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1.

, ,

[1].
,

- ,
. ,

,
.

, ,
, 1916 .

, ,
.
,
,
. [2],
,
,
.

(
,

4
,

. , ,
,
.
.

, ,
.
.

? ,
k0

. , ,
,
.
,
, , ,

|k|
= k0 .
k,
k (
), (
), (
, 120 ).

5
, ,
, , , .
,
,
.
n (n > 4),
2/n [3].
,
.
,
, (
- ),
, - .

. , ,
.

. , ,

, (.2).
, .3 ,
,
. .4 ,
. .5
.
1 2 ,

6
.

2.
,
.
,
z:
T = T1 + (T2 T1 )z/d.

(1)

(. .1), .
,
, , .
,
.
, ,
,
. (,
, ,
, . ,
,
.
. ,
L,
: FA T 0 L3 g , g - ,
- . T 0 -
.
Fs ( ,
)

7
V : Fs LV, V T 0 L2 g ( -
). , :
d/V d/(T 0 L2 g). ,
,
T
. T

T 0
= kT 0
t

: T L2 /k, k -
. T d/(T 0 L2 g) L2 /k
:

T 0 L4 g
1.
kd

(2)

, , T 0 T1 T2 ,
L
d. ,
(2) ,
Ra:
Ra =

g(T1 T2 )d3
.
k

(3)

,
,
.
,
,
.
:
= 0 (T0 ) (T T0 ).

(4)

8

, ,
, -
. -
,
, (. .1). ,
,
.
.
,
, - ,
.
,
. ,
,
, : F T 0 L.
,

:
Ma =

(T1 T2 )d
.
k

(5)

, ,
, -
. M a/Ra:
d
Ma
=
.
Ra
gd2

(6)

, g 0 ( ,
), d 0
( ),

9
. ,
(6) , ,
, .

3.

-, ,
,
. :
V
1
+ V V = p0 + V + gT 0 ,
t

T 0
+ V T 0 = kT 0 ,
t
div V = 0.

(7)
(8)
(9)

V - . T 0 -
, (1), p0 -
p0 , p0 = 0 g (
- ,
).
, ,
(7)
(8), - ,
,
. ,
(7). ,
k
T , ,
,

10
, ,
, , ,
.
.
, z = 0
:
V (x, y, 0) = 0.

(10)

T 0
,
(11)
z
- . , ,
ab T 0 = k

ab


,
. ab
, :
T 0 = 0.

(12)

,
, ,
(11) :
T 0
= 0.
z

(13)

, ,
, .
,
f = .
:

Vi
Vk

0
+
nk =
.
xk
xi
xi

(14)

11

Vi
xk

k
+ V
- , n
- ,
xi

.
, .
:
Vz = 0.

(15)

(14) :
0

Vx

=
,
z
x

Vy

=
z
y

x, y
, :
2

2
2 Vx
0 2 =
+ 2 .
z
x2
y

(16)

, - (. 4),

:

2 Vx
0 2 =
z

2T 0 2T 0
+
x2
y 2

(17)


:
k

T 0
= as T 0 .
z

as ,

(13)

( , ,
), , ,
b = as d/k. b = 0
, b -

12
. , z = d ,
.
,
(7)-(9) (10), (11)
(17), (18).
.
[2]:
d, - d2 /, - k/d, - k/d2 ,
- T1 T2 .
(7)-(9) :
V
= p0 + V + RaT 0 ,
t
T 0
P
V = T 0 ,
t
div V = 0.

(19)
(20)
(21)

P P = /k.

:
z=0:

T 0 = 0, V = 0,

z=1:

T 0

= 0, Vz = 0,

(19)-(21)

2 Vx
z 2

= Ma

2T 0
x2

2T 0

y 2

(22)

(23)

p0

Vx Vy .
(19) (rot(rot...)),
z.
-
Vz : T 0 .
2 0

T
2T 0
Vz
= Vz + Ra
+
,
t
x2
y 2

(24)

13
P

T 0
= T 0 + Vz .
t

(25)


:
{Vz , T 0 } {(z), (z)}et+kz x+ky y .

(26)

, (x, y) ,
ky = 0,
( )
( b
) (24) (25) :
( 00 kx2 ) = ( IV 2kx2 00 + kx4 00 ) Rakx2 ,
P = (00 kx2 )
:
z=0:

= 0, = 0, 0 = 0,

z=1:

0 = 0, = 0, 00 = M a.


(., ,
cite2). -
(Ra, kx ) M a = 0, b (. . 2)
(M a, kx ) Ra = 0 (. . 26),
( < 0) ( > 0) .
.3
. , , ,
,
. , ,

14
, ,
, .
.2 Ra M a = 0
kx = 2.7,
Ra = 0 - kx = 2.

,
, ,
,
,
.
,
- . , ,
Rakp
M akp ,
.
[4],

(23) .

, [2]. .4
(Ra, M a).
,
:
Ra
Ma
+
= 1.
Rakp M akp
Ra = Rakp = 669

= M akp =

79. kx
kx 2. (Ra > 0, M a > 0)

15
" "(a > 0, b > 0),
. ,
,
.

4.
,
,
,
k.
, ,
.
,
.
, :
,
(x, y).
k,
,
?
(., , [5]
).


k.

