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E-mail: direct@levada.ru
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77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008 ISSN 2070-5107

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
34(118)
Quarterly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

Members of
the Editorial Council
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin

JulDecember 2014

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS

PROBLEMS OF MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY


Monitoring of Russian public attitudes toward judicial reform
and judicial system (by Tatjana Vorozheikina, Lev Gudkov,
Natalija Zorkaya, Adel Ovakemian)

13

Democracy Begins at Home or Regarding Political Competence


of Russians (by Oleg Kashirskikh)

70

City class: potential for adaptation or readiness to change?


(by Lev Gudkov, Natalia Zorkaya, Adel Ovakemian)

80

Grounds for Success: a Comparative Analysis of Subjective Status


Assessments (by Larisa Kosova)

118

Dissernet. Experimental sociology (by Andrei Rostovtsev)

127

Obstacles to Develop Cashless Payments in Contemporary Russian


Retailing (by Maxim Markin)

139

Belarusian echo of Russian mobilization (by Sergey Nikolyuk)

149

From Disoriented Pessimists to Socialized Optimists: Application


of the Latent Class Analysis to Studying Anomie in Ukraine
(by Ekaterina Lytkina)

155

Resentmental nationalism (by Lev Gudkov)

163

Authors of the issue

227

INFORMATION: SURVEYSFINDINGS

228

SUMMARY

250

Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

1.
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. (
(
,

, ).

, , ,

, ,
..)
, :
8
, , , ?
( % )

,




,



,
,


50
43
43
38
34

2- 4-
(2011)
(2013)
49
51
45
40
41
44
38
37
33
35

14
20
13

14
20
14

14
19
13

13

12

13

7
4
1

5
4
2

8
4
1

9
( 2 4, % )
-,

13

, -

50
43

38


,
,

20

22

3-4 (118) 2014

%
43
34
14
13
4

25%, .

.
,
,
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). ,

,

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)1.
,
.
,

, -

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( )
,
, , , ,


.
.

,
(. . 10). 13
-
( 12 30%) ( ) ,
-
,
,
.
,

,
.

10

(:

-
2- 4- 2- 4-
)
(2011)
(2013)
(2011)
(2013)
74
63
23
33
30
69
63
24
29
34
55
62
38
34
28
58
61
29
32
29
63
51
33
44
7
47
51
44
44
7
54
47
36
44
3
48
46
39
44
2
-6
41
44
50
50
45
41
40
47
-6
42
39
52
56
-17
31
38
63
57
-19
36
36
48
52
-16
28
26
63
68
-42

% , 2013.
. 14
1

3-4 (118) 2014

23

. ,
,
, .
, ,

, .
, , 20% ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
.
( ,
) , -

, : -
,
( 29-30 41%). ,

, (.11). ,
, 54% (



25% 35%),

43%. , -
, , , ,
.
, ,
:
?

11
? ( % )
) , 1997-2012 .
/
1.
2. -

3. ,
4. ,

1997 2002 2003 2007 2008 2010 2012


12

20

14

30*

22

30*

35*

20

22

25

30

30

24

26

10

11

10

11

17

15

45
12

41
10

42
8

21
9

28
10

24
5

20
4

*
, ; , , ( ultimo ratio)

) - (2012.)

24

1

25
33
29
36
40
3-4 (118) 2014

32
28
22
26
27

22
15
20
14
11

19
22
24
19
17

2
3
5
5
5

12
, ( %
)

+


(, .)

2- 4- 2- 4- 2- 4-
(2011)
(2013)
(2011)
(2013)
(2011)
(2013)
60
72
19
18
21
10
72
71
18
20
10
9
73
71
19
21
8
10
69
70
19
20
12
10
74
44
73
41

65
43
68
36

18
32
17
49

25
38
21
56

8
24
10
10

10
19
11
8

13
(: ,
?; )
2-
(2011)

( .)

4-
(2013)

72
63
65
49
63
65
46
55
45
38
43
44
41
44
41
40
37
35
34
38

,
.
(
, ,
,
,
.), , , , .
, (,
,

2-
(2011)

4-
(2013)

19
30
29
46
21
26
47
41
48
57
47
46
49
50
43
48
36
49
58
56

2-
(2011)

4-
(2013)


9
7
16
7
7
11
9
16
27
8

7
5
9
5
5
9
6
12
16
6

,
)
.

, ,
(
: , ).
,
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, , (

3-4 (118) 2014

25

), , ()
, .

,
( )
.
.

,

, ,
, .

, ,
.. (
14).

, , ,
, , ,
,
.

14
- ( ; 4- )
2- (2011)
42
53
-1
36
-4
-8
-2
1
-24
-3

( .)

4- (2013)
39
33
14
3
-2
-6
-8
-14
-18
-19

15
? ( % , ;
, 100%)
1- 3-
(2010)
(2012)
,

35

33


, ,
, , ,

, ,

28
21

31
22

25

21

21

21

20
15
13
14
9
6
1
7

20
16
16
13
12
12
1
5

26

3-4 (118) 2014

,
, ,
,
,
. .
,
,

.
,
, , .

, ,
,
, ,
,
.
(

, 4-
; . . 17).
2007
, . -


, ,
,
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, , .
,
,
.
0,5 (. .
1,5-2 ,
).
.
, - (
: 3-4 .).

, ,
, . .
,
, .

16
(: 7- ,
, ?, % )

1
2
3
4
5
6
7


2007

14
15
22
17
16
7
3
6
1600
0,5

1-
(2010)
9
13
19
27
20
8
3
2
2000
0,8

3-
(2012)
10
10
18
29
18
9
4
1
2000
0.8

17
( 5-, 6- 7- + , )
1- (2010)

3- (2012)

4- (2013)

0,6

0,6

0,5

0,6

3-4 (118) 2014

27

, ( 0,5 0,8, ),



.
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18




()

),

.

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. :
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,
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, -
;
). (
, )
,
.
()
.

+ +

59
22
55
23
52
30
49
23
48
33

2.7
2.4
1.7
2.1
1.4

,

19
22
18
28
19

44

39

1.1

17

43

26

1.6

31

42

28

1.7

30

4- , % (N=8019),
,

1

28

3-4 (118) 2014

,
3,4 .

.

.
:
57-58% 52-54%
, , 16 28%;
63 55%, 16 28%;

, 17 28%;
:

20 31%; 48 43%, 20 31%; 23 35%,
25 34%.
: 4947%, 30-35%.
,

, (
, ).
31% ,

, ,
, (57%)
, ,

. 12%

(
).
69%
(,
), , .
, , ,
.
17%
,
,
,
, .




, . ,
, -
.
,
20.
,
, .
.

19
, ?

,
,
,
,

7
26
37
21
10

1-
(2010)
7
27
39
17
10

3-4 (118) 2014

2-
(2011)
7
23
31
27
11

3-
(2012)
7
27
42
15
8

4-
(2013)
6
26
34
24
10

29

20

30

1-
(2010)

?
6
7
45
47
34
31
8
8
7
7
?
8
9
52
53
25
24
7
7
7
7
?
6
5
42
43
34
31
9
9
9
11
?
5
4
36
39
39
37
11
11
9
10
?
13
15
55
56
20
18
5
5
7
6
?
6
6
45
44
28
27
9
10
13
13
?
8
7
47
49
25
23
8
8
13
14
?
3
2
27
27
42
41
21
24
7
6
3-4 (118) 2014

2-
(2011)

3-
(2012)

4-
(2013)

6
44
34
8
8

6
46
35
7
7

6
44
35
9
7

10
52
24
6
8

6
55
25
7
7

9
49
29
7
6

7
41
34
8
10

6
42
35
8
10

7
43
34
10
6

4
35
40
11
9

5
36
40
11
9

5
35
40
12
8

12
54
21
5
7

12
58
19
4
7

12
53
23
7
5

6
43
29
9
14

7
47
25
7
14

7
45
30
9
10

7
45
26
8
14

9
50
22
7
13

9
44
28
8
11

3
25
43
23
7

3
29
40
20
8

5
29
44
16
6


,


(..21).

,
.

, - ,
(
).
1:2 ( 29-30%, 64-66%). ,

,
,

21
(
)

2,7
1.9
1,7
1,4
1,2
1,1
0,8
0,5




,

. (
) 13-14%
( , ,
), 43-45%
- ( ), .
-

1-
(2010)
3,1
2,0
1,8
1,3
1,4
1,2
0,9
0,5

2-
(2011)
2,5
2,1
1,9
1,3
1,2
1,1
0,8
0,4

3-
(2012)
3,0
1,9
2,0
1,7
1,2
1,1
0,8
0,5

4-
(2013)
2.2
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.1
1.1
0.8
0.6

.
:


, .
40%,
28 25%.
,
,
.

22
?
2- 4-
(2011)
(2013)
,
,

, , ,

3-4 (118) 2014

32

30

20

25

38

37

10

31

-


: 3238% , 4547% (22% 15% -
).

(..23).
44%
(46%)
. , 10%,

. 2010 ( )
48:44, 40:48,
42:48 44:47. , -

,
( 49%
);
(35%).
: 2010 .
54% , 2011. 47,
2012. 49, 2013. 48%, : 30
37% .

.
.


.

23

?

2010

2011

2012

2013

38

42

34

36

39

39

37

40

40

41

10

13

10

0,9

1,0

0,9

0,9

0,9

, ?

44

48

43

43

43

30

26

29

31

32

16

17

18

16

15

1,4

1,9

1,3

1,4

1,3

29

31

28

27

30

38

35

37

40

41

20

21

22

21

18

0,7

0,8

0,7

0,6

0,7

32

3-4 (118) 2014

. 23
?

4
4
4

23
24
22

45
44
45

13
13
13

14
14
16

0,5
0,5
0,4
?

3
3
3

27
31
25

40
37
39

10
9
11

20
19
21

0,6
0,7
0,6
?

4
4
3

25
29
23

43
39
43

12
12
13

17
16
18

0,5
0,6
0,5
?

4
4
3

25
28
23

42
39
42

12
13
13

17
17
19

0,5
0,6
0,5
?

5
4

30
28

36
35

10
10

19
22

0,8
0,7


5
4

28
26

34
33

12
13

21
24

0,7
0,7

3-4 (118) 2014

4
22
45
16
13
0,4

4
26
45
12
13
0,5

4
26
39
10
21
0,6

3
27
43
10
17
0,6

4
23
43
13
17
0,5

3
24
46
12
15
0,5

4
23
45
12
16
0,5

3
27
42
12
16
0,6

6
29
36
9
20
0,8

5
33
37
10
15
0,8

5
30
36
12
18
0,7

33


,
(.24).
, ,
,
, , , .

