCCH SACCH , .
5.
SDCCH SACCH . BSC
, SDCCH .
6.
MS BTS
. , .
, MS SACCH.

9.4 GPRS
9.4.1 .
GPRS
(PS). , GPRS, ,
PDCH.
,
(PSD -Packet Switch Domain). , CSD
(Circuit Switch Domain).
PDCH CS.
PDCH PCU (Packet Control Unit).
PDCH GPRS.
/ TBF - Temporary Block Flow. MS
TBF, uplink, - downlink. TBF
, TFI - Temporary Flow Identity.
TBF MS PDCH. GPRS
PDCH, PSET
MS. PDCH ( 4-) .
, PSD
PDCH.

9.4.2 GPRS.
GSM 10 .
. , ,
, .
GPRS . ,
63

GSM.
(Packet) , ,
GPRS. , , GPRS -Packet Paging Channel.
GPRS (Packet Timing advance Control
Channel). , .
GSM , , SACCH.
PBCCH
Packet Broadcast Control Channel
, GSM,

.

, -
GPRS .
Packet Paging Channel -
,
downlink
MS
.

,
.


GPRS I (NOM=l).
PRACH Packet Random Access Channel, uplink. PRACH
MS uplink .
PAGCH Packet Access Granted Channel downlink
. MS .
PNCH Packet Notification Channel downlink
(- - Point-to-Multipoint -Multicast) MS -.
PNCH DRX. DRX
GPRS 1.
Packet Associated Control Channel
MS.
.
. PDTCH, MS. ,
MS,
, , MS ,
.
PTCCH/U Packet Timing advance Control Channel uplink
Access Burst, MS,
.
PTCCH/D Packet Timing advance Control Channel downlink
MS. PTCCH/D
PTCCH/U.
PDTCH . -,
MS . , MS
PDTCH .
, PDTCH/U
uplink, PDTCH/D downlink.

64

10 -
10.1 : MS IDLE
10.1 MS IDLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, IMSI (IMSI attach)


(Location update)
L
MSC/VLR

MSC/VLR
6. , - .
7. (IMSI detach)
8. ( MS) (Implicit detach)

10.1.1 MS
10.1.1.1
MS Idle,
. , .
MS Idle -
Camp on - .
Cell Selection.
"Camp on" MS .
MS RACH .
(IDLE) MS 4 , :
PLMN (PLMN selection)
(Cell Selection)
(Cell Reselection)
(Location update).
Location Update:
IMSI attach ( MS);
Normal Location Update ( );
Periodic registration ( );
MS . IMSI detach.
IMSI Attach/Detach
IMSI attach/detach ,
/. MS, MSC/VLR IMSI
attach. MS MSC/VLR IMSI detach. VLR
, MS. MS,
, .
(Normal Location Update)
MS , ,
(Location Area). MS ,
, LAI LAI, SIM- MS.
, Normal Location Update SIM
LAI.
(Periodic Registration)
MS
Paging. ,
, .
MS , ,
.
3212 BSC.
Implicit detach
MS MSC detached
(implicit detach).
BSC MSC, MS MSC.
, MS
Implicit Detached. To MSC , BSC.
65

Purging in VLR
. 7.3 IDLE

Detached ( ),
VLR.
MS Purging.
VLR HLR ,
MSC/VLR Location HLR
"MS Purged from VLR".

10.1.1.2 PLMN
MS
GSM PLMN.
MS . MS
,

PLMN ("registered PLMN"). MS


. , MS
PLMN
, . , .

PLMN, SIM-
,

. MS
PLMN. PLMN
, MS .
, ,
- PLMN.
(location update).

MS .
, MS PLMN ,
1 ( ).
MS , .
, MS ,
, MS ,
.

PLMN, a
, . ,
MS, .

10.1.1.3 (Cell Selection)



.
:
Stored list selection. ,

- ( Allocation list).
MS,

MS .
Normal cell selection.
. ,
.
. (Normal cell selection)
normal cell selection,
MS .
:
PLMN.
(Cell barred).
, MS , MS

Busy (
),
;
66

.
LA,


.
MS IDLE 1.
1>0.
:
\ = - >0 1 = -0 <0,

= RXLEV - ACCMN
B = CCHPWR-P
7.1 -

RXLEV
ACCMIN

MS BTS (downlink).
MS, MS
(downlink). .
, MS,
(uplink). .
MS ( )

CCHPWR

dBm.

10.1.1.4 IMSI Attach


10.2 IMSI attach
MS ,
IMSI attach,
:
1. MS IMSI attach ,
Detached IDLE.
2. VLR , MS. ,
VLR HLR,
MS.
3. VLR MS
IDLE.
4. MS
.

