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4600LS Surveyor

Part Number: 27564-00


:
: 1995

Trimble Navigation Limited


Surveying & Mapping Products
4645 North Mary Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
U.S.A.
1-800-827-8000
1-408-481-8000
: 1-408-481-8214
Trimble Navigation Europe Ltd.
Trimble House
Meridian Office Park
Osborn Way, Hook
Hampshire RG27 9HX England
+44-1256-760-150
: +44-1256-760-148
Trimble Navigation Singapore Pte Ltd.
300 Beach Road #34-05
The Concourse
Singapore 0719
Singapore
+65-296-2700
: +65-296-8033
Trimble Navigation Japan . .
Sumitomo-Hamamastu-cho Building 10F
1-18-16 Hamamastu-cho
Minato-ku Tokyo 105
Japan
+81-3-5372-0880
: +81-3-5472-2326
Trimble Navigation New Zealand
11 Birmingham Drive
P.O. Box 8729, Riccarton
Christchurch, New Zealand
+64-3-339-1400
: +64-3-339-1417

4600LS Surveyor



4600LS Surveyor (4600 LS Surveyor Operation Manual), Part Number
(27564-00) , 1995.
1.0 .


.

Trimble Navigation Limited no : 645 North Mary Avenue, Post Office Box
3642, Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3642.
Trimble Navigation Limited.


4600LS, 7400MS1, 4000, 4000, 4000DS, 4000DSR, 4000MSK, 4000MSK DGPS
Reference Station, 4000RS, 4000RSR, 4000S, 4000SE, 4000SSE, 4000SSi, 4000SST,
Asset Surveyor, DeltaNav QC, FastStatic, Geodetic Surveyor, Geodetic Surveyor SSi,
Geodetic System Surveyor, Geodetic System Surveyor SSi, G1S Surveyor, DSM, Land
Surveyor II, Land Surveyor IID, NavBeacon XL, ProBeacon, Site Surveyor, Site Surveyor
SSi, Super-Irak, Survey Controller, Surveyor, System Surveyor II, TDC1, TRJMMAP,
TRIMNET, TR1MNET Plus, .TRIMTALK 900, TRIMTALK 450, TRIMVEC, TRIMVEC Plus,
TANS, TS1P, and WAVE Trimble Navigation
Limited. Scorpio Scorpio Marine
Electronics, Limited. IBM International
Business Machines, Inc. MS-DOS Windows Microsoft
Corporation. Intel Intel Corporation.
-.

4600LS Surveyor ,
: 4754465, 4847862, 5148179, 5202694, 5296861, 5311149, 5357527,
5359332, , .


1995 Trimble Navigation Limited. .
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Trimble Navigation Limited.


Trimble Navigation Limited
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4600LS Surveyor

Trimble Navigation
Limited.

Trimble Navigation Limited


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1 GPS
1.1 GPS .18
1.2 ..19
1.3 20
1.3.1


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1.3.2


TDCl Survey Controller.20

1.3.3


..21

1.4 ..21
1.4.1 .22
1.4.2 ..23
1.4.3
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..24
1.5.1


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1.5.2 .26

2
2.1 ..28
2.2 ..28
4600LS Surveyor


2.3 .31
2.3.1 .31
2.3.2 31
2.4 ..32
2.4.1 ..33
2.4.2 ...33
2.5 .34
2.5.1 ....36
2.6 36
2.6.1 .37
(RAM)..38
2.6.2


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2.6.3 39

3
3.1

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3.2

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3.3

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3.4

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3.4.1 41
3.4.2 ..42

4 -
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4.2

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4.3

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4.3.1


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4.3.2 .45
4.3.3 47
4.3.4 48
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4.4 .48
4.4.1


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4.4.2 ..48
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4.4.4 ..50

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5.2 52
5.2.1 TDC152
5.2.2 .52
5.3 .53
5.4 ...53
5.4.1 ..54
5.4.2 ..55
5.4.3 56
5.4.4 ..56
5.5 ..57
5.5.1
57
5.5.2 58
5.6
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5.7 ..60
5.8 61
5.8.1 ,
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5.8.2 62
5.8.3 ..63
5.8.4 63
4600LS Surveyor

