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.

( )
-
C :
020804 ,
020304


2005

-

2 2005
1

: .., ..

-


2
, :
, .


-
,

. .
1.
1.1.

a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an ,...

a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an + ... = an

(1)

n =1

.
a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an ,... , an
.

S1 = a1 ; S 2 = a1 + a 2 ; S 3 = a1 + a 2 + a3 ;...; S n = a1 + a 2 + a3 + ... + a n ;
(1).
,
:
S 1 , S 2 , S 3 ,..., S n ... .
(2)
(1) ,
(2) S ,
(1)

S = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an + ... S = an

(3)

n =1

, (1)
. .

1.

Sn =

1
n(n + 1) .
n =1

S n - n -

1
1
1
+
+ ... +
.
1 2 2 3
n(n + 1)

1
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
=1 ,
= ,
= , .
1 2
2 23 2 3 3 4 3 4
,

1
1
1
=
, ( n = 1, 2 ,3,...)
n(n + 1) n n + 1

1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
=1
S n = 1 + + + ... +
.
n
n
(
n
+
1
)
n
(
n
+
1
)
2 2 3 3 4

1
lim S n = lim
=1.
n
n n
n ( n + 1 )

2. ,

11+11+ ...+ (1)

n1

+ ... = (1)n1
n=1

: S1 = 1, S 2 = 0 , S 3 = 1 ,
S 4 = 0 , , , ,
.
3. ,

1, q , q 2 , q 3 ,..., q n 1 ,... :

1 + q + q + q + ... + q ... = qn1 .


2

q 1,

n1

n=1

, ,

Sn = 1+ q + q + q + ...+ q
2

n1

qn1 q 1
=
,
q 1

1 qn
1
qn
Sn =
=

.
1 q 1 q 1 q
1. | q |< 1 , Sn =

1
,
1 q

.. S =

1
.
1 q

2. q = 1
, Sn = n

1+1+1+ ...+1+ ....

lim S n = ,

.. q = 1 .

3.

| q |> 1 ,

1 qn
lim Sn =
= , . . .
n
1 q

1.2.
(1) , m ,

am+1 + am+2 + am+3 + ...+ am+k + ...,

(3)

m- (1).
1.1. (3) ( )
(1). . .
.
rm - m- .
2.1. rm m- (1)
m .
3.1. (1) S,

can , c - ,

n =1

cS .

4.1.
S

an
n =1

S + .

bn
n =1

(an + bn )
n =1

5.1( ).
, , ..

lim a n = 0 .

an
n =1

.
4.

1 1
1
1
1 + + + ... + + ... = .
2 3
n
n =1 n

(4)

.
,
,

lim a n = lim

1
=0
n

(4). ,
S .

lim ( S 2n S n ) =

1
1
1 1
+ ... +
> n = .
n +1
2n
2n 2

, .
(1) ,
> 0 N, n>N
p

| an +1 + an + 2 + ... + an + p |<

( ).

n- :
1 1 1
1. 1 + + + + ...
3 5 7
1 1 1 1
2. + + + + ...
2 4 6 8
2 3 4
3. 1 + + + + ...
2 4 8
1 1 1
4. 1 + + + + ...
4 9 16
3 4 5
6
+ + +
+ ...
5.
4 9 16 25
2 4 6 8
6. + + + + ...
5 8 11 14
1 1 1 1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ...
7. + + + +
2 6 12 16 20 30 42
1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7
+
+
+ ...
8. 1 +
1 4 1 4 7 1 4 7 10
9. 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + ...
1
1
1
10. 1 + + 3 + + 5 + + ...
2
4
6
4-5 a n

3n 2
;
11. a n = 2
n +1

(1) n n
2 + (1) n
12. a n =
;
13. a n =
;
2n
n2
n

2 + sin
cos n
1
2

14. a n =
; 15. a n =
.
( 3 + ( 1 ) n ) n
n!

1.3.

6.1.

an
n =1

, ,
.
.
0 an bn ,
7.1( ).

n = n0 ,

b1 + b2 + b3 + ... + bn + ... = bn

(5)

n =1

, (1) . (1) ,
(2).
8.1( ). (1) ,
(5)

lim

an
= c,
bn

c=const, c 0, (5) (1),


(1) (5) . ,
a n ~ bn , n , an bn
.

5.

(n + 1) 2 .
n=1

( . 1).