.
:
{Vz , T 0 } = Ak (t){(z), (z)}ekz x+ky y + k.c.
,

16
,

.
:
R
k1 dk2
A k = k Ak + Uk1 k2 k Ak1 k2 (k1 + k2 k)d
R
k1 dk2 dk3 .
Rk1 k2 k3 k Ak1 k2 k3 (k1 + k2 + k3 k)d

(27)

k -
k = (kx , ky ), U, R - .
,
U ,
, ,
.
, U = 0. U, R
[5], ,
. (27)
F :
F (Ak )
A k =
,
Ak

(28)

, F
:
F {} =

R
R

1
|Ak |2 dk
2 k

+ k2 + k3 )dk1 dk2 dk3


1
R
A
(k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 )dk1 dk2 dk3 dk4 .
4 k1 k2 k3 k4 k1 k2 k3 k4

1
U
A
(k1
3 k1 k2 k3 k1 k2 k3

F
Z
Z
F (Ak )

F =
Ak dk = Ak Ak dk.
Ak
, F

(28) , ,
,

17
. ,
,
F , U R
F .
, , . , ,
F
,
. ?

. ,

,
.
,
.
?
:
(27) - k (t) :< k (t) >= 0,
k (t)k (t0 ) >= 2Q(k k1 ), (29)

<

<> .
(27) (29),
P {Ak } ,
- [1]:

P
F
2P
=
P +Q
+ k.c.
t
Ak Ak
k Ak

:
P {Ak } eF/Q

(30)

(30)

18

,
F . , ,
U R.

. 5,,. ,
F , ,
.
F , .
(
, , , (.
. 5,) (.
. 5). 5,, . 5,,
-
.
,
. 5,,. . 5,, . 5,,
,
.

[6, 7, 8, 9]. . 5
, x = 0, y =
0. z
:
V = A(x, y)ekx+

1/2
, = arctg(y/x)
A = th x2 + y 2
, . 5,
,

19
k1 k2 .
- (., ,
[9]).
( , -,
). " " ,
: , ,
..
. , (.5), (.5)
.. [6, 7,
8, 9], - ,
[8],
,
- [9]. F

.



[9].

? ,
,
,
, , , ,
.
.

20

5.
.6.
1, 2.
. ,
,
1.
220 V ( ),
, 36 V.
,
3
- . , -
4 5
6. , , ,
...
, 40
mV.
.

.

2.

.
7 (. . 6) .
.
(1-1.5 ) .

- .

21
, , ,
.

1.
.
,
.
2-4 .

,
.
2.

.
.
.
3.

,
.
4. ,

,
. ,
.
,
,

22
.
.
,

.

.

1.

- ?
2.
Lk .
, .
3. M a Ra,

. ?

23

() -5, 100 -200. ,


,

. ,
(
)
. ,
, , ,
.
. ,
,

.

,
.
, Ra M a.

24
0 [/3 ].
T, K

- 5

- 100

- 200

288

0.917

0.972

0.974

293

0.913

0.968

0.970

298

0.908

0.963

0.966

303

0.903

0.958

0.961

308

0.899

0.954

0.957

313

0.895

0.950

0.953

318

0.889

0.946

0.948

328

0.881

0.938

0.941

[/( )]-102 .
T, K

- 5

- 100

- 200

288

4.95

111

217.7

293

4.63

98.5

195.4

298

4.16

88.6

175.8

303

3.78

80.0

159.6

308

3.49

73.1

144.4

313

3.26

66.2

131.9

318

3.04

60.2

120.1

328

2.65

50.8

101.1

25
[/]
.
T, K

- 5

- 100

- 200

288

18.0

20.5

20.7

293

17.5

20.1

20.3

298

17.2

19.7

19.9

303

16.4

19.3

19.5

308

16.2

18.9

19.1

313

15.9

18.5

18.7

318

15.4

18.1

18.4

328

14.7

17.5

17.7

k [2 /cek].
T, K

- 5

- 100

- 200

288

0.001101

0.001106

0.001131

293

0.001094

0.001102

0.001125

298

0.001088

0.001098

0,001120

303

0.001082

0.001094

0.001115

308

0.001076

0.001090

0.001108

313

0.001069

0.001085

0.001102

318

0.001063

0.001079

0.001096

328

0.001051

0.001068

0.001083

26


.
,

.
: -, ,
. 3, -, ,
. ,
, ,
Fs Fs = 6rV ( r - , V -
) FA = 4/3r3 g(p )
(p - ). :
=

9d
.
2g(p )r2

, .

S 0 S 00 , .
S 0 -
S 0 .
, .
B 0 B 00 .
,
.

.
,
.

27


[1] . . .: , 1980. 404 .
[2] .., ..
. .:. , 1972. 392.
[3] .., .., ..
- .//
, 1989, . 96, . 2(8). .684-700.
[4]

..,

..

.5

. .:. , 1986. 736 .


[5] ..
.// .
, . , 1980, .166, 5. . 463-472.
[6] Bodenshatz E., Pesch W., Kramer L. Structure and dynamics of dislocations in anisotropic pattern fiorming system.// Physica D 1988, v.32.
p. 135-145.
[7] Ribbota R., Joets A. Defects and interaction with the structure in the
end convection in nemaric liquid crystals. Lecture notes in physics, v.
210. Cellar structures in instabilities. Ed. dy Wesfreid J.E. and Zaleski
S. Springer-Verlag. Berlin. Heidelberg. New-York. Tokio, 1984. 390 p.
[8] Goren G., Procaccia I., Rasenat S., Steinberg V. Interaction and dynamics of topological defects: theory and experiments near the onset of
weak turbulence.// Physical Rev. Lett., 1989, v.63, 12. p.1237-1240.
[9] Occelli R., Guazzelli E., Pantaloni J. Qualitative study of the hexagonal
convective strutures. Lecture notes in physics, v. 210. Cellar structures

28
in instabilities. Ed. dy Wesfreid J.E. and Zaleski S. Springer-Verlag.
Berlin. Heidelberg. New-York. Tokio, 1984. 390 p.

29

. 1: ,

30

. 2: ,

31

. 3:

. 4:

32

33

. 5: , , , , , , , , , , ,

34

. 6: