Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 190

1

()

.. , .. , ..

4 ,

,

2006

33
65.012.173
19
:
,
;

;
,




19

.., .., ..
: . 4 ., . . .: ,
2006. 374 . ( ).
ISBN 5 94879 410 5

.
,
,
,
.
,
.

33
65.012.173


.: (095) 742 72 12, 165 91 27. E mail: sales@urait.ru. www.urait.ru

ISBN 5 94879 410 5

.., ..,
.., 2003
.., ..,
.., 2005,
, 2006

..................................................................................................... 6
..................................................................................... 8
.......................................................................................................... 9

I.
1. ......................................... 24
1.1.
.............................................................................................................................. 24
1.2. .................................................................................................... 37
1.3. ............................................................................ 46
1.4. .................................................. 48
........................................................................................................................ 53
2. ......................................................... 55
2.1.
( ) ........................................... 55
2.2.
( ) ..................................................................... 62
2.3. ...................................................................................... 68
2.4.
................................................................................................................................ 76
2.5. ......................................................................... 79
2.6. ..................................................................... 83
..................................................................................................................... 87
:
............................................................................ 88

II.
3. .................... 93
3.1. .......................................................... 93
3.2. ...................................................... 102
3.3. .......................................................................................... 105
3.4. .................................................. 108
3.5. .................................................. 114
................................................................................................................... 119
4. ........................... 122
4.1. , ............................................................................... 123
4.2. ................................................................................................... 127
4.3. , ....................................... 133
4.4. . ............................................................................ 136
4.5. .................................................. 138
................................................................................................................... 142

:
143
5. ............. 146
5.1. .............................................................................. 146
5.2. ............................................................................................... 149
5.2.1. ............................................................... 149
5.2.2. ............................................................ 160
5.3. .................................................................................... 163
................................................................................................................... 166
6. ...................................... 167
6.1. ...................................................................... 168
6.2. ................................................................................. 173
6.3. .................................................................... 176
6.4. ......................... 180
6.5. ................................................................ 182
................................................................................................................... 188

III.
7. 192
7.1. ................................................................... 193
7.2. ................................... 196
7.3. ......................... 203
7.4. ................................................ 206
7.5. ................................................. 214
................................................................................................................... 218
1:
.......................................................................... 219
2:
0 ................................................. 220
8. ................................. 223
8.1. ..................................................................................................... 223
8.2. ........................................................................... 226
8.3. ................................................................................. 232
8.4. ...................................................................................... 239
..................................................................................................................... 244
1:
.................................................................................. 245
2: ....................... 246
9. ................................................... 250
9.1. .............................................................. 251
9.1.1. ................................................................................................ 251
9.1.2. ....................................................................... 252
9.1.3. ................................................................................................ 263
9.2. .............................................................................................. 275
9.3. ......................................................................... 285
..................................................................................................................... 292
:

....................................................................................................................................... 293
......................................................................................... 295


.......................................................................................................... 306
..................................................................... 306
......................................................................................... 308
.......................................... 311
..................................................... 314
.................................. 316
..................................................................... 318
.......... 321
............................................................................................. 325
..................................................................... 325
......................................................................................... 328
.......................................... 336
..................................................... 344
.................................. 349
..................................................................... 352
.......... 359

,
,
www.finec.ru.


, : 199023, . ,
. , . 21, ; e mail: first.vr@finec.ru.




1
.

,
,

,
, , , ,
,
.

.
,
,
.
,
, , ,

,
,
,
.
,
, ,

.
1

.



D
e S

L

()


L
R
MU

()
Pi i ()
Q ()
QD
Qi i ()
QS
Qex
Qim
rK
rL
t


TR
U

()

.
,
. (XVXVII .)

,
:
.

XVIII .,
, ,
,
. ,
.
.
, :
, ? XIX .

.
XIX .
,
.
,

, .
,
. ,
,

, .

. ,
,

10

11


,
. ,
,

.
.


. , .
.
, , ,

,
. .

.
,
.
.. .



, ,
, , ,
, , .
:



.

(

) (Economics),
: .
,

.
,

(
).
,

.

, ,
.

,
.
.

, :
,
,
(),
.
. 1.

. 1.

12

13

:

. ( )

. ( )
() .
,

. ,
,
, ,
(homo economicus),

.

,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
.

.
,
; ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
(
)
.
,

. ,
, ,
.

,
, ..

.
.

, .

.
. , ,
,
1.

: .
,
,

.

:
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
: ,
.
,
,
.
.
.
, , ,

.

,
1 . I .
(.
utility) (. desirabilite)
. ,
.

14

15

, . ,

,
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
,
.

,
.
,
.

, ..
.
,
, ,
.
.
.


.

,

.
,
, 0
. ,

.

.
,
.

,
,
, .

, .
,
.

, ,
.

, ,
t (t 1).

, , .
,
1,5 , ,
,
, , ,
.
,
,
.

(, ),
. ,
,
. ,

, .

.

. ,

, (steady state),

.

,

16


, 1.
,
,
:
, .

. , ,
,
.
.
,
.

, ,
16, ,
F = 16 (L + L).

17

(3)

(1) (2)
(3). ,
: QA = 12,4; Q B = 3,14; F = 7,39; LA = 6,15;
LB = 2,46.
.
. 2.

.
.
.
,

. ,
, ,
. ,

, .. .
. (U)
Q ( ) (
F) :

U = QA0,5QB0,2 F 0,3 .

(1)

QA = 5 LA ; QB = 2 LB ,

(2)

L i , i0 .
1

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
(Hirshleifer J. The Expan
ded Domain of Economics//American Economic Review. 1985. Vol. 75. . 53).

. 2.
II IV
,
. L L III
;
,
.
, IIIV, I
() .

.
Ui.
,
(
).

18

19

. 3.

()
U2
, .

.

. ,
, .
, ,
,
.

, , .

, .
,
.
,
.
. 3.

.
,

.

,
.
, , ,
.
, (
) .
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
.
.
, .

.

20

,
.

.

, , ..
, .

,

,
.

.
,

.
,
,
.


.


.


,

.

.
, ,
.


.
. 1 ,
. 3:
,
. 2
, . 3;
,
. . 3
,
, ,


. . 4 5
, .
6
.
. 16,
. 3,
.
,
. . 7

. . 8 ,

.

. 9.
.
.

.

21

24

1.1. ...


,
, ..
.
, , ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, , ..
, .

, (.
. 3). ,
. ;
,
.
,
, ,
(), (
).
1.1. 1.2
1.3 ,
,
1.4
.

1.1.

:
.

25



.
:
, ( , )
( ).
()
,


.


, .
(Q)

(L) (), ..
Q = Q(L,K).

1.

, /. ,
, 1 5
3 20 , Q = 20 ./, L = 5 .
, K = 3 .
.

,
.
.
.
,

,
, , .
.
1

(0
. : , , . ., 1981. .
: , , . ., 1985).

26

1.

1.1. ...

,
, .
,
, ,
, . ,
,
, .

(output)
(input) 0
.
.
.
, .

.
,
, . 1.1.
:


(
).
LC .
. 1.1 .


: ,

.

(Q/L) 0
(average product).

Q
,

C

. . 1.2
TP

B

L 1
tg.

A


( . 1.2
), .



L
L1

. 1.2.


0

(marginal product).
: L = dQ/dL.
L1
. 1.2 tg.
_
K /LA,
.

, .
,

Q = aL + bL2 L3,
, b, ,
.

Q
C
,

,
TP
,
,
A


( (total
product) ).


LC
LA
L
5 10 , ,
,
. 1.1.
2 , 20


10 .


_
_
K /LA, K
.

27

28

1.

_
K /LB.
,
,
.
: 1)

,
( . 1.2 tg = tg);
_ 2)
K /LA
, ..

.
tg tg

(. 1.3).




(Q,L)
. ,


1%:

Q
Q Q L
100
=
.
Q
L
L Q
. 1.3.



:
Q,L = 100

Q,L = MPL APL .


. 1.3 ,
0 LB Q,L > 1; L = LB
Q,L = 1; LB < L < LC
1 0,
LC
.

1.1. ...

29

,
(IIV), . 1.1
( . 1.2 1.3 , ).
1.1

Q,L

>1

II

>1

III

{1, 0}

IV

<0

,
,
. , I
, IV
. II III?

.
,
.

,
, .
.
(APK = Q/K)
,
.
,
.
D
.
, ,

,
. . 1.2.

,
.
.

30

1.

1.1. ...

1.2

Q ,K =

L
50
60
70
80
90

Q
10
33
38
43
48
52

20
40
46
51
57
62

30
44
50
57
63
68

40
47
54
61
67
74

50
50
57
64
71
78

60
52
60
67
74
81

, . 1.2,
, .
, ,
,
.

.
, , Q = aL+ bK, b ,

.

:
Q = ALK,
, , ,
.

1
Q=

LK1 .

1.2 . ,
, Q = L0,75K0,25.

Q,L =

MPL AK L1
=
= ;
APL
AK L1

1
. () . ()
.

31

MPK
AL K 1
=
= .
APK
AL K 1



,
.

,
, ..
.
(returns to
scale)1.
n
: 1) n ; 2) n ; 3) n .
,
, . . 1.3
.
1.3

L = 20
= 100

L = 30
= 150

L =40
= 200

Q = L 0,75K0,25

29,9
(1)

44,9
(1,5)

59,8
(2)

Q = L0,75K0,5

94,6
(1)

157,0
(1,7)

224,9
(2,4)

Q = L0,5K 0,25

14,1
(1)

19,2
(1,4)

23,8
(1,7)

. ,
.


Q = L K ,
1%,
1
,
;
,
.

32

1.

1.1. ...

33

+ = 1 ; + > 1 ,
+ < 1 .


. , ,
,
. . 1.2
, 57 .
: K1 = 50, L1 = 60; K2 = 30, L2 = 70; K3 = 20,
L3 = 80.
,
,

Q = L0,75K 0,25,
57 .
. ,

K,L,
57.


,


. 1.4.

(. 1.4).

.
,
K, L.


, 0
.
, .
, , . 1.5.
, ,
57 . . ,

L . 57 .

,
KD .




(. 1.6). Q,L= Q,K,
,
.
Q,L > Q,K
. 1.5.
,

,

Q,K > Q,L .



. , Q = Q 0,
Q = 2Q0, Q = 3Q0, , Q = nQ0,


.



,
(. 1.7).
D

.

:


. 1.6.
(

).

:
,
I 57 = L0,25K0,75; II 57 = L 0,5K0,5;

III 57 = L0,75K0,25

34

1.

1.1. ...

. . 1.5. , LA
D, LD
, D, LD
B, LB. , AD
, DB.
0
MRTS (marginal rate of technical sub
stitution), ,
,
.


Q = ALK:

MRTSK ,L =

L
,
K Q = const


MRTSL,K

K
L

=
Q = const

MPL
MPK

= MRTS L,K.

MPK

AK L1
AK

K
.
L

(1.2)

MRTS
,
.


: 1 2 , 1 10
.
1:

(1.1)

a b
.
, ,
, 50
90 45
: min 90 2; 50 1 = 45 . MRTS = 0.
(1.1) ,
( )

. ,
,

.
.
0
, ,
,
1% .
K/L ,

=
. 1.7. (), ()
() .

MPL

Q = min L a ; K b ,

K
.
=
L Q = const

MRTS
.
. L
L MPL,
MPK. ,
,
:
L MPL = K MPK

MRTSL,K =

35

MRTS

MRTS
=

.
MRTS
MRTS
Q = const

1
.. (19061999) 1973 .
( ).

36

1.

1.2.

(1.2) , = 1
Q = ALK.



CES (constant elasticity substitution).

.
.
, 0, .
G , 0,
0. F
28 .
. KF + KH = KG LH + LF = LG,
G
70 . .
,
, . 1.8
0. G
,
,

. ,


,
.
, ,

,
. 1.9.
. 1.9 A, B ,
B .

(input output) ,
.


.
() , , .

Q = L + (1 ) K .

= 1 (1 ) , .. ,
.
CES:
0, 1, , 0.
.

, .
.

.
.

K


,
,

,
.


.
,
.
. 1.8.

. 1.8.

70 .
KA L , K LB.
. ,
, 42 . , KH = 0,6KA
LH = 0,6LA ( ). 28 .

37

1.2.

, .
, ,
,
.

38

1.

1.2.

,
(total cost) , (average
cost) ( = TC/Q)
(marginal cost)
( = TC/Q).

0
.
, .. ,

, rL, ,
, rK.

TC = rLL + rKK.


, .. ,
Q = Q(L,K). L = L(Q), K=K(Q),
, TC = TC(Q).


_ .
K = K =_ const,
TC(Q) = rLL(Q) + rKK , ..

TFC (total fixed cost),
_
(TFC = rKK ), TVC (total variable cost),
(TVC = rLL(Q)).
.

.

.
, . 1.10.
,
(rLL),

,
. 1.11 rL = 3.
Q (C) Q(rLL) . 1.11


. 1.10: rL > 1
, rL < 1 .
. 1.11 ,
. 1.10.
:
,
Q = 6L + 1,2L2 0,01L3
,
. 1.12. (, b, )
. 1.11 1.12 , b, .
TFC ,
, = TFC + TVC,
TVC
(. 1.13).
,
, () ,
.
()
, .


Q = Q(L,K)

Q = Q(rLL, rKK) = Q(C)

= C(Q)

. 1.11. D

. 1.12.

39

40

1.

1.2.

. 1.13 ,

(tg)
b
,
(tg)
.
b
.
tg tg,

,
. 1.13.
.

AVC = TVC/Q

,
V . . 1.14
AC, AVC .
(, b, )
, AVC,
AC.
.
0, AVC

, .

. 1.15,

AFC =
= TFC/Q AVC: ,


,
AVC

.


:
1)
. 1.14.
,

;

2)

;
3)

;
4)
.
0,
AVC
. . 1.15. AC,

,
AVC FC

,
,
, .
,
, . < AC
( AVC) , > AC ( AVC)
, = AC ( AVC) .
0,
.

, ,
Q = LK.
,

Q = LK L =

41

.
K

TC =

rLQ

(1.3)
+ rK K .

K
,
.
. ,

,
,

42

1.

,

(. 1.16, ).


,
TC .




,

TC,
.
. 1.16

,

.
( ),

. 1.16.
, ,

.
,
, ,
.
, ;
;
.
TC ,
, ,

. , Q1 2
, 1 .

.

, LTC (long total cost) LAC (long average

1.2.

43

cost)
,
. 1.17; LMC (long
marginal cost)
.
.



,
L K,
Q = LK ,
rLL + rKK
.

= rLL + rK K LK Q ,
.

. 1.17.


= rL K L 1 = 0
r
L
K = L L.

rK
= r L K 1 = 0
K
K

(1.4)


L = Q1 K

(1.5)

(1.4) (1.5),

r + +
r + +
; L* = K
K* = L
Q
Q
.
rK
rL
,

+ + + + +
LTC =
rL rK Q
.

(1.6)

44

1.

1.2.

,
( + = 1)




.
, .
1.19, , L H
KH
, 160 .

.
,


. 1.20.
,
.

. ,
,
. ,
: MRTSL,K = rL/rK.
MRTSL,K = MPL/MPK,
,
:

LAC = LMC =

1
rL rK .

.
,
(K*/L*),
,
.

, . 1.18.
:
TC = rLL + rK K K =

TC rL
L.

rK
rK

,
.
(tg) ,
.
,
. 1.1, .
,
. (. 1.19, )
,
K

M/rK
tg = rL/r K

. 1.18.

. 1.19.

MPL/MPK = rL/rK.

45

(1.7)

(1.7)
, ,
.
,

, ..
.

(. 1.20). ,
() (TR).

. , ,
. 1.19,
,
160 . LF, KF.

46

1.

, H F
:
. LF, KF
160 .
.
90 . Fortune ,
, Honda
Civic 10,9 ,
Ford Escort
16 . ,
.

. ,
Automotive News,
,
, , 16 . ,
18 .1.
,

.

1.3.

.
, .
TR (total revenue).
.
.
,
, .
,
.

1.3.

47




:
d
dTC
=P
P = MC (Q ),
dQ
dQ



. 1.21. ,

d 2
d 2TC

=

< 0.
dQ 2
dQ 2
,
. ,
,
(. 1.21).

Q .
Q* . ,
Q0 ,
.

.
, ,
.
(. . 1.1),
, 0
.

(Q) = PQ TC(Q),
.
. 1.22.
1

.. . ., 1999. . 190.

. 1.23.

48

1.

0 = PQ rL L rK K

Q =

1.4.

0 + rK K rL
+ L,
P
P

0 .
Q, L,
.
(. 1.22).
(. 1.23)
.
TPL
,
.

1.4.

,
. ,
,
: ,
.
, Q = LK.

(1.7);

; P2 Q2 ..
P1,
, . ,
LMC, LAC,
: QS = QS(P).

, .

(1.3).
:

rL

MC =

1
,

K

P=

rL
K

1
Q

Q =

K 1

P 1
.
rL

r + rK + +
.
LMC = L
Q

49

1 1 1
r + rK + +
.
P = L
Q
P
QS =


rL
rK
,

() : QS = QS(rL, rK, P).
. 1.24.
P1 , , Q1

. 1.24.

. 1.25.

: QS = QS(rL, P, K ).
,
,

(. 1.25).
P0, P1, ;
,

50

1.

1.4.

( )
.
. Q = (L K)1/3 r L = 1,

: P = Q 2/9 Q S =
= 3P 0,5.
, 27 .
,
P 2 36; 0 < P 22, 7;

QS =
0,5
3P ; P > 22, 7.

. 1.26 1.27 .

rK = 4. , ,
: ) ; ) ,
27 . .
K = Q3/L,
K = 0,25L. ,
L = 2Q 1,5
K = 0,5Q 1,5. LTC = 1 2Q 1,5 + 4 0,5Q 1,5 = 4Q 1,5,
LMC = 6Q 0,5.

: P = 6Q 0,5 Q S = P2/36.
27 . ,
K/L = 0,25
, 14,3 ., 27/L = 0,25
L = 108 Q = (108 27)1/3 = 14,3.
, 22,7 . ., 22,72/36 = 14,3.
:
Q = 3L1/3. L = Q 3/27 . ;
TC = Q 3/27 + 4 27, MC = Q 2/9.

. 1.26.

. 1.27.

51

,
, ,

.
.
.
. 1.28;
Pcda,
Pbed. ,

.

. 1.28.

. 1.29.


,
,
. 1.29 .
,
.

.

52

1.

, (eS)
, ,
1%:

Q1S = 2P; Q2S = 3 + 0, 5P ; Q3S = 2 + P .


6 . .,
S
1 3, Q1,3
= 2 + 3P.
P > 6.
:
2 + 3P ; 0 < P 6;
QS =
1 + 3, 5P ; P > 6.

(. 1.31).

Q S P
.

P Q S
, eS > 1, ,
e S < 1.

.
, , . 1.30, a
,
AQA . ,
AQA
tg P dP dQ P
=
=
=
.
tg Q dQ dP Q
AB
, ,
, eS = 1.

S (. 1.30, ),
. ,
eS > 1, , eS < 1;
, e S = 1.
eS =

53

. 1.31.

. 1.30.

,
, () .

.
, ,
:


.
()
(input)
(output) .
,
,
(
).

( )

54

1.

.

,
.
.

.


.
, ,
.
.
;

.

.
.

.
.

( )
.
,
.

.
,
, ()
.

55


,
.

,

.
,
.
,
, ( ),
, ..
.
,
,
,
, .

2.1.

( )
.
I.

.
,
, (utility ).
, ,

56

2.

2.1. ( )

.

, .
, ,
.
I ,
.

. , 10 ,
.
?
.
II. , ..
,
, .
, 1,
, .


, ,
,
.
. 2.1,
2 .

III ,
,
,
.

, :
,
(u) (P)
uA uB
u
=
= = Z = .
(2.1)
PA PB
PZ
. ,
(2.1) : u/P > uG/PG.
, H 1 .
, G. ,
H
G
. , (2.1)
,
. ,
.

2.1

15
10
8
7
5

12
11
10
7
6

10
8
6
3
1

. , ,
. 2.1, 25 . 20 . 3
2 . 1 , 4 2,8 . 1 2 4 .
1 . . 2.1 ,

15+10+8+12+11+10+7+10+8 = 91.

I
II
III
IV
V

57

III. ,
.
1 . (18101859) ,
.
2 . . , 1903. . 91.

,
.
8, 7 8 .
: 8/2 = 4; 7/2,8 = 2,5; 8/4 = 2.
(2.1)
. 2
2 , (2.1) : 5/2 =
= 7/2,8 = 10/4 = 2,5.

15+10+8+7+5+12+11+10+7+10 = 95.


i
: Pi ui/Pi;
ui/Pi = ui,

58

2.

2.1. ( )


i. ,
.
:
.
,
;
,
. ,
, .
,

, .
.
. ,
: (Pi),
(Pj) ():

, (, , );

QiD = QiD Pi , Pj , M .
. 2.1.
.

QiD

. ,


, ..
.

(
D)

( D).
. 2.1.
,

, ,
,
: Q = Q(P).

. ,
.

U = QAQBQC ; 0 < < 1; 0 < < 1; 0 < < 1.

59

(2.2)

,
:
M = PAQA + PBQB + PCQC .

(2.3)

,
,

= QAQBQC (PAQA + PBQB + PC QC M ) .


:

= Q 1Q Q P = 0 Q 1Q Q = P ;
A
A
A
A
B C
B C
Q
A
= Q Q 1Q P = 0 Q Q 1Q = P ;
A B
B
A B
B
Q
C
C
B

= QAQBQC 1 PC = 0 QAQBQC 1 = PC .

QC

(2.4)
(2.5)
(2.6)

(2.4) (2.6)
, ,
.
(2.4) (2.5) (2.6),

QB =

PAQA
P Q
; QC = A A .
PB
PC

(2.7)

(2.7) (2.3),

M = PAQA 1 + + QAD =

.

+ + PA

(2.7)
,

QBD =

M
M

; QCD =

.
+ + PB
+ + PC

60

2.

2.1. ( )

,
, ..
.
.

(2.2),
.
, ,
.

.
(2.2)


.
, ,
.

U = QA + k

) (Q

+l

) (QC + m ) ,

(2.8)

k, l, m ,
1:

M + kPA + lPB + mPC

;
++
PA
M + kPA + lPB + mPC

= l +

;
++
PB
M + kPA + lPB + mPC

= m +

.
++
PC

QAD = k +
QBD
QCD

, ,
:
.
(,
)

U =

QH QG
.
QH + QG

QHD =

M
M
; QSD =
.
PH + PH PG
PG + PH PG

. .

(2.9)

U = QF + QG ,

61

(2.10)

:
2

P
M
P
F ; QGD = F .
PF 4PG
2PG
G
.
,
.
,
.
.
, ,
,
. , ,
. 2.2, 8
8 . ., 12 6 . .
,

,
, ,
.
. 2.2 4 . .
16 .

,

,
64.

,

.
. 2.2.
QFD =

62

2.

2.1. ( )

2.2.

( )

.

,
,
n n .

;
(, )
.
,
. 2.3.
,

F, ,
G, F
. ,
M N, G, N G
, M .
F M F N
.
G
, .

.
,
, .
, : ,
G, ,
. 2.3 + .

.
.

.


,




. 2.4.
(. 2.4).

I (. 2.1)
1 .
.
,
()
.

, (
). ,
; ,
.
.
.

( ).
.
.
.
, , ;
,
, .
(
)
.
.
, .

.
,
,
, . 2.3.
1

.
. ,

( .. . ., 1997. . 71).

63

64

2.

(
),
: 4

; 3
, 2 . ;

, 4 . .
:
, .
.

,
.
.
(MRSB,A) ,
,
.
,
,
,
, . , ,
. 2.4,
tg, ,
tg, 2 . 5 . .

MRSB,A
.
.
.
.