1
n(n + 1) . ,
n=1
1
1
<
, (n=1,2,3, )
2
n(n + 1)
(n + 1)
, 7, , .
6.

, . .

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
...
+
+ ...
1 2 2 22 3 23
n 2n
an =

1
1
<
,
n 2n 2n

,
q =

2n ,
n =1

1
, .
2

7.

1 1
1
1 + + + ... +
+ ...
3 5
2n 1

, . .

1
1
1

lim
=
0 ,
n 2n 1
n
2
a n =

1
.
n

8.

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + 3 + ...+ n
+ ...
2 1 2 2 2 3
2 n

, . .

1
1

lim n
n =1 0,
n 2
n
2
..

1
1
1
~
,

.
2n n 2n
2n

9.1( ).

an
n =1

an+1
= .
n a
n
lim

) < 1 ;
) > 1 .
= 1 .

9.

n!
n =1

an+1
n!
1
= lim
= lim
= 0 < 1.
n a
n ( n + 1 )!
n n + 1
n
lim

nn
,
10.
n
!
n =1
an +1
( n + 1 )n +1 n!
n + 1
lim
= lim
= lim
= e > 1.
n
n a
n ( n + 1 )!n
n n
n
n

10.1( ).

an
n =1

lim n an = q , q < 1 , q > 1 .

q = 1 .

11.1( ).
,

an
n =1

a1 = f (1) , a2 = f (2) , , an = f (n) , f (x) x 1

, .

an
n =1

f ( x)dx .
1

1
11. , ( > 0 ).
(6)
n =1 n
1
f ( x) = , x 1 11.
x
(6)

x=1,2,3, .

1
x dx > 1
1

. , > 1
1. , 0 ,

10

n , ..
( . 5).

, (
):
1. 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + ... + ( 1 )n1 + ...
2

2 1 2 1 2
1 2
+ + + ... + + ...
2.
5 25 35
n5
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

2 3 4
n +1
+ + + ... +
+ ...
3 5 7
2n + 1
1
1
1
( 1 )n+1
3
+4
... + n+1
+ ...
10
10
10
10
1 1 1
1
+ + + ... +
+ ...
2 4 6
2n
1 1
1
1
+ + + ... +
+ ...
11 21 31
10 n + 1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
1 2
23
3 4
n( n + 1 )

2 2 23
2n
+ + ... +
+ ...
8. 2 +
2
3
n
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
9. 1 +
2
n
3
4
1
1 1
1
+ ...
10. 2 + 2 + 2 + ... +
2
5 8
( 3n 1 )2
3
3
1 3 2
3
n
+
+
+
...
+
+ ...
11.
2 3 2 4 3
(n + 1) n

(
):
1
3
5
2n 1
+ +
+ ... +
+ ...
12.
2 2 2 2
( 2 )n
2 25 258
2 5 8...( 3n 1 )
+
+ ... +
+ ...
13. +
1 1 5 1 5 9
1 5 9...( 4 n 3 )

11

2 3 4
n +1
+ ...
14. + + + ... +
1 3 5
2n 1
2

2 n 1

1 2 3
n

15. + + ... +
2 5 8
2n 1

+ ...

:
1 1
1
1. 1 + + + ... + + ...
2! 3!
n!
1 1 1
1
+ +
+ ... +
+ ...
2.
3 8 15
(n + 1) 2 1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
3.
(3n 2) (3n + 1)
1 4 4 7 7 10

1 4 9
n2
+
+
+
...
+
+ ...
4.
3 9 19
2n 2 + 1
1 2 3
n
+ +
+ ... + 2
+ ...
5.
2 5 10
n +1
3
5
7
2n + 1
+ 2 2 + 2 2 + ... +
+ ...
6.
2
2
2 3
3 4
4 5
( n + 1) 2 ( n + 2) 2
2

3 6 9
3n
+ + + ... +
+ ...
7.
4 7 10
(3n + 1)2
1

3 2 5 7 2
2n + 1 2
+ ...
8. + + + ... +
7 10
4
3n + 1

n3
1 8 27
+ +
+ ... + n + ...
9.
e e 2 e3
e
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

2
4
2 n 1
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n
+ ...
2
3
2 +1
1!
2!
3!
n!
+ 2
+ 3
+ ... + n
+ ...
2 +1 2 +1 2 +1
2 +1
2 4
2 n 1
1 + + + ... +
+ ...
1! 2!
( n 1)!
1 1 3 1 3 5
1 3 5 ... (2n 1)
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
4 4 8 4 8 12
4 8 12 ... 4n
(1!) 2 ( 2!) 2 (3!) 2
(n!) 2
+
+
... +
+ ...
2!
4!
6!
(2 n)!