10.1.1.5 (LU), - IMSI attach


MS LA , IMSI attach
MS. IMSI attach VLR , LAI,
, LAI, Location
VLR. , VLR LAI .

10.1.2 10.1.2.1 (Cell deselection)


(Cell reselection measurements)
, , MS .
MS .
. , , 5
. .
,
, , 30 . , MS
TDMA , 5
, . ,
. ,
. , , , , ,
.
MS BSIC ,
( 30 ) , .
BSIC :
BSIC=NCC+BCC
NCC - Network Color Code ( );
- Base Station Color Code ( ).
BSIC, MS ,
. NCC,
.
67

(Cell reselection criteria)



. ,
, . CRO, , ,
.
2.
2.
2 :
C2 = Cl + CRO-TO*H(PT-T) *31
C2 = Cl-CRO
= 31,
J C < {) = \
[1 > 0
CRO, BSC .
CRO - Cell Reselection Offset - , [dB];
- Temporary Offset. , [dB];
- Penalty Time. .
- [];
2 , GSM 2.
MS Idle CI, C2 .
, MS .
, MS :
.
MS , downlink (
).
1 () 5 , ,
MS .
2
5 ;
MS ( ).

10.1.2.2 LA
MS . MS LA,
. , LA,
. LAI . MS
LAI , SIM. LAI , ,
.

10.1.2.3 MSC/VLR
MS LAI ,
, . MS ,
MSC/VLR , VLR,
MSC/VLR MSC/VLR.
1. MS ,
LAI. LAI .
LAI , -
.
2. SDCCH MS -
.
3. , MS
.
4. .

10.1.2.4 MSC/VLR
() ,
MS LA.
, LA MSC/VLR.
VLR ,
:
1. VLR , ,
.
2. VLR MS, HLR
VLR.
3. HLR VLR, VLR
MS ( MSC/VLR).
68

4. VLR MS,
.

, LAI IDLE MS.


MS .

10.1.2.5
.
, ( ).

10.2 : MS Busy
MS Busy ,
,
(, )
( ).
1. MS ( : ,
, SMS).
2. MS ( : ,
, , SMS).
3. BSC
4. BSC MSC
5. MSC

10.2.1 (MS - PSTN)



, MS
. .
1. MS RACH .
2. BSC AGCH. ,
AGCH .
3. MS SDCCH MSC/VLR

,
,
SDCCH.
:
a. .
b. .
c. .
d. - ( ).
4. MSC/VLR
(/). MSC/VLR BSC/TRC TCH. BTS MS
.
5. MSC/VLR - PSTN .
6. .

10.2.2 (PSTN - MS)



,
MS
.
, MS,

()
MS.


PSTN . MS
MS .
1. PSTN MS (MSISDN).
MSISDN
GMSC , MS.
2. GMSC MSISDN, ,
HLR MS. GMSC
HLR ,

MSC/VLR.
3. HLR :
a. MSISDN IMSI,
69

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

b. , (CFU),
. CFU , HLR GMSC
.
c. , HLR , MSC/VLR MS .
HLR MSRN MSC/VLR.
MSC/VLR MSRN IMSI HLR GMSC.
GMSC MSRN MSC/VLR. ,
MSC/VLR MSRN.
MSC/VLR , LA MS.
BSC, LA.
BSC BTS , LA. BTS
, . IMSI
TMSI, MSC/VLR.
MS , ,
.
BSC SDCCH, AGCH ( AGCH SDCCH, MS).
SDCCH (, ,
..).
, MS .
. , .

10.2.3 (Handover)
GSM .
BSC , MS BTS. MS
,
( - Mobile Assisted Handover).

10.2.3.1 Locating
. 10.8 BSC
MS

.
downlink, MS
.
BTS BSC SACCH
( 480 ).
BTS, MS,
.
BTS MS
(Measurement Reports).
, BSC
.
- locating.
() (,
). ,
.
,
.

( BTS), (Urgent).
MS , MS
( ). , .
MS LA, LU .
.
MS ,
.
:
;
, BSC;
, BSC, MSC/VLR;
MSC.
.

10.2.3.2
Intra cell Handover - , :
70

(.. ),
( );
, , BSC ,
, MS .

10.2.3.3 , BSC
MSC/VLR .
MSC/VLR
. LA,

.
1. BCS
BTS .
2. BSC BTS MS ,
(TS) ,
.
MS FACCH.
3. MS Access Burst
.
, MS .
4. BTS Access Burst,
FACCH.
5. MS BSC BTS.
6. BSC BTS .