6
6.1 ..64
6.2 64
6.2.1 65
6.3 , 66
6.4 .66
6.5 .67
6.6 ..67
6.7 ..67
6.7.1 68

4600LS Surveyor

RTCM-104
B.1 RTCM-10472
B.2
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C.1.1 73
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4600LS Surveyor


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1-2 1;
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1-3 3;
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1-5 .26
1-6
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2-2 4600LS Surveyor29
2-3 4600LS.31
2-4
4600LS Surveyor32
2-5 33
2-6 4600LS Surveyor35
4-1 4600LS Surveyor,
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4-2 ..46
5-1 ..54
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5-3 4600LS Surveyor,
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6-1 .65
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TDC1 Survey Controller, Y-
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camcorder TDC1 Survey Controller70
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Y-70
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. BBS:
+408-481-7800

4600LS Surveyor

13



4600 LS,
Trimble -Technical Assistance
Center (TAC) :
1-800-SOS-4TAC ( )
+1-408-481-6940 ()
+1-408-481-9142 ()
6.00 18.00
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: 129278, ,
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, : (095) 74751-31, 747-51-32, : 747-51-30.
Internet www.agp.ru
Copyright 1999 " ". .
4600LS Surveyor

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4600LS Surveyor

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4600LS Surveyor

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4600LS Surveyor

32

2-4

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4600LS Surveyor

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4600LS Surveyor

34

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4600LS Surveyor

37

2.6.1

-
4600LS Surveyor.

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B:\4600_CFG ( :)
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4600LS Surveyor

38

5. ,
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Baud Rates
Parity

2400, 4800, 9600, 38400


None, Odd, Even

NMEA Outputs

Enabled (.), Disabled (.)


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4600LS Surveyor

42

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4600LS Surveyor

43

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4600LS Surveyor

51

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4600LS Surveyor

,

4600LS Surveyor


. (,
),
.
TDC1 Survey Controller
.

5.2.1 TDC1 Survey Controller


TDCl Survey Controller ,
.
.
TDC1, - Survey Controller.
Survey
Controller Survey Controller Operation Manual (
Survey Controller).


GPS
, GPS Total Station
Trimble.
,
, GPS .
TDC1 Survey
Controller (TDCl/ Survey Controller) Trimble :
.

.

4600LS Surveyor

53

5.3
, GPS ,
- .
, ,
. , , GPS
. :
1. 4600LS Surveyor
.
2. 4600LS Surveyor.

3. , ID () ,
.
4. ,
.

5. .
6. .

- ,
,
,
.
.
GPS .
,
, ,
.
,
. GPSurvey

.

5.4
4600LS Surveyor , .
.
, , 4600LS Surveyor
, 5-1.

4600LS Surveyor

54

5-1

5.4.1
, 5-2,
GPS ,
GPS . , ,
, ,
.
1. .
,

.
2. 4600LS
Surveyor.
.
3. ,
Trimble .


.
, .
55
4600LS Surveyor


,
.
, ,
, .

5-2 4600LS Surveyor,

5.4.2
4600LS Surveyor
, 5-2. ,
4600LS Surveyor,
:
1.
,
5-2.
2. ,
, .
4600LS Surveyor

56


, ,
.
, .
- ,
.

5.4.3
,
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
.

5.4.4
Trimble, 5-3,
Y-

.

5-3 4600LS Surveyor,


4600LS Surveyor

57

5.5
.
4600LS Surveyor
(
).
( ) ,
GPS.
,
. ,
- WGS-84,
.
.
GPSurvey (.
WAVE). ,
-
.
.
,
.
-
.
GPS.

5.5.1

,
5 .
, , , 10 .
(
) 10 .
.
1. 4600LS Surveyor
;
, .
2. , Trimble
.
3. , .
4. ,
(. 2).
5. ID () .
, .
4600LS Surveyor

58

6. ,
.
ID ,
Survey Controller (Survey Controller manual).
- , Survey Controller
,
.
7. 4600LS Surveyor
.
, , .
8. ,
, .
, , , TDC1 .

,
.
.

5.5.2

, .
. ;
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
.

.
, ,

.

.
, .
.
stop-and-go,
5.6. ,
5.7.
5.8.

4600LS Surveyor

59

5.6 Stop-and-Go
(--)
,
.
, .
1. .
2. 4600LS Surveyor .
3. . ,
, ,
.
- Trimble ,
. , ,
.
4. , ,
.
5. ,
.
,
, .
,
, .
,

.
, 4600LS Surveyor
, .
.