. ,
, . 2.5, ,
, Y Z, ,

Z, Y ,
. ,
,
.

2.1. ( )

65

. 2.6.

. 2.5.

,
,
.

, . 2.6,

.

, .
,
.
.

= PAQA + BQB .
QA,

QA =

M PB

QB .
PA PA

(2.11)

(2.11) ,

. (2.11) ,
;
,
.
, :

66

2.

2.1. ( )

1 > 0 (. 2.7).
,
.


.
,

.
.
, ,
,
(. 2.9). ,
() (YC).
,
.
(. 2.9, ):
.

.

(. 2.9, ):
.
(inferior good).

. 2.7.

. 2.8.

,

,
.
(. 2.8).



MRSB,A = PB PA ,

67

(2.12)


(MRSB, A) (B /A).


, () .
,
, ..
(. . 2.8). (2.12)
.
,
(2.12)

. 2.9.


, ,
XIX . . ,

. ,
, ,
.

68

2.

2.3.

.


C
,


,
P

(. 2.10,
Q
B
).
PB

tg
=
P
/
P
B2
A
P B2

tg = PB1 / PA

P B1
tg =P B0 / PA
(PC).
P B0

D
.
. 2.10
Q 2 Q1 Q 0
QB
,
. 2.10.


.

,
(. . 2.10).
,
, .
,
,
, ,
:






.
. 2.11


.


. 2.11.
H,H

F,F,
;
.
:
?
U0,
, LK,
. G .
,
,
. ,
, , G,
.
.
G ,
G,G.
.
F,F. ,
G, , F,
.

QA

QiD = QiD Pi , Pj , M .

2.3.

, :
,
.
:
.

69


.
(19701980 .)
.


.

70

2.

2.3.

,
,
. ,
. 2.11. U0
( ) ( )
, .
,
U1, .

, .. U0.
, LK.
G
, . ,

.


.
(QB) (Q)
. 2.12.

,
,
,
.

.
.

,
, , , ,
, LK,
.
, U0
(.
. 2.11).

( . 2.11
J ), .. .
. ,

, ,
,
, .
,

.

71

. 2.12. (1) (2)


(QB) (QC)

:
.
,
,
.
.


,
.


1.
. 2.13,
.
. 2.13.
1 . ,

,
;
, ,
, ( .
. ., 1983. . I. . 201).

72

2.


F.
U 1.


.

CF CG
G F.

CH CG
G .
, CH CF.
,
.
.
,

1.
, , .
, . 2.10,

.
,
(
), ,
. 2.14, . ,
( )
: (U = const).
, ,
.
,

(M = const). . 2.14, .
,
,

.
1

.. . ., 2000. . 114.

2.3.

73

. 2.14. ()
()

.

.
. 2.15.

. 2.15.

PH0/PF0 = tg F H
, 0;
M0 = PF0QF0 + PH0QH0.

74

2.

2.3.

PH1/PF1 = tg. ,
, 1;
M1 = PF1QF1 + PH1QH1.
M
P Q + PH 1QH 1
.
IR = 1 = F 1 F 1
M 0 PF 0QF 0 + PH 0QH 0


, ..


.

.

IR, IL IP
,





. 2.16.


,

.
.
IR, IL IP
:
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
IR > IL, 11
. 2.15 ( )
22;
.


. ,
33 . 2.16 ( )
00. , ,
,
, , .

,
. . 2.15
11,
00.

( 0),

( 1) .
,

.

IL =

PF 1QF 0 + PH 1QH 0
.
PF 0QF 0 + PH 0QH 0

, ,
. 2.15 22,
0 , tg.
22 11,
. ,
.

, .

,

IP =

PF 1QF 1 + PH 1QH 1
.
PF 0QF 1 + PH 0QH 1

,
.
. 2.16 33, 1
, tg. 33
00, . ,

75

76

2.

2.4. ...

2.4.
1

. 2.17 PB1GQB0
GFQB0QB
PB0FQB00,
,
PB1GFPB0.
. 2.17 Mkm1
m1m0 Mm0,
MkM.
m1m0
GFQB0QB, MkM
.
. 2.17
. 2.18. U0 :
QB ,
m1a ;
ab .. , m1m0
,

(Q0 QB)

.
GFQB0QB. ,


.

,


( PB1GFPB0
PB1LFPB0), ..

(
) .

.


. 2.18.
0
. 2.17


(. . 2.11)
, .
0
.
,


,
.
.
. 2.17
M0
,
MkM
.
. 2.17


(D) (D).
,

,
,
.. MkM
. 2.17 PB1GFPB0

.
. 2.17.


P B0
. 2.17 Mm0 ( m 0E 0 = Q B0
tg = PB0), PB0FQB00.
PB1
. 2.17
Mkm1 ( m1E = QB tg = PB1),
PB1GQB0.
1

77

78

2.

2.5.

79

,

.

. 2.19 MMe:

MMe ,
,
.

1, QB1
.

U1 , ..

QB .
.


, MMe
. 2.19.
PB1GHPB0, ..


.
,
,
,
( PB1GHPB0
PB1GFPB0).
.
(EV)

(R),
(CV ): EV < R < CV.

: CV < R < EV.
CV,
R EV .
,
. ,
.


,
.
,
,
,
,
U = QA +QB0,5.

2.5.
2.1 2.2
,
,
.
:

,
(, , ),

?
,
.

.
,
,
.

, ,
;
,
.
,
.

,
,
.

80

2.

2.5.

81

. 2.2
, ( )
(. 2.20).

II (64 + 316 = 72). ,


,
, ,
III..
,

.
. . 2.3
.
2.3
,

I
II
III
IV

. 2.20.
2.2

I
II
III.
III.

PA
4
6
8
8

PB
5
3
2
2

QA
12
5,6
4
3

QB
6,4
12,8
16
20

M
80
72
64
64

,

: I,
II ( II
);
II
.
III.,
:

PA
15
20
20
32,5

PB
10
10
10
11

PC
12
14,5
15
15

QA
40
34
38
26

QB
36
43
44
50

QC
20
20
20
27

M
1200
1400
1500
1800

,
, ,
. . 2.4

. ,
.

. , ,
, ,
.
2.4

M
1200
1400
1500
1800

PA

PB

PC

15
20
20
32,5

10
10
10
11

12
14,5
15
15

I
(40; 36; 20)
1200
1450
1460*
1996

(QA, QB, QC)


II
III
IV
(34; 43; 20) (38; 44; 20) (26; 50; 27)
1180*
1250
1214
1400
1490
1411,5
1410*
1500
1425*
1878
2019
1800

,
I II: ,

82

2.

2.6.

I.
. ,

III.
.
. 2.5 2.6 ,
.
2.5
,

I
II
III
IV

PA
15
20
20
32,5

PB
10
10
10
11

PC
12
14,5
15
15

QA
40
34
15
26

QB
36
43
75
50

QC
20
20
30
27

M
1200
1400
1500
1800

2.6

83

2.7

I
II
III
IV

M
1200
(100)
1400
(100)
1500
(100)
1800
(100)

PAQA
600
(50)
680
(48,6)
760
(50,7)
875
(48,6)

P BQ B
360
(30)
430
(30,7)
440
(29,3)
550
(30,6)

P CQ C
240
(20)
290
(20,7)
300
(20)
375
(20,8)

. .

, 3.1,
U = QA0,5QB0,3QC0,2

QAD = 0,5M/PA; QBD = 0, 3M/PB ; QCD = 0,2M/PC .

M
1200
1400
1500
1800

PA

PB

PC

15
20
20
32,5

10
10
10
11

12
14,5
15
15

I
(40; 36; 20)
1200
1450
1460
1996

(QA, Q B, QC)
II
III
(34; 43; 20)
(75; 15; 30)
1180*
1335
1400
1485
1410*
1500
1878
1762,5*

IV
(26; 50; 27)
1214*
1411,5*
1425*
1800

. 2.6 ,
III IV,
IV, III. ,
.
. 2.6
,
i j,
i j (
).
,
, . , ,
. 2.3, ,

(. 2.7).

2.6.

. ,

D
= 10 0, 5P,
QID = 12 P ; QIID = 16 4P; QIII

10 0, 5P; 12 P < 20;

Q D = 22 1,5P ; 4 < P 12;

38 5,5P; 0 < P 4.


(. 2.21). 12 III.
4 < 12,
I;
.
< 4.

84

2.

2.6.

. 2.21.

,

(l). ,
( ) ,
, ()
. ,

,
,
.

. ,


, .

: , ,
(Y),
, ,


,
.

. .
() ,
, .
, .
,
.
, ,
,
, .


,
. ,
,
,
.

85

QD = QD Pi , Pj ,Y , l , .
i
( ),
( ).


.
(e D) ,

1%.

Q D P

.
P Q D
, eD < 0,
.

. ,
eD
, P,Q,
eD =

86

2.

, ,
(. 2.22, ). ,
dQ CQ0
P
BQ0
=
tg =
; tg = 0 =
.
dP BQ0
Q0
0Q0

CQ0 BQ0 CQ0 BC


eD =
.

=
=
BQ0 0Q0
AB
0Q0
tg , tg
.
.
, , ,
, ,
, .
,
.

eD ,
P,Q,

(. 2.22, ).

D
ei, j > 0 ,
eiD, j < 0 .

. 2.22.

( )

D
ei, j
, i
j 1%:

eiD, j =

Qi Pj
.
Pj Qi

87

( )

D
eiM
,M
, i
1%:

eiD, M =

Qi M
.
M Qi

eiD, M > 0 , eiD, M < 0 .


, ,
.
.


.

.

.

.


.

. ,
,
:
. ,
, .

,
.
, ,
.
;

88

2.

.
; .

.
. :
() ()
. .

.
,
,
.

:
, ,
.
,
, .. ,
, .

, , .

, ,
. ,
.

()
.

,
. ,


.
.

, (2.8),

)(

) (

= QA + k QB + l QC + m

) (P Q

)(

A A

Q B + l QC + m

=
1
Q A
QA + k

) (

) (

QA + k
QB + l

=
1
QC
QC + m

+ PBQB + PCQC M .

QC + m
QA + k

=
1
Q B
QB + l

89

PA = 0;

(1)

PB = 0;

(2)

PC = 0.

(3)

(1) (2),

PAQA kPA
QB + l
P
= A QB =
l.
(4)
PB
PB
Q +k

(
(

)
)

(1) (3)
QC + m
PAQA + kPA
P
= A QC =
m.
PC
PC
Q +k

(5)

(4) (5)

M = PAQA + lPB +

PAQA + kPA

) mP

PAQA + kPA

).

(6)

(6) QA,
A
M + kPA + lPB + mPC

k.
QAD =
(7)
++
PA
(4) (5) QA
(7),
M + kPA + lPB + mPC

l;
QBD =
++
PB

QCD =

M + kPA + lPB + mPC

m.
++
PC

, (2.9),

90

2.

91

QHQS
(PH QH + PSQS ) .
QH + QS


QS (QH + QS ) QH QS

QS2
0
P
=

= PH ;
H
QH
(QH + QS )2
(QH + QS )2

(8)

QH (QH + QS ) QH QS
QH2
0
P
=

= PS .
S
QS
(QH + QS )2
(QH + QS )2
(9)
(8) (9) , QS = QH PH PS .
QS QH,

M = PH QH + PSQH PH

M
PS QHD =
.
PH + PH PS

M
.
PS + PH PS
, (2.10),

QSD = QH PH PS =

= QF + QG (PFQF + PGQG M ) .

= 1 P = 0
F
2

PF
QF
D

=
Q

.
G
1
2PG

=
PG = 0
QG 2 QG

2

P
M
P
M = PFQF + PG F QFD =
F .
PF 4PG
2PG

II

92

3.1.

93




.
.
,
.
,
.
,
( ).
:

(
);


( );
,
,
(
).

. ,
, ,
. ,
,

.
, , .
,
,
.


.

, , ..
. ()
,
.

:
?

3.1.

,

. ,
,

.
QS = 3 + 5,
QD = 32 2.
:
3 + 5 = 32 2 * = 5.

94

3.


Q* = 32 2 5 = 3 +5 5 = 22.
.
3.1.



(. 3.2).
,

,
,


,
. 3.2, .

. ,
. 3.1.
. 3.2, ,

; , , ,
.

3.1.

(. . 3.3, ).
:
,
.

. 3.3.


( mEg . 3.1)
. ,
.
.
.

.
. 3.4 ,
(D0 D1)
(0 1), (D0 D2) (0 2).

. 3.2.


(. 3.3).
1 > * (QD) , QS Q*,
(. . 3.3, ). 1 < *, ,
, Q*

95

. 3.4.

. 3.5.

96

3.

3.1.

,
(. 3.5) ,
.
, ,
, .
.

,
(. 3.6, , ) (. 3.6, )
.

QS = m +* nP
Q
Q*
P*
eS = n * , n = e S
. m = Q* eS * P* =
*
P
P
Q
= Q*(1 eS).
,
(P*,Q*),
(eD eS ),
.
,

.

. 3.6.


.

.


.


.

,
.
QD = a bP
Q*
P*
D
D *
e = b * , , b = e P . a = QD + bP = Q*
Q
Q* *
D
e
P = Q*(1 eD).
P*

97

3.1. 20 . .
6000 ; eD = 3; eS = 2. ,
20%? ,
1000 ?
. b = 3 6000/20 = 900; a = 6000 (1 + 3) = 24 000;
n = 2 6000/20 = 600; m = 6000 (1 2) = 6000. ,
QD = 24 000 900P; QS = 6000 + 600P.
20% , , ,
: 0,8 (24 000 900P) = 6000 + 600P P = 19,1. ,

1000 , 24 000 900 = 5000 + 600P P = 19,3; Q = 6600.

.
,
,
. P
S
.
P1
,
, . 3.7,
, , P0
P0 P1.
D
P2
Q2 Q1. ,
,
Q
Q1
Q0
Q2
: . . .

.


.
. 3.7.
.

98

3.

, ,
.
.
.
,
.
0. ,
P0,Q0 .
. . P1,
Q1.
2. (P1)
(2), ,
.
Q0,
, .

.
,
. ,
. 3.7
.
.
, .
.
.



.
,
.
. 3.8.
, . 3.8, , ,
,
.
, . 3.8, , ,
.
, . 3.8, ,
. P1,
: QD > QS.

3.1.

99

. 3.8.

. 0,
,
. P*,Q*
. 3.8, . , Q*,
,
. Q*
, .
, . 3.8, , P*,Q*
,
, . 3.8, .
,
. 3.8, , P*,Q*
, P1 > * , 0 < * .
.
Q < Q* ,
, Q > Q* .

100

3.

3.1.

. .
, ,
,
, ,

,
.

,
.
.
,
,

.
.
. 3.9 ,
0 ()
. , . 3.9, ,
, . 4,
, . 3.9,
.
.

,
.

. 3.9.

. 3.10

()
().

101

. 3.10.

, .

. ,
,
,
.

0 . 3.11. , ,
, D0
D1, ( )
. ,
.


. (
,

)

,



. 3.11. ,

.

102

3.

3.2.

M,
0.

.

( S0 S1).

3
. L
, 0,

.

,
t : QtD = a bPt ,

: QtS = m + nPt 1 .

, a bPt =
a m
n
,
= m + nPt 1 .
b
b

3.2.

,


. , ,
,
.

.
,

. , t
, ,
, ,
,
. , , ,
;
, ,
, ..
,
(t 1) t
. ,

.

Pt = + Pt 1 .

103

(3.1)

Pt Pt1, Qt Qt1, ..
.
,
.
(3.1) , :
P1 = + P0;
P2 = +P1 = + 2P0;
P3 = + P2 = + + 2 + 3P0;
...................................
Pt = (1 + + 2 + ... + t1) + t P0.
(1 ),

Pt =

t
+ P0
.
1
1

(3.2)

(3.2) ,
.
,
, ,
.
(3.2) , Pt ,
|| < 1, .. |b| > n. b n
,

,
, .

104

3.

3.3.

105


|b| > n . 3.12, .

P3, t4
Q4 .. P2 P3
,
.

|b| < n . 3.12, .

.
3.2. ,
QtD = 15 Pt QtS = 3 + 0, 5Pt 1 ,
Q* = 3; P* = 12.
t = 1
: QtD = 21 Pt .
.
1 Q 1 = Q0 = 3,
Q1D = 21 P1 , P1 = 18.
2 Q2S = 3 + 0, 5 18 = 6 .
P 2 = 15, 6 = 21 P2 P 2 = 15.
3 Q3S = 3 + 0, 5 15 = 4, 5 .
, P3 = 16,5,
4,5 = 21 P3,
P** = 16; Q** = 5.
, |b| = 1 > n = 0,5.

3.3.
. 3.12.
|b| > n () |b| < n ()


P0, Q0. t1
,
(D0 D1). ?
,
t1 P1.
t2.
S , Q2 .
D1 ,
, 2.
,
, t3 Q3
. D1 , Q3


.

.
?
,

, .

(. . 1.24).
?
,

,
(. 3.13).

3.3.

. 3.13.

106

107

, (. 3.13, ),
,
.
.
, , ,
.
,
(. 3.13, ), q1
.
, (. 3.13, ), q2
. , ,
min AVC P < min AC (. 3.13, ),
q3
.


Q* = n1q1 + n2q2 + n3q3,
n1, n2, n3 .
.

. , ,
. ,
S (. . 3.13, ).
.
, q*
1
( 1 q*1).
q*1,
.

, , ..
1 .
S (. . 3.13, ).
,

.

,
.
,

108

3.

3.4.


,
. ,
,

. ,
,
. 3.14.

.
< .
,
= .
,

.
.
(3.3)
, ,
.
,
: ,
, ,

.
,
,
. ,

, ,
,
.
. ,

500 . . , .

400 . . .
,
500 . ., ,
.

, S,

,
. .
,
1 . ; n .
n . ,

. 3.14.

,
,

P = ACmin = MC.

(3.3)

3.4.


.
.
,
.
. >
,
, .

109

110

3.

3.4.

,
,
(. 3.1).

3.3. QD = 200 5P
LTC = 9 + Q
Q2 + Q3 /3.
,
,
:

3.1

I
4
4
4

II
5
4,5
5

III
6
5
6

IV
V
7
8
5,5
6
7
8

VI
9
6,5
9

VII
10
7
10

...
...
...
...

2 .
9 . .,
10 . . ,
2 . ,
II, .. 5 . . I
( )
1 . .

I,
.
, , 7 .
10 . ., I
10 4 = 6 . ., II 10 5 = 5 . . ..
7 . . [(4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10)/
7 = 7] 10 . .
,
(.
. 3.1).
. 3.14 SL,
,

.
.
,
. LAC
U (
), ,
, .

111

LAC = 9/Q + 1 Q + Q2/3;


dLAC/dQ = 2Q/3 1 9/Q2 = 0 Q = 3.
LAC = LMC = 4. ,
= 4.
P = LMC:
Q2 2Q + 1= P QS = 1 + P0,5.
, , 20 ,
QS = 20 + 20P0,5.
,
20 + 20P0,5 = 200 5P P = 18,7.
5,3 .

18,7 3 9 3 + 9 27/3 = 41,1.


, 60,

60 + 60P0,5 = 200 5P P = 4; Q = 180.
. 3.15.

. 3.15.

112

3.

3.4.

LAC = LMC = const (. 1.2)



.
, .

,
, LACmin.
.
(. 3.16 3.17);
PL,Q1.

(
) , ,
.
. S2,
L
Q3.
( D1 D0 . 3.17)
0.
q1 q0 0 ,
.
S . S0,
PL
q1.
, PL,Q1.
,

. ,
.

() ,
,
();
() .
.
,
( ),
,
. ,
.

.

0 1,
, ,
, Z0. 0 Z0
,
,
1 , .. P1 = P1e . P1e
0 Z0,
, . 3.2.

. 3.16.

. 3.17.

( D 1 D2 . 3.16)
L 2.
, 2 > AC. , ,

113

114

3.

3.5.

3.2

e
P1 > P0
e
P1 < P 0
e
P1 > Z 0
e

P1 < Z 0

,
t 0
0
0
,
,

t0

t 1

,
t 1
e
P 1
e
P1
e
P 1
e

P 1

t1
(P1 = P 1e), , , . 3.2
.

. 3.2 :

, .

115

()
(S0
S1),
.
1,
S = P1 . ,
.
, ,
.
,
: P0 S < T.
(P1 P0) .

, .
. 3.19 ,
(, ),
(, ).

3.5.


.
.



.

. ,



.
. 3.18 E0

. 3.18.
.

. 3.19.

,
,

116

3.

3.5.

117

.
gE0P0,
gE1P1 (. 3.18), ..
1100. ,
00m, ,
SAm, .. 00S.
TQ1 11S,
.
E1E0A
.
,
.

. 3.20.

E0.
,

,

(S 0 S 1).
P1,Q1.
,
. 3.20.
;

,
. .

S11.
00S,
P0E0E1P1. E0BE1
,
.
,


.

.

.




.



(. 3.21).

. 3.21.


PA ,
QA .
, S im, H,
Q H,
QG. (QH QG)
.
,
AH,
A GH. ,
,
GAH.
,

. . 3.21 Sim
T. F,
QE QF.
,
PFEGPH,
FFHPH.
KEFL,

GEK LFH.

,
.
.
, ,
.
,

118

3.

119



.
,
. 3.22,
0 ,

Pf

(QD QS).
. 3.22.



(D > Pf),
, ,
.


QS . ,
,
, ,
(P1 > 0). ,
() ,
.

(Q1 < Q0).


.

,


,
.
. 3.23
(S0 S1).


. 3.23.

. ,

, P
S
(D0 D1);
P
.
P0


P 
D
,
.
Q
Q2
Q1
Q0
,
. 3.24.


, . 3.24

(
P0,Q0).
Q1, Q2.

,
, (Q2 Q1) ;

Q1 , ( )(Q2 Q1)
;
Q1 , (. . 3.24,
).
, ,
,
,
.



.
,
.

( , .),
(, , ,
.).
;

120

3.

121

, ,
, .

,

.

.


, ,
.

,
. ,

,
.

,
.


,
.

,
.

.

,

.

. ,
, ,

.
, ,

,
. ,
,
. ,
.
,

.
,

. ,
,

,

.

.
,
,
,

.

122

4.1. ,



.

,
, ..
, ,
.

,
, ..
.
,
,
, .
, ,
,
,
.

( ,
),

,
(
).
,

123

,
. ,
, ,
.

.
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, , .
,
.
,
. ,

.

4.1. ,
TR (to
tal revenue) (Q) =
= P(Q)Q TC(Q).

dP
P+
Q = MC .
(4.1)
dQ
, (4.1), ,

, MR
(marginal revenue). ,
, ,
.

d2

d 2 R d 2TC
d 2 R d 2TC
=

<

<
0
.
dQ 2
dQ 2
dQ 2
dQ 2
dQ 2

(4.2)

124

4.

4.1. ,

,
MR

.

, (4.2)
,
.

dP/dQ < 0, ,
0

(4.1),
. 4.1.
(. 4.1).
Q0
P0AQ00,
P1BQ10.
Q0CBQ1, ,
P0ACP1. ,
.
,
, ..
,
.

, , .
a 1
, Q D = a b = Q P = g hQ ;
b
b
(gQ hQ2), (g 2hQ).
(4.1) Q ,
.
, , .
, P = g hQ,
TC = m + nQ,
: g 2hQ = n,
,
Q =

g n
g n g +n
; P = g h
.
=
2h
2h
2

(4.3)

,
, . 4.2. MR MC,

. 4.2.

125

. 4.3.

P,Q, 1 .
.

(D) ,
(R) ,
. ()
(R) , b, ,
. 4.3.
,
,
MC MR . ,
, ,
Qa Qb , MR < MC.
, ,
(MR > MC), Qb Qc.
, ,
, ,
, ,
Qa,Qb, ,
Qb Qc.
, , , ,
, .
,
,
.
1

. (18011887) .

126

4.

4.2.