10.2.3.4 , BSC, MSC/VLR


BSC,
BSC
MSC/VLR.
1. BSC MSC
,
IMSI ,
.
2. MSC ,
BSC
BSC.
3. BSC BTS
.
4. BSC MS
MSC BTS,
.
5. MS
Access Burst, .
6. BTS .
7. MS MSC BSC.
8. MSC BSC .

10.2.3.5 , MSC
,
MSC,
PLMN. , MSC/VLR,
, BSC.
1. () BSC MSC
(MSC-)
.
2. MSC-A ,
MSC (MSC-B) .
3. MSC-B IMSI
(MS Handover Number1),

.
BSC.
4. BSC BTS .
5. MSC-B MSC-A
MSHN.
6. MSC-A MSC-B.
71

7. BSC, MSC-A, MS
BTS.
8. MS Access Burst.
9. BTS , .
10. MS MSC-A MSC-B BSC.
11. MSC-A BSC MSC-B.
12. BSC, ( . 10.11 ).
MSC (MSC-A) , .
, ,
.
MS , LA
MSC. HLR VLR-B , a
VLR-B, , VLR-A .
1

Mobile Station Handover Number MSRN. MSHN


MSRN.

10.3 .
GSM ,
. , ,
, ,
7 ( , ).
.

, . , , ,
.

10.3.1 IMSI Attach .


MS , :
1. MS GSM
. . MS
,
. .
2. MS PLMN, SIM.
,
. , MS, , MS
.
3. MS , ,
. MS ,
IMSI (IMSI Attach).
4. MS ( ).
, HLR .

10.3.2 MS
MS , ,
MS . , GMSC HLR
, MSC/VLR .

10.3.3
(SMS)
, 160 - . SMS-C (SMS Center)
.
MS :
SMS: SMS-C MS
SMS: MS SMS-C
MS IDLE BUSY. MS
, SACCH. ,
SDCCH, .. IDLE.

10.3.4 SMS MS
SMS SMS-C, , ,
, .
10.12
1. MS ,
RACH, AGCH, SDCCH (
)2.
72

2. , MS SDCCH SMS-C
MSC/VLR. SMS-C . MS
, PC.
2

MS Busy, SMS SACCH.

10.3.5 SMS
SMS - SMS-C MS.
1. SMS-C .
2. SMS-C SMS-GMSC.
3. SMS-GMSC HLR
.
4. HLR (
MSC/VLR) IMSI SMS-GMSC.
5. SMS-GMSC

MSC/VLR.
6. MS ( MS Idle), ,
, .
7. , MSC/VLR MS,
SDCCH ( SACCH, MS Busy).
8. , MSC/VLR SMS-C. , MSC/VLR
HLR, SMS-C.
, SMS-C HLR VLR ,
MS. HLR SMS-C , MS . SMS-C
, , , , .

10.4 GPRS
, GPRS GSM, ,
.
, Mobility Management ( MS)
.

10.4.1 GPRS
. 10.14 Routing Area
GSM

MS

MSC Serving Area Location


Area. GPRS
, ..

.
GPRS
Routing Area (RA), LA.
RA (RAI)
MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC.
MS GPRS
GSM,
,
MS (MS Busy, - Idle), GPRS
, ,
.
. 10.15. , MS GPRS, :
IDLE - MS, GPRS. Mobility
Management .
STANDBY - MS, GPRS. MS RAI
RA Update. RA, Cell Update
. , SGSN MS Standby
RAI.
READY SGSN (PDU Packet Data Unit). MS , Ready
(Ready Timer, , 44 ). Ready MS
SGSN ( Cell Update).

73

. 10.15. MS GPRS.

10.4.2 GPRS.
10.4.2.1 GPRS Attach
GPRS - , GSM.
GPRS Attach.
1. MS Attach_Request ( RAI,
P_TMSI) SGSN.
2. SGSN SGSN
RAI, IMSI SGSN.
3. MS SGSN - IMSI
SGSN.
4. MS SGSN,
SGSN IMSI MS.
5.
SGSN

IMSI HLR.
6. SGSN MS.
7. SGSN Update Location Request (IMSI, SGSN) HLR.
8. HLR Cancel_Location SGSN MS.
9. HLR MS (QoS, APN ..) SGSN.
10. , SGSN MS (P_TMSI TLLI).