, .
, ,
,
15 . ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.

4600LS Surveyor

60

5.7
,
. ,
.
1. .
2. .
,
.
3. stop-and-go (--)

7. stop-and-go,
.
4. .
5. . ,
, ,
.
6. stop-and-go
.
7.

stop-and-go, ,

4600LS Surveyor.
-
.
______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
-
,
, .
,
5.8.1.
, :

4600LS Surveyor ,
.
4600LS Surveyor ,
.
.

4600LS Surveyor

61

5.8
,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
4600LS Surveyor - ,
, .
-
.
:
, ,
,
.

5.8.1 ,


. ,
; ,
, .
1. ,
;
, , .
2. 4600 LS Surveyor. 5
,
.
3. ID () , ID,
. , ID
, GPSurvey
.
4. .

4600LS Surveyor

62

5.8.2
,
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
4600LS Surveyor
,
30 .

.

.
:

20 ,

25 ,

30 ,


. -,
( , 20 ,
), ,
4600 LS Surveyor . -,
- ,
,
.
:
1. , stop-and-go (-).
2. .
3.
.
4. , ,
() .
,
.

4600LS Surveyor

63


, PDOP
,
, .

5.8.
, ,
, .
.
,
. ,
.

5.8.4
PDOP
,
, ,
. ,
, .

,
.

4600LS Surveyor

64

6
,
GPS .
,
.
,
, .

, GPS :

4600LS Surveyor

6.1
,
GPSurvey. Plan (),
GPSurvey,
. ,
QuickPlan ( ).

6.2
GPS ,
. GPSurvey ,
() .
GPLoad,
GPSurvey
. ,
, ,

.
.
GPLoad.
65
4600LS Surveyor

, ,
, 6-1, 4600LS Surveyor
,
GPSurvey 2.1 . GPSurvey
.

6-1

6.2.1 4600LS
4600LS Surveyor ,
4 .
, GPS , :

: =

= GPS-

=
( 0 9, Z)

36 .
36 , 36 (Z)
, ,
.

4600LS Surveyor

66

6.3

GPSurvey ,
.
, ; ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. , ,
,
.

, .
, , ,
.
,
.
,
(
).
, ,

GPSurvey .
GPSurvey
TDC1, 1 Survey Controller,
4600LS Surveyor.
,
, .
, , .
, .

GPSurvey.

6.4
.
,
, PKZIP.


, GPSurvey,
GPSurvey.

4600LS Surveyor

67

6.5
, ,
WAVE (Weighted Ambiguity Vector Estimator)
GPSurvey.
, .
WAVE , ,
.


WA VE.

6.6
GPSurvey
.
,
, .

, ,
,
.

GPSurvey.

6.7

. ,
GPSurvey, , .
, ; ,
.
GPS (WGS-84),
GPS -
.
,
.
Trimnet Plus,
GPTrans.
TRIMNET Plus - ,
GPSurvey, GPS-,
,
.

4600LS Surveyor

68

6.7.1
, GPSurvey,
,
:
: ;
: ;
: ,
;
: ;
:
.

4600LS Surveyor

69


, ,
4600LS Surveyor
.

-1 4600LS Surveyor TDC1 Survey Controller

-2 4600LS Surveyor, ,
TDC1 Survey Controller, Y-

4600LS Surveyor

70

-3 4600LS camcorder
TDC1 Survey Controller
- TDC1 Survey Controller 1.

-4 4600LS Surveyor
Y-

4600LS Surveyor

71

-5 4600LS Surveyor OSM II


( / )

-6 4600LS RTCM-: ,
TDC1 Survey Controller

4600LS Surveyor

72

RTCM-104

RTCM-104
4600LS Surveyor 2 RTCM SC-104,

GPS (DGPS). ,
, , DGPS-.
TDC1 Survey Controller ( 4.0
) , NMEA-0183.

- RTCM
4600LS Surveyor.

.1 RTCM-104
RTCM- ,
2. ,
RTCM-. ,
2, ,
4600LS Surveyor.
2.
4600LS Surveyor RTCM-,
. 4600LS Surveyor
RTCM- 2.0. 2.1
GPS .