, ,
, .. eD > 1.
:



.
. 1.4,


,
.


,
. 4.4.


.
, ,
(. 4.4).
,
, ,
. . 4.4 Q
,
P = .
,
, PacP. (
PaeP) , (
aec) ( bec)
.


MR(Q ) = P (Q ) + Q

dP
Q dP
=P +
P = P 1 + D
dQ
P dQ
e

1
MC

.
P 1 + D = MC P =
e

1 1/ eD

(4.4)

e D= 1 ,
e < 1 . .
, eD> 1.
(4.4) 1, ,
,
. hQ:
P = g hQ, MR = g 2hQ, , MR = hQ.
. 1 (P MC)/P
:
, . (4.4)
, ,
. ,
D

P MC MC 1/(1 + 1/ e ) 1
1
=
=
,
D
P
MC /(1 + 1/ e )
eD



.
2,
.
, .

, ,
1
Lerner A. The concept of monopoly and the measurement of monopoly//Review of Eco
nomic Studies. 1933. Vol. 1.
2
: 22 1991 . 948 I
( . .
9 2002 .) 17 1995 . 147
( . . 30 2001 .).

127

4.2.

, ..
;
.

.
.
,

. 1
120 . ,

128

4.

4.2.

, ,

;
P
1
200 ., 2 190 ., 3
175 ., 4 155 . 5
MC
120 .
PM
0
, ..
D

.
Q
QM

. 4.5.




. ,
,
(. 4.5).

. . 4.5
.

.
, , ..
. , 2001 .
Lanck : 1 28 .,
5 115 ., 30 505 .
;

.
:

.
1
. : ,
, ,

2, ..

MR1 = P2, MR2 = P3, ... , MRn= MC.

1 .

.
Stackelberg H. Preisdiskrimination bei willkrlicher Teilung des Marktes//Archiv fr
mathematische Wirtschafts und Sozialforschung. 1939. Bd. 5.
2

129

4.1. , P = 24 1,5Q,
,
= 50 + 0,3Q 2.
: ) ; )
, 3 . .

: 24 3Q = 0,6Q Q* = 20/3; P* = 14. p = 14 20/3 50 0,3
(20/3)2 = 30.
. 4.6.
P
24
21
18
15
12
MC

9
6
3
0

MR1 MR2 MR3 MR4


2

10

12

14

16 Q

. 4.6.
3 . 1 = 24 1,5 3 = 19,5.
MR1 = 24 3Q, Q = 3 MR1 = 15. ,
2 = 15.
3 . .
MR2 ,
: 2 = 24 1,5(Q 3); MR2 = 28,5 3Q, Q = 6
MR2 = 10,5; 3 = 10,5.
MR3 , 3 = 24 1,5(Q 6), ..
MR3 = 33 3Q; Q = 9 MR3 = 6.
4 = 6, (
MR4 MC) .
37,5 3Q = 0,6Q Q = 10,4.
24 1,5 10,4 = 8,4. ,
1,4 . 4 = 8,4.

= (19,5 + 15 + 10,5) 3 + 8,4 1,4 50 0,3 10,42 = 64,3.

130

4.

4.2.

0
. ,
,
.
, .
n
= P1q1 + P2q2 + ... + Pnqn TC(Q),
Pi, qi i

, MR = P(1 + 1 eD ),

:

; Q = qi .
i =1

:
MR1 = MR2 = ... = MRn= MC.
,
,
.
4.2. ,
D
= 160
Q
D
P , Q = 160 2P , Q
; P .
( ): TC = 5 + 4Q + 0, 2Q 2 ,
MC = 4 + 0, 4Q .
,
,

160 2Q = 4 + 0,4(Q + Q);

80 Q = 4 + 0,4(Q + Q).
Q = 58; Q = 37.
P = 102; P = 61,5
= 102 58 + 61,5 37 5 4(58 + 37) 0,2(58 + 37)2 = 6001,5.
. 4.7.

. 4.7.

1
1
P1 1 + D = P2 1 + D

e1
e2

1
= = Pn 1 + D
en

131

= MC .

1 + (1 eiD1 )
Pi
.
=
Pi 1
1 + (1 eiD )
,
,
. ,

, .
,
. ,
,
.

,
.
.

, ..
,
, ,
.

,
,

. ,

( )
( ).


.

132

4.

4.3. ,

4.3. 4.2
: TC = 5 + 0,1Q 2 ,
. ,
.


160 P; 80 < P 160;
QD =
320 3P ; 0 < P 80,

160 2Q = 0, 2(Q + Q );

80 Q = 0, 2(Q + Q ).

160 2Q ; 0 < Q 80;


MR =
(320 3) (2Q 3); 80 < Q 320.
. 4.8.

. 4.8.


72,7 123 .:
160 2Q = 0,2Q Q = 72,7;
(320/3) (2Q/3) = 0,2Q Q = 123.
88 65,65 . .
P = 65,65; Q = 123:
1 = 88 72 5 0,1 722 = 5812,6;
2 = 65,65 123 5 0,1 1232 = 6557.
, ,
= 65,65, 123
, 94 28 .

133

Q = 67; Q = 55.
P = 93; P = 52,5
= 93 67 + 52,5 55 5 0,1(67 + 55)2 = 7625.

1068 . .
178 . . (. 4.9, ),
2201 . . (. 4.9, );
2023 . ., 2
.

. 4.9.

4.3. ,
, ,

.
.

.
,
. MR =
= MC MC > 0,
, ,
. MR = (1 + 1/eD),
eD = 1.

134

4.

4.3. ,

135

(R), (AR)
(MR)

. 4.10.

,

.

(/K).
,
. 4.10. ,


. ,
,

(Q )
d
dK
d
dK
K2 = 0

K
K =

=
dQ
dQ
K
Q
dQ
dQ
(
)

d dK

= .
dQ dQ K
dK K
, ,
.
, .
, , ,
,
. 4.11.
I ;
.
IV .
, 45
III,
I
II.
(K) ,
( ,
) (
).

. 4.11. ,

Q1. Q2,
TR TC ,
MR MC. ,
Q3 (. TR).
,
,
.
,
.

.
4.4. QD = 200 P,
TC = 50 + Q + Q 2, K = 0,5Q.
, : ), ), )
.
: ) TR = 200Q Q 2, ,
MR = 200 2Q = 0 Q * = 100; P* = 100;
)
: 200 2Q = 1 + 2Q Q* = 49,75; P* = 150,25;
)
= 200Q Q 2 50 Q Q 2 = 199Q 2Q 2 50.

136

4.

4.4.

/K = (199Q 2Q 2 50)/0,5Q.
, d/dQ = 199
4Q, dK/dQ = 0,5; d/dK = (199 4Q)/0,5. ,

(199Q 2Q 2 50)/0,5Q = (199 4Q)/0,5 Q* = 5; P* = 195.

. 4.1.
4.1

137


,
; ,
,
(. 4.13);

TR

/K

100
150
195

100
50
5

10000
7500
975

150
4900
895

3
25
358

4.4.

. ,
,
. ,
.
(. 4.12).
D MR .


(
)


.



.
, :
)

. 4.12.

. 4.13.

. 4.14.

) ,
, ,

(. 4.14).

. 4.15.


. 4.16.


138

4.

4.5.

. , , . 4.15,
,
= g/2. ,
(. 4.16).
,
.

,
, eD > 1, eD = const, ..
: QD = a/P n; n > 1.
(4.4)
:

P=

4.5.

,
.
. . 4.17

,




.


,

.
. 4.17.

D


P0
P1, P0 P1. ,

MC MR,
MC D,
MR.


, .
3.4 ,

.
, .

MC + T
D

1 (1 |e |)

MC
D

1 (1 |e |)

T
1 (1 |e D |)

139

(4.5)

(4.5)
,
; eD > 1 .

, .
4.5. QD = 400/2,
= 5Q + 0,25Q 2. MR = 10/Q 0,5
= 5 + 0,5Q, 10/Q0,5 = 5 + 0,5Q,
a Q = 2,54; = 12,54.

2 .
.,
= 3 + 0,5Q

10/Q 0,5 = 3 + 0,5Q; ,
Q * = 4, * = 10.
2 . .
2,58 . . (. 4.18).

.
. 3.4,

. 4.18. ,



,
. .

:
.
,
: Pf = MC. ,
, ,
,

140

4.

4.5.

141

,
,
(. 4.19).

P2,

Q2. P2,Q2
,
P, Q, P2

Q2.
. 4.19.


P1,

.
, P0 = AC,
, (
).

,

.
,
.

.

. 4.20.
P, Q.

P1 = AC,
.
Q1
.

,
,
.
. 4.20 Q0,
. 4.20.
0 = .

,

,
. ,
,
.

.
,
. P1,
Q1
, .
P0,
.
,

.
,
, ,
.
.

,
.
( )

Q

W = P (Q ) dQ TC (Q ) .
0

= P (Q )Q TC (Q ) .
,
: G = G(Q),

= P (Q )Q TC (Q ) + G (Q ) .

Q

G = P (Q ) dQ P (Q )Q ,
0

= P (Q )Q TC (Q ) + P (Q )dQ P (Q )Q = P (Q )dQ TC (Q ) .

142

4.

,
,
. ,
,

.

, ,

.
.



.




.
.

,
.
,

. , ,
.
:
.
,
,
, .

.

,
.

,

.

,
,

.

143

:

,
, . 1,

+ P2 Q2 Q1 + P3 Q3 Q2 .
TR = PQ
1 1

, P = P(Q),
,
,

= P1 (Q1 ) Q1 + P2 (Q2 ) (Q2 Q1 ) +


+ P3 (Q3 ) (Q3 Q2 ) + + Pn (Qn )
(Qn Qn 1 )Qn TC (Q ),

. 1.

Q .

:


dP

= P1 + 1 Q1 P2 = 0 MR1 = P2 ;
dQ1
Q1

dP

= P2 + 2 Q2 P3 = 0 MR2 = P3 ;

Q
dQ
2
2

= P + dPn1 Q P = 0 MR = P ;
n 1
n 1
n
n 1
n
Qn1
dQn1

= P + dPn Q MC = 0 MR = MC .
n
n
n
Qn
dQn

144

4.


, ,
?
.
,
(

)

. . 2

(Q1 = 2 Q2 = 6)
(Q1 = Q2 = 4)


. 2.
.

,

.
P = g hQ
,


P

,
P(Q/2)


P(Q)
, ..
.

D

.
Q
Q/2 Q
,
. 3.
z :

z , 2z, n (n 1)z.
TC = k + lQ +
+ z (n 1).
,

0, 5Q [ g P (Q)] = 0, 5Q ( g g + hQ ) = 0, 5hQ 2 .
,

. 3

1 Q
1 Q
g P (Q / 2) + P (Q / 2) P (Q ) =

2 2

2 2
2
Q
Q
hQ
.
= g P (Q ) = ( g g + hQ ) =
4
4
4
n

hQ 2 2n . ,
,

hQ 2 hQ 2 hQ 2 n 1

.
2
2n
2 n

(Q , n ) = PQ TC (Q ) z ( n 1) +
= ( g hQ )Q k lQ z ( n 1) +

145

hQ 2 n 1

=
2 n

hQ 2 n 1

.
2 n


n 1

Q = g 2hQ l + hQ n = 0;

2
= z + hQ n ( n 1) = 0.
n
2
n2

Q* =

2z
g l
g l

1.
; n* =
h
h
2zh

146

5.1.

147

, , .

.
,
( ).


,
.
.

5.1.

,
,
.


.
. ,
;
, , .

,
.

. ,
,
,
, .

: ,

QA = aA bAPA + c(PB PA) = aA (bA + c)PA + cPB ;


QB = aB bBPB + c (PA PB) = aB (bB + c)PB + cPA .
, , ,

, ,

: ,
, ,
,
.
b,
.

Q D min = aA (bA + c ) PA .

(5.1)



(PBmax).
aB bBPB + c (PA PB) = 0,
,
PBmax = (aB + cPA)/(bB + c).


QADmax = aA (bA + c ) PA + c

= aA +

aB + cPA
=
bB + c

caB
c2
bA + c
PA .
bB + c
bB + c

(5.2)

148

5.

(5.1) (5.2) , Q D
Amax
Q D
Amin .

,
.
,

. ,
( . 4.2).

.
,
P

AC
MC



P*
.


D
MR
,
. 5.1.
Q*
Q
,
. 5.1.
,

,


.


.
.
,

, .
. 5.1
.
, ,
, .

,
,

5.2.

,


. . 5.2 ,


.

(0 1),

(D0 D1)
.

149

. 5.2.

5.2.
,
.
,
P,Q

.
,
.
() .

.

.

,
.

.
5.2.1.

;
.

150

5.

5.2.

151

,
P,Q ,
,

.


, .
1 . (P =
= g hQ) (I II) ,
Q = qI + qII; : TC i = ki + liqi,
i = I, II. .
.
, ,
.
I
I = PqI kI lIqI = (g hqI hqII)qI kI lIqI.
g 2hqI hqII = lI. ,
I

g hqI lI g lI qII
=
.
(5.3)
2h
2h
2
(5.3) I
.

II
qI =

g hqII lII g lII q I


=
.
(5.4)
2h
2h
2
(5.3) (5.4) . 5.3
.
,
,
.
qII =

1 Cournot

1838. Ch. 2.

A. Recherches sur les principles mathematique de la theorie des richesses. P.,

. 5.3.

, I qI,1 .
, II
qII,1 . I qI,1 II
qII,2 .
I qI,2 .
II qII,3
,
qI*, qII*. qI* qII* ,
.
.

.
,
: TCi = lqi,
i = I, ..., n. i
n
i = Pqi lqi; P = g h qi ,
i =I

i = [g h(qI + qII + ... + qn)]qi lqi = gqi hqiqI + hqiqII + ... +hqi2 +
+ ...+ hqiqn lqi.

i
= g hqI hqII ... 2hqi hqn l = 0.
qi

152

5.

5.2.

g hqI hqII ... hqn = P,


153

5.1

P = hqi + l.

q1

q2

= (P l)/h, ..
,
.
,
.

,

1
2
3
4
...
15
16
17
18
19
20

25
26
26
27
...
32
33
33
34
34
35

25
25
26
26
...
32
32
33
33
34
34

60
59
58
57
...
46
45
44
43
42
41

1250
1274
1248
1269
...
1152
1155
1122
1122
1088
1085

1250
1225
1248
1222
...
1152
1120
1122
1089
1088
1054

qi*

g + nl
.
1+ n
n = 1 (. (4.3)),
n .
,
,
. 0
1.
P = g hQ = g nh(P l )/ h P * =

5.1. Q D = 110 P.
;
TC = 10Q.
, : ,
.
,
:
110 2Q = 10 Q* = 50; P* = 60;
= 60 50 10 50 = 2500.
,
, .
q1 = q2 = 25; P = 60; 1 = 2 = 1250.

. , q1 = 26, q2 = 25, = 59, 1 = 1274; 2 = 1225.
, q2 = 27,
= 57; 1 = 1222; 2 = 1269.
. 5.1.

1
. , ;
1994 .

, 17
,
, .. P = 44
.

. 5.2.
P = 30; q1 = q2 = q3 = q4 = 20.
5.2

q1

q2

q3

q4

1
2
3
4
...
35
36
37
38
39
40

11
12
12
12
...
20
20
20
21
21
21

11
11
12
12
...
20
20
20
20
21
21

11
11
11
12
...
19
20
20
20
20
21

11
11
11
11
...
19
19
20
20
20
20

66
65
64
63
...
32
31
30
29
28
27

616
660
648
636
...
440
420
400
399
378
357

616
605
648
636
...
440
420
400
380
378
357

616
605
594
636
...
418
420
400
380
360
357

616
605
594
583
...
418
399
400
380
360
340

99 ,
: (99 10 + 110)/
100 = 11.

154

5.

5.2.

1. ,
,
( I) , (
II) .


.

:
,
.

. ,
:
qII = qII(qI).




().


,

.
. 5.4 ,
II.
I
. 5.4.
II
, .
II ,
I ,
.
, ,
.
,
qI, qII,

(. 5.5). q I
II
()
SI
,
C
I
SII

SI


SII
(SI SII).
. 5.5 , ,
I
,
II
,
qII

. 5.5.
:
.
.
,
()

.
,

, .

.

1 Stakelberg

H. Markform und Gleichgewicht. Wien, 1934.

155

5.2. P = 50 0,25Q ;
I II
: TCI = 10 + 0,15q2I TCII = 25 + 10qII.
: 1) , 2) , 3)
?
1. I. I = 50qI
0,25q2I 0,25qIqII 10 0,15q2 I 50 0,8qI
0,25qII = 0. I : qI =
= 62,5 0,3125 qII.
II II = 50qII 0,25q2II 0,25qIqII 25 10qII
40 0,25qI 0,5qII = 0.
: qII = 80 0,5 qI.
,

:

P = 50 0, 25 ( qI + qII ) ;

*
*
*
qI = 62,5 0,3125qII qI = 44, 45; qII = 57,78; P = 24,5;
q = 80 0,5q .
I
II

156

5.

5.2.

157


I = 24,5 44,44 10 0,15 44,442 = 780,4;
II = 24,5 57,78 25 10 57,78 = 809,9.
2. I , II .
I II
I = 50qI 0,25q2I 0,25qI(80 0,5qI ) 10 0,15q2I = 30qI 0,275q2I 10.
30 0,55qI = 0.
qI = 54,54; qII = 80 0,5 54,54 = 52,7;
P = 50 0,25(54,54 + 52,7) = 23,2;
I = 23,2 54,54 10 0,15 54,542 = 809;
II = 23,2 52,7 25 527 = 529.
, II
, I .
II

. 5.6.
( )

II = 50qII 0,25q2II 0,25qII(62,5 0,3125qII) 25 10qII = 24,4qII


0,17q2II 25
24,4 0,34qII = 0 qII = 70,9.
qI = 62,5 0,3125 70,9 = 40,3;
P = 50 0,25(40,3 + 70,9) = 22,2;
I = 22,2 40,3 10 0,15 40,32 = 641;
II = 22,2 70,9 25 709 = 840.
3.
= (50 0,25qI 0,25qII) (qI + qII) 10 0,15q2 I 25 10qII =
= 50qI 0,4q2I 0,5qIqII + 40qII 0,25q2II 35.


q = 50 0,8qI 0,5qII = 0 qI = 62,5 0,625qII ;
I

= 40 0,5q 0,5q = 0 q = 80 q .
I
II
II
I
qII

qI = 33,3; qII = 46,7; Q = 80; P = 30; I = 823; II = 908.
. 5.6.


. . ,
, 1883 . 1,
,
, . , ,
:
, ,
.
, .
,
(MC = l).
QD = a bP. ,

a bPi Pi < Pj ;

= 0 Pi > Pj ;

0, 5 ( a bPi ) Pi = Pj .
,
;
qiD

Theorie Mathematique de la Richesse sociale. Journal de Savants. 1883, p. 499508.

158

5.

5.2.

. ,
.

, ,
: PI = PII = l, PI = PII > l

l < Pi < Pj.
,
.
,
.

:

()
.
, ()
.

,
, .
. 5.7. D
, MCa MC
. P1,

. P0
.

{P1, P0},

.



(
MC a D)

. 5.7.
(D).
MR MC
(Q) (P) , .
Qa,
Q + Qa = Q, .

TCI = TCII = q + 0,5q 2 MCI = MCII = 1 + q;


Q D = 16 P P = 16 Q = 16 2 q.
, P = MC:
16 2q = 1 + q q = 5; P = 6.
, i =
= 6 5 5 12,5 = 12,5.
, , , I 7,
II ?
I ,
P = 7 6 .
, .
,
,
, .
, I
PI = 7 PII = 6. II 5 . ,
I : qI + 5 = 16 PI qI = 11 PI.
, PI = 7 I 4 .
I = 7 4 4 8 = 16.
,
.
.
.
, ()

159

5.3. QD = 60 3P;
2
: TC = 15 +2q : TCa = 0, 25qa .

P = 0,5qa qaS = 2P.



,

qD = 60 3P 2 P = 50 5 P P = 12 0, 2q .
, MR = 12 0,4q ; MC = 2, q = 25; P = 7.
39 . ; 25 ., 7 2 = 14 .

160

5.

5.2.

5.2.2.

,
,
.

() .


.

(. 5.9).

:
PA max PA PB PB min
.
=
(5.5)
PA PA min PB max PB


. ,

,
.

.

1,
.


.


(. 5.8).

{Pmax, Pmin}

.

Pmax,

. 5.8.

, ..

. 2 Q2, Q1
. , Pmin, 1,

Q3, Q4 .

:
a bP + c ( Pmax P ) P > Pmax ;

D
Q = a bP Pmin P Pmax ;
a bP + c P P P < P .
( min )
min

1 Gutenberg E. Zur Diskussion der polipolistischen Abstzkurven//Jahrbcher fr Natio


nalkonomie und Statistik. 1965. Bd. 177; Gutenberg E. Grundlagen der Betribwirt
schaftslehre. Berlin, 1984. Bd. II.

161

. 5.9.



.

,
.

Q AD

20 PA + 0,5 (15 PA ) PA > 15;

= 20 PA 5 PA 15;
20 P 0,5 5 P
( A ) PA < 5.
A+

162

5.

QBD

18 1,5PB + 0,5 (9 PB ) PB > 9;

= 18 1,5PB 3 PB 9;
18 1,5P + 0,5 5 P P < 5.
( B) B
B


PA0 = 12. (5.5)

15 12 PB 3
=
PB0 = 4,8.
12 5 9 PB

. 5.10, .
P

15

15

10

DA

DB

10

DB

QB 20 15 10

5 10 15 20 QA

QB 20 15 10

10

15

DA

10

DA

DB

5.3.
,
.
.
,
, .
. 5.3.
5.3


, ;
, DA.
, PB2 = 2.
PAmax = 10,3; PAmin = 0,3.
. 5.10, .

.
DA ,

; , .
,
. , P1 = 9.
, Pmax = 7,2;
Pmin = 1,2. . 5.10, .
,
P, Q
;
,
, .

5 10 15 20 QA

DB

15

QB 20 15 10

163

DA

5.3.

5 10 15 20 QA

QB 20 15 10

5 10 15 20 QA

. 5.10.

B PB1 = 6,
(5.5) PAmax PAmin = 10
:
PAmax = 17; PAmin = 7.
. 5.10, .

()

()

1
. ,
.

5.

5.3.


,
, ,
.
,
i .

,
; .

, , ,
.
,
. ,
, , . ,
;
. ,
, .

(hidden action)
. ,
,
.
, . 5.3,
.
.

(backwards induction).

.
: 1)
; 2) .
, . 5.4.

. 5.4 ( )
, ;
I, II.
I 12 . .,
, 6 . ., .
I , 15 . .
II 8 . .
.
I
: II ,
I 15 . . 12 . .,
, I 8 . .
6 . . II ,
.
.
() ,
,
, .


,
.
,
.

. ,
. ,
, ,
.
( )
. ,
,
,
. ,
.
, , .
,
,
. ,
,

5.4

164

II

12; 12

6; 15

15; 6

8; 8

165

166

5.


.
,
(tit for tat).

.

8.4.

,
,
.
,
.




.

,
.

, (
), (
).


.
.

,
, .

, ,
.
,
,
.

167


, ,
.
,

.
,
,
(, , ) ,
, .
,

,
,
, ,
, .

,
.
.
,
(,
),
.
.

.
, ,
,
, , (
) , , .

168

6.

6.1.

169

.


.
, , ,
: , , .

6.1.
. ,
,
, ..
.

, .
,
, ,

, ,
.

,

: (F)
(M),
. 6.1.
(. 6.1).





.
,




.

,

. 6.2.

. 6.3.

, ,
.
rL ;
y = (24 F)rL.
. 6.2 .


.
,

, ,
(
)
(. 6.3, ).


,

M,L,
. 6.3, .



,

, ..
. 6.4.

(. 6.4).