(.25) ,
, , ,
, ( , , , , ,

).
( 14:75).
, ,
,
, . (
,
)
,
, ,
, ,
(8285%). ,

,

24
,

2010

2011

2012

2013

1,9
1,0
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,6
0,5

1,3
0,9
0,7
0,7
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,5
0,4

1,4
0,9
0,8
0,6
0,6
0,5
0,5
0,4

1,3
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,7
0,6
0,6
0,5
0,5



1,4
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,5
0,5

25
?


18-24
25-39
40-54
55
+
+

34

+

33

42
32
31
33

32
33
39

14
30
35
39
36

+

49

18

42
49
53
48

16
19
16
19

53
48
43

15
19
18

75
52
45
43
46

11
19
20
18
18

3-4 (118) 2014


.

.



.
-, , ,
, , .
,
,
,
.

( 55%),
( 47 %),
2013 . ,
,
. ,
,
(..26).
, ,
(. . 27).
2013. ,
:
?


.

.

, , , -,
.
, , ,
6-9% (, -, , ). 2012
2013 . -
- , ,
() .

,
,

,
7-9%. ,

, , , ,
, ,
, , ( , , ).
,
( )
, -

26
? ( 2010 2012 .
: , ,
, ? . 2013.; , 100%.
, . % )

, ,

:
,
.
,

55
47
27
27
21

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
56
59
55
48
46
45
50
40
25
29
17

3-4 (118) 2014

27
26
24

30
26
17

25
25
25

35

27
, ? ( % : , 100%.
2012.)





, ,
,
,

1- 3-
(2010)
(2012)

46
53
49
31
35
33
34
34
34
33
33
33
35
30
32
7
10
9
7
9
8
4
6
5
10
7
9

(.28):

28
, ? ( % )

35
33
30
29
26
25

2-
(2011)
35
32
32
30
27
30

4-
(2013)
35
34
29
29
26
20

14
9
8
7
5
4

13
7
6
6
4
4

15
11
11
7
7
4





, ,

: (), ,

,
,


, . 2013 . , ,
,
,

67%. 3,1

(.25). , , ,

.

36


(. 30).
, , ,

;

.

;
,
18%. 41%
( ) ,

3-4 (118) 2014

, 19% .
(36%)
(37%) .

,
, .
( 40%)
. : 27%

.
32%.
, ( ) ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
, -

29
, :
, . ,
? ( % )
1-
(2010)
59
19
22
3,1

/
/

/

62
20
19
3,1

2-
(2011)
63
17
21
3,7

3-
(2012)
57
22
21
2,6

4-
(2013)
67
21
12
3,1

30
,
? ( ; %
)

/
. .
-
-
. .

17

33

13

22

10

11

25

24

13

16

11

13

28

13

29

11

13

29

13

27

12

31
? ( . % )

/
. .
-
-
.
.


16

26

21

21

10

13

24

34

16

12

24

20

28

11

16

22

18

27

12

3-4 (118) 2014

37


.
2-2,5
, . (. 30 31).
2-3,5 ;
58%.
, , ,
(
). -, ,
, . , -
, , . -


, .
,
30 31, ,


.
2013 ., ,
, ,
, 68% ,
(. 32).
, ,
, ,
.

32
, :
,
? ( % )

/
/

/

66
17
17
3,8

1-
(2010)
67
14
20
4,8

2-
(2011)
66
14
19
4,7

3-
(2012
62
18
19
3,4

4-
(2013)
68
21
11
3,2

33
, , ? ( 2013. , 100%. % .)

,


,

38

53
54
31
30
18
21
18
16
14
11
1
8

1-
(2010)
49
56
30
32
17
20
16
17
15
11
2
9

3-4 (118) 2014

2-
(2011)
51
57
30
34
16
21
17
16
14
11
1
8

3-
(2012)
60
51
33
27
16
23
20
14
12
11
2
7

4-
(2013)
53
52
32
27
23
22
17
16
13
12
1
8



(53%)
(52%).

(22%); (2013 .) , , , ,
(23%) (.33).


,
,
,
.
(48%) , (45%)
,
, 8%
. .

14 8% 2010- 2013. (..34).
2013 . ,
. -
,
, ,

. , . 35,

,
,
, ,
. ,
:
1,2 2012 .
1,5 2013., / 1,7
4,2, . ,

,
, . ,
-
( , , ,
, )
,
.
-
, , ,
, , .
, ,
- ,
, ,

. ( )

34
, ? ( . %
)

(),

, (),

, (),

, , ,

,
.

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)

11

11

11

12

12

13

14

13

13

13

15

15

17

12

16

43
11

41
14

44
11

43
12

45
8

3-4 (118) 2014

39

35
, ? ( % )




48
45
8

49
41
10

44
48
8

18-24
55
37
9
25-39
54
37
9
40-54
46
47
7
55
36
55
8


55
37
8

45
47
8

38
53
9


33
57
10

44
49
9

48
44
8
/
75
18
16

59
33
9
(500 . )
49
43
9
( 100 500 .)
41
53
6
( 100 .)
47
43
11

46
46
7

,

, . ,
, .
, , , .
,
, ,
,
. ,
- .
, , ,

40

/
1,0
1,2
0,9
1,5
1,5
1,0
0,7
1,5
1,0
0,7
0,6
0,9
1,1
4,2
1,8
1,1
0,8
1,1
1,0


,

, , .
(-
, ,
)
,
.

,
.


,
, ,
, .

3-4 (118) 2014

36
, *, ? ( % )

1990

1997

2000

2001

2007

2010

33
48
19
1600

26
59
15
1600

33
60
7
1600

30
60
10
1000

36
54
10
1600

41
51
8
2300

1- 3-
(2010)
(2012)
43
52
49
39
8
9
2008
2002

* 1990.

37
, ? ? ( % , ,
, )

,
,
,
, ,


N=

,
.. , .

,
,
,
.
,
,
,
, -, ,
,
,
.

( . , )
,
,
,
. ,
,
.

38
30
20
6
4
-

1- 3-
(2010)
(2012)
42
36
28
32
19
20
5
4
991

8
4
781

, ,

,
,
, .

, ,
, ,
( ,
, ..).

,
, .
,
, ,
,
,
.
, , -

3-4 (118) 2014

41


,
- ,
, . . , ,
,

. ,
,
,

. 50% ,
; 6%
,
(. .38).
42% (
, ,
, 6%).
,
: (59%), -

(54%), (45%)
:
(49%). ( )
, :
46% 34% 40%
.
, ,
( ),
:
62%. ,
31%, , ,
25% . .
,
,
,


.
, ,
, ,
, (. 39).
1%,

38
? ( % )

2006

2009

25
68
7
1600

25
64
11
940

1- 2- 3- 4-
2010
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
42
46
42
45
52
49
51
50
6
5
7
5
2000
2000
2000
2000



44
50
6
8000

39
? ( % , , )
,


,
;
,
,

,

10
19

42

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
10
9
11
11
19
17
19
21

22

24

20

25

20

18
13
1

16
15
1

19
13
1

18
13
1

17
12
1

3-4 (118) 2014


( 2006. 3%);
, ,
:

(1,7).
, , ,

,
, , .
, ,
.
( )

, , , (..40 41).
(37%;
39%, . ).
(63%), :


,
.
, , .

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, .

,
.
,
,
, .
,

,
,
- ,
.
,

, -

40
? , , , ,
?
, ? ( %
, 2012.)



8
86
6


57
19
23

41
, , ? ( % , 2012.)






37
22
29
7
2
4
3-4 (118) 2014

1- (2010)
37
19
31
6
2
4

3- (2012)
37
26
26
7
2
3

43

?
(51% 2010 53% 2012) ,

. ,
, ( , , 12 11% ),
, 3031% ,
,
,
(. . 42).
,
. ,
,
,
,
,
,
;
.
, - ,
(
. ) (
23%, 40%
, ),

,
(
) (37%). ,
.


,
.
.
,

/, ,
, , . , ,
(62%

53%).
, , ,

.

,

( 2012 , 1824 , ,
16 35%). , , , , -
(9 27%),

42
, ,
..? ( % )




,

44

2010
51
12
31
6

2012
52
11
31
6

3-4 (118) 2014


2010
60
7
17
10
6

2012
59
8
15
11
7

( , ), .

.

, , .
(64%,
, ), ,


. 60%
( 90% ).

, . .

, 13 11% 17%
, ,

, . ,
: ,
. ,
,

.


, , ,
,
.
,
4-6% , ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
34%


,
, , 29% 17% ,
(. . 43).
43
, , ? ( % )

4- (2013)

3- (2012)

2- (2011)

1- (2010)

5
22
60
13
1

2
11
59
27
2

4
21
58
17
0

2
9
55
33
1

5
22
60
12
1

2
15
57
25
1

4
25
54
18
0

2
15
54
29
1

3-4 (118) 2014

45

, , , .
,
, ,
. ,
7% , , ,
.
,
, ,
,
.




, ,
? , 40,
32 37%, ( 36%);
49, 54 51% ( 51%).
, , ,
, ,
,

(.46 47)

44
, , ? ( % )

4- (2013)

3- (2012)

2- (2011)

1- (2010)

43

39

43

31

51

36

44

38

46

49

49

55

41

51

49

53

11

12

14

12

10

45
-
, ? ( % )

46

4-
(2013)

3-
(2012)


, ,
,

2-
(2011)

1-
(2010)

36

23

33

18

38

26

28

21

32

34

33

36

37

32

32

35

10
3
0

10
4
0

12
3
--

10
6
0

11
4
1

12
4
0

11
4
1

13
5
0

12

16

14

20

15

19

18

13

11

10

3-4 (118) 2014

46
, - , , , ? ( % )

2010
2011
?
11
10
11
25
24
28
34
34
32
22
24
18
9
8
11
?
12
11
13
28
28
31
31
29
30
22
25
17
8
7
9
?
10
9
11
24
23
28
33
33
33
23
26
18
10
10
10
?
9
8
9
20
19
23
35
34
36
26
30
22
10
10
12
?
15
13
18
37
38
38
24
24
22
16
17
13
8
8
9
?
17
15
18
38
37
39
22
22
20
15
18
14
9
8
10

2012

2013

10
23
34
23
10

11
26
36
21
6

11
24
33
23
9

12
27
36
21
6

10
22
34
25
9

10
25
34
23
9

9
18
36
28
10

9
20
37
26
8

14
35
25
16
10

15
39
25
15
7

17
36
23
16
10

16
39
23
15
7

47

( / ; )

0,47
0,61
0,64
0,75
1,3
1,45

2010
0,42
0,54
0,59
0,72
1,2
1,3

3-4 (118) 2014

2011
0,55
0,76
0,78
0,94
1,6
1,7

2012
0,42
0,54
0,58
0,62
1,2
1,4

2013
0.46
0.59
0.65
0.9
1.4
1.4

47

46 47

, ( , )

, ,
( , ).
, ,
-


,
. ,
(, , ).
: ,



:

48
( % )
1-
(2010)

2-
(2011)

3-
(2012)

4-
(2013)

33

33

36

33

37

42

36

44

17

14

15

14

11

10

0,66

0,64

0,78

0,62

38

38

40

41

32

39

36

37

16

12

11

11

11

0,87

0,86

0,96

0,98

10

12

49

47

53

47

24

27

25

31

10

1,78

1,63

1,76

1,36

40

42

44

39

33

36

37

37

13

11

10

13

1,0

1,02

1,04

0,88

48

3-4 (118) 2014

. , :
59 33% ( ),
55 41%. () , ,
, , , , .
,

. :
, ,
36:54, 36:56, 40:51, 36:58 -
.
,
,
, . ,
( ) ,
, 8 86%.