.2

.
TDC1 Survey Controller, 1,
. ,
stop-and-go (--)
, .
-6 .
RTCM-
Survey Controller Operation Manual ( Survey
Controller).
GGA VTG
NMEA-0183.
. 1.
/ NMEA-
2. NMEA
.

4600LS Surveyor

73

NMEA-0183

NMEA-0183
NMEA-0183
.
- 4600LS
Surveyor.

.1
NMEA-0183 2.0.
S .
(,). (,)
, .

(*).
8 , ,
$ (*), .
ASCII (0-9,
A-F). .

.1.1
:
ID () , $GP,
. , ID ALM $GPALM

, ,

, ID
:

$GPZDA,152145,21,05,1993,-7,00*50

4600LS Surveyor

74

NMEA-0183

.1.2
ddmm.mmmm.
dddmm.mmmm, (, , )
.
dd ddd
mm.mmmm

.1.3
: N, S, W - , ,
.

.1.4
UTC hhmmss, :

hh - 00 23

mm -

ss -

.2
:

GGA: , , .

VTG: (actual track made good) .

C.2.1 GGA: ,

$GPGGA,151924,3723.454487, N,12202.269799, W, 2, 09, 0.9, -17.49, , -25.67, , 1, 0000*57


1. UTC
2.
3. (N S)
4.
5. ( W)
6. GPS:
=
4600LS Surveyor

75

NMEA-0183
1 = GPS
2 = (DGPS)
7. , 00 12
8. HDOP (Horizontal Delution of Precision -
)
9.
10. ,
11.
12. , .
13. GPS , 1. , DGPS

14. ID () 0000--1023

C.2.2 VTG:
$GPVTG, 0, T,,, 0.00, N, 0.00, K*33

1. (Track made good)


2. ' ,

3.
4.
5.
6. N ,

7. /
8. K ,
/

4600LS Surveyor

76

D

4600LS Surveyor. 4600LS
Surveyor , D1, .

.
D-1 4600LS Surveyor

(.
3).


; ,

.

.



.
.
(
)


4
. (
)


.

.

4600LS Surveyor


GPLoad

.




, , ,
.
,
.

77

Differential GPS Explained, Trimble P/N 23036 (1993)


GPS, A Guide to the Next Utility
GPS (DGPS).
GPLoad - , Trimble P/N 25750-00 ( ,
1994).
GPLoad,
4600LS Surveyor .
GPLoad GPSurvey
.
GPS, A Guide to the Next Utility, Trimble P/N 18239 (1992)
GPS. , GPS,
, .
GPSurvey , Trimble P/N 25749-00 (
, 1994).
GPSurvey
, Microsoft Windows.
GpTrans , Trimble P/N 25752-00 (
1994).
GPTrans GPSurvey,
.
Guide to GPS Positioning, David Wells (editor), Canadian GPS
Associates (1986).
GPS.
, GPS
, .
: .
NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment: Navigation User Interfaces, drawing
number ICD- GPS-200 (3 July 1991).
,
GPS NAVSTAR.. : ,
-; ,
.
. :
Commanding Officer
USCG ONSCEN
7323 Telegraph Road
Alexandria, VA 22310
(703) 313-5900
4600LS Surveyor

78

Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation, Washington DC


,
(Journal of the Institute of Navigation) 1980 1986 .
.
Quick Plan / Plan - , Trimble P/N 25753-00 (
, 1994).
Quick Plan Plan -,
. Plan
GPSurvey
GPSurvey. Quick Plan
; GPSurvey,
. Quick Plan ;
.

Survey Controller Operation Manual, Trimble P/N 24555-00 ( A, June


1994).
Survey Controller Seismic
Controller .
, -
.
.

BBS Tumble, Trimble P/N


1994).

26184-00 ( ,

(BBS), Trimble,
, -
Trimble (). ,
BBS,
.

TRIMMAP Survey Software General Reference Guide, Trimble P/N 22060


( 5.50, March 1994).
TRIMMAP DOS-
.

TRIMNET Plus Survey Network Software User's Guide, Trimble P/N


19043 ( 2, November 1994).
TRIMNET Plus,
,
, GPS
,
.

4600LS Surveyor

79

WAVE - , Trimble P/N 25751-00 ( A,


November 1994).
WAVE -
GPSurvey. WAVE Weighted
Ambiguity Vector Estimator.