170

6.

6.1.

171


(. 2.3)
:
(. 6.5).


U 0 ,
.

. 6.5.

.
. 6.5
(L2 L0) .
,
. . 6.5

.
,
.
. ,
. 6.5, (L2 L1).
,
.

.
,
.

,
rL

(1 )rL; 0 < < 1.

. 6.6.


. 6.6.

.

L0 L1.

,
U1 , .
, ,

,
U0 U1.
a. ,
, (L2 L0),
(L0 L1).
b, . ,

, ,
,
. (a b) ,
.
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
, .. .
.

, .

,
. ,
: t0 t1.

U = U(C0,C1), C0
C1

.
. 6.7.




. . 6.7.

172

6.

6.2.

.

,
,
, ,

.
2.2,
,
. MRSC0 ,C1
. ,


.

.


. C0,C1
. , t0
y0,
.
i.



,
, (. 6.9).

( )
,

(.
. 6.9).

. 6.9.


.
(
) ( ), ..
.

.
,
. .

.
,
.

.

,
. ,
,
.

C1 = (y0 C0)(1 + i) = (1 + i)y0 (1 + i)C0.


,
.
(1 + i) y0.


(1 + i) .

. 6.8.

,

, ,



. 6.8.
:

173

6.2.

, .
.

.

174

6.

,
,
, .

.
MR(Q) = MC(Q)

:

dTR(Q(L)) dTC (Q(L))


=
.
(6.1)
dL
dL
(6.1) ,
,
(marginal
revenue product) MRPL. ,

,
(L).
(6.1) .
TR(Q(L)) = P(Q(L)) Q(L),
MRPL = P

dQ dP dQ dQ
dP
+

=
P +
= MR MPL .
dL dQ dL dL
dQ

,

.
TC(Q(L)) = rL(L)L, MCL = rL + drL/dL. ,
,
.
,
.
.
MRP L MC L
.
, MR = P, MRPL = MPL.
.
,
MCL = rL.
. 6.1 ,
.

6.2.

175

6.1

P MPL = r L
MR MP L = rL
P MPL = MC L
MR MP L= MC L

,
L , (. . 6.1, 3
).
: 1)
(. . 1.3; :
,
); 2) MPL,


MRPL
,



; 3)
P  MPL

MR  MP L
MPL
.
L
rL


r L1
( )
,

rL0
D
Lc
. . 6.10
D
,
L

L
,
. 6.10.


,

.

176

6.

6.3.

6.3.

.
( LD ),
.
, ,
,
. ,
. . 6.11
aErL*.
,
.
.

, .
. ,

. ,
,
, .

, ,

.

,
,

.
, ..
,
,

,
( )

. 6.12.
,

.

( )
,
. ,
, . 6.12.


. ,
,
,
.
.
,

,

. rL*, L*
. 6.11 0
.

,


.
L*
, , L1.
, .
. 6.11.

rL*
, L*.
*
L ,
,
: Pdy/dL < rL*. ,
LD MRPL.

(L1 L*), ,
, ,
. L1 ,
. 6.11 .
( LD
)
( LS ),

( L* L1 ).
,

177

178

6.

6.3.

179


, ,
, ,
,
(. . 6.12, L L1):

.
. .
,

. (. 6.13)


(MRPL).


,
,

.
,

;
MRPL
. 6.13.
,

.
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
. ,
.
4.5
:
.
:



. , ,
. 6.13,

rL*,
: (MCL = rL* )
L*.
,

. 6.14.
,

.

,
. ,
, rL,
rL, ,
(. 6.14). ,
.
( D).

.
. 6.12 6.13,
. 6.15. ,
.
:


,
(rL), ,
(rL).
.

,
.


,
. 6.15.

.

180

6.

6.4.

6.4.

,
.
1.2,

( ):
, K/L , . ,
rL = P MPL,
,
, ..
. ,
,
(). ,

(
) 1%:



.

( ).


.
,

.
,
, . 8.

.

rLL ,
rKK. , ,
PQ. ,
.
, rLL + rKK = PQ.
, , ( ),
.
, ,
6.2, rL = P MPL rK = PMPK. ,

, ..
.
:

rL
r
L + K K = Q,
P
P
..
,
.
,
.
P MPL L + P MPK K = PQ

d ( K L)

d ( MPL MPK )

K L

MPL MPK

181



MPL MPK = rL rK ,

d ( K L)

d ( rL rK )

K L

rL rK

,
, ,

.
= 1, ,
,

. 1%
= 1
1% ,
,
. , < 1,
,

182

6.

6.5.

> 1 . 1.1,

CES (constant elasticity of substitution).

,
, .

(
) ,

.
(i ), (6.2) ()

(PK):

6.5.

,
, .
1. ,
?
2. ?
.

(. 6.1). ,
, 0
( ),
.
d.

/(1+d) .

1, 2, . . . , , PV
(present value) :

1
2
T
.
+
+ ... +
(6.2)
2
1 + d (1 + d )
(1 + d )T

.
,
() .
(I)
NPV (net
present value)
PV =

NPV = I + at (1 + r ) .
t =1

PK =

1
2
T
.
+
+ ... +
2
1 + i (1 + i )
(1 + i )T

183

(6.3)

(1 + i)T
(0); (1 + i)T
()1.

(1 = 2 = = ), (6.3)

PK = (1 + i ) =
t =1

(1 + i )T 1 .
T
i (1 + i )

(6.4)

(6.4) ,
(
).
(0)2.
(6.4) , ,
, ,
,

.

( ),
, , /i.


.
1

: PVIF0,T present value interest factor; FVIF0,T future
value interest factor.
2 PVIFA .
0,T

184

6.

6.5.

, 0,
(0):

.
()1.
()
.

i (1 + i )

a = PK

(1 + i )T 1

,
.
6.1.
10 200 . . ,

100 . ., 150 . .
180 . .;
1000 . .
10 8%.
?
. , (6.3),
1386 . . 0,

1386

10

0, 08 1, 08

1, 0810 1

= 206, 6.

, ,
.


.
, ,
,
, ,
. i/[(1 + i)T 1].
. ,
,
T

(1 + i )

Tt

t =1

(1 + i )T 1 .
i



()1.
, ,
1

FVIFA.

185

6.2. 160 . .,
4 , i = 10%. ,
25%, :
0, 25 160 1,13 + 0, 25 160 1,12 + 0,25 160 1,1 + 0, 25 160 = 185,64.
,
0,1/(1,14 1) = 0,2155,
,

0, 2155 160 1,13 + 0, 2155 160 1,12 + 0, 2155 160 1,1 + 0, 2155 160 = 160.

. 6.2
,
, .. .
6.2




()
(0)
(1 + i)T



,
0



()

(1 + i)T


( 0)
i (1 + i ) 1
T

(1 + i )T

1

,
( . .,
1948. . 34).

186

6.

6.5.

. 6.2




( 0)
T
i (1 + i )



()
i

(1 + i )T 1

(1 + i )


IRR (internal rate of return).
,
.
, IRR , NPV
.
,
.
6.3. 125 . . ,

: 1 = 50, 2 = 40, 3 =30, 4 = 20, 5 = 10. (r*)

125 =

50
40
+
1 + r* 1 + r *

30

20

10

) (1 + r ) (1 + r ) (1 + r )
2

6.3

1
1
2
3
4
5

2
125
85,44
52,58
26,98
9,23

3 = 0,0835 2
10,44
7,14
4,39
2,25
0,77

4
50
40
30
20
10

5 = 4 3
39,56
32,86
25,61
17,75
9,23

, ,
.




( )
(1 + i )T 1

187

r * = 8,35%.


,
(. 6.3).

.
,

t, : t,1, t,2,
, t,s, s ,
t.

.

,
.
.
,
. ,
;
.

: ,
( 4
) ,

.


,
s

: t = w i i,t , t
i =1

; i ,t ; wi ,
i ,t .

188

6.



, .
t t .

,

, .

.
.

. ,
,
.
,

.
,
,
.
,
.
,
.

.
.
.
,
,

. ,
(), (
)
,
.
. ,
,
. ,
,
, .

. ,
.

2
(): = w i ( i i ) .
2

i =1


()
, .
, ,
, , .
,
. ,

. ,
,
100 . ., .
= 0,5 100 + 0,5 0 = 50 . . ,
50 . . , ;
50 . . ; 50 .
. .
,
.
(6.2) t
t t ,
,
t

= t ,
1+ d
1+ d
; d .


,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.

189

190

6.

,
.


.
, ,


.
,
,
.
.

, ,
.

.
,
, .

, ,

,
.

191

III

192

7.1.

: 1)

; 2) ,

?

.


. ,
,
.
.
. 6 ,
,
.

, . ,
,
, ,
.
, (
)
,
.


193

,
() ,
.
,
,
.

,
.

.

7.1.

( ).
.

,
.
,
:

Q AD = a bPA + cPB ;

(7.1)

Q AS = k + mPA l PB ;

(7.2)

QBD = f g PB + hPA ;

(7.3)

QBS = n + sPB z PA ,

(7.4)

a, b, c, k, l, m, f, g, h, n, s, z ,
.

a bPA + cPB = k + mPA lPB PA = + PB,

(7.5)

(a + k)/(m + b); (c + l)/(m + b).



PB = + PB,
(f + n)/(g + s); (h + z)/( g + s).

(7.6)

194 7.

7.1.

195

(7.5) (7.6) ,

,
.
(7.5) (7.6), ,
,
. ,
( Q2D ),

( Q2S ).

.

(7.5) (7.6).

. 7.1, (7.5) (7.6)
I II.

.

I
II. ,
(7.5) (7.6)
, .
,

,
,
.
. 7.1.


.
,
1. I ,
1, .
1 2 > 1.
, 1, 1
, .
2, ;
, 2
2 > 1. , ,


, , ,

.

, (7.5)
(7.6) , I II
I. , ,
.
> 1; > 1; < 0; < 0 I II
I (. 7.2).
.
,
PA*
1.
,
P1.

,
II
1

P2.


,
. 7.2.
.

P2,
P2, .
, , < 0; < 0; > 1;
> 1, .

,

?
,
.


, ,

196 7.

7.2.

197

.
, , ,
,
, .

,
. 7.3.

Ui = U(Qi1, Qi2,, Qin, Fi1, Fi2,, Fim); i = 1, 2,, l,


Qij j ( j = 1, 2,, n), i
; Fit t (t = 1, 2,, m),
.

:
m

M i = rt Fit .
t =1

(7.7)



(. 1.1) (. 6.1).

:
QijD = f ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ); j = 1, 2,..., n;
. 7.3.

,

, . 1 .
.

7.2.

l ,
n , m
.
1
Walras L. Elements of Pure Economics. L., 1954; ..
. ., 1928. . II. . 239319.

FitS = ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ) ; t = 1, 2,..., m.


:
l

D
QD
j = Qij ; j = 1, 2, , n;
i =1
l

Ft S = FitS ; t = 1, 2, , m .
i =1


,
. ,
.
,
, (. 1.4)
(. 6.2).

198 7.

7.2.

, ,


.
.
,
:

Q Sj = ( P1 , P2 ,, Pn , r1 , r2 ,, rm ) ;
Ft D = ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ).

,
, :
1)
S
QD
j ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ) = Q j ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ) ;

j = 1, 2,, n;

(7.8)

2)

Ft D ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ) = Ft S ( P1 , P2 , , Pn , r1 , r2 , , rm ) ;
t = 1, 2,..., m;

(7.9)

3)

m

PjQ Sj = rt F jtD ; j = 1, 2, , n.

(7.10)

t =1

(7.8) (7.10) (2n + m)


(Pj, rt, Qi) .
(2n + m 1) .
.
,
(L, K) (, ),

PAQ AD + PBQ BD + rL LD + rK K D = PAQ AS + PBQBS + rL LS + rK K S .

(7.11)

(7.11) ,
( )
( ).

) (

PA Q AD Q AS + PB Q BD Q BS + rL LD LS + rK K D K S = 0.

199

PA Q AD Q AS + PB Q BD Q BS + rL LD LS + rK K D K S = 0. (7.12)

(7.12)
. ,
;
. (7.12)
.
,
.
,
(
(7.12)), (
). ,
, .
(7.8) (7.10)
(2n + m 1) .
,
, .
;
,
. .

, ,

.
(7.8) (7.10)
.
,
,

. 7.1. 1,

(7.8)(7.10)
1

. . ., 1985. . 141154.

200 7.

.
.

.
7.1.
, ( ), ,
, .
,
.

( )

U1 = (Q A1 10 )

0,5

(Q B1 6 ) (16 L1 )
0,3

0,2

0,6

0,1

()
,
, .. . ,
( = rKK);
.
, ,
, .

B = 40 PB L0,25
B rLB ,

43

d B 0, 25 40 PB
10 PB
=
r = 0 LDB =
.
dLB
L0,75
r
B

A = 16 PA

13

10 PB
r

43

= 100

PB4 3
r1 3

,

13

128PA
P
; QBS = 133,3 B .
r
r


.
:
Q AS =

1 = (Q A1 10 )

0,5

(QB1 6 ) (16 L1 )
0,3

0,2

( PAQ A1 + PBQB1 A rL1 ).



0,25
Q A = 16 L0,5
A ; Q B = 40 LB .
, ,

:
; ,
;
.
.
.

A = 16 PA L0,5
A

8 PA
64 PA2
8P
r A =
;
r
r
r

10 PB
B = 40 PB

PAQ A1 + PBQ B1 = A + rL1 ;

PAQ A 2 + PBQ B 2 = B + rL2 .

201

U 2 = (Q A2 8 ) (Q B 2 4 ) (16 L2 ) .
0,3

7.2.

rLA .

QBD1

0, 2 A 2 PA 1, 2 PB
.
r

L1S = 12,8

2 = (Q A2 8 )

0,3

(QB 2 4 ) (16 L2 )
0,6

0,1

( PAQ A2 + PBQB 2 B rL2 ).

Q AD2 = 5,6 +

d A 0,5 16 PA
8P
=
r = 0 LDA = A .
dLA
L0,5
r
A

0,5 A + 8r 3PB
;
PA
0,3 A + 4,8r 3PA
;
= 4, 2 +
PB

Q AD1 = 5 +

0,3B + 4,8r 1, 2 PB
;
PA

. 1.

202 7.

Q BD2 = 1, 6 +
LS2 = 14, 4

7.3.

203

0, 6 B + 9, 6r 4,8 PA
;
PB

0,1 B 0,8 PA 0, 4 PB
.
r

Q AD1 ( PA , PB , r ) + Q AD2 ( PA , PB , r ) = Q AS ( PA , r ) ;
QBD1 ( PA , PB , r ) + QBD2 ( PA , PB , r ) = QBS ( PB , r ) ;

LDA ( PA , r ) + LDB ( PB , r ) = L1S ( PA , PB , r ) + LS2 ( PA , PB , r ) .

,
,
, r = 1.
.
,

12,8 4, 2 PB + 19, 4 PB4 / 3


= 96 PA
10,6 +
PA

PA = 0, 493; PB = 0, 484.

14, 4 7,8 PA + 19, 2 PA2

1/ 3
= 47, 4 PB
5,8 +
PB


. 7.1 7.2 . 7.4.

. 7.4. .
: , ,

7.1

,
.
,

63,1
15,5

67,7
8,2

, .,
, . .
1
2
15,6
34,0
29,1
24,5
20,7
47,0

7.2
, . .

1
2

11,2
12,5

15,6
24,5

26,8
37,0

16,8
10,0
14,3
22,7

26,8
37,0

7.3.

,
,

?
: ?
. 2

,
.
()

204 7.

7.3.

:

?


:

,

,
.
,
, ,
.

.
,
.
(
) ,
? . 1

,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
,
.

: , . ,

, ,
, ,
.
,
,
2.
,
,
(. 7.3). ,
.

W = W (U1 , U 2 , , U l ); W U i > 0, i = 1, ..., l .



?

l

: W = U i ,
i =1


,
.
l

: W = U i ,
i =1


;
.
7.2. 12.
, (4 4 4) = 64.
; , (8 3 1) = 24.


,
,
. 1.

W = min{U1, U2, . . . , Ul}.

, ,

.

,
.
1 Rowls

D. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, 1971.

205

1 Kaldor N. Welfare Proposition in Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility //


Economic Journal. 1939. Vol. 49. P. 549552.
2 . (17431794) .

206 7.

7.4.

207

, 7.3.
,
, ,
, ..

.
.

,

.

, ,
,
, .
D .
,

.




() 1
(. 7.5).


.

. 7.5.
,
,
.
,
.



. , H
,
LHA
KHA ,
LHB KHB .


,
. 7.6.


(. 7.6).

1
Pareto V. Cours deconomie politique. Lausanne, 1897; ..
. ., 1928. . II. . 320343.

1
.. (18451926) ,
.

7.3

, %,
I
II
III
13
10
8
13
10
14
13
20
18

?
I II
II.


III.
I,
.
, ,
,
. .
1 ,
.

,
.


, ,
.

7.4.

208 7.

7.4.


: ,
, . ,
, K CA LCA ,
30 . ;
(KCB, LCB ) ,
35 . .
. 7.6 ,
.
QA = 30 QB = 30, ,
, ,
, .

, D,
:
D
. , D
.
.

(. 1.1),

,

.

(. 7.7, ).

,

. ,

: ,
,
.

()
(MRPTA,B), ,


:
B
MRPT A, B =
; L = const, K = const.
A


.
D . ,
, ,

() .
. 7.8 ,
( ).
,
. .
,

.
H
K
H
K
(Q B1
QB1
) B (Q A2
QA2
)
, .
, K,
, ,
.

MRTS KA, L = MRTS KB, L .


,
,

(. 7.7, ).

. 7.7.

209

210 7.

7.4.

,
,
,
, , . ,
,
.
K

.
H

. 7.8
.

.

,


,
. 7.8.



:

. ,
.


.
(. 2.2),
,
:



(
) (
).
,


. . 7.9
.
M N

. 7.9.
.
N
, M
.
, , ,
. ,
. , ,
N, , 16 .
20 . ,
, , 28 .
10 . . ,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
. : M I = PAQ AHI + PBQBHI ;
M II = PAQ AHII + PBQBHII

,

.

.





. . 7.10
F
G .
. 7.10. D

MRS AI , B = MRS AII, B .



.
( . 7.8
).

211

212 7.

7.4.


.
. 7.10 (
+QA),
(Q).
(
). . 7.10
( tg tg).
.

. ,
,
.



. 7.11.




.

.
. 7.11.

D
( H)

( F)
,

(7.13) .
.
,
(7.13).
,

(. (3.3)). ,
i, j

D .
,




.

,
, ,

MRS BI , A = MRS BII, A = MRS B* , A = MRPTB, A .

(7.13)

1. ,
(7.13)
*
| = 3,
. |MRSB,A
|MRPTB,A| = 2. , 3 .
1 . 1/3 . 1 . ;
,
2 .
, .. 2Q Q,

2 . . 2/3 ,
1/3
.
1

. 2.

213

Pi Pj = MCi MC j .
,
,
, .. MCi /MCj = MRPTi , j. ,

MRPTi, j = Pi Pj .

(7.14)

2.2,
,
MRSi, j = Pi /Pi.
,
MRSiI, j = MRSiII, j = = MRSi*, j = Pi Pj .

(7.15)

(7.14) (7.15) ,

214 7.

7.5.

, (7.13).
.
,
,
,
. ,
,

.
.

.

. , ,
,
, , ,
.
.


,

.





(
).

. 7.12.




( ).


, F, ,
G (. 7.12).
,

(. 7.13), ,

. , ,
CD, I
,
D, II
,
.
,
.

,
,
,
D
. 7.13.
I
D



II.

7.5.
7.4 ,
.

,
.
.
:
, ,
, ?
, . 7.11.
, tg,
,
F.
,
, , ?

, :
,

215

216 7.

7.5.

217

,


( )
(
) .
,

(
),

.

:
?
,
,
( ).
,
, .

,
. ,

.

. ,
,

.
,

,

.
. 7.14


. 7.14.
F, ..

0,75QA 0,25QB, 0,25QA 0,75QB.


, ,
G, ,
. ,
, F, .

.
,
, ,
, ?
.
,
.
I II ,
III .
I III ,
. ,
, , II,
, I.
,
, , , ,
.
,
,
Q AI 0 , QBI 0 , Q AII0 , Q BII0 , Q AIII0 , Q BIII0 .
, Q AI 0 = Q AII0 = Q AIII0 QBI 0 = QBII0 = QBIII0 .
, ,
.
.
,
, Q AI 1 , QBI 1 , Q AII1 , Q BII1 , Q AIII1 , Q BIII1 .

,
. ,
.
, I II, ..
Q AI 1, QBI 1 Q AII1, QBII1. ,
:

218 7.

PAQ AI 1 + PBQBI 1 < PAQ AII1 + PBQ BII1 ,

.

.
,
,
.


.

,
,
.


.

,


.
,
.

.. I II.

,

PAQ AI 0 + PBQ BI 0 = PAQ AI 1 + PBQ BI 1 ;


PAQ AII0 + PBQ BII0 = PAQ AII1 + PBQ BII1 ;
PAQ AIII0 + PBQ BIII0 = PAQ AIII1 + PBQBIII1 .

,
. ,
,
,
.





,
.
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
,

. , ,
, , ,
.
.

,

219

1:

= (Q A a ) (QB b ) (T L ) ( PAQ A + PBQB rL )


= (Q A a ) (Q B b ) (T L ) PA = 0;
Q A

2)
= (Q A a ) (Q B b ) (T L ) PB = 0;
Q B

1)

3)

1
= (Q A a ) (Q B b ) (T L ) + r = 0.
L

220 7.

PA
(Q A a ).
PB
1 3,
QB = b +

PA
( a Q A ).
r
(1) (2)
L=T +

UI = UI(AI, BI, LI, KI); UII = UII(AII, BII, LII, KII).


(1)

(2)

+ rT aPA bPB
.

++
PA


,
( I)
(
) :
UI(AI, BI, LI, KI) max

P
P
PAQ A + PA b + A (Q A a ) = + r T + A ( a Q A )
r

PB

QA
Q AD = a +

221

1) UII(AII, BII, LII, KII) = U = const;


2) LI + LII = LA + LB ;
3) KI + KII = KA + KB ;
4) AI + AII = A(LA, KA);
5) BI + BII = B(LB, KB).

(3)

(3) (1) (2),

+ rT aPA bPB

;
++
PB
+ rT aPA bPB

.
LS = T
++
r

QBD = b +

2:
%

(I II),
(LI, KI LII, KII).

( ) ,
:
A = A(LA, KA); B = B(LB, KB),
LA, KA , LB, KB ,
.
, ,

= UI(AI, BI, LI, KI) I[UII(AII, BII, LII, KII) U ]


II(LI + LII LA LB) III(KI + KII KA KB)
IV[(A(LA, KA) AI AII] V[(B(LB, KB) BI BII].

:

6)

U I
IV = 0;
AI

12) I

U II
II = 0;
LII

7)

U I
V = 0;
BI

13) I

U II
III = 0;
K II

8)

U I
II = 0;
LI

14) II IV

A
= 0;
LA

9)

U I
III = 0;
K I

15) II V

B
= 0;
LB

10) I

U II
IV = 0;
AII

16) III IV

A
= 0;
K A

11) I

U II
V = 0;
BII

17) III V

B
= 0.
K B

222 7.

1 17
12
,
: AI*, AII* , BI*, BII* , L*I , L*II , L*A, L*B , K I*, K II* , K A* , K B* .

(7.13),
6 7

U I IV
=
,
BI
V

U I
AI

(a)

223

10 11

U II IV
=
,
BII
V

()

A
B
,
= V
LA
LB

()

U II
AII
14 15

IV

16 17

IV

8.1.

A
B
.
= V
K A
K B

()

() () ,

U I
AI

U I U II
=
BI
AII

U II
A
=
BII LA

.. MRS AI , B = MRS AII, B = MRPTA, B .