10.4.2.2 Routing Area Update


MS Standby
RA Update RA.
1. MS RA_Update_Request ( RAI,
P_TMSI) SGSN.
2. SGSN SGSN RAI,
IMSI SGSN
3. SGSN ( ,
PDP) SGSN.
4. SGSN MS.
5. SGSN Update_Location (IMSI,
SGSN) HLR.
6. HLR Cancel_Location SGSN MS
7. HLR MS SGSN.
8. SGSN MS (P_TMSI TLLI).

10.4.2.3 PDP Context Activation


GPRS PDP Context Activation (Packet Data Protocol).
MS ( ).
MS PDP context (). Access Point Name (APN). APN wap.beeline.ru ( wap ).
, SGSN
GGSN .
74

10.4.2.4 Cell Update.


Mobility Management
GPRS : GPRS
, MS
(Ready), MS. MS
( Cell Reselection),
SGSN - Cell Update. MS
RA, RA Update
Cell Update.
1. MS SGSN
MS (IMSI -TMSI);
2. BSC (CGI=MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC+CI).

11 -
.
( 8),
.
,
.
:
SSF (Service Switching Function) - ,

IN .
SCF (Service Control Function) - ,
IN
.
SDF (Service Data Function) - ,
, IN
.
SRF (Special Resource Function) - ,
(, ) IN .
SCE (Service Creation Environment) SME (Service Management Environment)
.
SSF SCF , - .

11.1 Service Switching Function


SSF , , GSM IN. , SSF
Service Switching Point (SSP).
SSP , , ,
. SSP SCP.
SSF:
IN . SSP , IN (
).
. SCP
.
. SCP , SSP
DTMF .
. SSP (, , ..).
MSC/VLR SCP.
, SSF MSC/VLR.

11.2 Service Control Function


, SCF Service Control Point (SCP).
SCP - .
SCF:
. - , .
SCE SCP.
. SCP ,
SSF SDF, , .
SSF SDF.
SCF, , ,
SSF MSC/VLR.
75

11.3 IN
, SDF .
SCP . SDF
.
SRF , .. MSC
DTMF .
SCE SME SMS (Service Management System).
, , - .

11.4 MIN.

1. MSC/VLR (
),

SSF.
2. SSF SCF
,
. SSF
SCF
.
3. SCF () , , SDF.
4. SCF ( ) SSF.
5. SSF MSC SCF.

11.5 .
, IN .
ITU 7 INAP.
IN , INAP
. ,
GSM.
CAMEL - Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic.
CAMEL ETSI, GSM, IN ,
.
, CAMEL .
CAMEL (Capability Set - CS).
, , CAMEL 2 :
Pre-paid SIM;
Virtual Private Network (VPN) - ;
Operator and Location dependent routing
( )
..
3 CAMEL :
Pre-paid SMS;
Pre-paid GPRS.
7
- CAMEL Application Part (CAP).

76

12 -
12.1
12.1.1 :
12.1.1.1
.
. ,
, , , , ,
.

12.1.1.2

.
,
.

12.1.1.3 ( )
, ,
.

12.1.1.4
(GoS - Grade of Service) -
, ,
.
, , :
, N- ; - , ;
:
, - , , 1 3600 .;
- , ;
,
0 < 5%,
0.015 . , ,
( + ) 0.025 2%.
, , ,
(0.007 - 0.016) .
, ,
, 12.1.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

.007
.00705
.12600
.39664
.77729
1.2362
1.7531
2.3149
2.9125
3.5395
4.1911
4.8637
5.5543
6.2607
6.9811
7.7139
8.4579
9.2119
9.9751
10.747

.008
.00806
.13532
.41757
.81029
1.2810
1.8093
2.3820
2.9902
3.6274
4.2889
4.9709
5.6708
6.3863
7.1154
7.8568
8.6092
9.3714
10.143
10.922

.009
.00908
.14416
.43711
.84085
1.3223
1.8610
2.4437
3.0615
3.7080
4.3784
5.0691
5.7774
6.5011
7.2382
7.9874
8.7474
9.6171
10.296
11.082

.01
.01010
.15259
.45549
.86942
1.3608
1.9090
2.5009
3.1276
3.7825
4.4612
5.1599
5.8760
6.6072
7.3517
8.1080
8.8750
9.6516
10.437
11.230

.02
.02041
.22347
.60221
1.0923
1.6571
2.2759
2.9354
3.6271
4.3447
5.0840
5.8415
6.6147
7.4015
8.2003
9.0096
9.8284
10.656
11.491
12.333

.03
.03093
.28155
.71513
1.2589
1.8752
2.5431
3.2497
3.9865
4.7479
5.5294
6.3280
7.1410
7.9667
8.8035
9.6500
10.505
11.368
12.238
13.115