4600LS Surveyor

80


,
Trimble. ,
, 4600LS Surveyor,
, .
4600LS Surveyor.

a priori errors

: ,
.

acquisition

: / -
.
,
.
,
.

/: /() - ,
.
10 / 1
10 , 2 - 5 , ..

almacnac

;
NAVSTAR, ,
,
. GPS
.

Anti-Spoofing (AS)

" ": ,
-
"Y-". Y-
( ,
). " "
(Selective Availability)
,
GPS NAVSTAR.

application

: ,
GPS .
(control surveying),
(topographic surveying) (navigation).

autonomous
positioning
4600LS Surveyor

: , GPS

, ,
81


.
,
GPS . ,
, 100
10-20 ,
.
(absolute positioning).

base station
reference station

: (1) ,
., GPS
. (2)
, .
(reference station).

baseline

:
, GPS
.

, GPS.

baseline surveying

: ,

.
,
.

broadcast ephemeris

: ,
GPS . GPS

,
(Control Segment). . ephemeris (), precise ephemeris
( ).

carrier beat phase

Coarse/Acquisition
code (/ code)

: ,
,
, .

/ :
(pseudorandom noise code -PRN),
GPS L1.
. . -.

code phase
difference

4600LS Surveyor

: /
- , .
.
82

continuous
kinematic surveying

: ,

.
,
, .

Control mark

: ,
,
.
. control point
( ) control station ( ).

Cycleslip

:
.
,

.

Data logging

() :
, .
. external data logging ( ) internal
data logging ( ).

Data logging
Parameters

Datum

4600LS Surveyor

: ,

. (quick-start
parameters) ;

(preplanned)
; (FastStatic)
..

(elevation mask), (sync time)
,
.
(), :
,
.
.
,
.
local datum ( ) WGS-84.
83

DOP (Dilution of
Precision)

DOY (Day of the


Year)

:
GPS ,
GPS .
DOP
. . GDOP, HDOP, PDOP, TDOP
VDOP.

: 1 365 ( 1 366).
(Julian day).

Dual-frequency

(): GPS
L1 L2. 4600LS Surveyor
. . single-frequency
().

earth-centered earth-fixed

,
.
ECEF () ().
. . *
, 0' ,
.
0' , 90'
. WGS-84
.

ELEV (Elevation)

:
.

Elevation Mask

: (
), .

ellipsoid

: ,
.
;
. . reference, ellipsoid
( ).

4600LS Surveyor

84

ephemeris

epoch

: ,
.
. GPS
(broadcast ephemeris),

,
(Control Segment).
(precise ephemeris),

.

: , GPS ;
(cycle).
,
.

event mark

: ,
.
,
- ,
.

.

external data logging

: ,
GPS , .

.

FastStatic surveying

: ,
,
.
, ,
.

field notes

: - ,
,
.

file

: ,
.
. ,
, ,
(battery-powered
random access memory - RAM), .

4600LS Surveyor

85

GDOP
(Geometric dilution
of precision)


: DOP
GPS. PDOP (
) TDOP (
)
GDOP. . DOP.

geodetic position

: ,
.

geoid

: ,
,
.

G1S data acquisition

: GPS,

().

,
,
(
).

GMT
Greenwich
Mean Time)

GPS
(Global Positioning
System)

GPS time

GRS-80
(Geodetic
Reference System
1980)

4600LS Surveyor

().

;
/,
NAVSTAR,
GPS , 4600LS Surveyor.
GPS: ,
NAVSTAR. GPS UTC (
),
.
15 1993 GPS UTC 9 .

1980 .
, 1983 (NAD-83).
86


,
WGS-84, GPS,
(1/f).

HDOP (Horizontal
dilution of precision)

HI
(Height of Instrument)

:
DOP . . DOP.

: GPS
. " " (antenna
height). . corrected antenna height (
) uncorrected antenna height (
).

HVEL (Horizontal velocity) .

internal data logging

Issue of data ephemeris


(IODE)

:
.
.

: ,
.

Julian date

: ,
. , 1
1994 "94001"; 1 1994
"94032". (Julian day)
(DOY).

kinematic surveying

: GPS , ,
, .

, ,
PDOP
. . continuous kinematic surveying
( ) stop-and-go kinematic surveying
( --)

L1

L-, GPS
. 1575.42
/ , -,
(Navigation Message), 50
.