,
20 , (, )
.

, .
,

,
. (. . 49).
,
, , ,

, , .
( 35%
27%), -
.

, ,
-, .
, ,

.
,
.
,
(
, ).
, ,
, .

49

,

1-
(2010)
647
45
20
12
23

2-
(2011)
600
48
22
13
17

3-4 (118) 2014

3-
(2012)
562
47
21
14
18

4-
(2013)
480
51
22
10
17

49



,
.

.


(. . 52).
, . , ,
( 78 22%), , ,
( 41 60%).
,
, -

. ,
,
.
.
,

,
( 52%). , ;

, (. . 53).

,
(17%, 15%
). ,
, ,

50
- ?

1-
(2010)
647
2
66
37
20
4
1

2-
(2011)
600
3
65
35
16
6
1

3-
(2012)
562
2
67
38
18
4
1

4-
(2013)
480
2
72
33
13
4
1

51
? ,

1-
(2010)
647
19
15
34
13
18

2-
(2011)
600
22
15
34
14
15

3-
(2012)
562
23
17
32
14
15

4-
(2013)
480
23
14
36
13
15

52
?

50

1-
(2010)
647
64
37

2-
(2011)
600
67
33

3-4 (118) 2014

3-
(2012)
562
64
36

4-
(2013)
480
65
35

.

, .
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
,
.


( 64%) .
,
,
(
19%). , , , -,
, (
8%), (5%) , ,
, , (.
. 54).
, ,
, , -

53
, ? ( % , , , 100%, )

2-
(2011)

3-
(2012)

4-
(2013)

52

49

58

49

23
17
15
11
9
8

18
16
17
9
11
12

24
18
12
11
9
5

27
17
15
13
8
6

3
1
1
1

4
2
1
1

3
-1
1

2
1
<1
2

,
,







54
- ? ( % ,
)



,
,

, ,

64
19
8

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
71
60
61
66
15
23
19
18
6
7
12
8

1
2
2

2
2
2

1
2
1

1
1
2

1
2
1

3-4 (118) 2014

51

,
. ,
(,
) ,
, (. . 55).


,
( 43%),

( 26%).
, ,
(41%), (35%),
(60%).

( ), ,

, ,
.
: ,
,
40% .
, ,
.
,
,
,
. , ,
, ,
, . (39%) ,
,
(34%!) ,
.

55
?

,
,

,
,

()

20

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
21
17
22
21

26
1

26
2

22
2

29
1

27
1

1
1
2
47
1

<1
1
2
47
1

1
1
2
53
2

2
2
1
43
1

3
1
<1
45
2

56
, ,
, ?

19
39
22

2-
(2011)
18
39
23

3-
(2012)
19
41
24

4-
(2013)
21
36
20

19
1

19
1

15
1

22
1

,
,
,
,

52

3-4 (118) 2014

, ,
-.
,
(39%)
, 41% (. . 56).


50%,
40% ( 52%).
(40%)
(47%). ,
,
.


, ,
65% ,
69%. -

,
.
(35%), ,

, ,
, (. . 57).


(. . 58).
(
65%) , ;
.
,

, .
,
, , :

57
?

,
, ,
, (),
, (),
,

65
26
3
2
3

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
62
67
62
69
29
24
30
23
4
4
2
3
3
1
3
2
3
5
3
3

58
( %
)

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)

: , , , ?
/
65
67
64
66
64
/
28
29
28
27
26

5
4
5
7
7
: ?
/
62
63
60
62
63
/
29
32
29
30
27

7
6
7
8
7

3-4 (118) 2014

53

74 23%, 68 24% (
).
(, 54
36% 51 39%),
(, 56 33% 55 38%).

, .
62 32% 58 31%, , , 48 41% 46 49%.
72
22% 70 21%, (64 30% 56 36%).
, ,

, ,

.
, .

, -

( )
,
( ) , , 22 20% .



,
(
). .
, , (. . 59).
, , ( , )

59
: ( % )

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)

. ?
/
/

71
24
5

72
27
2

69
23
5

69
24
6

71
23
5

. , , ?
/
/

63
22
14

64
20
16

62
24
12

62
23
16

64
23
12

60
? ( )

54

26
45
16
8
5

28
47
14
6
4

3-4 (118) 2014

20
40
21
12
6

24
43
16
13
3

,
.
.

- (33 29% 24%),
(20%) (. . 60).

, (28 25%
, 21%).
-
(20%)
(.. 61).
,

( ), , ,
,
, .

.
,
,


, ,

, .,
.
, ,
( , ,

),
(
). ,
,
(
, ),
, ,
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,
.

,

, ,
,
. ,


.
, ,
.

61
, , ? (
)

24

26

19

22

39

41

36

38

14

13

17

15

11

10

14

13

17

15

3-4 (118) 2014

55



,
,
,
.
,
, , (
- ),
,
(,
, , ).

.
, (
)
. :
? ,
,
, ,
, .
,

, , , ,
. , ,

, , , , , ,
.
,
(
66 30%), , , .

.
,

75 20% (. . 62).

(74 75%). , , (52%; 66%
). 59%, (35%)
( 63%
, 21%
, 16% ).

.

62
( % )
1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
?
/
66
66
65
64
68
/
30
33
32
30
26

4
2
3
5
4
?
/
75
80
73
74
75
/
20
19
21
20
21

3
2
4
5
3
?
/
64
67
61
66
65
/
29
29
30
28
29

5
4
6
6
5

56

3-4 (118) 2014


41%, 35% ( ,
26%).
, (
).

,
( 64 29%).
, .
: 57 36%, 61
31% ( 28%).

: (69 27%).

56 35%.


,


, , ,
(. . 63).
.

, , 36%, ( )
27%.
,
,

. ( 63%)
, .

( 24%).
-

,
, .
,
.
(10% 6% )
(. . 64).

63
?

/
/

67
30
3

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)
66
63
69
69
32
31
28
28
1
4
4
4

64
,
(% )



-


, ,

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)

17

18

17

15

16

11
8
6
63
4

11
8
7
61
3

11
8
5
64
4

11
7
5
63
6

10
7
5
63
2

3-4 (118) 2014

57


, ,


,

(. . 65).

65
, ( % )
1- (2010) 2- (2011) 3- (2012) 4- (2013)
?

80
79
79
83
80

17
19
17
14
17

3
2
5
4
2
?

70
71
70
69
72

25
26
25
25
23

5
4
6
6
5
. 61
?

80
81
79
81
80

15
16
16
13
16

5
3
5
6
4
?

29
27
32
27
30

62
62
60
63
63

9
11
8
10
8
?

70
70
68
71
70

23
24
25
21
21

7
6
7
8
9
, ?

21
24
23
19
18

69
67
68
70
73

9
9
9
11
9
?

23
24
24
21
21

71
68
71
71
74

7
8
6
8
5
, ?

23
28
19
22
24

67
64
72
66
67

9
8
9
12
9
, ?

41
44
40
40
41

47
44
49
47
48

12
12
12
13
11
?

7
5
6
8

86
86
85
86

8
9
9
6
?

2
1
3
1

78
76
76
82

21
23
22
17
, ?

42
42

43
43

15
15
-

58

3-4 (118) 2014

, , .
:

;
. -


.
,
;
(. . 66).

66
: ( % )

80
84
75
72

17
13
22
25

3
3
4
4
?

70
76
60
62

25
20
34
30

5
4
7
8
?

80
84
74
79

15
12
20
18

5
4
6
3
?

29
28
32
31

62
64
57
64

9
9
11
5
?

70
75
61
64

23
20
30
26

7
6
9
10
, ?

21
19
25
26

69
73
62
64

9
8
12
10
?

23
20
28
27

71
73
66
68

7
7
6
5
, ?

23
21
29
30

67
71
61
65

9
9
11
6
, ?

41

40

45

48

47

49

41

41

12

11

14

11

3-4 (118) 2014

59

. 62

? (2, 3 4 )

10

86

87

83

87

8
8
7
? (2, 3 4 )

2
2
1

78
79
73

21
19
26
, ? (1- )

42
39
48

43
46
37

15
15
15

, , ,
,
. ,
(80%) ,

, , ,
, .
: 38%
,
;
(30%). ,
(25% ).
,
,

( 29%),
-

8
1
78
22
55
39
6


- .
,
(31%) , (29 27%).
, ,

( 25%), -
(25
26%). ,
.

, .
, ,


27% .

67
? ( %
)

60

17
23
38
6
14
2

1-
(2010)
15
22
38
8
16
1

3-4 (118) 2014

2-
(2011)
19
23
37
5
13
3

3-
(2012)
15
24
42
7
11
2

4-
(2013)
19
25
36
4
15
2

,
(. . 67). (38%),

( ) 37 24%, 44 19%.

(45%), (18%),

:
(42
44%), 35 31%,
.

, :
64% ,
75%.
: ,

68
, ,
?

,
,
,
, ,

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)

38
30
17

36
28
19

38
29
16

38
30
20

40
35
12

12
3

13
3

12
5

9
3

12
2

69
-
( % )

?

50
41

50
59


25
28

59
60

16
12

18-24
8
5
25-39
35
31
40-54
35
37
55
23
28

7
8

18
19

14
14

21
17

5
5
,
1
1
, ,
1
1
,
19
24
/
4
4

8
5

3-4 (118) 2014

67
34

66
34

12
62
27

28
58
14

13
41
30
16

12
41
31
17

3
10
15
28
8
1
2
14
4
14

9
23
11
25
2
<1
<1
13
2
13

61


24%,
37%,
36% ( ,
20% 13%).