12

1000 1002 1000 1002 1004


1000 1002 1004...( 998 + 3n )
+
+ ... +
+ ...
1 4
1 4 7
1 4 7...( 3n 2 )
2 2 58
2 5 8 11 14...( 6n 7 )( 6n 4 )
+ ... +
+ ...
16. +
1 1 5 9
1 5 9 13 17...( 8n 11 )( 8n 7 )
1
1 5
1 5 9 ... ( 4n 3 )
+ ... +
+ ...
17. +
2 246
2 4 6 8 10 ... ( 4n 4 )( 4n 2 )
1 1 11 1 11 21
1 11 21 (10 n 9)
+ ...
+
+ ... +
18. +
1!
3!
5!
( 2 n 1)!

15. 1000 +

1 4
1 4 9
1 4 9 ... n 2
+
+ ... +
+ ...
19. 1 +
1 3 5 1 3 5 7 9
1 3 5 7 9 ... (2n 1)
1
3
5
2n 1
+ +
+ ... +
+ ...
20. 1 +
n
2 2 2 2
2

( )

21.
23.
25.
27.
30.
32.

1
;
n =1
n

1
ln1 + ;

n =1
n

1
;

n =2 ln n

1
;

2
n = 2 n ln n

1
;

n =1
n( n + 1 )

arcsin

22.

35. 1 cos ;
n
n =1

3 n n!
38. n ;
n =1 n

n =1

n2 + 1
ln 2 ;

n =1
n

1
;

n = 2 n ln n

1
;

n = 2 n ln n ln ln n

1
;

n =1
n( n + 1 )( n + 2 )

1
;

3
n= 2 n
n n

24.
26.
28.
31.
;

n ln n + ln 3 n
3

n
34.
;
3
n =1 ( 2 n 1 ) ( 5
n 1)
n=2

sin n

33.

n!
36. n ;
n =1 n

e n n!
39. n ;
n =1 n

29.

2 n n!
37.
n ;
n =1 n

5 n n!
40. n
n =1 n

n
n=2

1
;
n

13

1.4.
,
. , .

a1 a2 + a3 a4 + ... + (1) n+1 an + ... ,

(7)

an > 0 .
12.1( ).
(6) :

a1 > a2 > a3 > ... > an > ...

: lim a n = 0 , .
n

12.

1 1 1
1
1
+ + ... + ( 1) n +1 + ... = ( 1) n +1 ,
2 3 4
n
n
n =1

, . . :
1) 1 >

1 1
> > ... > ;
2 3

1
= 0.
n n

2) lim

.
. -

a1 + a 2 + a3 + ... + a n + ... = a n ,
n =1

(8)

a1 , a2 , a3 ,..., an ...
,
, .
, (8):

| a1 | + | a2 | + | a3 | +...+ | an | +... = | an |
n =1

(9)

13.1( ).
(9), (8).
1. (8) , (9)
. (8) , (9) , (8)
.
(8)
.
, (8) ,

14

lim |

an +1
|< 1
an

lim n | an | < 1 .

(9)
(8).

lim |

an +1
|> 1
an

lim n | an | > 1 ,

(8), (9).
rn | rn | bn +1 .
13.
2

2 3 4
1 + + ... + (1)
3 5 7

n ( n 1)
2

:
2

+ ... .
2n 1

2 3 4
n
1 + + + + ... +
+ ...
3 5 7
2n 1

. .

n
1
1
n
lim n
= lim
= ,
= lim
1 2
n 2n 1
n 2n 1
n
2
n

.
, 12, ( ), . .
1 +

1 1
1
+ + ... + + ... - ( ).
2 3
n


.
.