77

.05
.05263
.38132
.89940
1.5246
2.2185
2.9603
3.7378
4.5430
5.3702
6.2157
7.0764
7.9501
8.8349
9.7295
10.633
11.544
12.461
13.385
14.315

.1
.11111
.59543
1.2708
2.0454
2.8811
3.7584
4.6662
5.5971
6.5464
7.5106
8.4871
9.4740
10.470
11.473
12,484
13.500
14.522
15.548
16,579

.2
.25000
1.0000
1.9299
2.9452
4.0104
5.1086
6.2302
7.3692
8.5217
9.6850
10.857
12.036
13.222
14.413
15.608
16.807
18.010
19.216
20.424

.4

.66667
1
2.0000
2
3.4798
3
5.0210
4
6.5955
5
8.1907
6
9.7998
7
11.419
8
13.045
9
14.677
10
16.314
11
17.954
12
19.598 j 13
21.243
14
22.891
15
24.541
16
26.192
17
27.844
18
29.498
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

11.526
12.312
13.105
13.904
14.709
15.519
16.334
17.153
17.977
18,805
19.637
20.473
21.312

11.709
12.503
13.303
14.110
14.922
15.739
16.561
17.387
18.218
19.053
19.891
20.734
21.580

11.876
12.677
13.484
14.297
15.116
15.939
16.768
17.601
18.438
19.279
20.123
20.972
21.823

12.031
12.838
13.651
14.470
15.295
16.125
16.959
17.797
18.640
19.487
20.337
21.191
22.048

13.182
14.036
14.896
15.761
16.631
17.505
18.383
19.265
20.150
21.039
21.932
22.827
23.725

13.997
14.885
15.778
16.675
17.577
18.483
19.392
20.305
21.221
22.140
23.062
23.987
24.914

15.249
16.189
17.132
18.080
19.031
19.985
20.943
21.904
22.867
23.833
24.802
25.773
26.746

17.613
18.651
19,692
20.737
21.784
22.833
23.885
24.939
25.995
27,053
28.113
29.174
30.237

21.635
22.848
24.064
25.281
26.499
27.720
28.941
30.164
31.388
32.614
33.840
35.067
36.295

31.152
32.808
34.464
36.121
37.779
39.437
41.096
42.755
44.414
46.074
47.735
49.395
51.056

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

12.1.1.5
,
() BSS. :
;
.
,
BSS ()
,
.
, .

.
.
, ,
,
.

12.1.1.6
. :
(GOS);
RX Quality;
SQI (Speech Quality Index).

12.1.1.7
:
, ;
;
PSTN PLMN.
.
BSS .
. 3 :
(3.5 - 35) ;
1 (0.5 - 3.5) ;
0.5 .
, ,
.

12.1.1.8
PLMN :
. ,
, , ;
.
, , ,
.
,
.

78

12.1.2
-
, . BS
, .

12.1.2.1 BS
, :
;
.
,
. ,
. BS ,
GSM 1800 ,
.
,
(HR) .
BS
. Ericsson
GSM 900/1800.
12.2 -

GSM 1800

GSM 900

, .

BS, .

BS, .

2.7

4.0

3.7

5.6

7.5

8.1

12.2

22

33

27

41

BS .
, , BS ,
.

12.1.2.2

. 12.2
, ,
, , . 12.2.
, .
79

12.1.2.3
, , ,
.

. ,

, "-", "" .
, , :
;
.
:
;
BS;
BS;
.
.
, , 12.3.
12.3 - Allgon 7331.06.

3
3

16 dBi
- 45
9
65
300
..12.3
Allgon7331.06 900 .


().
,

( ,
, ..). ,
, -
.

-,
12.4, , . . 12.5.
. 12.4

. 12.5
, , GSM
- .
.
- C/R
Carrier-to-Reflection (
R).
.
-
. , GSM 35 . (Time
Alignment).
, , Extended Range,

TDMA , , ,
72 .
80

12.1.2.5
,

. , ,
, .

12.1.2.6
,
. , , .
- .
, (/1, /).
/1 - Carrier - to - Interference.
.
/ - Carrier - to - Adjacent.
(+/- 200, 400 ).

, GSM:
: /1 > 9 dB;
, (+/-200 ): / < -9 dB;
, (+/-400 ): / < -41 dB;
,
.
.

.
, ,
GSM. :
1.
-
;
2. ,
.

12.1.2.7 GSM 900 .


.
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
D, " ".

.
, .
, 21 , . 12.8 ,
1/21 .
Al, A2, A3, ... Gl, G2, G3 Al, A2, A3, ... Gl, G2, G3,
,
. 1, 1, 1
2, .
,
, .
7/21 12.8.
81

:
:
- ;

12.8 7/21, =4.58

- ;
,
1/3.