,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
(25-39-). , ,
. , , -
.
;
(25%),
,
(. . 69).
,
, ,
, ,
, (

22%).
,
.



,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
, , .
25% ( 43%,
53%, ); -

(27%,
12%).
, , , ,
.

,
, .

1. ,
.
,
,
(,
, ) .
:

70
?

,

,

62

1- 2- 3- 4-
(2010)
(2011)
(2012)
(2013)

43

42

47

40

43

38
12
7

38
13
7

33
13
7

43
10
7

37
13
7

3-4 (118) 2014

)
, ;
)
,

, , ,
;
) , , ,
, ,
.
-
.
. ,
60 80%, ,
,
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Democracy in Post-Communist Russia, Europe-Asia Studies 56 (3), P.
363.
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:
, :
,

2.
, ,


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,


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,

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, , .
Carnaghan E. (2008) Out Of Order: Russian Political Values in an
Imperfect World. Pennsylvania State University, P. 170.
3
Mishler W. & Rose R. (2010) The Impact of Macro-Economic Shock on
Russians, in Post-Soviet Affairs 26 (1), P. 38-57.
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Rose, R., Mishler, W. & Munro, N. (2007) Russia Transformed. Developing
Popular Support for a New Regime. Cambridge University Press.
2
. (2011) // Pro
et Contra 15 (5), . 12.
3
Hay C. (2008) Constructivist Institutionalism, in The Oxford Handbook
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Bert A., P. 1-27. Oxford Handbooks Online.
4 Schmidt A. V. (2008) Discursive Institutionalism: The Explanatory Power
of Ideas and Discourse, in Annual Review of Political Science 11, P. 303-326.
1

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Stanford University Press, P. 11.
5
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Noelle-Neumann E. (2001) Die Schweigespirale. Mnchen: Langen
Mller, 6 erw. Neuauflage.
3
Azmanova A. (2010) Deliberative Conflict and The Better Argument
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4
Azmanova A. (2011). Social Injustice and the Pragmatics of Universal
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Elster J. (1996) The Market and the Forum: Three Varieties of Political
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Technology.
2

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Manin B. (1987). On Legitimacy and Political Deliberation, in Political
Theory 15 (3), P. 356.
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Theory 15 (3), P. 355-356.
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.

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-
.
:

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.
3.
, , ,
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society)
(great community),
4.
Lippmann W. (1927) The Phantom Public. Repr., New Brunswick, NJ:
Transaction, 1993.
2
, . 27.
3
, . 56-57.
4
Dewey J. (1927) The Public and Its Problems. New York: Henry Holt.
1

76

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8
Putnam Robert D. (1995) Bowling Alone: Americas Declining Social
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Chambers S. & Kopstein J. (2001) Bad Civil Society, in Political Theory
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Mutz, D. C. & Martin, P. S. (2001) Facilitating Communication across
Lines of Political Difference: The Role of Mass Media, in American Political
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5
6

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,

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- Humphrey C. (1999) Traders, Disorder, and Citizenship in Provincial
Russia, in Burawoy M., Verdery K. (eds.) Uncertain Transition:
Ethnographies of Change in the Postsocialist World. Lanham, MD.
1

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. Verdery K. (1999) The Political Lives of Dead Bodies: Reburial and
Postsocialist Change. New York: Columbia University Press. OushakineS.
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Two Concepts of Liberty, in I. Berlin (1969), Four Essays on Liberty,
London: Oxford University Press. New ed. in Berlin 2002.
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77


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, .
Clark, T., Ernest, G. & Kosova, L. (2003) Economic Well-Being and
Popular Support for Market Reform in Russia, in Political Development and
Cultural Change 51 (3), P. 753-768. ., ., . (2008)
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2
Rose, R., Mishler, W. & Munro, N. (2007) Russia Transformed. Developing
Popular Support for a New Regime. Cambridge University Press.
3
., ., . (2008) // .
C.314.
1

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Sztompka P. (2000) Cultural Trauma. The other face of social change,
in European Journal of Social theory 3 (4), P. 449-466.
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Catalogue in Programm on Central and Eastern Europe Working Paper
Series 19, November 29-30, P. 14).
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Sunstein Cass (1991) Preferences and Politics, in Philosophy and
Public Affairs 20 (1), P. 13.
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79

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3-4 (118) 2014

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3-4 (118) 2014

91

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10

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37

43

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3-4 (118) 2014

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3-4 (118) 2014

93

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35

29

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37

40

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26

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24

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21

43

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141
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3-4 (118) 2014

4
, ?
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1999

2003

2006

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

, (, , , , )
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(
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( 0,86).
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95


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22
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( % )*

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3-4 (118) 2014

11

( % )


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19
50
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42
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44
43

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(4- 5-
)

3-4 (118) 2014

84
58
31
48
41
40
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25
25
389

60
43
25
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30
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46
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33
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48
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24
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15
16

22
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31

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37

31

37

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37
32
336

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26
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276

22
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218

3-4 (118) 2014

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18
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35
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23
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3-4 (118) 2014

1
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21
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100

3-4 (118) 2014




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16
( , % )

62
60
50
41
38
31
29
29
26
25
24
23
22
22
21

58
56
47
39
44
36
32
29
33
32
34
17
26
23
21

61
58
47
40
36
30
28
29
25
25
22
25
22
20
21

65
62
52
41
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27
29
26
22
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21
21
24
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63
65
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37
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34
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24
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17
( , % )

62
60
50
41
38
31
29
29
26
25
24
23
22
22
21

54
54
38
42
43
21
26
29
19
19
19
28
15
18
20

62
60
49
39
36
28
26
27
22
22
22
21
19
19
17

65
60
51
39
37
34
29
29
28
25
25
24
24
23
22

68
68
62
54
53
45
47
46
40
47
41
24
38
32
36

18
, , ? ( , % )




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64
60

60
61

64
58

64
62

69
64

52
26
22

46
31
24

54
27
20

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26
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19

17
15
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19
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14
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3-4 (118) 2014

101

,
(68%).
, 90- ,
(72-74%) ,
.
1999-2000

: . ,
,
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(
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( 63 68%

).
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19
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68
22
9
3,1

46
73
64
44
18
27
10
10
10
1,04
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2,4

76
18
7
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20
- ( % )



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51
71

44
26

57
74

42
25

41
67

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31

51
68

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32

77

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102

3-4 (118) 2014

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()

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22
. ? . , , ? ( % )


59
33
64
33
63
27

53
42

75
17

45
15
51
39
63
50
82
43
57
33
,

40
60
37
44
28


40
24
40
40
58

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27
57
25
28
16


25
13
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28
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31
17
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42
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?
65
50
67
64
72

20
29
16
24
19

3-4 (118) 2014

103

(65%; 80%, 79%).


, ( , 33%,
16%), ( ) ,
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: 69% , 68% , 65% ,

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( ,
-
).
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.
:
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23
? ( % )
.
1.

71
26

71
23

69
26

65
30
2.

24
75

53
43

59
36

44
53
3.

65
33

59
31

61
32

26
68
4.

40
56

30
62

30
62

25
68
5.

51
37

36
58

54
41

49
47

6.

49
51

47
44

47
48

50
46

104

3-4 (118) 2014

. 23
.
1.

64
32
,
24
71
-
24
70

21
71
2.

36
61
,
36
59
-
43
56

34
57
3.

62
31
,
60
34
-
62
31

60
27
4.

23
72
,
60
34
-
63
31

25
59
5.

38
58
,
34
60
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55
40

52
37

6.

31
62
,
44
51
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47
48

50
37

, ,
, , .. welfare state,
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.
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;

(64%,
32%).
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.

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.
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41% => 65%, -

3-4 (118) 2014

105

: (55%)
(32%));
3.
:
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:

( ,
67%
53% ),
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,
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:
-,
,

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4. / :

( /
,
0,57, - 0,49, 0,42,
0,32);
31-35%, 2827%; ;
, 66%
59% ; .
5.
/ :
(
49% 62%), (45% , 31-34% ); .

106

6. /
,
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(53% 37% ; 51%
, , 42%; ,
7-9.).

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2000- ,
.
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3-4 (118) 2014

. ( ),
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, ,

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: , , . , ,
, .



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, ,

( 45 60%
). ,
,
( - ).
,
,

3-4 (118) 2014

107

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, .
(
,



.
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/ 7-8%;

( 2009-2013 . 12-15%
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15

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24
2011 ? ( %
)

10

11

13

-
()

10

()

17

49

15

18

51

30

54

46

66

(), ()

108

3-4 (118) 2014

. +



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, .
, . , ,
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,
,
,
25% ( : , ,
, . ?).


.
25
2011 ? ( %
)

10
8
1
17
3
51
1
1
9

11
23
0
3
6
47
4
0
6

9
6
3
32
2
43
1
0
6

13
8
1
6
4
59
1
1
10

7
4
1
9
2
56
1
1
21

26
..? ( % )

4 2012
67
58
71
33
42
29

74
26

53
47

2011 ?
55
46
60
61
45
54
40
40

37
63

3-4 (118) 2014

109

27
( % )




,

,

,


,

14

14

12

20

10

10

16

22

15

18

14

10
25
8
8
10
6
64
89
54

14
11
84

5
8
46

10

18

10

10

12
6
20
9
0
8
65

6
6
10
2
0
10
52

13
6
17
13
1
9
69

9
7
24
3
0
7
60

16
4
25
10
1
7
70


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.

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,
.
. 2011-2012 .,
,
, .

110

,
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.
,
. ,

.
,


,

3-4 (118) 2014

( , , ..).

.
:
.
,
;
65%.
.

27
28%. - , -, -

, :

, .

: ,
, .

.
, .

28
..? ( ) ( % )


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1
0
2
1
0

9
8
8
10
15

16
12
15
20
16

24
28
23
25
26

49
52
52
44
43
-, , polit.ru, lenta.ru, gazeta.ru, grani.ru, rbk.ru .

4
2
4
5
7

10
3
10
10
19

13
5
11
15
16

18
14
18
18
19

55
76
57
52
40

29
..? ( ) ( % )
+

( , , , .),


1
2
1
2
2

9
16
11
8
4

16
18
18
17
10

24
31
23
28
19

49
35
48
46
65
-, , polit.ru, lenta.ru, gazeta.ru, grani.ru, rbk.ru .

