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-

. .

-
2001

512.54
E78
22.1
..
78 . : . / ..,
2001. 37 c.

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, 2001
. . , 2001
2


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1.

1.1.
: 5- 10 ?
:
1

10 .
, ,
10 . . 105 .
( :
0 1) 25 . k
n :
A = kn

(1)

n (); k ().
: k ( ) n
(, , ). , ,
? (1).
. C 10-
? (0, 1 2),
. . 310 .

1. 5 , 6 .
4

( ),
, ?
2. .
, ,
?
3. 5 .
3 . , ?
4. ( ) 1 0 30 .
1 0.
?
, : 210 > 103.

, . , ,
n i- ki . ?
:
A = k1 k2 k3 kn =

ki

(2)

i =1

. 100+200+400+800 3 ,
5, 6, (
). ?
(2) , : 3 5 6 1 = 90.

1. ,
5 , 20 10
?
2. 7
0, 8, 9? (73 104)
5

3. , .
? (86400)
1.2.
: 5- , ?
:
1

10 (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9). , ,
9 , 8
. . 10 9 8 7 6 = 30240 , .
, k n , ,
:
A = n(n 1)(n 2)...(n k+1) = n!/(n k)!

(3)

(3) s! s, . .
1 s. , s! = 1 2 3 s.
. 25 ,
. ? 25
. , 24 . 23 . : 25 24 23 = 25!/22! = 13800.

1. 25 , , . ? (25 24 23 22 = 25!/(25 4)! = 303600)


2. (
6

). , , , ,
12? (12!/9! = 1320)
3. 12 15 . . (
). ?
(15!/(15 12)!)
1.3.

, .
12, c .
, , n .
(3) n = k,
n

An = Pn = n!

(4)

. 6 . ?
6
. (4) 6! = 720.

1. ( ) ? (8! = 40320)
2. 12 . , , ,
, . ,
.
? (12!)
3. 14 .
,
? (14!)
, , , 3 7.
7

1.4.
,
. , .
n1 1- , n2 2-, nk k- n1+ n2 +...+ nk = n.

P(n1, n2, n3, ...nk) = (n!)/(n1! n2!...nk!)

(5)

( 5 ) n
, .
n! , n1 , n2 . . (5).
. . 2 , 2 , 1 , 1
, 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 1 .
, : P(2,
2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1) = 13!/(2! 2! 2! 2!)= 13!/16.

1. 2 , 4 1 . . ?
2. 5 , 4 2 , . ?
3. . 5
, 6 3 . ,
?
4.
: y0, y1, y2, y3. , 2 y0, 4 y1, 3 y2 1 y3?
8

1.5.

. , . ( ) .
. 28 2 .
?
: (7 ) (21 ). 6 , 12.
: 7 6 + 21 12 = 294.
2 28 378; . . 7 9 (294/378 = 7/9) 2
.

, 4
4 , 2 .
, 33
: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , c, ?
,
, , 10
*?
1.6.
( )
. 67 . 48
, 35 27 .
, ?
. , ,
(67) A B 48 35
( ). 27 , . , A, B.
9

67
A=48

AB=27

B=35

, N = 67 48 35 + 27 = 11.
( )
N .
n . . : 1, 2, 3, ..., n. N(i) i - ,
N (i , j ) i ,
j . , :
N ( 1 , 2 , 3 ,..., n ) = N N (1 ) N ( 2 ) N ( 3 )...
N ( n ) + N ( 1 2 ) + N ( 13 ) + N ( 1 4 ) + ...

+ N (1 n ) + N ( 2 3 ) + ... + N ( n 1 n ) N (1 2 3 ) + ...
+ ( 1) N (1 2 3 ,..., i ).
n

(6)

. 20 , 12 , 11 5
.
,
( ), N = 67 48 35 20 + 27 + 12 + 11 5 = 9.

