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## Newtons Law of Cooling Coffee

Sir Isaac Newton found that the temperature of something heated will cool down at different rates,
depending on the rate of the environment in which it is cooling. The Newtons Law of Cooling
equation was derived based on this function:
() = + (0 ) ,
where T (t) is the temperature of the object at time t, Te is the constant temperature of the
environment, T0 is the initial temperature of the object, and k is a constant that depends on the
material properties of the object.
1. Explain the meaning of each variable in Newtons Law of Cooling. Use the table below.
Newtons Law of Cooling Vocabulary and Variables:
Variable
Variable Defined
(0 )
T-sub-zero
( )
T-sub-e
k
t
T(t)

2. Look at the statement about k. It is saying that k is a constant that depends on the
material. Can you think of two liquids that would cool at different rates? What physical
properties of the two liquids make this happen?

Madison buys a cup of coffee from the Java Coffee Club right before the bell every
morning. The room temperature of the school is always 72. Hot caffeine beverages are
served at 180. She knows after two minutes her coffee will be 150.
3. Madison likes her coffee at 120. How long should she wait before consuming her
beverage?

4. Madison is a teenager and encounters problems daily (hourly). Last week the school
changed the building temperature due to a heat wave. The week before that, the Java
Coffee Club served their hot beverages at 185 to raise awareness for the Thotty
McHotties epidemic. Create a more efficient way for Madison to utilize Newtons Law of
Cooling to meet her morning beverage needs.

5. This week Madison has a canker sore and cannot consume hot beverages. She would like
her coffee to be 75. How long should she wait? Use your efficient method. (Remember,
the school temperature and Java Coffee Club are back to normal, 72 and 180,
respectively).

6. Madison has been so involved in the lesson on solving equations with logarithms that 30
minutes have lapsed and she has not taken a sip of her coffee. Is the coffee still at a
temperature worth consuming?

Boiling Water is 212 at sea level and left in a 70 room. After 5 minutes it is 180.
7. What is the constant of cooling?

## 8. How long will it take to have it cool to 98?

9. Heating is cooling in reverse. Use the same constant K as in #7. If an ice cube is placed in
the same room, how long will it take to become 50? (Presume the ice is 32 when
frozen).