4
11
3
4
4

10
21
9
11
7

13
17
13
12
11

18
21
18
19
15

55
30
58
54
63

3-4 (118) 2014

111

30
- , ,
( ) ( % )

31
10

41
14

21
3

13
13

36
22

31
14

41
35

40
33

,
, , ,

31
- , ( ) ( % )
,

,
, , ,

,

31
10

29
24

39
3

12
16

36
22

38
10

39
18

44
28

32
, ? ( % )
/
/

63
20
17

78
16
6

63
22
15

+
67
52
21
15
13
33

33
? ( % )
/
/

48
33
20

+
48
51
48
35
43
30
38
29
9
19
15
37

, ,
,

,
, , .
,
,
,

(55%),
. ,

112


.

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,
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. :
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3-4 (118) 2014


),
.
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. ,
, 81% 12% ; 72% 13%, .

.


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,
88%!

.
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, .

34
? ( % )


/ /
/
/




-
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,
,

-

77

73

76

82

72

50
38

42
27

54
41

48
37

45
32

35
32

27
38

36
33

35
34

38
22

31
27
24
23
17
14
14

24
24
15
35
19
11
8

31
29
25
22
19
15
15

32
25
25
23
15
16
12

28
25
22
17
10
11
14

13

13

13

12
9
9
6
4
5
4
2

5
3
8
3
3
3
5
3

11
11
9
6
4
5
3
2

15
9
7
7
4
5
3
2

13
8
8
4
6
4
6
1

35
, , ? ( %
)

16
10
82

4
4
94

17
11
81

3-4 (118) 2014

13
9
85

28
16
69

113

36
5 ( )... ( % )

()

3
2
2

0
1
1
1
4
30
66

0
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3
7
88

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0
4
28
68

0
0
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0
3
32
65

7
1
0
0
2
6
50
47

37
5 ? ( % )

21

64

22

19

15

38
, ? ( % )

11

11

11

22

13

81

85

84

81

65

37
? ( % , / )


, .
,

58
37
19
2
22

17
39
11
6
33

60
33
18
2
22

54
37
16
2
25

68
49
25
1
14


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114

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3-4 (118) 2014

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. 2014-: // Pro et Contra,
2014, 3-4, -, .57-72.
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, . // . 2001. 3. . 84-89. .., .. . , . , 1994. Heins M. Transformationsprozesse
in Ostdeutschland: norm-, anomie- und innovationstheoretische Aspekte.
Wiesbaden: DUV, Dt. Univ.-Verl, 1994.
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,
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An alternative to Sroles Anomia Scale // Social Indicators Research,
1993,Volume 28,Issue 1. Pp 71-91.
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American Sociological Review. Vol.30, No.1 (Feb. 1965). P.19.
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, .: .. : // : . 2014. 38. .165199.
5
Seeman M. On The Meaning of Alienation // American Sociological
Review, Vol.24, No.6 (Dec., 1959), pp.783-791.
6
, p. 785.
3

,
, : Seeman M. Alienation and
Anomie. // Robinson J., Shaver Ph., Lawrence W. Measures of Personality
and Social Psychological Attitudes. Academic Press. 1991. Pp.291-372.
2
Golovakha E., Panina N., Parakhonska O. Ukrainian Society 19922010:
Sociological Monitoring. Kyiv: Institute of Sociology NAS, 2011.
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BIC

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VLMR P-values*

25

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Weber M. Die legale Herrschaft mit brokratischem Verwaltungsstab.
In: Weber M. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Grundriss der verstehenden
Soziologie. Bd. 1, Kap.III., Tbingen, J.C.D. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 5. Aufl.,
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das Alltgliche // Klner Zeitschrift fr Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie.
Opladen, 1979, Sonderheft #20, S.322.
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173

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2
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? 49% , , 16% (13% + 3% ), (35%)

. ,
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1

174

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, .
.
2008-2009 ,

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.. ,
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.
, .
3

3-4 (118) 2014

1
, , ?1 ( % )

1990 1997 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
XII
IV
VII
VII
XI
VIII
XI
VII
X
X
21
17
21
15
15
15
19
20
20
19
62
72
74
81
80
77
75
76
70
74
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11
5
4
5
8
6
4
10
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, , , N=1600

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175

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,
).


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), ,
,
, , ,
. , :

,
?
48%
; 16%,
, ( 2014 .).
2013-2014

(. 2).
2014 .
-

2
?


,
,

2006

19
29
32
16
5

2007

27
33
23
12
6

2008

22
40
23
6
9

2010

18
37
27
7
11

2013

13
40
30
10
7

2014

37
49
5
1
8

2013. -. ., 2013,
.34-35, . 3.1.14- 3.2.2.
1

176

3-4 (118) 2014

(86%). 64% , .


- ,
2013
25- (1989-2014 ., . 1).


,

.

.
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1
, , , ?
4

18

21

18
23

20

19

21

10

24
33

44

44

46

40

41

46

46

50

46
39

30

26
4

24
6

. 05

. 06

. 07

20

24

. 06

24

27

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20
6

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. 12

21

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14

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?
17

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38

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41

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42

37

19

18

19

20

35

36

35

36

15

19

40

15

23

41

18

36
43

28

25

28

27

25

27

21

19
24

32

23

27

23
19

10

12

02

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11
7
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11

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8
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16

16

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3-4 (118) 2014

14

. 13

14

177


.


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.
, , .

, 2008 ,

,
. , ,

,
.
3- 56
71% , 20-24% (
2013 . 18%).
, . 2014 , -

3
?
2002
2007
2008
2009
2011
2011
2012
2013
2014


12
13,2
10
3
15
11
11
17,2
5


37
37,4
29
20
41
28
32
44,5
19


30
31,6
32
39
28
39
36
23,7
46


12
7,7
18
25
6
11
11
5,3
20


10
10,2
11
12
11
11
10
9,3
10

4
?

2011

28

34

18

15

2012

22

35

13

23

2012

26

39

17

11

2013

20

35

16

16

14

2013

35

36

15

11

2014

19,4

32,6

23,4

9,8

14,9

178

3-4 (118) 2014

,
, , , ,
.


. (
, .) ( )
,
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5
(
)

+

71
56
82
61
66
61
65
63
58
65
40

19
44
15
34
32
31
25
32
27
27
44

10
0
3
5
2
8
10
5
15
8
16

19
16
18
22

10
7
11
11

71
77
71
67

2014 .,

6
,
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6
7
0
2
6
21
3
13
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0
5

6
6
3
6
9
22
2
21
5
0
5


17
20
25
20
26
22
15
12
15
16
20

20
15
21
15
37
12
26
26
17
14
32

5
5
7
5
0
6
3
3
5
4
7


54
61
55
59
28
42
53
41
56
67
45

1
2
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1
0
0
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3
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0
0

2014 ., , %

3-4 (118) 2014

179



,
, ,
.

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.

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), (
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,
, (52%) -
(25%).
4%, ,
,
.
1990-
, , ,
, ,
. ( 1998 .):

?, 42% ( , , 58%); 22%
; 10% (
, ).
(- ) 3%;

7
?


-

4
52
25
6
4
9

1990 , N=500 ( )

8
?

14

14

10

<1

<1

38

12

1999 , N=3000, ,

180

3-4 (118) 2014

(3%); 1%, 2%.




- ,
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).

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( 15% ). ,

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3-4 (118) 2014

181

(
55% ,
10 ).
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, ,
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,

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9
?
2005
2011
2013

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)
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2014

12

14

13

12

28

30

31

30

15

14

14

10

10

16
10

14
13

13
12

14
19

( 1998): ,
10 ,
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20 ). 1999.
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35%, 52%.
,
.
(63%) ,
,
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(, , ), ,
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( 18 40 ),
,
. -

182

3-4 (118) 2014

10
-

12

10

30

14

4
4
11
25

16
9
10
9

9
11
6
3

28
30
32
29

12
15
17
10

9
12
11
19

12
12
6
8

8
7
9
3

34
32
25
26

13
13
13
16

17
14
11
7
7

13
5
8
9
4

34
35
32
26
28

13
11
15
10
19

11
10
10
9

4
7
9
7

27
28
35
36

13
14
14
14

15
15
11
14
16
9
13
8
12
9

15
10
9
7
10
6
8
2
12
6

26
34
40
34
27
26
41
29
27
24

11
7
13
0
14
19
6
10
20
20

18-24
25-39
40-54
55+


,

()

11
9
15
13
13

20
13
7
12
-
8
10
10
0
10
9
3
26
4
8

2014 .,


, .

, ( )
(.11), ( 2014 -

3-4 (118) 2014

183

: 8-10%
2006-2013. 15%)1.
(, ,
,
,
) .
,

. 2%;
(10%) 2013 ,

. 3 7% , .

.

11
, ?




1917

1998

2006

2007

10

2013

2014

15

43
36
5
6
9

43
32
5
5
6

50
25
4
4
6

39
25
7
8
14

40
27
3
6
10

12
, , ?

,

, , ,

,

1994

24
7

2000

25
6

2012

21
4

2014

25
8

20
4
5
41

23
7
5
34

28
7
7
33

23
12
3
30

13
, , ?

,

, , ,

- ,



( )
.
: 16 ( 23%
2000 . 37% 2014.).
3-5% , , ,
15%.
, .

2008

35
5

2013

24
8

2014

30
8

20
6
2
1
31

23
6
10
5
25

21
10
2
3
25

184


20 41% (1994.) 30% (2014.),
, , (
) .
-

3-4 (118) 2014


.
: , ,
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, , , ,
, , (.18 19). -

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, - .
,
( ), ,
(17%); ,
, ,

( 2014. 22%).

( )
(
44 57%, 50%; . .14).

14
?
1998
2000 2002
2008
2013

, , , 1917 .
3
3
3
3
3

17
15
20
10
12
,
, ,
,
29
23
33
34
33


13
19
14
19
19
, , ,
29
33
27
29
26

9
6
3
5
7

2014

2
17
37
18
22
5

15
,
?

1998 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2014
. . . . . . . .
61
74
70
61
40
74
73
77
75
78
74
76
71
14
16
18
16
11
14
11
16
13
16
22
24
39
12
14
9
11
12
11
11
10
11
13
15
17
21

16
, ?

2003

24
38
29
10

2007
.
16
39
33
12

2010

13
36
40
11

3-4 (118) 2014

2011
.
20
33
34
12

2012
.
17
38
32
14

2012

15
39
34
12

2013
.
12
43
31
14

2014

19
36
31
15

185

,
, 1.
, , ,
. ,
2008 , ( 20072008.) ,
( 36% : 48%),

,
( 13%, 23-24%
.17).
, .,
-

3
, , ?
2014

2013

2,5

11
10

. 2012 0,8

13,7

. 2010

11,6

1,5

. 2007

. 2006

2,4

38
35

3,6

48,9
39

4,4

42,1

34

2,3

50,6

21
12,7

47

30,5

4,8

40,6

38,5

44,5

4
?
2014

2013

2,7

. 2012

3,2

17

13,4

13,7

39

34,6

186

44,5

38,3

. 2010

4,9

14,2

31

. 2006

5,3

13,5

30,4

39,3

46,4

46,6

. ,
, , , ,
, , , .
, .
, , . GreenS.
Moscow in Movement: Power & Opposition in Putins Russia, Stanford
University Press, 2014
1

36

4,9

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,
,
.

,
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3-4 (118) 2014

, , ,
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(. 17, , +
).
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, .
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,
,
. -

17
.?

+
+
+/-

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
4
5
4
4
4
6
9
9
4
3
3
2
6
34
37
38
30
32
32
38
40
31
28
20
18
31
38
11
8

37
9
6

39
10
4

35
14
7

36
11
5

36
13
4

34
9
4

31
10
3

38
11
7

36
18
4

33
19
11

30
22
10

29
15
6

3
1
49
3,2

3
1
46
4,2

3
1
49
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7
3
49
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8
2
47
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5
1
49
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2
2
43
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1
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6
2
49
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5
3
54
2,6

8
5
52
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* 2014 ., , ,

3-4 (118) 2014

187

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2009. . I // , 2013, .11, 3, .209-219.

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27

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11

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3-4 (118) 2014

189

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438
100
16
13
16

298
23
100
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12

171
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214
32
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9
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2014, ,

438
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21
?

298
16
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6
4

171
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10
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214
16
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,

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22
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55

28
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12
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15
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16
12
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10
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4
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4
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7
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6
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33
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2014 .,

3-4 (118) 2014

191

, ( ),
, ,
, .
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, ,
,
,
.
,
, , 43%,
15%,
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46% (
35% ,
20%); 2014 48% ( 28%; 24% ). (

, , , )

. 2006-2014 (, , ..)
36 40%, (,
, , , )
, , 38 19%,
19 30%.1

; . ?
// :
. . . -, 18-20 2012 . .,
, 2013, .6-20; GudkovL. The Archetype of the Leader: Analyzing
a Totalitarian Symbol Stalin the Puzzle: Deciphering of Post-Soviet Public
Opinion, Washington, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2013,
p.29-46; Gudkow Lev. Spiele mit Stalin: ber das Legitimationsdefizit des
Putin-Regimes // Berliner Debatte Initial. 2013, 24. Jg. N1, S.99-108.
1

192

,
,

, , .

,
, .
, , .
, :
+/- 0,65,
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23
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25-39
40-54
55+

23
56

26
40
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49
28
56
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55
25
54
19
56
20
58
-
36
50
52
34
26
53
13
44
25
52
23
52
34
31
16
74
29
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8
52

47
38
18
60
28
50
24
59
19
55


21
35
28
17
13
17
21
25
23
14
14
21
43
23
25
35
10
28
40
15
22
22
17
26

2014.,

24
, 1992 . . ,
?
1999 2002 2004 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
. . . .
, ,

,





+/-

2
15
13

2
14
17

4
21
19

5
21
20

7
31
19

7
23
19

5
21
22

4
20
18

6
18
23

5
21
22

46
25
59
0.3

51
16
58
0.2

36
20
55
0.4

35
20
55
0.5

24
19
43
0.9

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, : http://www.levada.ru/30-07-2014/otsenka-politikirukovodstva-rossii-otnositelno-ukrainy; http://www.levada.ru/12-08-2014/
ukrainskii-krizis-deistviya-rukovodstva-ukrainy-i-rossii; http://www.levada.
ru/29-08-2014/ukrainskii-krizis-vnimanie-uchastie-rossii-budushchee;
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levada.ru/25-11-2014/sobytiya-na-vostoke-ukrainy-vybory-v-dnr-ilnr-peremirie;
http://www.levada.ru/27-11-2014/voennyi-konflikt-navostoke-ukrainy; http://www.levada.ru/10-12-2014/rossiiskaya-politika-votnoshenii-kryma; http://www.levada.ru/30-12-2014/maidan-krym-sanktsii

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3-4 (118) 2014

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73
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68
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3-4 (118) 2014

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3-4 (118) 2014

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3-4 (118) 2014

209

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3-4 (118) 2014

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3-4 (118) 2014

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3-4 (118) 2014

215

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328

925

406

278

18. ?


,
( )
, ,
()

( ,,)

70
60

76
56

74
63

64
63

70
59

73
60

56
61

70
64

77
55

42
69

54
40

66
64

71
63

85
57

72
61

78
55

55
62

1
0
0
1

0
0
0
1

0
0
0
1

3
0
0
4

1
0
0
1

0
1
1
1

0
0
0
6

0
0
0
2

1
1
1
0

0
0
0
6

2
6
6
2

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1

1
0
0
1

1
0
0
1

1
2
1
0

0
0
0
5

19. ?

,

,

,

,

16

16

18

23

20

13

19

19

14

17

19

19

14

17

15

19

16

11

12

13

11

12

13

10

25

12

12

12

11

32

39

27

13

33

32

27

36

28

34

36

28

36

28

39

19

25

35

27

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56

30

38

38

29

40

32

15

38

35

38

31

46

36

14

20. , , ?

15
31
49
5

16
34
46
5

13
43
39
5

13
31
52
4

16
33
49
3

16
29
49
6

5
35
49
11

19
29
50
2

14
29
51
6

9
44
36
11

13
45
36
6

16
30
52
3

15
28
53
4

15
35
43
6

13
31
50
6

19
32
44
4

13
29
54
4

21. , ?

,
,

49

45

72

70

48

51

35

50

50

40

32

56

44

54

48

53

42

16

22

18

18

17

24

13

12

22

17

18

13

18

16

11

35

32

11

22

34

32

59

26

37

48

46

27

38

33

34

31

46

22. , , , , ?

2
15
36
27
21

2
19
36
21
21

2
24
29
38
6

0
11
30
41
18

2
21
30
27
20

3
11
41
28
18

1
15
25
21
38

2
24
31
26
17

3
10
40
29
18

1
13
27
20
40

9
20
27
16
29

3
16
31
32
18

2
14
41
22
21

2
13
36
33
17

3
16
36
26
20

4
17
34
32
14

0
6
39
22
34

241

242

II.
A. , , ,

25-39

40-54

55

500 .

100 500 .

100 .

18-24

1610

723

887

223

461

429

497

500

542

272

296

287

837

426

59

136

375

298

402

399

U1. ?

22

24

21

17

25

25

20

26

22

20

18

20

21

26

21

31

29

17

20

20

70
8

68
8

71
8

71
12

69
6

69
6

71
10

66
7

70
8

72
8

73
10

71
10

71
8

68
7

64
15

68
2

65
7

78
6

74
7

66
14

15
37
36
11
1

16
38
36
11
1

15
37
36
11
1

8
28
44
20
1

11
36
39
14
0

15
40
37
8
1

22
41
28
7
2

13
41
36
10
0

18
38
33
11
1

13
35
42
9
1

16
32
36
14
3

15
37
31
15
3

16
33
38
13
0

13
46
36
5
1

22
37
29
10
2

9
43
41
7
0

17
43
27
13
0

13
36
38
14
0

16
35
38
12
1

17
34
39
8
3

41

37

45

38

43

37

45

43

40

42

42

45

39

44

50

41

55

45

37

31

41
18

48
15

36
19

36
27

41
16

43
20

42
13

45
12

44
16

39
19

32
26

32
23

43
18

43
13

36
15

55
4

31
14

38
17

48
16

42
27

U2. ?





()

U3. ?

U4. , ?





( )

60
18

61
18

58
19

55
16

61
17

61
19

59
20

66
19

61
17

58
24

48
15

62
11

56
22

66
18

43
12

52
24

63
19

62
18

59
18

58
17

7
2

6
3

7
1

7
3

8
3

4
2

8
1

7
1

7
2

4
2

7
3

8
0

6
2

5
3

21
0

9
2

7
2

5
2

9
3

4
1

3
11

2
11

3
11

2
18

2
10

4
10

2
10

0
6

5
9

1
11

4
23

4
14

3
11

1
7

11
14

1
12

3
8

1
12

2
9

4
15

U5. , ?

18

17

19

20

15

22

16

18

20

17

15

14

19

18

34

29

15

24

15

16

14
58
10

14
59
11

14
58
10

21
47
12

14
60
10

11
61
7

13
59
12

14
61
8

13
60
8

13
57
13

18
51
17

13
59
14

14
57
10

16
60
7

5
49
12

14
53
5

18
59
8

13
55
8

12
63
11

13
56
15

54
29
6
7
5

52
32
6
3
7

62
23
8
2
6

49
30
6
7
8

51
34
4
5
6

54
32
7
3
5

52
28
7
7
6

54
32
6
4
4

55
30
2
6
7

50
32
8
1
9

50
29
4
5
12

54
32
7
4
4

55
31
5
5
4

41
17
12
9
20

39
29
19
5
7

57
27
9
3
5

52
31
5
8
5

51
34
4
5
7

57
31
3
3
7

U6. ?

53
31
6
5
6

U7. , , , ?

4
6
29
49
12

3
7
29
48
12

5
5
29
49
12

2
9
33
42
15

4
8
26
50
12

6
3
31
46
15

4
6
29
53
9

4
7
33
47
9

3
5
26
54
12

3
4
24
53
16

7
8
33
38
14

3
4
24
48
20

5
6
30
48
11

4
9
32
50
5

3
1
21
45
30

7
11
28
53
1

3
7
27
47
16

5
4
31
48
11

4
6
26
49
16

3
6
34
48
9

U8. , , , ,
?

6
14
26
40
13

8
12
27
40
13

6
16
25
41
13

7
4
35
40
14

5
13
24
41
17

9
15
25
38
14

5
18
25
42
10

9
19
27
35
11

5
13
25
44
13

6
6
21
51
16

5
15
30
35
15

4
12
20
42
22

7
15
29
38
11

7
15
25
43
10

6
4
20
39
30

7
12
19
61
1

7
18
26
34
16

12
11
27
34
16

5
13
26
40
17

4
15
28
45
10

U9. , 2 ?