D,

/1.
/1 .
ETSI GSM , /1
9 , Ericsson,
GSM ,
12 .

:
k -
( );
qs - ,
R, :
D - , /1.
, ,
.
GSM qs

3R. , /1
12 , .
/1 :
12.4 -
.
Y

3.5

, 7 ( = 7), 6
(I=6), Dj = 4.58
Rj . ,
;

,

>, . 12.8.
6 , /1
.
.

12.1.3 .
,
, ,
BS, .
:
;
;
;
;
GPS ;
( , ).
;
TEMS ERICSSON.
82

12.1.3.1
,
(, ).
, , ,
. ,
. ,
.
, , , :
(, );
;
;
.

12.1.3.2
, ,
, - , ..
("
45.162-2001").
:
;
;
;
;
, , .

12.1.3.3
,
. , , 20 40 . .
, , 15% ,
, .
,
.
,
( ).
, , ,
, , , 0, 120, 240.
, ,
, , - - .

12.1.3.4
:

;
.

2 :
2. 12 - 18, 45 GSM 900 2 - 3 GSM 1800.
. 12 -18 X
5, 20 - 25 GSM 900 10-15 GSM 1800.
2

, . C GSM .

83


GSM 900 :
1. 0.4 .
2. 0.2 .

12.1.3.5

. ,
, ,
. GSM 900 5 .
, -
, , , , , , ,
.
, - ,
, , 35 - 50 .

12.1.3.6
,
, .
, . ,
, .
, , ,
, , .

12.1.3.7

, . ,

.

12.1.3.8
GSM BTS BSC. BTS BSC
:
;
;
.

12.1.3.9
,
, .
.

12.1.4
, :
;
;
MSC;
BSC;
.
,
, (BTS, BSC, MSC).
BSC (Cell Design Data).
.

12.1.5
,
.
, BTS.
. ,
,
BTS.
, ,

.
84

12.2
12.2.1
, ,
, .
, .
, , ,
, , ,
.

. , ,
, , , . ,
( ,
, ). , - ,
, ,
-, .
,
.

12.2.1.1
:

,
;

();
,
;
;
.

12.2.1.2
(
) .
:
. ,
( ,
);
.
() ,
: (
); , ,
;
.
. ,
.
,
, ,
, , .

12.2.1.3 TEMS Investigation


12.5 - TEMS

TEMS 98
(Ericsson GH 688)
TEMS 3.2
(Ericsson R520m)


, dBm
5-33
5-33



, dBm
/ ,
110 +/- 47
890 - 915/ 935 - 960
110 +/- 47

890 - 915/ 935 - 960,


1710-1785/ 1805-1880

TEMS - ,
.
Ericsson GH688, Ericsson R520m, Ericsson T68,
ETSI.
TEMS, Test Mobile System, (Test Mobile
Software) (Test Mobile Station). TEMS
, MS
GPS. , TEMS ,
MS BTS.
85


, , .
GSM
,
, . 12.9.
12.9 TEMS Investigation 3.2

, :
2- MS;
, 2, 3- ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
MS;
SIM ;
;
SMS- ;
Rx Quality ;
, FER (Frame Erase Ratio);
, CI 2;
SQI (Speech Quality Index);
/1 /;
;
,
, ;
MS BS ;
.

86

12.2.2
-,
, . ,
TEMS, .
:
1. () (SDCCH);
2. (congestion) () (SDCCH);
3. ( , , ..
);
4. .
, , .
,
.

12.3

, , ,
.
GSM 1800 GSM 900
,
, .
GSM 900/1800
.

87

1. .
First Generation
Second Generation
Third Generation
Generation Partnership Project
8-Phase Shift Keying
Interface between MSC and TRC or BSC/TRC
Interface between BSC and BTS
Access Granted Channel
Adaptive Multi Rate
American National Standards Institute
Advice of Charge
Application Programming Interface
Access Point Name
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
Abstract Syntax Notation #1
Interface between TRC and BSC
Authentication Center
Barring of All Incoming Calls
Barring of All Outgoing Calls
Broadcast Control Channel
Broadcast Channels
Bit Error Probability
Barring of all Incoming Calls when roaming
BICRO
outside the home PLMN country
Barring of all Outgoing International Calls
BOIC
Barring of all Outgoing International Calls EXcept
BOICEX those directed to the Home PLMN country
Basic Physical Channel