1 1
(1) n1
+ ...
1. 1 + ... +
3 5
2n 1
1
1
( 1) n 1
1

+
+
...
+
+ ...
2.
2
3
n
1 1
(1) n 1
1

...
+
+ ...
3.
4 9
n2

15

2 3
( 1) n1 n
... +
+ ...
4. 1 +
7 13
6n 5
3
5
7
2n + 1

+
... + (1) n 1
+ ...
5.
1 2 2 3 3 4
n ( n + 1)
n2 + n

1 2 3
n
+ ...
6. + ... + ( 1) 2
2 4 8
2n
2
3
4
n +1
+

+ ... + ( 1 )n
+ ...
7.
2 2 3 3 1 4 4 1
( n + 1) n + 1 1
3 5 7
n 2n + 1
+ ...
8. + + ... + ( 1)
4 7 10
3n + 1
3 35 35 7
3 5 7 ... ( 2n + 1)
+
... + (1) n 1
+ ...
9.
2 2 5 2 58
2 5 8 ... (3n 1)
1 1 4 1 4 7
1 4 7 ... (3n 2)
+ ...
+
... + (1) n 1
10.
7 7 9 7 9 11
7 9 11 ... (2n + 5)
sin
sin 2
sin 3
sin n
+
+
... +
+ ...
11.
2
3
ln 10 (ln 10)
(ln 10)
(ln 10 ) n
2

12.

n =1

( 1 ) n ln n
;
n

13.

( 1 )
n =1

n 1

tg

1
n n

2. .
2.1.
, ,
:
u1 ( x ) + u 2 ( x ) + u3 ( x ) + ... + u n ( x ) + ...
(1)
. ,

1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 3 + ...
.
(1) x - x0
u n (x) , n = 1,2,3,... ,

u1 ( x 0 ) + u 2 ( x 0 ) + u 3 ( x 0 ) + ... + u n ( x 0 ) + ...

(2)

. , x0
(1). (2)
, x0

16

(1). , u n (x ) ,
(1) , - .
2.1.
.
S (x ) (1)
x , (1).

S (x ) = u1 ( x0 ) + u 2 ( x0 ) + u3 ( x0 ) + ... + un ( x0 ) + ...
n ( n - )
S n (x) , rn (x) .

S n (x) = u1 ( x0 ) + u 2 ( x0 ) + u3 ( x0 ) + ... + u n ( x0 ) + ...


rn ( x) = S ( x) S n ( x)
,
x S n (x)
n . , ,
S n (x) .
, x ,

lim S n ( x ) = S ( x ) , lim rn ( x ) = 0
n

(1)
, x .
1.

x + 1 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 3
( x + 1) n
+
+
+ ... +
+ ...
1 2
2 22
3 23
n 2n
u n (x) , :

| un+1( x ) |
| x + 1|n+1 2 n n
| x + 1|
lim
= lim n+1
=
.
n
| un ( x ) | n 2 ( n + 1 ) | x + 1|n
2
,
| x +1|
< 1, .. 3< x <1; ,
( ),
2

| x +1|
> 1 , ..
2

: 1 +

< x < 3 1 < x < . x = 1

1 1
+ + ..., , x = 3 -:
2 3

17

1 1
+ ..., ( )
2 3
. , 3 x < 1.
1+

1
1. x .
n =1 n

2.

3.

( 1) n + 1 n ln x
n =1

5.

2 n sin 3n .
n =0

7.

( 1 )

nsin x

n =0

sin( 2n 1)
.
2
n =1 ( 2n 1)

cos nx
6.
.
e nx
n =0

4.

8.

11.

n!

xn .
n =1

1
9.
n .
n =1 n! x
n =1

( 1 )
13.
n
n .
n =1 n 3 ( x 5 )

1
n
15. x + n n .
2 x
n =1

n 1

10.

( 2n 1 ) x

12.

( n + 1)

n =1

( x 2)

n =1

n +1

( 1) n + 1 n x

n=0

2n + 1
5 2n .
x

nn
14. n n .
n =1 x

2.2.
2.2.

a0 + a1 ( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 )2 + a3 ( x x0 )3 + ... + an ( x x0 )n + ... =

= an ( x x0 )n
n =0

(3)

18

a0 , a1, a2 , a3 ,...,an ,...


. , x0 = 0 . ,
x :
a0 + a1x + a2 x2 + a3x3 + ...+ an xn + ...
(4)

,
(1) x x0 = x1
.
2.1( ). (4)

x = x0 , x 0 0 ,

, , x ,

| x |<| x0 | ; (4) x = x1 ,

x, | x |>| x1 |
, (4) x = 0 .
, ,
, R, x,
: | x |< R , , x , : | x |> R,
.
2.3. (4)
R , x, | x |< R , , x,
| x |> R , . ( R, R ) .
(3)
( x0 R , x 0 + R ) .

lim

2.2.
(4)

R= lim
n

| an + 1 |
| an |

0,

| an |
.
| a n +1 |

2.