27
36
11
6
20

29
34
12
5
20

26
37
10
7
21

20
42
7
5
26

25
39
14
6
17

29
34
11
9
17

31
31
10
5
23

27
40
10
7
16

30
30
13
8
19

25
34
13
7
21

25
38
7
2
28

22
27
10
6
35

26
38
11
8
19

33
37
12
5
14

29
38
13
2
19

41
41
14
0
4

30
35
9
9
18

18
31
14
7
30

26
30
13
9
22

28
43
8
3
18

18
46
3
5
27

22
27
7
7
36

24
42
6
5
23

30
40
10
3
16

29
37
9
5
21

48
31
12
3
6

28
41
6
5
21

16
31
9
9
35

27
33
9
7
25

21
52
4
2
21

U10. , ?

243

26
39
7
5
23

28
37
7
5
23

24
41
7
5
23

25
40
6
5
24

23
41
9
6
22

23
38
9
7
23

30
38
5
3
24

28
40
7
5
20

28
37
9
5
21

25
35
9
5
27

244

25-39

40-54

55

500 .

100 500 .

100 .

18-24

1600

720

880

221

458

429

493

480

484

325

311

200

813

494

87

135

381

287

400

397

21
56
23

14
58
28

34
46
20

29
50
21

19
58
23

30
50
21

28
49
23

19
62
19

18
55
28

21
50
30

25
53
22

27
53
20

37
48
15

28
48
24

27
54
19

24
50
26

23
58
20

26
49
25

13
39
15
5
28

14
28
18
9
32

12
44
18
6
20

10
49
23
7
12

19
48
14
3
16

7
38
20
9
26

15
45
23
8
11

10
39
21
6
24

12
42
19
7
20

13
46
14
5
22

U11. , ?

25
53
22

30
48
22

U12. , ?

12
43
19
7
20

18
40
17
8
18

8
45
20
6
21

8
45
21
6
20

13
40
19
11
17

14
42
21
3
21

12
45
16
6
21

13
41
20
7
18

12
46
18
8
16

10
43
24
4
19

U13. , , ?

10
35
25
9
22

12
41
22
7
18

8
31
26
10
25

6
40
26
8
20

10
35
24
7
25

10
34
26
9
21

11
34
23
10
22

7
45
20
7
22

12
32
28
7
21

10
37
25
13
15

10
25
25
11
29

12
37
18
10
23

9
31
27
11
22

9
44
24
4
20

10
30
26
6
29

1
50
30
8
11

12
33
29
5
21

10
35
20
10
26

11
40
18
10
21

9
29
29
10
24

5
10
29
45
11

3
15
28
45
8

10
8
25
42
15

10
9
29
35
18

4
12
27
48
10

8
12
34
41
6

0
20
33
40
6

11
8
45
33
4

4
12
28
46
10

9
18
30
36
7

5
10
30
44
11

3
10
24
49
15

5
3
29
55
9

0
3
30
59
8

5
9
23
52
12

7
8
27
42
16

2
5
25
59
9

2
6
30
57
4

13
1
22
57
8

5
9
31
54
1

1
6
29
54
9

4
8
26
57
5

5
4
26
55
10

3
4
24
57
12

U14. , , ?

6
12
29
44
10

6
13
27
46
9

6
11
31
42
11

4
9
30
45
12

8
12
25
46
10

7
12
29
44
9

4
13
32
40
11

6
13
33
42
7

U15. , ?

4
6
27
56
9

3
5
27
56
8

4
6
26
55
9

2
5
23
61
9

4
5
24
59
8

3
5
30
54
9

5
7
28
52
9

4
8
26
56
7

U16. ?

36

37

36

39

37

39

32

41

37

26

35

28

37

40

39

40

38

41

26

40

36

33

38

27

33

37

42

34

33

44

39

37

37

34

16

36

27

32

45

37

16
12

19
11

13
13

21
13

13
18

18
6

14
12

14
12

20
10

19
11

7
19

17
18

15
10

14
12

31
14

20
4

22
12

16
12

14
15

10
13

10
12
34
26
19

9
20
40
22
8

11
15
38
23
13

3
14
47
26
10

8
10
36
27
19

11
10
30
26
23

8
16
41
24
11

8
18
45
21
8

10
13
38
33
6

14
23
25
29
9

5
15
44
24
11

11
16
38
21
13

11
19
38
22
10

4
11
45
26
14

21
56
24

22
55
23

21
59
20

21
61
18

22
59
19

21
53
26

21
47
32

20
56
24

9
16
35
20
21

11
12
35
35
7

9
16
30
32
13

6
20
34
17
23

9
9
30
35
17

5
20
32
26
18

3
16
34
24
23

U17. , ?

8
16
40
24
12

10
19
38
23
10

7
13
42
25
13

9
9
41
30
12

7
19
44
22
8

8
19
44
21
8

U18. , ?

21
55
25

21
57
22

21
53
27

24
41
35

27
54
19

21
53
27

14
62
24

19
60
22

20
58
22

24
45
31

23
49
28

20
48
32

U19. , ?

6
17
32
26
20

9
17
33
21
19

3
16
32
29
20

4
21
29
23
24

6
18
34
27
16

3
15
38
23
22

9
15
28
29
19

7
14
33
29
17

6
18
28
26
21

0
19
39
23
18

10
16
31
21
23

6
15
29
27
23

4
18
32
27
19

245

1610

246

. , ,

587

155

86

538

905

167

524

885

200

75

469

676

328

925

406

278

22

18

12

15

28

20

18

20

25

16

53

22

19

25

21

27

19

70

76

86

80

64

74

67

73

69

69

37

72

75

69

73

66

66

15

16

10

15

18
39
35
7
1

26
40
28
3
3

15
56
21
8
0

19
34
36
10
1

13
40
36
11
1

12
36
36
14
2

19
36
36
8
0

14
39
35
11
1

9
31
40
17
3

22
29
27
19
2

17
36
34
12
1

13
38
39
10
0

13
40
35
12
0

17
39
35
8
1

13
36
37
13
1

11
34
37
17
1





()

15
37
36
11
1

41

48

34

38

43

43

29

43

42

35

46

41

46

34

45

39

34

41

36

61

53

43

42

28

44

43

27

39

40

40

49

41

48

30

18

16

15

15

43

13

15

39

15

19

14

17

15

12

36

, ?

60

64

61

67

60

61

52

58

60

65

43

56

63

67

63

55

55

18

18

22

20

15

19

30

20

19

13

11

19

19

17

19

16

21

11

11


(
)

20

11

13

10

11

12

10

13

17

13

10

12

18

, ?

18

17

17

19

22

16

17

21

17

14

27

22

12

23

17

18

21

14

14

12

16

16

12

16

16

14

10

14

14

12

16

14

15

12

58
10

63
7

59
13

59
7

54
8

64
8

42
25

56
7

62
8

49
27

48
11

53
11

65
12

58
3

62
7

52
15

52
15

, ?

11

10

11

17

17

14

16

20

12

21

11

37

16

16

17

17

19

14

61
16

66
13

66
14

67
21

67
13

58
16

56
30

73
12

58
15

46
32

34
21

66
10

63
16

58
19

67
14

53
17

55
22

61
28
3
4
4

58
33
5
0
4

46
41
6
0
7

60
26
3
4
8

50
32
9
4
5

45
37
2
12
4

65
27
2
0
7

47
33
10
6
4

41
32
3
13
12

33
19
8
23
18

53
31
6
2
9

60
29
4
5
2

48
37
9
2
4

56
31
4
4
6

49
24
14
8
5

49
37
3
3
8

53
31
6
5
6

, , , ?

4
6
29
49
12

2
7
29
55
7

2
6
30
57
5

6
5
35
43
10

2
5
26
54
14

5
6
33
46
10

8
10
20
44
19

2
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15

SUMMARY

Monitoring of Russian public attitudes toward


judicial reform and judicial system (by Tatjana
Vorozheikina, Lev Gudkov, Natalija Zorkaya,
Adel Ovakemian) The purpose of present research
was to survey the dynamics of social attitudes
towards various aspects of court system in Russia
and the judiciary in general, the public awareness
of the judicial matters and to analyze the changes
expected from the institutional reforms (reform of
the Russian judiciary).
The current state of Russian public mind can
be safely characterized as a legal relativism, which
Russians believe is a direct consequence of the
inconsistencies between the principles declared in
the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which
however have never been really enforced or have
been enforced partially, and the contradictions
between the Law of the Russian Federation and the
existing judicial practices. The increasingly complex
social environment in the post-Soviet Russia, an
extensive social differentiation, loss of connection
between various spheres of social life, requiring an
adequate legal regulation, come into conflict with
surviving old Soviet-era principles of a dominating
government, which is not accountable to the public
and which the public has no control of. Such
ambiguous institutional practices reflect the public
attitudes and the ideas of the existing judiciary we
have captured in this research.
The growing realization of the independent
court and judges as a key factor for a fair and
nonpartisan trial is at odds with the actual practice:
more respondents share this opinion now (60%),
whereas the number of individuals who believe
that Russian courts are dependent in making
their rulings remained virtually unchanged (57 59%). In other words, the absolute majority of the
respondents now share the idea that the judiciary
should be independent from any other branches
of the government or influential groups or lobbies.
Of course, this public demand (the importance
of the ideal norm) is primarily directed at the
respondents themselves, supporting the ideal

250

norm imperative. On the other hand, however,


it also enforces the tensions within the citizens
judiciary relationship and leads to a clear
understanding of the gap between the expectations
and the reality. The higher such tension is in various
social classes, the worse is the general attitude
toward the judiciary and wariness of specific judicial
institutions.
The rationale for the public frustration with the
courts performance has been clearly articulated
these are the most frequently mentioned bribery
and corruption among the judges, court officers,
dependence of the judges from the government and
influential people, and inequality of parties in a trial
(for instance, a blazing advantage of the government
officials over the regular citizens), red tape, and
inefficiency of judges (answers are quoted here in
the descending order of frequency).
Democracy Begins at Home or Regarding
Political Competence of Russians (by Oleg
Kashirskikh) The paper argues that weakly
institutionalized patterns of social interaction
and interpersonal communication across lines of
difference in Russian society diminish democracy
support and social participation in politics. This
study counters the common belief that the lack of
life experience under a democratic government
and the resulting ignorance of alternatives are
the main reasons for supporting an authoritarian
policy. I argue that levels of democracy support are
not shaped by ignorance of alternatives, but on the
distortions in relationship to politics that emerge
from missing communicative interaction. Because
of the institutionally determined difficulties to
transcend the private into the public, the
Russian society is mostly structured not by social
diversity but by multiplicity of agents. Being
excluded of Others from their social environment,
most Russians articulate their relationship to politics
in terms of economic rationality, which prioritizes
short-term efficiency and concrete results. The
paper argues that the missing support of democratic