,

,

.

B
A
=
LB K A

B
,
K B

7.5 ,


. .
.
0,
, (
)
.
,

,


.

, 4.1.
0,
,
, , ,

224

8.

8.1.

,
, .

, . ,

,

. ,
, .
.

,
:

,
, ,
(. 8.2). , MR
.
.

. MR
.
Q0
,
Q1.
0,
,
.
:
,
( ), ,
, ,
( ).
.
, .
,

( ). ,

, (
).

,
, .
,
.


.

() ,
, .
.


+

+


+

+



. . 8.1, ,
,

. P1,Q1,
P0,Q0.
,
Q1 .
P

P
MC

MR
MC
MR
MC

P1
P0

P0
P1

MC

Q1

Q0

MR
Q

. 8.1.

Q1

Q0

. 8.2.

225

226

8.

...................................................
..................................
..............................


II

,
,
. ,

.

.

.

, .
.
,
.
0, ,
,

. ,
, .
,
.

8.2.


.
,
, .
,
.
,

,
.
,
h .

8.2.

227

,
, ..

C
C
C = C (Q , h ) ;
> 0;
< 0.
Q
h



C
C
C = C Q, h (Q ) ;
> 0;
> 0.
Q
h

h,
. ,
.

= PQ + Ph h C(Q, h); Ph = 0.

C Q = P ; C h = 0.

= PQ C(Q, h).

(8.1)

(8.2)
C Q = P .
(8.1) (8.2)
, .
,
,
. ,
,

.
(Q, Q, h) = PQ + PQ C(Q, h) (Q, h).

C
C
Q = P ; Q = P ;

C
C
+ = 0 C = C = .
h
h
h
h
h

(8.3)

228

8.

8.2.

229


,



.
C h > 0 ,

C h = 0 , ..

. 8.3.
,

.
,
, . 8.3.
h1 ;
h0 .

.

.

.
= 5 + 0,25Q2, Q ,
.
C = 2Q2 Qc, Q .
.
= PQ 5 0,25Q2
P = 0,5Q, , Q S = 2Pc
. = PQ 2Q2 + Q
P = 4Q; Q S = 0,25P.
,
, ,
. = P Q +
+ P Q 0,25Q2 2Q2 + Q 5 , P + 1 = 0,5Q
P = 4Q; ,
Q S = 2Pc + 2 Q S = 0,25P, ..

.
,

.

,
.

. 1 ,

.
.
,
.

,

= PQ + Ph h C(Q, h) h.

C
C
(8.4)
= 0; = 0 .
Q
h
(8.4) (8.3),
, ,
= C h


, ..


.
,
. 8.3,
, . 8.4.

. 8.4.


P

1
. ,
, , ,
,
, . ( .
. ., 1985. . 1. . 253254).

230

8.

8.2.

,
.
1991 . .


,
;
1. ,
.
h1
,
Ph
( Ph ).

, ()
.
Ph
.

= PQ + Ph (h1 h) C(Q,h).

P = Q ;

C
P = .
h
h

(8.5)


.
= PQ Ph (h1 h) C(Q,h).

P =

C
C
; Ph = .
Q
h

(8.6)

(8.5) (8.6),
, (8.3),
. (8.5) (8.6) ,

Ph =

C
C

= = = .
h
h
h

. , . ., 1993.

231

= PQ + Ph h C(Q,h),

= PQ Ph h C(Q,h).
,
(8.5) (8.6).
, ,
,
.
.
. , . 8.3.
,
h1
h 0 Ph (, Ph

), C h > Ph.
, {h1, h0}
Ph.
,
Ph h0,

Ph. , h0
Ph.

.
. ,

,
. 8.5.
. ,
(
h0 )
.

. 8.5.

(h0 h2) ,

232

8.

8.3.

Ph(h0 h2) ,
.
,
.
,
.

,
.
.

0,25 . , II
, 1 .
0,5 . .
1 . 0,75 .
. ,

1 . 1 .,
0,25 . ,
.
, MRS ZI , A + MRS ZII, A < MRPTZ , A

.
, MRS ZI , A + MRS ZII, A > MRPTZ , A

. , MRS ZI , A + MRS ZII, A =
= MRPTZ , A

1.
. MRSZ,A
,
, ..
(PZD). MRPTZ,A
,
, ..
(MCZ).
(8.7)

8.3.

, ,
.
.

,
.
, ,
?
.
7.4,
,

.
,
,

MRS ZI , A + MRS ZII, A + + MRS ZN, A = MRPTZ , A ,

(8.7)

Z ; A .


.
,
.
MRS ZI , A = 0, 25; MRS ZII, A = 0, 5; MRPTZ , A = 1. ,
I , 1 .

PZDI + PZDII + + PZDN = MCZ .

(8.8)


,

.

. 8.6.

( ,
)
.
1 .

1.

233

. 8.6.

234

8.

8.3.

235

.

.
, :
, ,
. , ,
. 8.6, I II (
Z * ) : PI + PII =
= MC(Z *).
.
, ,
.
: I = II = 60
: (P DI = P DII = 4).
6 . . ,
,
. ,
.
, . 8.1.

8.1



I
,

4 . .,
II

61; 61
64; 58
: 60 3 = 57 . .

58; 64
60; 60
,

60 . . ,
, 64 . .,

,
58 . .:
54 . .,
4 . .

,
, (8.8).
,
, 70

. (
1). .
(ci)
.

(di), (u i)
n

: di = u i ci. d i > 0 ,
i =1

,
n

d i < 0 , .
i =1

(u i = u *i ) .
u i (
,
), .
, ,
. ,
, ,
n

i=2

i =1

di, d i > 0 , d1 , d i < 0 ,


I ,
, .
,
n

, .. T = d j ,
ji
, .
,
,
200 . .
. 8.2.
8.2

I
II
III

ci
200
200
200
600

ui
225
250
100
575

di
25
50
100
25

1
Clarke E.H. Multipart Pricing of Public Goods//Public Choice. 1971. 11. P. 1733;
Clarke E.H. Demand revelation and the provision of Public Goods. Cambridg, 1980.

236

8.

8.3.

III.
75 . .

,
(vi)
(u*i )
(z i), .. vi = u*i z i. u*i , z i
, u i .

, ui* C u j .

n
n

0, ui < ; C = ci ;

i =1
i =1
zi =
n
n
n
C u , u < C , u .

j
j
i

j i
j 1
i =1

,

, .
( )
.
,
,
vi .
n

u j < C , .
j i

1: ui* + u j < C .
j i

,
.
.

n

vi = ui* zi = u i* C u j < 0,

j i


.
,
.
n

*
2: ui + u j C .
j i

237

j i

,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
. ,
,
, ,

. ,
,
di, .
,
:
.
, 34 ,
,
, di.



,
?
, ,
.
100 . ,
, .. 33,3 .
.
, ,
:

PID = 50 Q; PIID = 65 Q; PIIID = 90 Q.


. 8.7.
.
(8.8)
35 :

PID (35) + PIID (35) + PIIID (35 ) = 15 + 30 + 55 = 100 = MC.

238

8.

8.4.

239

.
.


.
,
, ,
,

.

8.4.

. 8.7.

,
?
,
, ,

33,3 . . . 8.7
, I 17 ,
II 32 e III
57 . ,
32 .

,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
,

,
, , ,
.
(hidden
information) (hidden action) .

, . ,
,
.

,
,
. ,
,
.


.
.
. ,

,
.
,
,
.

240

8.

8.4.

, : P = 40 q1 q2;
1 TC1 = 6q1; 2 TC2 = 5q2.
1 ,
60% 2 TC2 = 5q2 40%
TC2 = 8q2. 2 , 75%
1 TC1 = 6q1 25% TC1 = 10q1.
, .
, 1 ,
,
2
, , 2
1 .
,
,
. 1
, 2
.
qi i ,
, qi . ,
1 ,

q2 = 17,5 0,375q1 0,125q1 ;

1 = 0, 6 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q1 + 0, 4 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q1 6q1 .
2

2 = 0, 75 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q2 + 0, 25 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q2 5q2 .
. 1
,
, 2 , 1
.
1 2 ,
1 , ,
.
2

1 = 0, 6 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q1 + 0, 4 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q1 10q1 ;

2 = 0, 75 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q2 + 0, 25 ( 40 q1 q2 ) q2 8q2 .

1 ( q1 ) , 2 ( q2 ) , 1 ( q1 ) ,
2 (q2 ) :

q1 = 17 0,3q2 0, 2q2 ;

241

q1 = 15 0, 3q2 0, 2 q2 ;

q2 = 16 0,375q1 0,125q1 .

, q1 = 11,23; q2 = 12,13;
q1 = 9,23; q2= 10,63. , 1 11,23 .
, 2 12,13 .; = 40 23,36 = 16,64; 1 = 119,5;
2 = 141,2.

.

1 = ( 40 q1 q2 ) q1 6q1 ;

2 = ( 40 q1 q2 ) q2 5q2 .

q1 = 17 0,5q2
q1 = 11; q2 = 12.

q2 = 17 0,5q1
= 17; 1 = 121; 2 = 144. ,
.

. ,
, ( ) (
) ,
.
, 150,
75 . .
120, 60 . .

, :
120 x 150,
60 75. ,
,
.

75 < < 150. 120 . .,

60 n 75.
, , ,
,

242

8.

8.4.

120 150,
.

. ,
,
,
, .

.
,

.
,
.
,
,
.

.

, ,
, .


.

.
, 12 .
, 2/3
, 1/3 . ,
132 . .,
120 . .
,

,
,
, 132 . .,
120 . .
,
10 . ., 15 . .
, ,
,
.
,
,
.


:
132 . ., 120 . .
,
, ,
.
.
:
,
. ,
, , .
. ,
,
1, .
()
() ,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
.

.
, ( )
() .

W = (132 8 + 120 4)/12 = 128 . .


,
.

. 2.

243

244

8.

.

, ,
.
,
, .
,
, .


,
: ,
. ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
.

,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, ..
(. (6.1)).
,
.
.

,
,
.
.
,

,


,
,
,
, .


,

,

,

245

1:

, (I, II),
(A) (Z) .
: UI = UI(QAI,QZ); U II =
= UII(QAII,Q Z), QAi ,
i ; QZ ,
.
1: T(QA,QZ) = 0.

, II
I ,
,
:

UI = UI(QAI,QZ) max UII(QAII,QZ) = U T(QA,QZ) = 0.


= UI(QAI,QZ) [UII(QAII,QZ) U ] [T(QA,QZ) 0],


, .
1

,
,
2
. , Q A = a LA ; Q B = b LB ; LA + LB = L. LA = (Q A a ) ;
2
2
2
2
2
LB = (QB b ) ; L = (Q A a ) + (QB b ) ; T = (QA a ) + (QB b ) L = 0.

246

8.

U I
T
=
;
Q AI
Q AI

(1)

U I
U
T
= II +
;
Q Z
Q Z
Q Z

(2)

U II
T
=
.
Q AII
Q AII

(3)

1.
.
= M(r, ).
U = m + aL bL2,

(1)

U = Q M = aL m aL.

(2)

(2) (1):

U I
U I
U
T
T
T
= II
+
.
(4)
QZ Q AI
QZ
Q AII QZ Q AII
(3) (4)
:
U I
U I U II U II
T
T
+
=
,
QZ QAI QZ QAII QZ Q A
MRS ZI , A + MRS ZII, A = MRPTZ , A .

2:



:
Q = aL + ,
a ;
.


H = bL2; 0 < b < 1.
: ,
(m), ()

M(r, , ) = m + Q.
, M H.

247

W = U + U = aL bL2.
a = 2bL L* = a/2b.
.

(1):
dU
a
(3)
= a 2bL = 0 LS = .
dL
2b
, LS = L*, = 1, ..
.
(2)
(3) M = H:

m + aL = bL2 m = bL2 aL.

(4)

(4) (2)
U = aL bL2 + aL aL = aL bL2
L (3)

a 2 ( a )
U =

.
2b
4b

2

a 2 2a 2
a 2 a 2

=0

= 1.
d
2b
4b
2b 2b

. LS = a/2b = L*.
(4),
a2
m= .
4b
dU

248

8.

249


, .
, LS = 1

a 2 a 2 ba 2
+

= 0.
4b 2b 4b
,
.
2.
.
,
, ..
U =

U = m + (aL)0,5 bL2.

(5)

W = [(aL)0,5 aL] + aL bL2.

(2) L r
(6) (7),


,
.
,
= 0, .. .
W = aL bL2
L* = a/2b, (4)
m = bL2.
, :

bL2 L = L* = a / 2b;
r=
0 L < a / 2b.
3.
.

(5)
23

dU

=
2bL = 0 LS =
.
(6)
dL
2 aL
4b a
= ,
,

m + (aL)0,5 = bL2 m = bL2 (aL)0,5.

(7)

23

43

13




U = a (1 )
b
+ a
.
4b a
4b a
4b a
= 9; b = 0,25.
= 0,69 (. ).

250

9.1.

251

. 9.1 9.2 ,

.


.



.
: (
), ( )

.
,

.

:
,
;
;

, , ;

?

: .
,
.

,
.

,

9.1.
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , , ,
,
, .

.

. 1.
9.1.1.
, 1 2 100
, 1 120 ; 1 2
90 , 1 80 .
,
,
. ,

. , 1 ,
1,2 2 ,
1 8/9 2 . ,
1 2,
9/8 ,
1

. . . 1. ., 1955. . 112128.

252

9.

9.1.

1 2
5/6 .
. ,

, ,
. . 9.1,
1 2 1
.

(), ,
.

U = (Q + 30) (Q + 10).
.
Q = L /100,
QA = L /120, L L ,
.
Q = L /90
Q = L /80.
,
..
.
Q = Q (Q)
.

9.1

(1 2)
(1 )

100
90
120
80
220
170

200

160
200
160


20 ., 10 .
.
:
( )
. ,
. (
) (
) .
,
. .

, (
), .

.
9.1.2.

: 10 800 .
(L = L = 10 800). , ,

253

L 10 800 L
=
L = 10 800 100Q .
100
100

Q =

L 10 800 100Q
5
=
= 90 Q .
120
120
6
,
, ;
MRPT, = 5/6.

Q =

L 10 800 L
=
L = 10 800 90Q .
90
90


Q =

L 10 800 90Q
9
=
= 135 Q .
80
90
8


:
Q =

U = (Q + 30 ) (Q + 10 ) max Q = 90 0,833Q .
Q = 45; Q = 52,5.

254

9.

U = (Q + 30) (Q + 10) max Q = 135 1,125Q .


: Q = 49,4; Q = 79,4.


. 9.1.

. 9.1. (a)
()

,
( ) .

,
,
;
MRPT, =
= MRS, P /P = MRS,.
1 2 5/6 ,
: P = 1; P = 6/5.

, P Q =
= 1108 = 108.
: 108 = Q + 1,2Q Q = 90 0,833Q , ..
. ,
.
45 2
52,5 , 108 2 , 45 2
, 63 2 52,5 (5 63/6 = 52,5).

9.1.

255

1 2 1 ,
Q = 108 Q.
U1
(. 9.2). P = P = 1 108 2
44 2, 64 2 64 .

U0 = (45 + 30) (52,5 + 10) = 4687,5;
U1 = (44 + 30) (64 + 10) = 5476.
1 2 9/8 ,

U2.

43,4 2 , 64,6 2
72,6
: U2 =
= (43,4 + 30) (72,6 + 10) = 6068.



,

( . 9.2).

. 9.2.
,



,
.
. 1 2 9/8
.
: P = 1; P = 9/8.
,
P Q = 135.

: 135 = 9Q/8 + Q Q = 135 9Q/8.
.
,
, 1 2 5/6 ,
9/8 .

256

9.
U 1

U 2
U 0

. 9.3.

1 2
1
:
Q = 135 Q.

U1 (. 9.3). P =
= P = 1
57,5
.

U0 = (49,4 + 30) (79,4 + 10) = 7100;


U1 = (57,5 + 30) (77,5 + 10) =
7656.

1 6/5 2 ,

U2 75 , 60
72 2 ,
U2 = (72 + 30) (75 + 10) = 8670. , ,
.
. 9.3
,
.

,
.

.

, . 9.4.

.




. ha

. 9.4.

9.1.

257

U 0 . 9.2. a
. hb bT
. G
, hG
( ) .
1 2
0,921 . 108 2
44,4 2, 63,6 2
63,6 0,921 = 58,6 .
58,6 63,6 2 .


.
.
.

( ),

,

.
,

0,5
Q = L0,4
; Q = L ,

0,4
Q = L0,5
; Q = L ,


, . 9.5.



.

2,5
2
L = Q
; L = Q
;
2,5
2
Q
+ Q
= 10 800

2
Q = 10 800 Q

0,4

. 9.5.

258

9.

2,5
Q = 10 800 Q

0,5

U = (Q + 30)
(Q + 10)
A (Q = 77; Q = 30),
(Q = 88; Q = 25).
,

MRPT,
= MRS ,
= 0,37; MRPT,
= MRS ,
= 1, 78.

,
,
:
1 2
1,78 , 0,37 . ,
1 2
, 0,37 , .
1 2
1,78 .
,
,
.
(I) (II)
I
, MRPT,
< P P <
II
< MRPT, ,
:
(
), P /
P,
,
.
. 9.6:


;

,
.
. 9.6.



. 9.5

9.1.

259

,

.

MRPT,
(
MRPT,

, ).

, MRPT,
= = MRPT,
.
{0,37; 1,78}
. , . 9.7
,

= MRPT,
= MRS, =
MRPT,
= / = 1.
97 2
18 , ,
, 97 18 2 .
,
,
Q = 48; Q = 67.
,
49 2 49 ,
30 30 2
, ..
. 9.7.


.

, ,


:
Q ex = Q im ; Qim = Qex .


S
D
Qex = Q
Q
;

(9.1)

D
S
Qim = Q
Q
;
D
S
Qim = Q
Q
;
S
D
Qex = Q Q ,

(9.2)

QS QD .

(9.3)
(9.4)

260

9.

9.1.

261

. 9.6 , (QS QD)


, ..
. ,
.
. 9.8

1.


. 9.9. ,
,
.

. 9.9.
. 9.8.


(Q ex = Q im ) P/P = 0,8.

Qex = Qim , Q
im = Qex .
.

S
S
D
D
Q
+ Q
= Q
+ Q
,


S
S
D
D
Q
+ Q
= Q
+ Q
.

:
S
S
S
S
D
D
D
D
Q
+ Q
+ Q
+ Q
= Q
+ Q
+ Q
+ Q
.

(9.5)

Qex = Qim , ,
(9.1) (9.3),
(9.5) ; , (9.2) (9.4),
Qim = Qex .
1

. .

, = 1, = 0,8,
. 9.10. ,
(yA = 0,8 95 + 20 = 96),
(y = 0,8 17 + 98 = 111,6),

.


, , ,
. 20
95 2 ,
44 2 .
17 2 98
, 35
.
(
):
0,8 44 = 35.


. 9.10.
, ..

262

9.

9.1.

263

. 9.2 , ()
,
.

: Q = 500; Q = 150. 1000


2 , ,
150 .

9.2

9.1.3.

Q S
QD
Q S
QD
U

77
77
30
30
4280

95
51
20
55
5265

+18
26
10
+25
+985

25
25
88
88
5390

17
61
98
63
6643

8
+36
+10
25
+1253

.
(
),
.

1,2
Q = L1,5
, Q = L L + L = 100.

Q = 100 Q0,667

1,2


. 9.11 ,
250,
1000.
,

U = (Q + 30) (Q + 10 ) .
A . 9.11


.
. 9.11.

D
400 2 98 ;

MRPT, = 0,233.
P /P > 0,233,
, .
. 9.11 = 0,3; = 1.
,


. 1 . 2.
.

, .
.
.
,
, ,
(), ()
. ,
,
. 3,
4 .

, .



.
,
,
222.
.
.
200 . 500 . ,
400 . 300 . .
(F) ().
1 Hekscher E. The Effect for Foreign Trade on the Distribution of Income//Economisk
Tidskrift. 1919. Bd. 21.
2 Ohlin B. Interregional and International Trade. Cambridge/Mass, 1933.
3
.. . ., 1992. . 3638.
4 Leontiev W.W. Studies in the Structure of the American Trade: Further Theoretical and
Empirical Analysis // Review of Economics and Statistics. 1956. Vol. XXVIII.

264

9.

9.1.

,
,
,
0,2
0,25 0,75
: QF = L0,8
F K F ; QF = LH K H ,
,
U =Q1F 3QH2 .

.
,
,

. ,
(205,12 .), 285,2 .
106,1 . .

MRTS LF, K =

4 K F rL
K
r
= ; MRTS LH,K = H = L
LF
rK
3LH rK

, KH/LH = 3 > KF/LF = 0,25;


(rL/rK = )

, ..
.

(
)
.
(MRTS LF, K = MRTS LH, K ).

LF, A ..............................
Q H, A ............................
Q F, A .............................
UA .................................
MRPTH, F =
= (QF,A/QH,A)

0
398
0
0

121
288,1
103,9
205,08

122
286,6
105,0
205,11

12 200 LF, A

)K

F, A

K F, B =

LF, B 300 K F, B

12 400 LF, A

2400 11LF, A

(9.6)

(9.6)
. ,
LF,A

QFS, A

0,2

2400 11LF, A

L0,8
F, A

500 LF, A

(9.7)
0,75

500LF, A
(9.8)
= 200 LF, A
500
.

2400 11LF, A

Q, , QF, A,
(9.7) (9.8) LF,A,
QHS , A

0,25

200
0
240
0

0,7431 0,7388

)K

F, B

300LF, B
4800 11LF, B

0,2

QFS, B

500LF, A

.
LH, B = 400 LF, B, KH, B = 300 KF, B ,

L0,8
F, B

300 LF, A

4800 11LF, A

LH, A = 200 LF, A KH, A = 500 KF, A,

LF, A 500 K F, A

125
282,2
108,3
205,09

124
283,7
107,2
205,11

0,7559 0,7517 0,7474

4KF
K
L K
= H KF = F H .
LF
3LH
12 LH

K F, A =

123
285,2
106,1
205,12

265

QHS , B

= 400 LF, B

0,25

(9.9)

300 LF, B
300

4800 11LF, B

0,75

(9.10)

(9.9) (9.10) ,

231,2 . 166,8 .
.
LF, B ..............................
QH, B ............................
QF, B .............................
U B .................................
MRPTH, F =
= (QF,B /QH, B)

0
322
0
0

244
245
246

232,4
231,8
231,2

165,1
165,9
166,8
207,355 207,361 207,363

247
248
230,6
230,0
167,6
168,5
207,362 207,357

200
0
240
0

1,443

1,456

1,451

1,447

1,439


. 9.12.

266

9.

9.1.

267


; = 1,057.

.

LF, A ...............................
Q H, A .............................
Q F, A ..............................
MRPT H, F =
= (QF,A/Q H,A )

. 9.12.


,
. ,

, ,
, .

.
MRPTHA, F = 0, 7474 > MRPTHB, F = 1, 4471,
,
:

1,4471 ., 0,7474 . ,
,
0,7474 < H/F < 1,4471,
.


,
.
9.1.2,
,
:
MRPTHA, F ( ) = MRPTHB, F ( ) ;

Q F, B ex ( ) = Q F, A im ( ).


LF, B ...............................
Q H, B .............................
Q F, B ..............................
MRPT H,F =
= (QF,B/QH,B)

37
372,5
28,1

38
371,8
28,9

39
371,0
29,6

40
370,3
30,4

41
369,5
31,2

1,064

1,060

1,057

1,054

1,051

327
166,1
247,7

328
164,9
248,9

329
163,8
250,1

330
162,6
251,4

331
161,4
252,6

1,068

1,063

1,057

1,052

1,047

, = 1,057
371 . 29,6 . ,
163,8 . 250,1 . .
() 1,057 371 + 29,6 = 421,7 . .,
250,1 + 1,057 163,8 = 423,2 . .
: QF, A = 421,7 1,057QH, A, :
QF, B = 423,2 1,057QH, B.
,
QHD, A = 266 QFD, A = 141, : Q HD, B = 267 Q FD, B = 141.