1+ x +

R= lim
n

1 2
1
x + ... + x n + ...
2!
n!

| an |
( n + 1 )!
= lim( n + 1 ) = .
= lim
n
| a n +1 | n
n!

, .

3.

x = 0 ,

n! x n
n =1

19

R=lim
n

1
| an |
n!
=0.
= lim
= lim
| a n +1 | n ( n + 1 )! n ( n + 1 )

| xn |
4.
.
n =1 n
1
| an |
n +1
lim ( 1 + ) = 1 .
= lim
=
R=lim
n
n
| an+1 | n n
n
, 2.2
(-1,1). , ..

x = 1, x = 1. x = 1

(1) n

x = 1,

n =1

n ,
n =1

1
, .
n

, [ 1,1)
.


:

n
x

1.
.

xn
2.
n .
n =1 n 2

n =0

x 2 n1
3.
.
n =1 2n 1

2 n 1 x 2 n 1
4.
2 .
n =1 ( 4n 3)

(1) n1 x n
5.
.
n
n =1

7.

(1)

n 1

(n + 1) 5 x 2 n
6.
.
2n + 1
n =1

(2n + 1) x .
2

n =1

9.

n! x

8.

n =1

xn
.
n!

10.

n =1

11.
n
+
2
1

n =1

2 n 1
n

x .

xn
nn
n =1

12.

3n x n
n =0

20
2

n x2
.
13.
n =1 n + 1 2

n! x n
14. n .
n =1 n

x n1
15.
.
n
n = 2 n 3 ln n

( x 5 )n
16. ( 1 )
n 3n
n =1

( x 3) n
17.
n .
n =1 n 5
2n

n1 ( x 2)
19. ( 1)
.
2n
n =1

21.

n n ( x + 3) n .
n =1

( x 2) n
23.
n .
n =1 ( 2n 1) 2

(3n 2)( x 3) n
.
25.
2 n +1
n =1 ( n + 1) 2

n 1

( x 1) 2 n
18.
.
n
n =1 n 9

( x + 3) n
.
20.
n2
n =1

( x + 5) 2 n1
22.
.
n
n =1 2n 4
( x 3) 2 n
24.
.
n =1 ( n + 1) ln(n + 1)

( x 3) n
.
26. ( 1)
(2n + 1) n + 1
n =1
n

2.3.
f (x )

f ( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + ... + an x n + ...,
(5)
( R, R ) . ,

( R , R ) f (x) (
x).
2.3. f (x) ( R, R)
(5),
f ' ( x )
(5), ..

f ' ( x ) =( a0 +a1x +a2x2 +...+anxn +...)' = a1 +2a2 x +3a3x2 +...+ nan xn1 +...,

f (x) . ,
(5).
2.4. f (x) ( R, R )
(5), ( R, R )

21

(5), ..,
x1 , x2 ( R, R) ,
x2

x2

f ( x)dx = (a0 + a1 x + a2 x

x1

x1

x2

x2

x2

x1

x1

x1

+ ... + an x + ...)dx = a0 dx + a1 xdx + ... + an x n dx + ...


n


,
:
x 2 x3
xn
+ + ... +
+ ...
2
3
n
x2 x3
xn
2. x
+
... + ( 1 )n 1
+ ...
2
3
n
x3 x5
x 2 n 1
3. x + +
+ ... +
+ ...
3
5
2n 1
x3 x5
x 2 n 1
4. x +
+ ...
... + ( 1 )n 1
3
5
2n 1
5. 1 + 2 x + 3x 2 + ... + ( n + 1 )x n + ...
6. 1 3x 2 + 5x 4 ... + ( 1 )n 1 ( 2n 1 )x 2 n 2 + ...
7. 1 2 + 2 3x + 3 4 x 2 + ... + n( n + 1 )x n1 + ...
1. x +

:
1 2
3
n
8. + 2 + 3 + ... + n + ...
x x
x
x
5
9
x
x
x 4 n 3
9. x +
+
+ ... +
+ ...
5
9
4n 3
2.4.
2.5.
f (x) ( x0 R, x0 + R )

2
3
n
f (x) = a0 + a1 ( x x0 ) + a2 ( x x0 ) + a3 ( x x0 ) + ... + a n ( x x0 ) + ... ,
(6)
.

22

f ( x) = f ( x0 ) +

f ' ( x0 )
f ' ' ( x0 )
f (n) ( x0 )
( x x0 ) +
( x x 0 ) 2 + ... +
( x x 0 ) n + ..., (7)
1!
2!
n!

f (x) ,

f ( n ) ( x0 )
f ' ( x0 )
f ' ' ( x0 )
a0 = f (x0 ), a1 =
, a2 =
,
, , an =
1!
n!
2!
f (x) x .
, f (x )
x x0 ,
.
x0 = 0,
, :
f ' (0 )
f ''(0) 2
f (n ) (0 ) n
f ( x ) = f (0) +
x+
x + ... +
x + ...
(8)
1!
2!
n!
. ,
f (x) .
f (x ) ( x0 R, x0 + R)
. x
n

f ( x) =
f ' ( x0 )
f ' ' ( x0 )
f (n) ( x0 )
2
( x x0 ) n + ... + rn ( x),
( x x0 ) + ... +
( x x0 ) +
= f ( x0 ) +
2!
1!
n!

(9)

f (n+1) (x0 + (x x0 ))
rn (x) =
(x x0 )
(n +1)!

(10)

f ' (0 )
f ' ' (0) 2
f ( n ) (0) n
f ( x ) = f (0 ) +
x+
x + ... +
x + ... + R n ( x ),
n!
1!
2!

(11)

23

f ( n+1) ( ) n+1
Rn ( x) =
x , = x, 0 < < 1
(n + 1)!

(12)

S n (x) ,
(11) :

f ( x) = Sn ( x) + Rn ( x)

(13)
2.6. (8)
( R, R )
f (x ) , ,

( R, R ) Rn (x) (12)
Rn ( x ) = 0 x (R, R).
n , .. lim
n

5.

f ( x) = e x . ,

f (n) (x) = e x f ( n ) (0) = 1 ,


(8)

ex

x x2
xn
1 + + + ... + + ...
1! 2!
n!

(14)

(14)

an
n! ( n + 1)
= lim
= .
n
an+1 n n!

R = lim

, .
x

- (14).
, e
x

| x |n
= 0.
lim
n
n!

(15)

( ) = e ,
f (n+1) ( ) n+1
e
Rn ( x) =
x =
x n+1 ,
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!

( n +1)

= x , 0 < < 1. , ,

e < e | x | ,

e
e|x|
n+1
| Rn ( x) |=
| x| <
| x |n+1 .
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!
(15)

| x |n
| x | n +1
lim
= 0 , , lim
= 0.
n
n
n!
n!

24

, n , ,
Rn ( x ) = 0 x , , e x
lim
n
(14).
6.

(k )

( x ) = sin( x +

k
), f
2

(k )

( 0 ) = sin

f ( x) = sin x .

k
= 0 k = 2n ,
2

k = 2n + 1
( n)
| f ( x ) | 1 .
sin x :
x3
x 2n+1
n
sin x = x + ... + ( 1 )
+ ...,
3!
( 2n + 1 )!
x (, )
f

(k )

( 0 ) = ( 1) n

cos x :

x2
x 2n
n
cos x = 1
+ ... + ( 1 )
+ ...
( 2 n )!
2!

x ,

:

sin( x +

1.

a x , ( a > 0) .

2.

3.

cos( x + a) .

4. sin x .

).
4

5. ln( 2 + x ) .

:

6. cos x .

7. sin 3x + x cos 3x.

8.

9.

2x 3
.
( x 1) 2

3x 5
.
x2 4x + 3
2

10.

xe 2 x .

x
11. e .

12.

cos 2 x.

13.

x
.
9 + x2

25

14.
16.

1
4 x2

15. ln

1+ x
.
1 x

ln(1 + x 2 x 2 ).

, x
, :
17. (1 + x ) ln(1 + x ) .
18. arctgx .
20. ln( x + 1 + x ) .
2

19. arcsin x.

,
x
, :

sin 2 x cos 2 x.
x 3
23. (1 + e ) .
21.

25.

1
.
1 x4

x
22. (1 + x)e .

24.

8+ x .

26. ln( x + 3 x + 2).


2


x .
cos x
27. tgx .
28. e
.
29.

ln cos x.

30. e sin x.

31. ln x x 1.
32.