1 N. k? , [N/k], [x] x. , , k1, k2, k3...
. 1 100 5 7?
.
5,
10

7. 5 20 . 7 14 . 35 2 .
, 5 7: 100 20 14 + 2 = 68 .

1. 12 , 6 , 4 , 7
, 3 2 .
,
. ?
2. 3 , 2 , 1 4 .
, ?
3. , 3, 5, 7,
200 500?
1.7.
k n, ,

n!
(7)
k !(n k )!
(7) .
k n. n!/(n k)!
k
. . . k!
. 25 . , , , , 25 24 23 .
, , 3!
2 . 60- , :
5/36 6/49. , , 6/49. 11
Cnk =

, 49 . - . () 6
. . , , . , (
), .
, , 6/49. , , :
49 48 47 46 45 44. ,
:

49!
= 13983816 .
6!43!
. 1, 0. . 6
() 49 6 = 43 (), . .
Cnk =

49!
= 13983816.
6!43!
-,
14 6 . 5 ?
P (6, 43) =

( C61 = 6)
1
= 43). : 6 43 = 258 14
( C43
5 . 4 ? 6 43
. :

6 5 43 42

= 13545 .
1 2 1 2
, 3 246820 , . . 1,77% . , 60
,
6
C62 C43
=

12

, 4, 5, 6 .
, ,
, .
. ,
- , , ,
- (,
). 6, 5, 4 3
. , , : ,
. . , , , , . 30 .
, , .
. ,
, 3 . ,
. .
3 2 4.
, , . ,
. ,
- ,
, , !
.
,
, 3 . , 4 ?
13

1.8.
. 7 .
: , , .
? :
, ().
. , : 1101110101. .
,
, ,
. 2 , 3 , 1 1 .
7 () 3 ().
n (
) ,
, k ? 0 1, 1 , 0 .
k n 1 , ,
k
. k n 1
, , k .
P(k, n 1) = (k + n 1)!/(k!(n 1)!) = Cnk+ k 1 .

(8)

1. 5
, , a, b, c, d, f. 11 . , , , ? , baabcf
fabcba . ,
(8) ,
.
14

2. -
.
. - , 6 , , ?
1.9.
, .
1. Cnk = Cnn k .
2. Cnk = Cnk11 + Cnk1.
3. Cn0 + Cn1 + Cn2 ... + Cnn = 2n.
. ,
(7). . , n = 2 :
C20 + C21 + C22 = 1 + 2 + 1 + 4 = 22.
n = 3 :
C30 + C31 + C32 + C33 = 1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 23.

1. n 2n . 5 , ,
2 4 ?
2.
. ,
32 ?
1.10.
, .
a) . 5 4 .
, ,
. ( 6) . ,
15

, C64 = 15. n k
: Cnk+1
) . m , ,
k , .
k , nk. (nk+1 ). k . :
(9)
Cnk k +1
) . 12 .
5 , , .
,
? : 15 +21 = 36. n ,
k, , n 2k.

), ) ) .
1.11. ( )
5 . , ? : N( 5 ) = 5! C51 4! + C52 3! C53 2! + C54 1! C55 0! = 44.
, ,
. 5!,

. ,
. . 5 .
1.12.
, , . , , .
16

n :
N( n ) = N Cn1 N(1) + Cn2 N(2) ... + ( 1)n N(n)

.
n ,
:
(10)
N( n ) = n! Cn1 (n 1 )! + Cn2 (n 2)! ... + ( 1)n 0! = Dn
Dn. . Dn :
n
1 1 1
1)
(

Dn = n ! 1 + + ... +
n! ,
1! 2! 3!

1
[...] e n.
, . ,
n! = (n1)[(n1)! + (n2)!] ,
Dn = (n1)[Dn1 +Dn2] .

Dn = nDn1 + (1)n .
:
n
Dn

1
0

2
1

3
2

4
9

5
44

6
255

7
1784

8
14273

9
128456

1. n = 10, 11, 12.


2. 6 .
2 , ?
3. 10 , . , 4 ( ).
? , 6
?
17

1.13.
, . 9
. ,
, .
: (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6), (6, 7),
(7, 8), (8, 9). .
, . . N = 9!.
. 8. , 8 :
N( 8 ) = 9! C81 8! + C82 7! C83 6! + + C84 1! = 142729 = D9+D8
n
Dn + Dn 1.

a1, a2, , a10. , . . (a1, a2), (a2, a3), , (a9, a10)?


1.14.
. .
3 ( ) 2 . 32 , . .
10 .
:

N=

32!

(10!)3 2!


32! . 10 , ,
18

, 2 .
, 10
, 2 .
32! 10! 2!
n c
3 . ?
n
2 .
, . , n . , :
P(n, 2) = (n + 2)!/(n!2!).
,
(, ) ?
, n k , 1- (, ) n1 ,
n2 , k- nk , n1+ n2+ ...+ nk = n,

P ( n1 , n2 ,..., nk ) =

n!
.
n1 !n2 !...nk !

1.15. N
, . 5 ,
. 5
? .
1-
2-

5 ., 4 ., 3 ., 2 ., 1 ., 0 .
0 ., 1 ., 2 ., 3 ., 4 ., 5 .

6 . n
2 , n + 1 .
2 (, , ),
.
19

. : 10 , 15 ,
12 . 2 . 2
11 , 16, 13 . ,
: 11 16 13.
. n1 1-
, n 2 2-, ... n k k-.
2 .
(n1+1)(n2+1)...(nk+1).
N. N.
n
n n
. N , . . N = p1 1 p1 2 ,..., pk k .
N 2 : . . :
(n1+1)(n2+1)...(nk+1).
. N = 600 = 233152. (3+1)(1+1)(2+1) = 24.

1. : 1350, 1617, 8280, 10013?


2. ?
3. 5 , 4 6 ?
4. , 2 5 , 10 . 4 , 3 , .
?

.
1. n k ,
s .
n k:
n!
Cnk =
k !( n k )!
s Cnkss
. .
20

Cnk Cnkss .
2. 15 ,
5 . ?
, . . 1, 2, 3, 4 . :
1
2
3
4
C15
+ C15
+ C15
+ C15
= 15 + 105 + 455 + 1365 = 1940.
215 1. .

1. ,
n , k .
2.
) 5, 6, 7; )3, 0, 9; ) 5, 7 ?
3. ,
1, 2, 3, 4. ,
.
4. 7 .

, ,
4 ,
?
. n k n, k
( n k ). :
P(k, n k). , , 5 3:
1) 1 1 1 0 0
2) 1 1 0 1 0
3) 1 1 0 0 1
4) 1 0 1 1 0
5) 1 0 1 0 1
6) 1 0 0 1 1
7) 0 1 1 1 0
8) 0 1 1 0 1
9) 0 1 0 1 1
10) 0 0 1 1 1
21

, 6 4 .
, ,
00. ,
000 .
1), 2), , 10) ,
, 5
h = 3.
7 4, .

n h. , n k,
P(n, n k) = n!/ ((n k)!k!), ,
h = n k + 1.
, , n = 4, h = 3, . . 4,
, 3 . k = n h + 1.
k = 4 3 + 1 = 2; . .
4 2:
1) 1 1 0 0
2) 1 0 1 0
3) 1 0 0 1
4) 0 1 1 0
5) 0 1 0 1
6) 0 0 1 1
, 6 ,

, . . ( ) 1, 2 3
, 1, 4 5 , 2, 4 6 3, 5 6
.
1.16.
. 40 .
?
40 2 , , 22

.
40 3 . , 40 2 . :
P(40, 2) = 42!/(2!40!) = 861.
n1 1- , n2 , , nk k- s ,
P(n1, s 1) P(n2, s 1)P(nk, s 1) .
,
- ,
.

(, ), .

1. , , 5 , 8 . :
) , ,
) , (
5).
2. a) ) n
k .
3. : A a1, a2, , an B b1, b2, , bk.
A B
, s , ,
p A.
:
, 7 4 6
, 2 .
1.17. :
n k . , ?
23

, , .
, . :
P(n, k 1) = (n + k 1)!/(n!(k 1)!).

n! , - ,
n! ,
.
, , , ,
, , , s n.
n

s!P ( s, k 1) .
i =1

1.18. :
n
k . .
,
, , ,
. . ,
, n k.
,
:
(s s )
, .
( k + 1)
( , )
, ( ). , n k + 1 , . n k + 1 ( ) .
,
.
24

, , P(n 1, k + 1), P(n, k);


. ., ,
,
P(n, k) P(n 1, k + 1).
, n = 4 k = 5
P(4, 5) P(3, 4) = 9!/(4!5!) 7!/(3!4!) = 126 35 = 91.
1.19.
1. .
4, 6, 10 .
, 18 . , , . .
4, 10, 4 10, 4, 4 .
:
F(N) = F(N 4) + F(N 6) + F(N 10),
F(N)
N. F(N) N.
F(N) = 0 N<0. F(0) =1. F(1) = F(2) = F(3) = 0. F(4) = 1. F(5) = 0.
F(6) = 1. F(7) = 0. F(8) = 1. F(9) = 0. F(10) = 3. N = 18 :
F (18) = F(14) + F(12) + F(8) = F(10)+ F(8) + F(4) + F(8) +
+F(6) + F ( 2) + F(8) = 3 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 8.
2. . 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50 ( ). 73 .
,
k1, k2, km N :
F(k1, k2, , km; N) = F(k1, k2, , km1;Nkm) + F(k1, k2, , km1; N).
, , .
F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50; 73) = F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20; 73) +
+F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20; 23).
25

0, . . :
F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20; 23) = F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15; 3) + F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15; 23)
5, 10 15 ,
, . . :
F(1, 2, 3; 3) + F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15; 23) =
=F(1, 2; 0) + F(1, 2;3 ) + F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10; 8) + F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10; 23) =
= 1+ F(1; 1) + F(1; 3) +F(1, 2, 3, 5; 8) + F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10; 23).
, F(1, 2; 0) = 1; F(1, 2; 3) = F(1;1) = 1; F(1; 3) = 0;
F(1, 2, 3, 5, 10; 23) = 0. :
1 + 1 + 0 + F(1, 2, 3, 5; 8) + 0 = 2 + F(1, 2, 3; 3) + F(1, 2, 3; 8) = 2 + 2 + 0 =
= 4. , 4 .
, .
3. (10 ). ,
, , : 1, 2, 3, 5 .

S(1, 2, 3, 5; 10 ) = S(1, 2, 3; 10) + S(1, 2, 3; 5) + S(1, 2, 3; 0).
, . 20 :
52
5+1 5
3+2 3+1
2 4+1 2
5+3+2
3 3+1
3+2 2+1 3 2 3+1 4
5+3+1 2 3 2+2 2 3+2+1 5
2 2+1 5
5+2 2+1 3 2+2+1 2 3+1 7
2+1 8
5+2+1 3 3 2+1 4 2 5
1 10

26

2.


2.1.
n [ 4 ]. :

a1a2 ... an
h = a a ... a ,
n 1 n1

2, 3, ... n .
hn = h0. (, , ) n.
,
k ,
.

Cnk ( n k )!
.
2.2.
- . .
a) : .
,
, . . ,
27

. ,
. , 21 : 10
. : 21!(10!10!). ,
.
2 , ,
, ,
. : 2(21!/(10!10!) 20!/(10!10!) = 41 20!/(10!10!). (, 10 , ). :
22!/(10!10!2!). : P = 0,177. , .
) -
1000 , . , , 100 , 4 .
, 1000 ,
.
,
4 = 100!/(4!96!).
: C100
. ,
P = 24/94109400 = 0,000000255.
,
1000 :
P(1000) = 1 (1 0, 000000255)1000 = 0,0003.
) 8 ,
, . . . :
1. , .
2. , 8 3 , .