,

(
).
. 9.3 ,

.
9.3

Q SF
QD
F
S
QH
QHD
U

106
106
285
285
205

30
141
371
266
215

76
+35
+86
19
+10

167
167
231
231
207

250
141
164
267
216

+83
26
67
+36
+9

268

9.

9.1.

,
,
,
. ,
,
,
.

.

.
. ,

.
,





,


.
. 1
. 9.13.
. 9.13.
II

.
HEF U0
.
I
F .
I .

( HF0)

,
,
.
,
(
) . ,
HF 0,
0 F 0
.
.

0 I.
,
U0 : 1)
, ,
HF0; 2)
, ,
HF 0, ex
Fim
.

U0 H0F
V0.
,
.
.
.

. I
. ,
.



.
,
,
(PF/PH ). ,
I tg ( ),
,

Meade J.E. A Geometry of International Trade. L., 1952.

269

270

9.

9.1.

271



(. 9.14).

tg0,

.
F
( 0)

,
. 9.14.


.
,
.
I
,
IV.
IV
I
( ).
.
. 9.15
.
.



.




, ,
()
(. 6.4).
. 9.15.


.

,
, ,
rL,A/rK,A > rL,B/rK,B.


.
, .
.
, ,
.
rL/rK
(. 7.4)

MRTS LF, K = MRTS LH,K = rL rK .


0,8
0,2
5
4
Q F , A = LF , A K F , A K F , A = Q F , A LF , A ,

MRTS LF,,KA

dK F , A
dLF , A

Q = const

Q
= 4 F,A .
LF , A


106 . 123 .
.
5

106
MRTS LF,,KA = 4
= 1,9.
123
,
rL/rK = 1,9 rL,A = 1,9; rK,A = 1.


0,2
167 = L0,8
F,B K F,B

dK F , B
dLF , B

167
= 4
= 0,57,
246
Q = const

.. rL,B = 0,57; rK,B = 1.


(. )
39 . ,

30 . . MRTS LF,,KA,
, rL,A /rK,A:

272

9.

30 =

0,2
L0,8
F,AKF,A

dK F , A
dLF , A

30
= 4 = 1, 01.
39
Q = const


0,2
250 = L0,8
F ,B K F ,B

dK F , B
dLF , B

250
= 4
= 1, 01.
329

Q = const

,

,
.





1, . 9.16.


:

(rL/rK ),
(PF/PH )

( */L* )
. 9.16.
.

F I,

F ,
,
.
: MRTSL,K = .
. ,
IV,
.
1 Harrod R. Factor Price Relations under Free Trade//Economic Journal. 1958. Vol. 68;
Johnson H. Factor Endowments. Internationale Trade and Factor Prices//International Trade
and Economic Growth. L., 1961.

9.1.

273

, .
LA KA ,
KA/LA = A,

2, F
6. ,

,
1,
4.
,
A 5,
B 3, ..
(

). F A ,
B.


F
*,

*.
,


F

. ,
,


. 9.17.
F.




. 9.17.
,
,
(. 9.18).

274

9.

9.2.




A,
3;
B 1.
,

,
,


F.

.


. 9.18.
*.

*.

F (
B, * F).
2.
.


.
. ,
,
.

.
,
,
. ,
A,

.

9.2.

275


.
0
.
,
, .
.
, , .

, 0
,
( 0 ,
).


. 9.19.

(S D)

2, Q2
.
0
. 9.19.


.


0. Q0,
Q4. (Q4 Q0) .

, 0 1 = 0 +
:
1) :
Q0 Q1;
2) :
Q4 Q3;
3) : (Q1
Q0) + (Q4 Q3);
4) :
[(Q1 Q0) + (Q4 Q3)]P0;

276

9.

9.2.

5) :
(Q3 Q1) (P1 P0);
6) :
, P0abP1,
, P0mnP1;
7) :
,
, ,
abc mnd.
,
, .
,
, .

, ..
, 0
.
. 9.20.

B,
. P1FHP2
QexA = QimB A.
,
. ,
,
,
: (P0 P2)Qex.

. ,
, , ,
.
,

.

( S D
).
,
.
.
,
, ,
:
.

.
,
: = .


,





.
. 9.21.

. 9.20.


P0,
.

, P0P0
P1FH P2. ,
= FH .
A , ,

277

. 9.21.

278

9.

9.2.

279

Q0
0,
( = MR).
,
(D D),

.
Q1, 1.
2 = 1 + .
0ba2,
2ad1. :
2ac0
0cd1.

0cd1 abc.


.
, :
.
,
(
). D2 . 9.22.

, Q2
2.
, , (Q2 Q) ,



D 1.


Q1,1,

MR1.



. 9.22. 1,

Q3.

Q2
,



D0
Q0
.

Q4
0.
. 9.23.
,


Q,P,
R.
. 9.22
D0 D1
;
. 9.23.
, P0.
Q0, (Q4
Q0).
P1.
(Q4 Q3) ,
(Q1 Q0) .
, P0E0E1P1,
amkP0 bglP1.

: 1) angb
(
); 2)

.

,
.
.
.

280

9.

9.2.

281

. 9.24

,

.

E0,

,

0,


U0.

,
. 9.24.
MRPTH,F = MRSH,F = H /F.




F
H ( E0 E1), MRPTH,F
= = H /(F + ).
,
,
E1. F ,
: tg = H/
(F + ).
,
0.
,
,
( ). ,
, , ,
. ,

, 00.
. ,

1, U1.


U 2,

.

,

2.


.

:

E1, C1,
. 9.25.
E 1, C 2,

MRPT H,F = MRSH,F,
MRPTH,F = MRSH,F < H /F ,
.. .

. 9.25.

,
, (F < F).
, 1,
(tg > tg),


,
,
. 9.25.

.

. 9.26.





. 9.26.

(0),

282

9.

9.2.

U0A ( . 9.26 ),
V0A (. . 9.13).

, 1.
,
,
,

, V1A.
0 1
0 ,

.
.
,
F, 0
H 0D. = 1
QF = 0 F QH = 1
H. .
, NL = NK/(1 + ). ,
. 9.26
1/1.
,
F
H .
F,
H, tg = ME1/M0,
tg = ME1/MN ( . 9.13,
,
).

,

M0/N0
.

ME1
ME1
M0
= (1 + )
=
1.
MN
M0
MN

, MN = 0 N0,
M 0 M 0 N0 M 0
N0
M0M0
=

=
1 .
MN N 0 MN N 0 M 0 N 0 N 0 N 0

** =

eB im
eBim 1

1 =

283

1
.
eBim 1

,
,
eB im > 1.
.
,
,

.
.
.
. . 9.27 SA DA
, SB SC
.
,
, ..
PB + ,
PC + . = PC +
Q1. Q0,
a Q1 Q0
.



.
> B,


B.


Bnm,

. 9.27.
Blk,
( )

284

9.

9.3.

285

edml. ,

edhg
klg mnh. , : 1)
SA D A; 2) B; 3)
B PC.
,

,

.
.
,
, ,
.
. 9.28 E0 0



.
,




,
H,
,
F,
.
F ,
. 9.28.

( )
tg,
E2
2. F,C < F,B, tg > tg,
F .
F
, ( tg
tg).
1, C1,

( ) 1,
.
,
F
(tg > tg).
, .
,
F,B ,
tg
( ).

9.3.
()
. , ,
. ,
, .
, ,
, , 1.

.
,
.
,
,
.

. (D D)
(Qim)
(Z): D D = ZQim, (DS)
(Qex)
: DS = ZQex.


; .

,
.
1

286

9.

9.3.

.
,
.
,
,

(. 9.29, ).

.
,

.
. 9.30, ; . 9.30, ,

.

. 9.29.

. 9.30.

P*
.
, PZ < P*.
, . . 9.29,
Qim(P),
.
Qim(P) ,
.
P e,
:
Qim(P(e)).
:
, ,
, .. P = ePZ. . 9.29,

. ( PZ > 1 Qim() Qim(P);
PZ < 1 PZ = 1 .)
,
,
.
DD = DD(e) . 9.29, .

287

DD(e) DS(e)
,
, , ;
. ,


.
.
,
(F) (H).
F 10 ., H 11 .

Q FD, A = 130 5 PF , A ; Q FS , A = 4 PF , A 5;
Q HD, A = 94 2 PH , A ; Q HS , A = 12 PH , A 4.

QF, Aim = QFD, A QFS, A = 135 9 PF, A ;


QH , Aex = QHS , A QHD, A = 14 PH , A 98.

288

9.

9.3.

( )
,
.
11 56 10 45 = 166 .
.


.

D D = PFZQF, Aim = 135PFZ 9 PF, A PFZ .


P = eP Z,
,

( ).

D D = 135PFZ 9e PFZ

P FZ = 10 .,
: DD = 1350 900.


:

D = PHZQH, Aex = 14PH, A PHZ


2
= 14e PHZ 98 PHZ .
S

( )

. 9.31.

98PHZ

P HZ = 11 .,

D S =
= 1694 1078.




1350 900 = 1694 1078
e* = 0,936.

. 9.31.
,

, = 1, . 9.4.
9.4

QF
QH

= 0,936
=1
32,4
35
119,6
128

= 0,936
=1
83,2
80
73,4
72

289

PFZQ F, Aim PF, A = PHZQ H, Aex PH, A

( )

( )

PFZQ F, Aim ePFZ = PHZQ H , Aex ePHZ e* .


,

. ,

, .

QH , Aex PH* , A = QH , Bim PH* , B ; QF, Aim PF*, A = QF, Bex PF*, B .

.
(A B);
(F H).
A ,
,
.
B :

QFD, B = 130 5PF, B ; QFS, B = 8PF, B ;


QHD, B = 94 2 PH , B ; QHS , B = 6 PH , B 2.
(
.)
B

QH , Bim = QHD, B QHS , B = 96 8PH , B ;


QF, Bex = QFS, B QFD, B = 13PF, B 130.

290

9.

QH, Aex PH*, A

= QH, Bim PH*, B

14PH, A 98 = 96 8PH, B.
PH, A PH, B
A

9.3.


. 9.32.

B
:

194
.
8 + 14e
B, A,
:

PF,B = 265/(13 + 9 1,09) =


= 11,62 .; PH, B = 194/(8 +
+ 14 1,09) = 8,34 .,

8 194
.
8 + 14e
H PH,B,
B
A:

PF,A = 1,09 11,62 =12,66 .;


PH, A = 1,098,34 = 9,09 .

14ePH, B + 8 PH, B = 194 PH, B =

Q H , Bim = 96

194
8 194
96
.
8 + 14e
8 + 14e
B
A, B: 135 9PF, A =
= 13PF, B 130. PF,A PF,B:
D S = PH, BQH, Bim =

265
.
13 + 9e
B, A,
e:
13PF, B + 9ePF, B = 265 PF, B =

QF, Bex =

13 265
130.
13 + 9e

PF,B,
B e:

265 13 265

130 .
13 + 9e 13 + 9e

A
B DS = DD:
D D = PF, BQF, Bex =

194
8 194
265 13 265

96

130 e** = 1,09.


=
8 + 14e
8 + 14e 13 + 9e 13 + 9e

291


S
B Q F,B
. 9.32.
= = 8 11,62 = 92,9 .

F
,
Q DF,B = 130 5
11,62 = 71,9 . 21 . .
H B
S
D
QH,
B = 6 8,34 2 = 48 . Q H, B = 94 2 8,34 = 77,3 .
S
A Q H, A = 12 9,09 4 = 105,1 . H,
Q D
H, A = 94 2 9,09 = 75,8 .
29,3 . , B.
F A
Q F,S A = 4 12,66 5 = 45,6 ., Q D
F, A =
S
= 130 512,66 = 66,7 . Q D
Q

F, A
F,A
B.

e = 1, ,
.
QH , Aex = QH , Bim QF, Bex = QF, Aim :

14 PH , A 98 = 96 8PH , B PH* = 8,82;


135 9 PF, B = 13PF, A 130 PF* = 12, 05.
A , B .

. 9.5.

292

9.

9.5

S
QH,
A
D
QH,
A
QF,S A
QF,DA
QF, Aim
QH, Aex


=1,09
105,1
75,8
45,6
66,7
21,1
29,3

=1
101,8
76,4
43,2
69,8
26,6
25,4

S
QH,B
D
QH,B
QF,S B
QF,DB
QF,B im
QH,Bex


=1,09
48,0
77,3
92,9
71,9
29,3
21,1

=1
50,9
76,4
96,4
69,8
25,4
26,6

A
. :
25,4 8,82 = 224 . , ,
26,6 12,05 = 320,5 .



,
, ,
.

,

.
,


.
.


.


.

293

,
.
,

.

.

:
,


.

, .
, (
)
.
,
.

.

Q = A Q .
P P . dQ / dQ = , ..

Q1 A Q

= .

(1)

(1)

Q .
,

Q .
,
:
Q = Q + Q Q .

(2)

294

9.

295


, .. MRS , = . U = (Q + ) (Q + b )

Q + b
= Q = (Q + a ) b.
Q + a

(3)

(2) (3),

Q + Q + b a
(4)
.
Q =
2
(4) .
(3),
.


,
.

.
,
.

.
,
;
, ,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
, .
,
, .
,

.
(
) (
), .

296

297


,
, .
;

.
F
H, ,
aF + (1 a)H 0 < a < 1,
;

;


( );

, ;
,
, ; ,

, .

,
180.

; ,
,
;
,
, .
.
.
, n
, (n 1) ,
.

,
;
.



;


;
,
;
, .
,
;

;
, ;
, ;

;
.
. .
,
,
, ;
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
, .

;
,
.
,
.
(
);
(
).
,

.
,
.

298

()

299


1%;
,
, 1%;
,
1%;
,
1%;
()
,
1%;
,
1%;
( )
, ,
1%;
,
1%;
( ) ,
,
1%.
,
;
,
,
;


;
,

;
. ;
,
;
,
,
;
,
.
,
,
;

(
,
);
,
,
.

.

.

.

;
,
, ;
,
.

,
.
,
;
,
.
,

.

.
()
() , ,
;
,
.
D ()
,

.
D
,

;

300

301

. ()
;

,
.
,
;
,
.

.

.
,
.
( ) ,
.

.


;
,
,
(
) ;
,


;
,

,
;

;

.

;

.
.

() ,
.
,
.

,
,
;
,

;
,

,
;
,
.
,
,
, .
,

;
,

;
,
;
,
;

,
;
, ,
, ;
,
, ;
,
( )
( );

,
.

302

303


, .

.
.

.

;

, ,
;


,
,
;

.

, .
, .
. .

.

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;


;

;

,
,
;

,
, ;
, ;
;

( ).
,
;
, (
);
,
;
;
,
;
,
;
,
;

;
, ;
,
;
,
.

.

;
;
.

.

304


,
,
.
,
.

, .

1%;

1%;

1%;

1%;

1%;

1%.

, .

;


;


;


;
, ()
() ()
;

;

;

.

.

305

306

305

306

307


: K = 10; 15; 20.
.
6. 5 . 
.

?


1. Q0 
.
1. 
?
2.

?
2. 
, 


.

L
3
4
5
6
7

TP

130

MPL

20

APL
30

20

3. , 
Q = L0,6K0,4. 8 . .,
16 . .

.
4. rL
rK , Q = LK.
1. 
?
2. , :
1,5 ; 1,5 ?
5. , 
Q = L0,25K0,5. : rL = 1; rK = 3.

7. , ,
, Q = LZ ;
L, Z .
4
9 . .
1. 
?
2. ,

Q = L0,25 K 0,5 .
8. 8 . . 1 
; .
(e S1 = 1,6) 10 , (e S2 = 2) 12 , (e S3 = 1)
40 .
P = 12.
9. ;
:

Q1S = 6 + 2 P; Q2S = 15 + 3P; Q3S = 5 P.


,
4,5 . .
10. K = 256 ,
Q = 4 LK . 
: rL = 2; rK = 8 
= 432.

? ?

308

309

11. TC = a + bQ2.

?

2.
?

12. Q = L .
rL.

.

17. : U = QAQB; 
36 . . 
: QA = 6; QB = 2 QA = 3; QB = 4.
,
?

13. Q = L0,25K0,5
rL = 2; rK = 10.
,
= 60?

18. , 
A B, , ,
B , 
A B.


14.


I
15
12
10

. 25,2 . ., 
II
10
11
8

3 2 .
III
8
10
6

1 , 4 2,8 .
IV
7
7
3

V
5
6
1

1 2 4 .

1 .
1. , 
.
2.
?
15. :
U =Q A0,4QB0,5QC0,3, Q A ,QB ,QC , , ;
120 . .
,
?
16. :
0,4
0,5
0,3
U = (QA 2) (QB 3) (QC 1) , Q A ,QB ,QC 
, , ; 120 . .
1. ,
?

19. 6 . 8 . . 
U = (Q A 2 ) (QB 4).
1. 2 . 
?
2. MRSA,B 
.
20. = 4; = 2 
: Q A = 2QB + 5 .
,
.
21. , 21 . ., 
( ).

U = ln (Q A + 1) + QB0,5 .

= 9; = 1 2 . 3 . .
1. ?
2. 
, 13,5 . .?
3. ,
9/16 . .?
4.
, 
.
1,5

310

22. U = (QA 4)
(QB 6), M = 64, PA = 1, PB = 1,5.
1. B 
.
2. ,
.
3. ,
B 2 . .
4.
.
5. 
.
23. : ,
. 20%, 50 % 30%
.
,
, 1,
+2.
24. 1 18 . . 
; .
20 2; 16 1,5
24 2,5.
.
25. 120 . .,
U =Q A0,5QB0,25.
,
Q A = 4 LA K A , QB = LB K B . 
rL = 2; rK = 8.

?
26. 50 , 
QB = 4 LK ;
rL = 2; rK = 8.

311

100
:

U = (QA 2) (QB 3) (QC 1) .


0,4

0,5

0,3

= 120.
: = 5; = 10.
?
27. 
.

I
II
III

M
84
81
77

PA
4
6
8

PB
5
3
2

QA
8
8
8

QB
10,4
11
6,5

1. 
, ?
2. , II
9 . .
28.
:
5M 1 + 24
3M 2 + 20
7,5M 3 + 30
; Q2D =
; Q1D =
,
P
P
P
i i .

10 20 . . :
) 50 . .;
) 
: M1 = 20; M2 = 50; M3 = 80.
Q1D =


29. .

Q1S = 2 P 6; Q2S = 3P 15; Q3S = 5 P



Q1D = 12 P; Q2D = 16 4 P; Q3D = 10 0,5 P.

312


.

1. 

.
2. , 1,
10 . .

30. P = 4 Q = 18.
0,05,
+0,1.
1. , 10%,
5% ,
?
2. .
31. QD = 12 P,
Q = L . 
0,5 . .
1. .
2. 

1 . .
3.


1 . .
32. : QD =10 P 
: QS = 5 + 2P. 
1,5 . .

?
33.
: QD = 36 2P ; QS = 4 + 3P.
1. 
?
2. .
34. Q D = 50
0,5P, Q D = 120 P. 
Q S = P 10, 
S
Q
= P 20.

313

35. QtD = 200 Pt ,


QtS = 0,5 Pt 1 10 , t = 0, 1,..., 6 ( 
).
1. .
2. ,
,
, 30 ?
3. ?
36. QtD = 200 0,5Pt ,
QtS = 0, 7 Pt 1 10 , t = 0, 1,..., 6 ( 
).
1. .
2. , 
,
, 30
?
3. ?
37. c 
P* = 36; Q* = 120; eD = 0,75
eS = 1,5.
1. ,
30 . .
2. , , 
, ,
2 . . .
3. .
38.
Q D =120 3P. ,
, TC = 10 + 8Q 4Q 2 + Q 3.
1. ,
20 ?

314

2.
?
3. .


: 1) , 2) , 3) ?

39. 10 , 
TC10 = 10 + 8q 4q2 + q3, 8
TC8 = 15 + 20q 5q2 + 0,5q3.
Q D = 150 2P.

.
40. 5 
: TC1 = 4 + Q1; TC2 = 1 + 2Q2; TC3 = 12 + 3Q3; TC4 = 4 + 4Q4;
TC5 = 2 + 5Q 5. 
4 . . 
. ,

, . 
1.
1.
.
2. , 

?


41. , , 
, 
.
42. , 
, QD = 13 P/3.
P = 20.
?
43.
QD = 301 P ; TC = 120 + Q + Q2;
K = 500Q.

315

44. P = g hQ.
, .
TC = m + nQ.
1. .
2. 
.
45. 10 
TCi = 4 + 2q i + 0,5q2i . QD =
= 52 2P.
, 
, 2 .
1. 
, ?
2. ?
46. 
QD = 84 P, TC = Q2.


.
47.
, 10 . 24 . .
TC = 100 + 4Q + 0,25Q2.
1. , 
7 . .?
.
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
48. , ,
, 10%
.
QD = a bP.
?

316

49. , , 
, 
: TC1 = 10q1; TC2 = 0,25q22. 
QD = 200 2P.

? .

54.
Q D1 = 10 2P1 + P2; Q D2 = 12 P2 + P1.
, TC1 = TC2 = 0.
1. 
, 
.
2. 

.

50. , TC = 5 + 4Q + 0,25Q2,
,
75 3P 23 < P 25;

Q D = 29 P 18 < P 23;
47 2 P 0 < P 18.

?
.
51.
: Q D1 =160 P1; Q D2 =160 2P2.
TC = 5 + 5Q + 0,25Q 2.
1.
?
2. 
, ?
52. QD =
= 33,5 0,5P, TC = 2 + 4Q
Q2 +Q3/3.
, 
:
1) 15 . .;
2) 10%;
3) 20%.


53. 
QA = 30 5PA + 2PB TCA =
= 24 + 3QA.
PA PB
.

317

55.
P = 80 0,5Q;
TC1 = 10 + 0,25q21; TC2 = 25 + 10q2.
, 
, 
: ) ; ) 
; ) .
56. P = Q hQ. 
TC1 =
= m + nQ 1; TC2 = m + nQ 2.
,
, ,
, 
.
57. 80
TCi = 2 + 8q2i , , 
, TC = 20 + 0,275q2. 
Q D = 256 3P.

?
58. 
. 
Q S = 1 + 2P; = 13
.
P = 10; Q = 28.

.

318

63. 100 
U = (M + 9)0,5 (16,5 L)0,25,
, ; L 
; 20 , 
, Q = 4L0,5,
P = 6.

?

59.
U = ( M + 9 ) F 0,25,
0,5

, ; F
.
16,5 
. F = 16,5 L, = rLL.
1.
rL = 1 rL = 3?
2. 
? .
3. , 
rL = 3 33,33%?
4. () 
, 
? .
60. (0) 
(1)
U = C00,6 C10,4. y0 = 120, y1 = 150.
1.
i = 20; 50; 87,5; 95%.
2. ?
61. 10% .
(I; II; III), 
(y0 = 120;
y1 = 150), 
(0) (1) :
0,55
0,45
0,468
0,532
0,4
0,6
U I = CI,0
; U II = CII,0
; U III = CIII,0
.
C I,1
C II,1
C III,1

62. 
Q = AL BL2.
, , 
, ,


.

319

64.
. LS L D 

.


, : 1) 
;
2) 
;
3) 

?
65. Q = 4L0,5.
, :
1) = 9
rL = 6;
2) , 
Q D = 24 P, rL = 6;
3) = 9
,
LS = 2 + rL;
4) , 
Q D = 24 P, ,
LS = 2 + rL.
66. ,
, QD = 240 2P, 
Q = 2L0,5.
, LS = (rL/6)2.

320


rL min = 25?
.


.

67. , ,
60 . 10 . .
Q = L0,75K0,25;
rL = 1.
1. 
?
2. , 
1,5 ?