3-4 (118) 2014

institutions in Russias politics is being determined


not externally (information) but internally, i.e.,
through a normative sense of obligation to other
citizens.
City class: potential for adaptation or readiness
to change? (by Lev Gudkov, Natalia Zorkaya)
Presented herein are the results of a survey of the
populace of the largest cities (1 mln and above)
undertaken in order to determine the potential of
those interested in the modernization of Russian
society and state, and the advancement thereof
towards the democratic and legal examples inherent
for developed Western countries. Materials
concerning the social and political activity of these
population categories, arranged by character and
type of life strategy and adaptation form is provided.
The paradox of the countrys current
development is that only certain groups connected to
the authorities and the regime today but not included
into the system of authority, its legitimization and
regime reproduction but only associated with it can
be considered the only mechanism of change in the
post-totalitarian society. These people are forced to
cooperate with the regime because the authorities
control and distribute the budget and resources,
legal and social instruments of managing society,
economy, culture and everyday life of a great mass of
people but their long-term interests differ from those
of the powers that be.
Grounds for Success: a Comparative Analysis of
Subjective Status Assessments (by Larisa Kosova)
The article describes dynamics of subjective status
and investigates factors affecting the process within
last 15 years. Impact of two different phenomena
could be seen: effects of personal economic situation
and electoral mobilization. Factor analysis reveals
four different groups of circumstances granting,
from the viewpoint of respondents, success:
ascriptive characteristics, achievement attitudes,
level of corruption in a society and influence of
family. Societies differ in the degree of prevalence
obtained stereotypes. Thus, former Communist
countries produce the highest level of certainty
that including in corruption schemes is a necessary
condition for achievement.
The influence of age on the subjective status
assessments is separately examined. In Russia age
acts as a monotonous reducing factor in spite of
some other societies where status does not decline
during aging until very eldest stages.
Dissernet. Experimental sociology (by Andrei
Rostovtsev) There is a broadly accepted practice

in Russia to falsificate the doctoral dissertations


(theses) for members of the ruling society, for wellknown and powerful Russian politicians and various
public figures. The trade with academic degrees
became a social institution integrated within the
political system of Russian Federation. Since
the beginning of 2013 the voluntary community
Dissernet is working in Russia to uncover such
scientific fraud. By the end of 2014 about three
thousand recent Russian doctoral theses have been
found to be fraudulent. The collected statistical
data allow a number of sociological studies to be
made. The present report makes an attempt to
investigate the roots of this phenomenon, its inner
mechanisms, its potential dangers and looks for a
ways out of this social crisis.
Obstacles to Develop Cashless Payments
in Contemporary Russian Retailing (by Maxim
Markin). The development of cashless payments is
widely discussed in contemporary Russia. Different
interest groups (especially banks) are interested in
stimulating this process. But there are some obstacles
to develop cashless payments in contemporary
Russian retailing. As the acquiring market is a twosided market, banks have to increase the quantity of
card holders and the number of shops where people
are able to pay by card. The research questions are
why Russian citizens prefer cash payments and why
retailers are not interested in the development of
cashless payments. The study is based on two data
sources. In 2014 about 1600 people were questioned
in the framework of the Monitoring of Financial
Behavior and Trust in Financial Institutions by the
National Research University Higher School of
Economics (the HSE) and in 2012 about 40 retailers
fulfilled the questionnaire and about 10 managers
were questioned in the framework of the research
Retailers Costs of Accepting Cash and Cashless
Payments by the HSE. The findings demonstrate
that rural citizens and citizens of small towns who
have low income and low level of education do
not use their cards to buy anything in shops. In
other words, cashless payments are not a common
practice for them. Different programs of improving
the financial literacy can solve this problem.
Another obstacle to develop cashless payments
in contemporary Russian retailing is the large
acquiring fee. If retailers, banks and international
payment systems agree upon the decrease in the
rate, this problem can be also solved.
Belarusian echo of Russian mobilization (by
Sergey Nikolyuk) Homo Soveticus still remains
the main social type in Belorussian society. Given

3-4 (118) 2014

251

that Belorussias information field is fully covered


by Russian federal TV networks, its reaction to the
annexation of the Crimea was predictable. Despite
the dramatic decrease in the populaces earnings
growth rate, social indicators have grown, as did the
level of confidence in state institutions. By the end
of 2014 under the influence of negative economic
factors the reverse process began. However,
Belorussian society hasnt returned to its initial
condition.
From Disoriented Pessimists to Socialized
Optimists: Application of the Latent Class Analysis
to Studying Anomie in Ukraine (by Ekaterina
Lytkina). We address the issue of anomie in the
post-Communist area at the example of Ukraine.
We use the data of the monitor of the Institute of
Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of
Ukraine 1992-2010, where an adjusted version of
the anomie scale of McClosky and Schaar (1965)
was applied. We carry out a latent class analysis with
MPLUS 7 upon the data of 2010 (N=1800). We find
and describe three substantial classes disoriented
pessimists, socialized optimists, and socialized
realists which enable us both to capture the state
of the Ukrainian society and to understand the
strategies of the individuals responses. We conclude
that among the group of disoriented individuals,
another group is widely spread in the Ukrainian
society. These is individuals who agree with the
existence of an overall level of disorientation in
the society, but in the same time see themselves as
highly oriented and aware of the societal norms and
values.
Resentmental nationalism (by Lev Gudkov) The
article analyzes mass reactions caused by the crisis of
Putins regimes legitimacy, as well as mechanisms
of consequent consolidation of Russias society
around the authorities due to the aggressive
anti-Ukrainian and anti-western propagandist

252

campaign in 2014. The increase of social tension


and discontent in Russian society which became
noticeable in 2011-12 and manifested in mass
protest demonstrations in large cities was caused by
disappointment with the governments social policy,
the cutback of social expenditures not conforming
to the paternalist expectations of the majority of
the populace. From the ideological point of view
this discontent was expressed in demands to restore
Russias Great Power status, limit migration,
execute a national policy providing advantages and
social benefits to Russians.
Externally the social tension and national
inferiority complex manifested in the increase
of xenophobia and anti-western sentiment. The
political crisis in Russia and the change of political
course by the new Ukrainian leadership created
a serious danger for the Russian authoritarian
regime. Putins propaganda managed to channel
and redirect the growing social discontent in
Russia onto Ukraine, by presenting the events
there not as a movement against Yanukovichs
corrupt government but as an illegitimate revolt
, fascist, nationalist and anti-Russian in spirit.
The consequent annexation of the Crimea caused
a powerful patriotic upsurge, dismissing the past
complaints against the acting authorities. The
popularity and approval of Putins policy have
reached maximum levels (85%).
However
Western
sanctions
and
the
reciprocation of the Russian authorities impaired
the countrys economy which caused a gradual
decrease of support of the plans to invade Donbass
using the Russian army and a more cautious
approach to Putins political course. The failure of
democratic transformation lead to the reanimation
of conservative imitation traditionalism relying on
mechanisms of negative identity and suppression of
social solidarity bases alternative to the authorities
as well as the weakening of moral and human
capital.

3-4 (118) 2014

C , 2014

.
( . )
.
2012 155
., ., ., .

.
., ., . :

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( ISSP)
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.
.
:

.

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:

.

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.
.
.
. ..
.
. .
. :


.

3-4 (118) 2014

1-2

66-82

1-2

155-197

3-4
3-4

13-69
163-226

3-4

80-117

1-2

50-65

3-4

70-79

3-4
1-2

118-126
141-154

3-4

155-162

3-4

139-148

1-2

96-105

1-2

106-114

1-2
1-2
1-2
3-4
3-4
1-2
3-4

83-95
124-129
130-134
149-154
198-208
135-140
127-138

1-2
1-2

115-123
37-49

253

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 2014



Elena Berdysheva, The perception of prices by the patients as the key point
in medicine marketisation (case of Moscow dental market)
1-2
Lev Gudkov, Resentmental nationalism
3-4
Lev Gudkov, Natalia Zorkaya, Adel Ovakimian, City class: potential for adaptation
or readiness to change?
3-4
Marharyta Fabrykant, Beyond the Nation-State: Indirect impact
of Nationalist Movements on Public Opinion in Belarus and Ukraine
1-2
Oleg Kashirskikh,Democracy Begins at Home or Regarding Political
Competence of Russians
3-4
Olga Karaeva, Public Perceptions of Fairness and Efficiency in the Health
Care Systems of Different Countries (ISSP 2011)
1-2
Luidmila Khakhulina, Stability of social justice perceptions in public opinion
1-2
Larisa Kosova, Grounds for Success: a Comparative Analysis of Subjective
Status Assessments
3-4
Alexej Levinson, Protest and self-organization
1-2
Ekaterina Lytkina, From Disoriented Pessimists to Socialized Optimists:
Application of the Latent Class Analysis to Studying Anomie in Ukraine
3-4
Maxim Markin, Obstacles to Develop Cashless Payments in Contemporary
Russian Retailing
1-2
Maxim Markin and Elena Nazarbaeva, How Contract Workers Find Clients
and Companies Choose Freelancers: An Empirical Analysis of Self-Employment
in Contemporary Russia
1-2
Diana Migunova, Current status and problems of Russian secondary
vocational education
1-2
Anna Morgunova, Social expulsion of migrants from the Russian society:
law and practice
1-2
Sergey Nikolyuk, Belarusian echo of Russian mobilization
3-4
Sergej Nikolyuk, Belarusian Maidan: is it possible?
1-2
Sergej Nikolyuk, Belarusian respond to the Ukrainian challenge
1-2
Alexander Nikulin, Soviet competition with capitalism in the fate
of Tatiana Zaslavskaya
3-4
Andrei Rostovtsev, Dissernet. Experimental sociology
3-4
Vladimir Paniotto, Euromaidan. Before and After the victory
1-2
Tatjana Vorozheikina, Lev Gudkov, Natalija Zorkaya, Adel Ovakemian,
Monitoring of Russian public attitudes toward judicial reform
and judicial system
3-4
Denis Volkov, OccupyAbay protest street camp in Moscow in May 2012
through the eyes of its participants
1-2

254

3-4 (118) 2014

P.

66-82
163-226
80-117
115-123
70-79
50-65
37-49
118-126
141-154
155-162
96-105

96-105
106-114
83-95
149-154
124-129
130-134
198-208
127-138
135-140

13-69
155-197


2015
_____ (1, 2, 3, 4 )
: . .
1 250 . ( 10% )
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(e-mail)
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