Base Station Controller


BSC
Base Station Identity Code
BSIC
Base Station System
BSS
Base Station Sub-system Maintenance Application
BSSMAP Part
Base Transceiver Station
BTS
Carrier to Interference
c/i
Common Channel Signaling Number 7
C7,
Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced
CAMEL
Logic
CAMEL Application Part
CAP
Call Barring or Cell Barred
CB

1G
2G
3G
3GPP
8PSK

Abis
AGCH
AMR
ANSI

API
APN
ARFCN
ASN.1
Ater
AuC
BAIC

BCH

CBCH

Cell Broadcast Channel

CDR
CF
CFB
CFNRY
CFNRC
CFU
CGI
CLIP
CLIR

Call Data Record


Call Forwarding
Call Forwarding on subscriber Busy
Call Forwarding on No Reply
Call Forwarding on subscriber Not Reachable
Call Forwarding Unconditional
Cell Global Identity
Calling Line Identification Presentation
Calling Line Identification presentation Restriction

CN

Core Network

COLP
COLR

CS
CSCUG
CW
DDF
DEMUX
DL
DTMF

Connected Line identification Presentation


Connected Line identification Presentation
Connection Management
Central Processor
Circuit Switching
Coding Scheme 1/2/3/4
Closed User Group
Call Waiting
Digital Distribution Frame
De-Multiplexer
Downlink
Dual Tone Multi Frequency

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

DRX

Discontinuous Reception

Echo Canceller in a Pool

EDGE

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution





, EDGE
MSC TRC (BSC/TRC)
BSC BTS
,


()

( GPRS)

TRC BSC







PLMN


PLMN
( GSM - )




( 7)
()
/
7 (7)
, IN

CAMEL
() ,
,
(SMS Cell Broadcast)









, "
" (,





GPRS



- /

- , MS
,
.
-

GSM,

88

ETSI
FACCH
FCCH
FR
Gb
GGSN

Enhanced Full rate


Extended General Packet Radio Service
Equipment Identity Register
Enhanced Multi Level Precedence and
Preemption
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Fast Associated Control Channel
Frecuency Correction Channel
Full Rate
Interface between BSC and SGSN
Gateway GPRS Support Node

GMSC

Gateway Mobile Swithching Center

GMSK

Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

GPS
GS
GSM
gsmSCF

Global Positioning System


Group Switch
Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM Service Control Function

gsmSRF

GSM Service Resource Function

gsmSSF

GSM Service Switching Function

GT

Global Title

GTP
HDLC
HLR

GPRS Tunneling Protocol


High Level Data Link Control
Home Location Register

HPLMN

Home PLMN

HR

Half Rate

HSCSD

High Speed Circuit Switched Data

HSL

High Speed Signalling Link

IMEI
IMSI
IN

International Mobile Subscriber Identity


International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Intelligent Network

INAP

Intelligent Network Application Part

IP
ISDN
ISO

Internet Protocol
Integrated Service Digital Network
International Standardization Organization

ISUP

ISDN User Part

ITU (old
Kbps
LAI
LLC
MAC

International Telecommunications Union


Kilo-bits per Second
Location Area Identity
Logical Link Control
Media Access Control

MAP

Mobile Application Part

MCC

Mobile Crosstalk Control

MHT

Mean Holding Time

MPTY

MultiParty call

MS

Mobile Station

MSC
MSISDN

Mobile services Switching Center


Mobile Station ISDN Number

MSRN

Mobile Station Roaming Number

MT

Mobile Terminal

MTP

Message Transfer Part

MUX
NE

Multiplexer
Network Element

NSVCs

Network Service Virtual Connection

O&M
OL
OMC

Operation and Maintenance


Overlaid
Operation and Maintenance Center

EFR
EGPRS
EIR
eMLPP


GPRS EDGE




,


BSC SGSN
GPRS
MSC

, GSM

GSM



IN
, (,
DTMF ..) IN
,
SCF IN
,
SCCP
GPRS


, ,

,
GSM

7 (
2/)
()
GSM

7,
IN
,


7,
ISDN
()

GSM


7,
GSM


(),

-
(),
-
GSM

,
,

(
)
7,


Gb


- , - UL (underlaid),

89

OSI

Open System Interconnection

OSS
PBCCH
PBX
PCH
PCM

Operation and Support System


Packet Broadcast Control Channel
Public Branch exchange
Paging Channel
Pulse Code Modulation

PCU

Packet Control Unit

PDCH

Packet Data Channel

PDN
PDP
PDP
PDU
PLMN
PS

Packet Data Network


Packet Data Protocol
Packet Data Protocol Context
Packet Data Unit
Public Land Mobile Network
Packet Switching