4600LS Surveyor

87

L2

L-, GPS
. 1227.6
- (Navigation
Message), 50 .

latitude (LAT)

(): /
,
, .

latitude/longitude/
height (LLH)

leapfrog kinematic
surveying

// ():
. .
northing/easting/height (//).

"":
,
.
,
,

.

LED

local datum

:
,

.
4600LS Surveyor
, WGS-84,
.

local zone

lock

4600LS Surveyor

:
, (
) ( )
.
, .

: , GPS
. , ,
(loss of lock),

.

88


longitude (LON)

(): /
.
,
, ,
.

mark

, : , GPS
. , ,
, - .
: (reference marks),
, (survey marks),
.
, .

mark ID

ID , : ,
() .
, point ID (ID )
.

mean sea level (MSL)

(): ,
,
,
.

multipath error

:
GPS , ,
.

multipath interference

- :
,
,
, , , ,
. -
" "
. . multipath error (
).

NAD-83

,

. " 1983 " (North
American Datum, 1983). NAD-83
WGS-84,
, NAD-27.

4600LS Surveyor

89

navigation

: ,

,
. ,
.

NAVSTAR

, GPS .
NAVSTAR - ,
: NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging
(
).

NGS
(National Geodetic
Survey)

NMEA-0183

northing/easting/
height (NEH)

observation

.
.
,
(National Marine Electronics Association -NMEA),

.

//:
() ()
(local zone).
, ,
. . latitude/longitude/ height (//).

: ,

. GPS
.

Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) :


,
.

f
() (),

. ,
PDOP
.

4600LS Surveyor

90


receiver

:
4600LS Surveyor.
,
, , "".

reference ellipsoid

: , ,
,
.
. .
WGS-84.

reference mark or point

: , ,
.
(, ),
.
GPS '
, .
reference point.

reference position

: ,
GPS .
,
.

RF

rover

() : ,
,
.
- ,
, , ,
.
survey receiver ( ) differential station
( ).

RTCM SC-104

GPS
;
. RTCM-104,
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime
Services, Special Committee 104 ( ,
104). ,
.

satellite data

: , GPS .
,

4600LS Surveyor

91


GPS ; ,
, , .

satellite geometry

: GPS
GPS
. , (
) PDOP, " (
) ".

schedule plot

: ,
.

Selective Availability (SA)

:
,
,
() .

/ GPS .

100 . . AntiSpoofmg.

session

: ,
, ,
, ( /
).

signal to noise ratio

-: (SNR)
(signal strength), .

single-frequency

(): GPS
L1.
, .
. dual-frequency ().

Standard
positioning service
(SPS)

static surveying

4600LS Surveyor

:
, GPS
/
.
(Selective Availability). .
precise positioning service ( ).
: ,

,
, .
92


,
.
Station

stop-and-go
kinematic surveying

: (1) , GPS
, , . .
(base station). (2)
, . (3) 30
,


. (4) mark ()
.

"--":
,

.
. continuous kinematic surveying (
).

survey mark or point

: ,
.
survey point.

SV

: ; , GPS .

sync time

: ,
.

TDC1
(Trimble Data Collector)

TDOP
(Time dilution of
precision)

Timebase

4600LS Surveyor

Trimble TDC1: ,
GPS ;
.

. 4600LS Surveyor
Survey Controller Trimble.
:
-
GPS. .
.
: GPS
, .
4600LS Surveyor
. ,
(External Frequency Input Option),

, , ,
93

topographic surveying

: ,


. . control surveying (
).

TOW (Time of week)

,
(00:00) UTC.

Tracking

: .
, "
".
, ; , ,
,
, .

tribrach

: .
GPS
.

uncorrected antenna
height

,
.

.

Universal Time
Coordinated (UTC)

User Range
Accuracy (URA)

VDOP
(Vertical dilution of
precision)

4600LS Surveyor

: ,

. -
(GMT).
. GPS time ( GPS).
:
,

(Selective Availability).
URA, 32 , ,
. URA
(Control Segment)
.

:

. . DO .

94


WEL (Vertical velocity)

WGS-84

(1984):

. WGS-84
GRS-80. ,
WGS-84, 4600LS Surveyor,
(local datum).

Y-code

, -,
" " (Anti- Spoofing)
-.

4600LS Surveyor

95