68. Q = LK .
rK = 4; rL = 1.
QD = 40 2P.
1. 
.
2.
?
69. ,
:
160; 150; 140; 130; 120 . .
,
,
, %: 5; 6; 4; 5; 7.
70. 12 . .
( ) 100 . . .
,
8 10%?
71. 
.

1
2

2000
2001
2002

40
50
60

65
90

2003

30
35

2004
2005

80

20
55

321

72. , , 
:

Q AD = 32 3PA + 2 PB ; Q AS = 10 + 2 PA PB ;
QBD = 43 2PB + PA ; QBS = 5 + PB 0, 5PA .
,
?
73. , , 
:

Q AD = 8 2 PA + 3PB ; Q AS = 10 + PA 2 PB ;
QBD = 14 PB + 2 PA ; QBS = 17 + 0, 5PB PA .
,
?
74. 16 . 10 .
, :
0,5
0,75
0,25
QA = L0,5
A K A ; QB = LB KB .

() .

75. (I; II):

U I = (Q AI 10 ) (Q BI 5 ) ; U II = (Q AII 4 ) (QBII 8 ) .
20 . 30 . .
1. ?
, ; ,  
, .
2. ()
.
3.
= 2, = 1?
0,5

0,4

0,3

0,6

322

4. ?
5. 
.

0,5
Q A = 2 L0,75
A ; QB = 4 LB ,
. 
.
1. ,
.
2. , 
.
3.
, 10 ? .

76. 4 . 5 . .
1 U1 = QA21 QB1, 2 U2 = QA0,52 QB2 .
1. 

?
2. 1
;
?

323

79.

TC1 = 10 + 15Q1 + 0, 25Q12 .

77. (I, II)


(A, B), . 

1 = 40.
, , 
, :

0,5
U I = Q A0,8I Q B0,4I ; U II = Q A0,25
II Q BII ,
Qj,i j , i .

: LSI = 8; LSII = 10; K IS = 12; KIIS = 8.
, 
, .. I 
60%, II 40% . 
, 
:
0,5
0,6
0,2
QA = L0,3
A K A ; QB = LB K B .

TC2 = 5 + 5Q2 + 0, 5Q22 + Q12 .


.
,
,
.
78. (I, II)
, , . 
( 
0,4
0,25
0,5
): U I = Q 0,8
( 
AI QBI ; U II = Q AII QBII
S
S
S
): LI = 2r; LII = 3r Li = 4 , r .
, , 
, 
. , 

2 = 80.
.
1. ,
.
2.
.
?
3. 
. 


?
4. .
.
80. 
P = 50 0,5N, ; N 
, . . 
MU = 70 0,5N,
MU .
TC = 10N + N2.
1. 
.

324

325

2.
?
3.
?
4. 
, 
.

II

81. ,
:

P1 = 80 Q; P2 = 60 Q ; P3 = 40 Q,

Pi , 
i .

TC = 10 + 2Q + 0,5Q2.
1.  .
2. , , 
, :
 ; 
 ;
?

1.
1. Q,L = MPL/APL = 1.
2.
.
, K = const; 
(Q/K) L 
, MPL > 0.
2.


.

L
3
4
5
6
7

TP
90
110
130
135
140

3.
:

MPL rL 0, 6 K 8
K 1
= ;
= = .
MPK rK
L 3
0, 4 L 16

APL =

0,4

0,4

Q L0,6 K 0,4 K
1
=
= = = 0, 644.
L
L
L
3

4.
1. ,

r
K rL
=
K = L L.
L rK
rK

MPL

20
20
5
5

APL
30
27,5
26
22,5
20

326

M = rL L + rK K = rL L + rK

rL
+
L = rL L
.
rK

L* =

M
M
; K* =
.
rL ( + )
rK ( + )

2. , 
.
2. 1,5 .

327

8.
QS = m +
dQ P*
S
.
+ nP, e =
dP Q*
dQ
= n ,

dP
1,6 10
2 12
1 40
n1 =
= 2; n2 =
= 3; n3 =
= 5.
8
8
8

m1 = 10 (1 1,6 ) = 6; m2 = 12 (1 2) = 12; m3 = 40 (1 1) = 0.
,

5.
L = Q 4 K 2. TC = Q 4 K 2 + 3K
AC = Q 3 K 2 + 3K Q .

AC =

3Q 2
K

3K
Q

Q1S = 6 + 2 P; Q2S = 12 + 3P; Q3S = 5 P.


12 . . (18 +
+ 24 + 60) = 102.
9.

= 0.

K = 10 min = 7,11; K = 15 min = 7,87; K = 20 min =


= 8,46.
6.

,
, , 
. AVC = MC = const, 
.
7.
, ,
: PS = MC. (1.7) (. 
)
4
0,5
1. P S =
+ 9 ( 4 9) = 12,
0,5
( 4 9)
, 12 . .
S
2. P =

1
4
P
+ 9 0,8890,333 Q 0,333 = 17,3 3 Q Q S =

.
0,667
0, 75 0,889
17,3

QS

5P 0 < P 3;

= 6 + 7 P 3 < P 5;
21 + 10P P > 5.

= 4,5, Q = 25,5. 
dQ/dP = 7, eS = 74,5/25,5 = 1,235.
10.

Q4
2Q 4
Q3
TVC =
MC =
.
256
256
32
Q S = 3 32 P . = 432
Q = 44 L L =

Q S = 3 32 432 = 24 . L =

(43224 2 1296 8256) = 5728.


(. 7)

244
= 1296 ;
256

L* = 2Q 2 ; K * = 0,5Q 2 .

LMC =

1 2
+ 8 0, 250,5 Q = 16Q.

0,5
0,5 0, 25

328

329

: P = 16Q Q S = P 16 . = 432
432/16 = 27 . . 
(2272) = 1458 . (0,5272) = 364,5 . ;
(43227 21458 8364,5) = 5832.

: 5/2 = 7/2,8 = 10/4. 



15 + 10 + 8 + 7 + 5 + 12 + 11 + 10 + 7 + 10 = 95

11.
P = MC; AC = a/Q + bQ; AC = a/Q2 + b = 0 Q = (a/b)0,5; MC =
= 2bQ; P = 2b(a/b)0,5 = 2(ab)0,5.
12.
L = Q2, 
TC = 2Q2; MC = 4Q. 
Q S = 0,25P. = 60 15 . ; 
(6015 2225) = 450. 
450 = 60Q 2L Q = 7,5 0,033L.
13.

0, 25 K 2
K
= = 0, 4.
0,5L 10
L
, 
,
(. 1.4)
2

0, 25 0,5
3
QS =

60 = 67,5.
2
10

0,5
67,5 = L0,25 ( 0, 4 L ) L = 506, 25 .


14.
1. 
: 8/2 7/2,8 8/4;
.
2.
2 
: 5 , 4 , 1 . 

15 + 10 + 8 + 12 + 11 + 10 + 7 + 10 + 8 = 91.
15.

, :

Q A0,4QB0,5QC0,3 max 120 = PAQ A + PBQ B + PCQC .


(, )

Q AD =

40
50
30
; QBD =
; QCD =
.
PA
PB
PC

,
. (
) .
16.
1.

(QA 2)0,4 (QB 3)0,5 (QC 1)0,3 max 120 = PAQA + PBQB + PCQC

Q AD = 2 +

120 2 PA 3PB PC
;
3PA

120 2 PA 3PB PC
;
2, 4PB
120 2 PA 3PB PC
.
QCD = 1 +
4PC
QBD = 3 +

,
C .
2.
.

330

17.
, 
, QA 9, QB 6.
, PA = 36/9 = 4; PB = 36/6 = 6. 
MUA/PA = MUB/PB. QA/4 = QB/6 QA = 1,5QB. 
,
Q *A = 4,5; QB* = 3.

331

U QB
10 2
=
= 4.
U Q A
64

20.
QB

QB = 0, 5Q A 2,5 M = 4Q A + 2 ( 0, 5Q A 2, 5) = 5 (Q A 1) .

18.

21.
0,5
1,5 (Q A + 1)
1. U
U
0,5
=
=
;
.
Q A (Q A + 1)1,5 + QB0,5 Q B Q 0,5 (Q + 1)1,5 + Q 0,5
B
A
B

U Q A
9
0,5
= 3QB0,5 (Q A + 1) = .
U QB
1
3 3 2 + 1 = 9, 
, .
2.
0,5

3Q B0,5 (Q A + 1)

PA
P2
.
QB = 2 A
PB
9 PB (Q A + 1)


13,5 = PAQ A +

19.
1. U 0 = ( 6 2) (8 4) = 16.

U1 = U 0 = (Q A 2 ) (6 4 ) = 16 Q A = 10.

, 2 . 4 . .
2.

U QB
Q 2
6 2
= A
=
= 1,
U Q A
84
QB 4

PB PA2

9 PB2 (Q A + 1)

Q A2 0,5Q A 0,5 = 0 Q A = 1; Q B = 4,5.

.. ,
; , .
3. 

21 = 9Q A +

81 16
4
5
5
32
Q A2 Q A = 0 Q A = ; Q A = .
9 9 (Q A + 1)
3
9
3
3

, 
, . ,
, .

332

4.

333

+
+

+
+

22.
1. . 2,

Q AD = 4 +

64 4 PA 6 PB
;
2 PA

QBD = 6 +

64 4 PA 6 PB
.
2 PB

288
= 24, 78.
19,86 6
(1 24,78 +
+ 1,5 19,86) = 54,57, 
(64 54,57) = 9,43.

(11,5 9,43) = 2,07.
5.
QA = 4 +

Q AD = 29,5; Q BD = 23 ; eBD, A = 0, 58 .
2. U0 = 25,517=433,5,

QA = 4 +

433,5
.
QB 6

3. , Q AD = 28; QBD = 18 .


dQ A
433,5
=
= 2 QB = 20, 72.
dQ B (Q B 2 )2
QA = 33,45, 
: QB = 20,72 23 = 2,28; QA = 33,45
29,5 = 3,95, QB = 18 20,72 = 2,72; QA = 28
33,45 = 5,45.
4.
(1 29,5 + 223) = 75,5, 
(75,5 64) = 11,5. 

, .
U1 = 2412 = 288,

dQ A
288
=
= 1,5 QB = 19,86.
dQB (QB 6 )2

23.
1000 . . 200 . .
, 500 300 . 1%,
.. 1010 . ., 
200 0,99 = 198, 5001,02 = 510
1010 198 510 = 302 . . 1%
2100/300 = 0,67%.
24.
: Q = a bP.
eD = bP/QD. b
40/18 = 2,2, 24/18 = 1,3 

334

60/18 = 3,3. a :
20 + 40 = 60; 16 + 24 = 40; 24 + 60 = 84. ,

Q1D = 60 2, 2 P; Q2D = 40 1,3P; Q3D = 84 3,3P,



QD

40 4 P 3; 27 < P 30;

= 100 32 P 9; 25, 2 < P 27;


184 62P 9; 0 < P 25, 2.

P = 18, Q = 60, eD = (62/9) (18/60) = 2,07.


25.

: Q AD = 80 / PA ; QBD = 40 / PB .

:
LTCA = 8QA2; LMCA = 16QA; QAS = PA/16, : LTCB = 8QB;
LMCB = 8 = PB.

80 / PA = PA /16 PA = 35, 78; Q A = 2, 236.
= 8, 
QB = 40/8 = 5. , U = 2,2360,5 50,25 = 2,236.
26.

QS = P/16,
Q S = 25P/8.

QBD = 3 +

120 2PA 3PB PC


.
2, 4 PB

QBD = 1, 75 +

100
.
2, 4PB

Q BD = 175 +

10 000
.
2, 4 PB

175 +

335

10 000 25PB
=
PB = 74.
2, 4 PB
8

QB = 231,3 , ..
4,626 .
= 744,626 8 4,6262 = 171,125.
27.
1. . 
,
I III.
, II, 
.
.

4
6
8

5
3
2

I (8; 10,4)
84
79,2
84,8

II (8; 11)
87
81
86

III (8; 6,5)


64,5
67,5
77

2. . 
,
I , II I.

4
6
8

5
3
2

I (8; 10,4)
84
79,2
84,8

II (8; 11)
81
81
90

III (8; 6,5)


64,5
67,5
77

28.
: )Q D1 = 849/P; )Q D2 = 924/P.

336

a = 18 + 0,225 4 = 18,9; m = 18 0,454 = 16,2.


,

29.
, 

5P 0 < P 3;

S
Q = 6 + 7 P 3 < P 5;
21 + 10 P P > 5.

,

10 0, 5P 12 < P 20;

= 22 1,5P 4 < P 12;


38 5, 5P 0 < P 4.

P = 4
QD = 38 5,54 = 16 < QS = 6 + 7 4 = 22,
P = 3
QD = 38 5,5 3 = 21,5 > QS = 6 + 73 = 15,

QD = 38 5,5P QS = 6 + 7P.

38 5,5P = 6 + 7P P = 3,52; Q = 18,64.
3 (53,52) = 17,6; 1 (23,52
6) = 1,04 . ; 2
; 1 (12 3,52) = 8,48; 2 (16 4 3,52) =
= 1,92 3 (10 0,5 3,52) = 8,24 . .

337

QD = 18,9 0,225P; QS = 16,2 + 0,45P.


1,1 (18,9 0,225P) = 1,05 (16,2 + 0,45P) P* = 5,25; Q* = 19,5.


2.

QD

30.
1.
:
QD = a bP; QS = m + nP dQD/dP = b; dQS/dP = n.

eD =

dQ D P
dQ S P
D ; eS =

,
dP Q
dP Q S


0,05 = 4b/18 b = 0,225; 0,1 = 4n/18 n = 0,45.

31.
1. L = Q2, TVC = 0,5Q2, a MC = Q. 
MC = P , QS = P. ,
12 P = P P* = 6; Q* = 6.
2. : 12 P =
= P 1 P* = 6,5; Q* = 5,5. , 
0,5 66 = 18,
36. , 
(0,5 5,5 5,5) = 15,125, 2(18
15,125) = 5,75. (15,5) = 5,5.
0,25.
3. , 
(0,56,56,5 18) = 3,125, 6,25. 
(16,5) = 6,5 . . 
(6,5 6,25) = 0,25.

338

339

32.
: 10
P = 5 + 2P P* = 5; Q* = 5. 10 P = 5 +
+ 2(P 1,5) P* = 6; Q* = 4. , 2/3
.

[0,5 62,9(120 57,14)] = 1978,2


[0,537,14(57,14 20)] = 688,2. , 
(1568,2 1350) =
= 218,2, (2666,4 2500) = 166,4.

33.
1. t . . 
36 2P = 4 + 3(P t);
P = 8 + 0,6t; Q = 20 1,2t.
T = tQ = 20t 1,2t2.
20 2,4t = 0 t = 8,33. P* = 13; Q* = 10; T =
= 8,310 = 83,3.
2. = tQ = 20t 1,2t2.
34.
1. 
50 0,5P = P 10 P = 40; Q = 30, 
120 P = P 20 P = 70; Q = 50.
(. 1) [0,530(100 40)] = 900,
[0,530(4010)] = 450; 
[0,550(12070)] = 1250 [0,550(7020)] = 1250.

. 2

2. , 
.
,
50 0,5 P + 120 (P + 10) = P 10 + (P + 10) 20 P = 51,4;
P = 61,4. (. 3) (50 51,40,5) = 24,3,
(120 61,4) = 58,6.
[0,524,3(100 51,4)] = 590,5, 
[0,5 41,4(51,4 10)] = 857, 
[0,558,6(120 61,4)] = 1717 [0,541,4(61,4 20)] = 857.
, 

(1447,5 1350) = 97,5, 
(2574 2500) = 74.

. 1


50 0,5P + 120 P = P 10 + P 20 P = 57,14.
(50 0,5 57,14) = 21,4, (120 57,14) =
= 62,9 . . (57,14 10) =
= 47,14, (57,14 20) = 37,14. (. 2)
[0,521,4(100 57,14)] = 459,
[0,5 47,14(57,14 10)] = 1109,2,

. 3

340

35.
1. Q St = Q Dt, 
Pt = Pt1. 0,5P 10 = 200 P P* =
= 140; Q* = 60.
2. : Q D1 = 230 P1; Q S1 = 60, P1 = 230 60 = 170.
: Q S2 = 0,5 170 10 = 75; P2= 230 75 = 155. : Q S3 =
= 0,5155 10 = 67,5; P3= 230 67,5 = 162,5. : Q S4 = 0,5162,5
10 = 71,3; P4= 230 71,3 = 158,8. : Q S5 = 0,5 158,8 10 = 69,4;
P5 = 230 69,4 =160,6. : Q S6 = 0,5 160,6 10 = 70,3; P6= 230
70,3 = 159,7.
3. 0,5P 10 = 230
P P* = 160; Q* = 70.
36.
1. Q St = Q Dt, 
Pt = Pt1. 0,7P 10 = 200 0,5P P* = 175;
Q* = 112,5.
2. : Q D1 = 230 0,5P1; Q S1 = 112,5, P1= 460
2112,5 = 235. : Q S2 = 0,7 235 10 = 154,5; P2= 460 2
154,5 = 151. : Q S3 = 0,7151 10 = 95,7; P3 = 460 295,7 = 268,6.
: Q S4 = 0,7268,6 10 = 178; P4= 460 2 178 = 104. :
Q S5 = 0,5158,8 10 = 69,4; P5 = 230 69,4 =160,6. : Q S6 = 0,7
104 10 = 62,8; P6 = 460 2 62,8 = 334,5.
3. 0,7P 10 = 230
0,5P P* = 200; Q* = 130.
37.
1. 
:
b = 0,75120/36 = 2,5; a = 120(1 + 0,75) = 210;
n = 1,5 120/36 = 5; m = 120(1 1,5) = 60.
QD = 210 2,5P ; QS = 60 + 5P. P = 30, QD = 210
2,530 = 135, QS = 5 30 60 = 90. , 
45 . .
2. , MC = 12 + 0,2Q.

, : MC = 14 + 0,2Q QS =
= 70 + 5P. 210
2,5P = 5P 70 Q = 116,7; P = 37,3.

341

3. .

38.
1. 
MC(Q) = P

4
P 8
+
.
3
3 9
20 ,

8 8q + 3q 2 = P q S =

4
P 8
.
Q S = 20 +
3
3 9

,

4
P 8
P* = 16, 7; Q * = 69,9.
120 3P = 20 +
3
3
9

2. 
P = MC = ACmin. ,
Q :
AC = 2Q 4 10/Q2 = 0 Q = 2,69.
AC = 2,692 4 2,69 + 8 + 10/2,69 = 8,2.
, 8,2 . .,
120 3 8,2 = 95,4 . , 

342

, 

+ 20 5q + 0,5q2, 8 = 15/q2 5 + q = 0 q = 5,5. 


8 = 10,4.
, ACmin = 8,2
q = 2,69. ,
, TC = 10 +
+ 8q 4q2 + q3. = 8,2 Q = 150 28,2 =
= 133,6. 133,6/2,69 = 49,5
.

4
P 8
= 95, 4 n = 35, 5.
n +
3 9
3
3.

343

40.
1.
:

1 1 < q 4;
2 4 < q 8;

P S = 3 8 < q 12;
4 12 < q 16;

5 16 < q 20.
39.
,
:

10
2 P 20
+
.
3
3
9
,
:
MC8 = 20 10q + 1,5q 2 = P q S =

4
P 8
+
.
3
3 9

18 :
qS =

10
4
2 P 20
P 8
+ 10 +
.
Q S = 8 +
3
9
3 9
3
3
,
: P = 25,7; Q = 98,6.
,
. 8 = 15/q +


. , 
Q* = 20, 
, P* = 5, 
AVC5 = 5. 1 = 5b/20 b = 4; 20 = a 4 5
a = 40. ,
QD = 40 4P.
.
2.

,

; q = 4
AC3 = 6. 
, P* = 6; Q* = 20. 

: 1 = 6b/20
b = 10/3; 20 = a 10 6/3 a =
= 40. ,
QD =
= 40 10P/3.

344


41.
P = g hQ,
g ; MR = g 2hQ.
MR = MC. (g + MC)/2 = (g + g 2hQ)/2 = P.
42.
P = 20, Q = 19/3. 
: MR = 39
6 19/3 = 1; MC = 1.

345

2. Q = g/h P/h, dQ/dP = 1/h.

1 g+n
eD =
h 2

g n g +n
.
=
2h n g

45.
1.
2 + qi = P q Si = 2 + P.
10
10

qiS = 20 + 10P.
i =1

43.
1. 301 2Q = 1 +
+ 2Q Q* = 75; P* = 301 75 = 226.
2. 301 2Q = 0 Q* = 150,5;
*
P = 301 105,5 = 150,5.
3. /K = d/dK;


20 + = 52 2 P = 6; Q = 40; qi =4;
= 64 4 2 4 0,5 16 = 4.
, 
MR = MC:

301Q Q 2 120 Q Q 2 300Q 2Q 2 120


.
=
=
K
500Q
500Q

26 Q = 2 + 0,1Q Q = 21,82.
(26 0,521,82) = 15,1. 

d/dQ = 300 4Q, dK/dQ = 500, d/dK = (300


4Q)/500. ,
300Q 2Q 2 120 300 4Q
=

500Q
500

Q* = 7,75; P* = 301 7,75 = 293,25.


44.
1. , 
:

MC = n; MR = g 2hQ; n = g 2hQ
g n *
g n g +n
; P = g h
;
Q* =
=
2h
2h
2
2
g n)
(
2
= gQ hQ m nQ =
m.
4h

= 15,121,82 40 221,82 0,05 21,822 = 222.


8 . . 
(222 72) = 150, .. 150/4 =
= 37,5 .
2. 
400 119 . .
46.



FABE (. ),
[21(63 21)] = 882.


KHGM,
[28(56 28) + 0,5 28(84
56)] = 1176.

346

47.
1. eD

PM =

MC
1 1 e

24 =

4 + 0,5 10
1 1 e

8
eD = ;
5

8 10 2
2
8
a = 10 1 + = 26; b = = Q D = 26 P.
5 24 3
3
5
MC = 4 + 0,5Q,
MC = 11 + 0,5Q;
11 + 0,5Q = 39 3Q Q* = 8; P* = 27, .. 3 . .
2. AC = 100/Q + 4 + 0,25Q; Q = 10,
AC = 100/10 + 4 + 0,25 10 = 16,5; P = 24,
10(24 16,5) = 75. AC = 100/Q + 11 + 0,25Q;
Q = 8, AC = 100/8 + 11 + 0,25 8 = 25,5; P = 27, 
[8(27 25,5)] = 12. ,
63 . .
3. (87) = 56 . .
4. :
0,5(39 24) 10 0,5(39 27)8 = 27.
48.
,
, ,
. , 
, , ,
, .
49.

100 Q = 10 Q* = 90; P* =
= 55, 100 Q = 0,5Q
Q* = 66,7; P* = 66,7. 1 =
= 90(55 10) = 4050 > 2 = (1 0,25)
66,72 = 3332,7, ,

.
20 . 
.
70, 
20 . .

347

50.

25 Q 3 0 < Q 6;

P = 29 Q 6 < Q 11;
23,5 Q 2 11 < Q 47.

25 2Q 3 0 < Q 6;

MR = 29 2Q 6 < Q 11;
23,5 Q 11 < Q 47.

MC = 4 + 0,5Q. 
25 2Q/3 = 4 + 0,5Q Q = 18.
6 . 29 2Q =
= 4 + 0,5Q , Q = 10; P = 19. = 1910 5 4 10
0,25100 = 120.
23,5 Q = 4 + 0,5Q Q = 13;
P = 17. = 1713 5 413 0,25 169 = 121,75.
, Q = 13.

51.
1.
:

160 2q1 = 5 + 0,5q1 + 0,5q2


q1 = 55,7; q2 = 31, 4.