1
x 1.
x

1
x + 1.
x2
1
34. 2
x + 4.
x + 3x + 2
1
35. 2
x + 2.
x + 4x + 7

33.

36. e x + 2.
37.

x x 4.

38. cos x x

.
2

26

39. cos x x
2

40. ln x

1 x
.
1+ x

.
4

41. ,
1 1 1
t 2+ + + ?
2! 3! 4!

42. ,
4

x3 x5
+
... ,
3
5
x = 1 ?
43.
x2
cos x = 1
+ ...,
2!
cos18o 0,001?
44.
x3
sin x = x + ...,
3!
sin15o 0,0001?
45.
arctgx = x

x x 2 x3
+
+
+ ...,
1! 2! 3!
e 0,0001?
46.
x2
ln( 1 + x ) = x
+ ...,
2
ln 2 0,01, 0,001?
47. 3 7 0,01
3
8 + x x .
48. 4 19 0,001.
49. x
x2
cos x 1 + ...,
2!
, 0,01, 0,001, 0,0001?
50. x
sin x x ,
, 0,01, 0,001?
ex = 1 +

27

3.
3.1
3.1. 3.1.

a0
+ a1 cos x + b1 sin x + a2 cos2x + b2 sin 2x + ... + an cosnx + bn sin nx + ... =
2

a
= 0 + (an cosnx +bn sin nx)
2 n=1

(1)


a0 , a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 ,..., an , bn ,... - .
3.1.

f (x )

[ , ],

a0
f ( x) =
+ ( a n cos nx + bn sin nx ) ,
2 n =1

(2)

, .

a0 , an , bn :

1
a0 = f ( x)dx .

(3)

1
an = f ( x) cos nxdx .

(4)

1
bn = f ( x) sin nxdx .

3.2.

[ , ].

(5)

f (x ) - ,

a0 , a n , bn , (3)-(5),
,

a0
+ ( a n cos nx + bn sin nx )
2 n =1

f (x )

. f (x ) ,
, :

[ , ],

28

bn = 0 ,

2
a0 = f ( x )dx ,
0

2
an = f ( x) cos nxdx .
0

f (x ) ,
:

an = 0 ,

(6)

[ , ], ,

2
bn = f ( x) sin nxdx .
0

(7)

f (x ) , ,
, f (x ) .
,

1. f ( x ) = x . ,
(7).

an = 0 ,

2
bn = f ( x) sin nxdx =
0

2
2 1
1
2
= x sin nxdx = x cos nx + cos nxdx = (1) n +1
0
n
n0
n

sin nx
sin x sin 2 x sin 3 x sin 4 x

x = 2

+ ... + ( 1) n +1
+ ... .
2
3
4
n
1

2l
f (x ) [ l, l ] (l-
) .
(2)

a0
n
n
f ( x) =
x + bn sin
x) ,
+ ( a n cos
2 n =1
l
l

(8)

1
a0 = f ( x )dx .
l l
1l
n
an = f ( x) cos
xdx ,
l l
l

(9)
n = 1,2,3,....

(10)

29

1l
n
bn = f ( x) sin
xdx ,
l l
l

n = 1,2,3,....


[ , ]
5.

2.

f ( x) =| x | .
f ( x) = + x .

6.

f ( x) = sin x .
f ( x) = cos x .

3.

f ( x) = x 2 .

7.

f ( x) = sin ax .

4.

f ( x) = e x .

8.

f ( x) = cos ax .

9.

f ( x) = e ax .
f ( x) = chx .

10.

f ( x) = shx .

1.

11.

:
12. f ( x) =| x | , (1 x 1)
13.

f ( x) = 2 x , (0 x 1)

14.

f ( x) = e x , (l x l )
f ( x) = 10 x , (5 x 15)

15.

: ) ; )
:
16. f ( x) = 1 , (0 x 1) .
17.

f ( x ) = x , (0 x l ) .

18.

f ( x) = x 2 , (0 x 2 ) .

19.

x , 0 < x 1
f(x)=
2 x , 1 < x < 2.

(11)

30

3
20. , 3
2

<x2
1,
f(x)=
2
3 x , 2 < x < 3.


1. .. / .. . - . : .
; . ., 2000. 616 .
2. .. / .. . - . : . .,
2001. 479 .
3. .. / .. .
. : . ., 1998. 304 .
(http://www.lib.vsu.ru)

31

:

.