PSET

Set of PDCHs

PSTN
QoS
RA
RACH
RAI

Public Switched Telephone Network


Quality of Service
Rate Adaptation
Random Access Channel
Routing Area Identifier

RANAP

Radio Access Network Application Part

RBS
RLC
RR
RX

Radio Base Station


Radio Link Control
Radio Resource
Receiver

SACCH

Slow Associated Control Channel

sc

Service Center

SCCP

Signaling and Connection Control Part

SCH
SCP
SDCCH
SDP
SGSN

Synchronization Channel
Service Control Point
Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel
Service Data Point
Serving GPRS Support Node

SI

Service Indicator

SIM
SM
SMS
SMSC

Subscriber Identification Module


Session Management
Short Message Service
Short Message Service Center

SMSCB

Short Message Service Cell Broadcast

SP
SS
SSP

TCP/IP
TDMA
TLLI

Signalling Unit
Signal Strength
Service Switching Point
Timing Advance
Transaction Capability Application Part
Traffic Channel
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Time Division Multiple Access
Temporary Logical Link Identity

TMSI

Temporary Mobile Station Identity

TRAU
TRC
TRH
TRU
TS

UL
Urn
UMTS
USIM

Transcoder and Rate Adaptation Unit


Transcoder Controller
Transceiver Handler
Transceiver Unit
TimeSlot
Transmitter
Uplink
Air Interface
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
UMTS SIM

OSI - ( ),

Ericsson, NMC
GPRS

,
- ()
, GPRS
BSC
( ) GSM,
GPRS

( GPRS)
GPRS



,
GPRS
()



GPRS
7,
3G
Ericsson,

GSM, ( )
, (SMS,VMS .)
7,


SCF (. gsmSCF)
GSM
, IN
GPRS
, -

(-)


, SMS

,
7

SSF (. gsmSSF)

7,



GPRS
, IMSI

BSC,
-
( ), cTDMA


GSM

- UMTS

USSD

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data

, GSM

UTRAN
VAD
VLR
VPLMN
WAP

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network


Voice Activity Detector
Visitor Location Register
Visitor PLMN
Wireless Access Protocol

UMTS

, MSC/VLR
"" ( )

90

2.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

?
, ?
GSM-900?
GSM 1800 ,
.
, ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
GSM?

?

GSM ( )?
?
MSC, VLR, HLR, AUC, EIR?
NMC , ?
, ,
?
MSC Service area?
GSM Service area?
() GSM ?
SP ( 7)? SP MSC?
SCCP? ? OSI ?
ISUP, ?

2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

GMSC?
GSM, HLR?
, ?
, ?
a. VLR b. MSC c.
HLR
: ,
, (TMSI)?
. b. .
GSM?
a. DBS, HLR, VLR, AUC
. BSC, EIR,OSS, AUC e.
OSS, VLR, HLR, PSTN
b. AUC, MSC, HLR, VLR d. AUC, EIR, HLR, VLR
Message Center?
( GSM) MSISDN?
GSM TMSI ?
(speech coding)?
a. MS BSC b. MS BTS c.
BSC BTS d.
MS TRC
4 GSM 900?
a. 20 b. 8 c. 5 d. 2 e. 0.2
SIM ?
SIM , ?
5 , SIM?
?
a.
b.
c.
d.
91

e.
16. .
a. BTS b. MS c. MS BTS d. e. BSC
17. - , - ?
a. , SIM
b. Ki.
c. "sleeping mode" .
d. hand-held

3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

?
BTS MS?
GSM-900?
a. 30 b.
45 c.
200 d.
25 000
GSM BER, ,
?
?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
, ,
?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
GSM 35 ?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e. -
()?
a.
b.
c.
d. -
e.
, ? ?
, , ?
GSM 1800?
a. 10
b.64
c.8
d. 3
e.32
, GSM (
- )?
GSM ?
GSM / ?
GSM (sampling), ?
GSM?
?
GSM?
.
Burst?

SDCCH?
a. RACH,
b. FCCH,
c.
AGCH,
d. SCH,
e. .
BTS ?
92

a. SDCCH,
b. FACCH,
c.
MRCH,
d. SACCH,
e. .
ACCESS BURST, ?
"MAPPING"?
?

( ):
a. , HR.
b. , FR.
27. IDLE, , .
()?
28. TDMA ?
a. 0.577
b. 4.615 .
c. 480 .
d. , .
29. Measurement Report ?
23.
24.
25.
26.

4.
1.

(/) ?
, .

2.

GSM ,
( ) .

.

3.

93