8 . 8! = 40320. 1- 28

, , , ,
P = 1/40320 = 0,0000248.

P = C 83 D5 = 56 44 = 2464.
3 8 P = 2464/40320 = 0,061.
2.3.

.
.
, , , . .
. , , , s .

(. . ). n .
n = 26, n = 33,
, . . , , . . 26 33 .
DES , 56 .
256 ( ,
). , .
A = (a1, a2, ..., an).
ai ,

( ). , n
k.
29

2.4.
. 5 , . , 8 ().
, 0,25 . , . , , ,
.
.
( 0,25 ), 5 . 5 0,25, 20. 20 7 . . :
111110111001001111111110011. :
1- 1,25 ,
2-

0,75 ,
3-

0,
4-

0,25 ,
5-

0,
6-

2,25 ,
7-

0,
8-

0,5 .
, , 20 7 .
,
P(20, 7) = 27!/(20!7!) = 888030.

, .
, .
2.5.

, , .
30

1948 . (K. Shannon) , , ,


.
.
x1, x2, , xn p1, p2, , pn.

H ( ) =

Pk log Pk .
k =1


,
.
0 1 1 0
.
2.6.

. , ( ) (
) .
, . , , :

L ( X,Y ) =

XT Y
XT Y+YT Y-XT Y

X, Y , XT, YT
(-).
,
31

.
, . .
n ,
, ,
,
- . n .
n- , ( ). , 3
. , :
Cn1 + Cn2 + Cn3 .
,
, n- . :

(C

1
n

+ Cn2 + Cn3 K < 2n.

K < 2n Cn1 + Cn2 + Cn3 .


, n = 10 K << 7.

.

1. 12 (12- ). .
?
: 100111010010 .
2. 16 ( , 5 ).
. n- k
.

3. , : X: 10111001 Y: 00101111. , . X
, Y
,
. Y
X
Y.
2.7.
. ,
: , , , , . : , , , , , .
, .
1. n . , ? n () ,
. ( ) ( n 1), n,
n(n 1)/2.
2.
.
3.
.


, ,
. ,
,
. , . , , , . ,
.
,
.

.
[2, 3].


1. . . . .: , 1975.
208 .
2. . : . . .:
, 1963. 287 .
3. . : . . .: , 1970. 424 .
4. . . : . /
. ., 1998. 38 .
5. ., . : . .
.: , 1978. 412 .

34


...................................................................................................
1. ................................
1.1. .......................................................
1.2. ........................................................
1.3. .....................................................
1.4. ....................................................
1.5. .............................................
1.6. (
) .................................................................................
1.7. ...........................................................
1.8. ..........................................................
1.9. ..........................................................
1.10. ................................
1.11. ( ) ......................................
1.12. .......
1.13. .......................................................................
1.14. .........................................................
1.15. N .................................................
1.16. ...............................
1.17. : .............................................................
1.18. : ............................................................
1.19. .......................
2.
....................................
2.1. ..................................................................................
2.2. ....................................................................
2.3. ................................................................................
2.4. ......................................................................................
2.5. .......................................................................
2.6. ................................................................
2.7. ................................................................................
...............................................................................................
.....................................................................

3
4
4
6
7
8
9
9
11
14
15
15
16
17
18
18
19
23
24
24
25
28
28
28
30
31
32
32
34
35
36

35

. .
. . , . .
020341 07.05.97. 04.12.00. 28.04.01
6084 1/16. . 3. . . . . 2,09. . .-. 2,22.
. -. . 2,25. 100 .
-
-

190000, -, . . , 67


:
. . . . 1998.
. . . . . 2001.
. . .
.
. . . .
. . . . . .
. . . .
. . .
.