80 q2 = 5 + 0,5q1 + 0,5q2

348

P1 = 160 55,7 = 104,3; P2 =


= 80 0,5 31,4 = 64,3.
= 104,355,7 + 64,331,4 5 587,1 0,2587,12 = 5491.
2.

160 P 80 < P 160;
QD =
320 3P 0 < P 80.

160 Q 0 < Q 80;


PD =
320 3 Q 3 80 < Q 320;

160 2Q 0 < Q 80;


MR =
320 3 2Q 3 80 < Q 320.
MC = 5 + 0,5Q MR 2 :
160 2Q = 5 + 0,5Q Q* = 62; P* = 98; = 98 62 5 562 0,25
622 = 4800;
320/3 2Q/3 = 5 + 0,5Q Q* = 87,1; P* = 77,7; = 77,787,1 5
587,1 0,2587,12 = 4430,6.
,
.
52.
1.
MR = MC:
67 4Q = Q2 2Q + 4 (Q + 1)2 = 64 Q = 7; P = 67 27 = 53,
= 53 7 73/3 + 49 28 2 = 275,7.
MC = Q2 2Q + 19.
67 4Q = Q2 2Q + 19 (Q + 1)2 = 49 Q = 6; P = 67 27 = 55,
= 55 6 63/3 + 36 24 2 = 268; = 268 275,7 = 7,7.
2.
, , 10%.
3. , , 
0,8(67Q 2Q2).
0,8(67 4Q).

0,8(67 4Q) = Q2 2Q + 4 (Q + 0,6)2 = 50 Q = 6,5; P = 67 2
6,5 = 54.

= 54 6,5 6,52/3 + 42,25 26 2 = 273,7; = 273,7 275,7 = 2.

349

53.

:
ACA = PA MCA = MRA. , 

3 + 24 /Q A = 6 + 0, 4 PB 0, 2Q A ;

3 = 6 + 0, 4 PB 0, 4Q A .
0,2QA =
= 24/QA QA = 10,95. ACA = 3 + 24/10,95 = 5,19; 
, PA = 5,19; PB = 3,45.
54.
1. ,

TR1 = 10 P1 2 P12 + P1 P2 ;
TR2 = 12P2 P22 + P1P2 .

10 P1 4 P1 + P2 = 0;

12 P2 2 P2 + P1 = 0.

P1 = 4,6; P2 = 8,3. Q1 =
= 18,3 24,6 = 9,1; Q2 = 16,6 8,3 = 8,3.
2.
Q1 = 18,3 2P1; Q2 = 16,6 P2. 
( P2 = 0) Q1min = 10 2P1,
( P2 = 16,6) Q1max = 26,6 2P1.
(
P1 = 0) Q2min = 12 P2,
( P1 = 9,15) Q2max = 21,15 P2.
55.
) 1 1 = 80q1 0,5q12 0,5q1q2 10 0,25q12. 
1 :

d 1
160 q2
.
= 80 0, 5q2 1, 5q1 = 0 q1 =
dq1
3

350

2 2 = 80q2 0,5q22 0,5q1q2 25 10q2.


2 :

d 2
= 70 0,5q1 q2 = 0 q2 = 70 0, 5q1.
dq2

3q1 = 160 q2
q1 = 36; q2 = 52; P = 36.

q2 = 70 0,5q1
1 = 36 36 10 0,25 36 =962;
2 = 36 52 25 10 52 = 1327.
2

d
dq = 80 1,5q1 q2 = 0
1
q1 = 20; q2 = 50; P = 45.

d = 70 q q = 0
1
2
dq2
= 45 70 10 0,25 202 25 10 50 = 2515.
56.

1 = gq1 hq21 hq1q2 m nq1 = q1 (g n) h hq1q2 m;

) 1 :
1 = 80q1 0,5q12 0,5q1(70 0,5q1) 10 0,25q12 .

d 1
= 45 q1 q1 = 45.
dq1

2 70 0,545 = 47,5; P = 33,75;


1 = 33,75 45 10 0,25 452 = 1002,5;
2 = 33,75 47,5 25 10 47,5 = 1103,125.
2 :
2 = 80q2 0,5q22 0,5q2(160 q2)/3 25 10q2.

d 2 130 3q2
=

q2 = 65.
dq2
3
3

1 (160 65)/3 = 31,67; P = 31,67;


1 = 31,67 31,67 10 0,25 31,672 = 742,1;
2 = 31,67 65 25 10 65 = 1383,3.
)
= (80 0,5q1 0,5q2) (q1 + q2) 10 0,25q12 25 10q2 .

351

d 1
g n q2
= g n 2hq1 hq2 = 0 q1 =
.
dq1
2h
2

g n q1
.
2h
2

q2 =

q1 =

g n
g n q1 g n
.
0, 5
=
2h
2
3h
2h

gn gn gn
.

=
2h
6h
3h

g n g + 2n
P = g h( q1 + q2 ) = g 2 h
.
=
3h
3
( 1) 

h 2
g n q1 g n
1 = gq1 hq12 m nq1 hq1
=
q1 q1 m ;
2 2h
2
2h
d 1 g n
g n
g n
=
hq1 = 0 q1 =
; q2 =
.
dq1
2h
2h
4h
q2 =


g n g n g + 3n
+
P = g h(q1 + q2 ) = g h
.
=
4h
4
2h
, ,
g + 2 n g + 3n
>
4 g + 8n > 3 g + 9 n g > n .
3
4

352

g , n ,
.

2. rL = 1 U = 7,04,
,

57.

,
MCi = P. 
: 16qi = P q Si = P/16.
Q S = 80P/16 = 5P.

: Q D =Q D Q S = 256 3P 5P = 256 8P. 
MR = 32 0,25Q . 
MR = MC/32 0,25Q = 0,55Q Q = 40; P = 32 0,125
40 = 27. 527 = 135 . 
. (256 3 27) = 175; , 22,8%
77,2% .

7, 042
9
F 0,5
, 3.

58.
.
= 13 
Q = 1 + 2 10 = 19. 
: Q D = 38 P. 
,
Q D = 39 3P.


59.
1. U = (M + 9)0,5 F 0,25 F =
= 16,5 L = rLL. 

= ( M + 9 ) (16,5 L )

0,5

2 (16,5 L )
M +9

0,25

( M rL L )

1
3
LS = 11 .
rL
rL

, rL = 1 8 , rL = 3
10 .

M=

dM 0, 5 7, 04 2
=
= 3 F = 4, 086; M = 15, 52.
dF
F 1,5

,
, 

4,5 , 

2,5 (. 1).
3. 


rL = 2.

9,5 . 
(9,5 3) = 28,5,
(28,5 1/3) = 9,5.
4. rL = 2
U = 8,6. 

8, 62
M = 0,5 9
F
, 
3, F = 5,34; M = 23,1;
L = 11,16.
(11,16 3) = 33,48.
, 
(33,48 23,1) =
= 10,38

(. 2).

. 1

. 2

353

354

60.
1. U = C 00,6 C 10,4
C1 = 150 + (1 + i) (120 C0), i , 
. 
.
i
0,2
0,5
0,875
2,0

C0
147
132
120
117

S0
27
12
0
3

C1
117,6
132
150
156

U
134,45
132,0
131,2
131,27

. 2

2. ,
. , 
.
61.
:

. 

C1 / C0 = 1,1
282
C0 =
.

1,1( + )
C1 = 150 + 1,1(120 C0 )

282
.
1,1 ( + )

, SI,0 = 21; SII,0 = 0; SIII,0 = 17,5.
S 0 = 120

62.
,

r
A
P ( A 2 BL ) = rL LD =
L .
(1)
2 B 2 BP

,

355

rL
A
.

2 B 2 B MR

(2)

MR ( A 2 BL ) = rL LD =

MR < P, (2) < (1).




drL
r
dr

L LD = A L 2B + L .
P
PdL
dL

drL/dL > 0, (3) < (1).


P ( A 2BL ) = rL +

(3)

63.
(. 
59) LS = 11 3 rL . : LS = 1100
300 rL .
,

dQ 6 0,5 4
144
=
= rL LD = 2 .
dL
L
rL
2
LD
= 2880 rL .

P

300 2880
= 2 rL = 1, 76.
rL
rL

9,3 .
64.
1) 7; 2) 12; 3) 5.
1100

65.
1. P MPL = rL ;

9 2

2. MR MPL = rL ;
3. P MPL = MCL ;

= 6 L = 9.

(24 8 L )
9 2
L

2
L

= 6 L = 4, 76.

= 2 + 2 L L = 3,67.

356

4. MR MPL = MCL ;

24 8 L

2
L

= 2 + 2L L = 3, 62.

66.
: MR MPL = MCL:

MR = 120 Q = 120 2 L ;
MPL = 1

L ; MCL = 9 L ;

120 2 L
= 9 L 12, 55.
L

67.
1.

0,75 10 1
=
rK = 2.
0, 25 60 rK

: = 160 + 210 = 80. ,
75%, 25%.
2. rL = 1,5, , 
, 

0, 75K 1,5
=
L = 4K ,
0, 25L
2

rL = 6 12, 55 = 21, 25.


2 12,550,5 = 7,1 . ,
= 120 0,5 7,1 = 116,5 =
= 116,5 7,1 21,25 12,55 = 558,3.
, 

120 2 L

.. (410) = 40 . . =
= 1,5 40 + 210 = 80 
.

,
:

= 25 LD = 19, 75.
L
.
2

25
L = = 17,36.
6


; (217,360,5) =
= 8,33 . ,
=
= 120 0,5 8,33 = 115,8 
= 115,8
8,33 25 17,36 = 531.


,
: = 116,57,1
25 12,55 = 513,4.
S

357

0,75 10 1,5
=
rK = 3.
0, 25 60 rK
= 1,560 + 310 = 120; 
.
68.
1. ,
: rL = MRMPL; rK = MR MPK.

20 Q K 20 LK K .
=
(1)
L
L
2
2
K/L = rL/rK,
(1) :
rL =

rL = 10

rL
r
r
L L LD = 20 L 2rK .
rK 2rK
rK

358

KD

r
= 20 L 2rL .
rK

(2)

359



72.

2.

32 3PA + 2 PB = 10 + 2 PA PB PA = 8, 4 + 0, 6 PB .

MPL K 1
= = L = 4K.
MPK
L 4

TC = 4rLK + rKK = 4K + 4K = 8K. Q =


= (4K2)0,5 K = 0,5Q. TC = 4Q, a MC = 4. 
MR = MC :
20 Q = 4 Q = 16; P = 12.
(1216) = 192.
(0,516) = 8 . ,
(4 8) = 32 . . 
(84) = 32 . (132) = 32 . . 
(192 32 32) = 128 
.

43 2 PB + PA = 5 + PB 0,5 PA PB = 16 + 0, 5 PA .


, (. 
).

PA = 8, 4 + 0, 6(16 + 0,5 PA ) PA = 25, 7; PB = 28,9.

69.

:

160 150
140
130
120
+
+
+
+
= 602,85.
2
3
4
1, 05 1, 05 1, 05 1, 05 1, 055
70.

12
12
112 12 12 112
B =
+
+

+ 2 + 3 = 5,3.
2
3
1, 08 1, 08 1, 08 1,1 1,1 1,1
71.
() 2003 .:
401,13
65 1,12

+ 50 1,12
+

+ 601,1 + 30 + 80/1,1 = 282,5.

901,1 + 35 + 20/1,1 + 55/1,12

, 2 .

= 276,3.

73.

8 2 PA + 3PB = 10 + PA 2 PB PA = 2 + 5 PB / 3.

14 PB + 2 PA = 17 + 0, 5PB PA PB = 2 + 2 PA .

5
PA = 2 + ( 2 + 2 PA ) PA = 1, 7; PB = 1, 4 , (.
3
).

360

QB = (16 LA )

0,75

361

0,25

30 LA
10

16 + 2LA


.

74.

MRTS LA, K = MRTS LB, K :

LA

QA
QB

0
14,23

1,14
12,95

1,86
11,77

2,46
10,67

2,99
9,64

3,47
8,66

3,90
7,73

4,30
6,84

4,68
5,98

LA
QA
QB

9
5,04
5,15

10
5,37
4,36

11
5,69
3,58

12
6,00
2,83

13
6,29
2,10

14
6,58
1,38

15
6,85
0,68

16
7,11
0

K A 3K B 3 (10 K A )
30 LA
=
=
KA =
.
LA
LB
16 LA
16 + 2 LA
KA

75.
1.

MRS AI , B =
MRS AII, B =

, 

30LA
K B = 10
; LB = 16 LA .
16 + 2 LA

0,5
30 LA
Q A = L0,5
;
A
16 + 2 LA

0, 5 (Q BI 5 )

0,5 (30 5)

0, 4 (Q AI 10 )

0, 4 ( 20 10 )

0, 6 (Q AII 4 )

0, 6 (20 4 )

0, 3 (QBII 8 )

0, 3 (30 8 )

= 3,125;

= 0, 668.

, 
. 

I , II . ,
Q AI = 25; Q BI = 23; Q AII = 15; Q BII = 37 
, :

U 0,I = 100,5 250,4 = 11, 46; U 0,II = 160,3 220,6 = 14,68;

362

363

U1,I = 150,5 180,4 = 12,31; U1,II = 110,3 330,6 = 16, 73.

0,5 (QBI 5)

0, 4 (Q AI 10 )

Q BI 30
425 35Q BI
.
Q AI =
20 Q AI
36,25 2,25Q BI

(3)


. 
(3) (1), :
QAI = 26,32; QBI = 21,85; QAII = 13,68; QBII = 38,15. 
(2) = 1,29; = 1.
5.
U 0,I = 100,5 250,4 = 11, 46; U 0,II = 16 0,3 22 0,6 = 14, 68;
2.
,
Q AII = 40 Q AI ; Q BII = 60 Q BI :

0,5 (QBI 5)

0, 4 (Q AI 10 )

0, 3 (QBII 8)

0, 6 (Q AII 4 )

0, 3 ( 40 QBI 8)

0, 6 ( 60 Q AI 4 )

U1,I = 16,320,5 16,850,4 = 12,5; U1,II = 9, 680,3 30,150,6 = 15, 25.

(1)

85QBI + 45
.
1,5QBI + 39,5
3. 

:
Q AI =

0, 5 (Q BI 5 )

0, 4 (Q AI 10 )

= 2 QBI = 1, 6Q AI 11;

0, 6 (Q AII 4 )

= 2 Q BII = 4Q AII 8.

0, 3 (QBII 8 )

U0,I = 42 5 = 80; U0,II = 40,5 5 = 10.

(220 + 130) = 70.


I :
70 = 2QAI + QBI . QAI = 22,5;
QBI = 25. II QAII = 13; QBII = 44.
(22,5 + 13) < 40, 
(25 + 44) > 60.
4. I ,

20PA + 30PB = PAQ AI + PBQBI

P
Q 30
A = BI
.
PB 20 Q AI

76.
1.

(2)

, 
I II, 

II.
MRS AI , B = MRS AII, B .

2QBI QBII
10 QBI
32QBI
.
=
=
Q AI =
Q AI
2Q AII 2 (8 Q AI )
10 + 3Q BI
II

QBII =

10
0,5
QAII

10 QBI =

10

(8 Q AI )

0,5

Q AI = 8

100

(10 QBI )2

364


: QAI = 5,55; QBI = 3,61. 
I U1,I = 5,552 3,61 = 111,2.
, 
II I, 

I; : QBI = 80/
2 . : Q
QAI
AI = 5,11;
QBI = 3,07, QAII = 2,89; QBII = 6,94. 
II U1,II = 2,890,5 6,94 = 11,79.
2. MRS A, B = PA PB .
I =
I QAI = 5,55; Q BI = 3,61, MRSA,B
= 2 3,61/5,55 = 1,3. , = 1,3; = 1 
:

LTC A = rL LA + rK K = rL LA + rK

I = 1,2 5,11 + 3,07 = 9,2; II = 1,22,89 + 6,93 = 10,4.

5rL
8
LA = rL LA ,
3rK
3
0,5

5rL

8
A = PAQ A LTC A = PA L0,3
LA rL LA .
A
3
3rK

(2)

0,5

d A 4 PA 5rL
8
(3)
=

rL = 0.
dLA 5L0,2
3
r
3
A K
(3) (1)

I = 1,3 5,55 + 3,61 = 10,82; II = 1,3 2,45 + 6,39 = 9,58.


I
I QAI = 5,11; QBI = 3,07, MRSA,B
=
= 23,07/5,11 = 1,2. , = 1,2; = 1 
:

365

LDA

2,5

3,5

3P 5r
3P 5r
= A L ; K AD = A L .
10rL 3rK
10rL 3rK

,

4

2,5

3P 5r
= A L .
10rL 3rK


QAS

LDB =

77.
.
MPL MPK = rL rK .

K A 5rL
=
.
LA 3rK

(1)

rL
3rK

3PB
rL 3PB
rL 3PB
D
S

; KB =

; QB =

.
3rK 5rL
5rL
3rK 5rL

, 
.
.
(2)
4

A =

2,5

PA 3PA 5rL
PB rL


; B =
5 10rL 3rK
5 3rK

3PB

.
5rL

366

2,5

P 3P 5r
P
r
= A A L + B L
5 10rL 3rK
5 3rK


:

PAQ AI + PBQBI = 8rL + 12rK + 0, 6 ;


PAQ AII + PBQBII = 10rL + 8rK + 0, 4 .
I

= QA0,8I QB0,4I ( PAQAI + PBQBI 8rL 12rK 0, 6 ).


0,8QB0,4
I
Q A0,2I

= PA ;

0, 4Q A0,8I
Q B0,6
I

= PB .

Q AI = 2 PBQ BI / PA .
Q AI I,
:

QBDI =
Q ADI

Q ADI + Q ADII = Q AS ;

3PB

.
5rL

8rL + 12rK + 0, 6
;
3PB

Q BDI + Q BDII = Q BS .

,
, 
. ,

,
:

3P 5 5r 2,5 r 3P 5
A L + L B = 18;
3rK 5rL
10rL 3rK

5
3,5
2
5
rL 3PB
3PA 5rL


+

= 20;
3rK 5rL
10rL 3rK

4
2,5
16rL + 24rK + 1, 2 + 10rL + 8rK + 0, 4 = 3PA 5rL .

3PA
3PA
10rL 3rK

,
rL = 1. PA = 3,132; PB = 3,179;
rK = 0,711. A = 4,06; B = 4,14; = 8,2.

MI = 18 + 0,71112 + 0,6 8,2 = 21,3;

16rL + 24rK + 1, 2
=
.
3PA

II.

20rL + 16rK + 0,8


;
3PB
10rL + 8rK + 0, 4
=
.
3PA

MII = 110 + 0,7118 + 0,4 8,2 = 18,9.



.

QBDII =

Q ADII


:

LDA + LDB = LSI + LSII = 18;


K AD + K BD = K IS + K IIS = 20;

367

()
I
II

8
10
18
12
8
20
4,55
2,01
6,56
2,24
3,97
6,21

()

6,16
11,84
18
14,45
5,55
20
6,56

6,56

6,21
6,21

78.
1. 
.

368

II:

A = PAQ A rLA = 2PA L0,75


A rLA .

Q ADII =

d A
PA
P
= 1,5 0,75
r = 0 LDA = 1, 5 A .
d LA
r
LA

Q AS

PA4

; B = 4

P 4
= 2 1, 5 A
r

0,75

Q AS = Q ADI + Q ADII ;
QBS = QBDI + QBDII .

. 
.
(1) (3), (5)
(7)
4

(3)

0,5

PA PB
1,5 + 2 = 2r + 3r ;
r r

P
= 6, 75 A ;
r

(8)

LSI + LSII = LDA + LDB ;

(2)

PB2
.
r
r3
, 

A = 1, 69

(7)

P
P4
r2
+ 1,33 B + 0, 56 A 2 .
PB
r
PB r
:


,

P2
r2
P
+ 0, 67 B + 0, 28 A ;
PA
rPA
r

QBDII = 2

(1)

(1) .

P
LDB = 2 A .
r

369

(9)

P2
r2
P
2, 33 + 2 B = 5,9 A .
PA
rPA
r

P 2
P
= 4 2 B = 8 B .
(4)
r
r

(1) (4) 
.
. I 
U I =Q A0,8I QB0,4
I

, r = 1.
(9) PA = 0,87; PB = 0,72.
, .

(1) (4)

PAQ AI + PBQBI = 2r 2 + 0,5( A + B ).

Q AS = 2 (1,5 0,87 ) = 4, 4; QBS = 8 0,72 = 5,8.

QBS

QBDI

r 2 PB
P4
= 0, 67
+ + 0, 28 A 3 .
PB r
PB r

I:
3
r 2 PB2
PA
+
+
0,56
Q ADI = 1,33
;
P rP
r
A
A

LDA = (1,5 0,87 ) = 2,9; LDB = ( 2 0, 72) = 2,1.

(5)

LSI = 1 2 = 2;
= 1 3 = 3.
(5) (8)

LSII

Q ADI = 2, 7; Q BDI = 1, 6; Q ADII = 1, 7; QBDII = 4, 2.


(6)


. 1.

370

371

MRPTB,A 
.
5 . , LA = 5 LB. LB = Q 2B/16. 

( ) 

0,25

0,75

. 1

2. , 
. 
MRSB,A 
:

Q AI =

U I1,25
QB0,5
I

; Q AII =

U II4

QB2II

QBI = 1,63; QBII = 4,18,


UI = 2,69 UII = 2,35.

MRSBI , A =

dQ AI
2, 691,25
= 0,5
= 0,83;
dQBI
1,631,5

MRSBII, A =

dQ AII
2,354
= 2
= 0,83.
dQBII
4,183

Q2
Q2
dQ A
3
Q A = 2 5 B MRPTB, A =
= QB 5 B
.
dQB
16
16
16

Q B = 5,8, MRPTB, A = 0,83.


,  

(. 2).
3. PA = 8,7; PB = 7,2;
r = 10 (1), (2), (5), (6)
, 

. 
10

, 

, 
. 2
. r 
,
LSI = 0,2r; LSII = 0,3r. 

PAQ AI + PBQBI = 0, 2r 2 + 0,5 ;
PAQ AII + PBQBII = 0,3r 2 + 0, 5 .

, .


3

Q ADI = 0,133

P2
r2
P
+ 1, 33 B + 0,56 A ;
PA
rPA
r

QBDI = 0, 067

P
P4
r2
+ 0, 67 B + 0, 28 A 3 ;
PB
r
PB r

372

Q ADII =

P2
0,1r 2
P
+ 0, 67 B + 0, 28 A ;
PA
rPA
r

d1/dQ1 = dTC2/dQ1 = 20,


. 
11 ,
19,5 . . ,

.

P
P4
0, 2r 2
+ 1,33 B + 0,56 A 2 .
PB
r
PB r

QBDII =

QADI = 0,133

102
7, 22
8,7
+ 1,33
+ 0,56
= 2,7;
8, 7
8,7 10
10

QBDI = 0,067

102
7, 2
8,74
+ 0,67
+ 0,28
= 1,6;
7,2
10
7,4 103
3

QADII =

0,1102
7,22
8,7
+ 0,67
+ 0,28 = 1,7;
8,7
87
10

QBDII =

0, 2102
7, 2
8,74
+1,33
+ 0,56
= 4, 2.
7,2
10
7,2 103

LSI = 0, 2 10 = 2; LSII = 0,3 10 = 3.


, 10

.

1 = 4010 10 1510 0,25102 2010 = 15;


2 = 8075 5 575 0,5752 + 2010 = 3007,5.
3. 20
. . 40 . .
1 2300 . .
2 = 8075 5 575 0,5 752 20 10 = 2607,5.
10 . ,


1 = 4010 10 15 10 0,25102 + 2010 = 215.
4.
= 40Q1 + 80Q2 25 15Q1 5Q2 1,25Q 21 0,5Q 22.

d
dQ = 25 2,5Q1 = 0
1
Q1 = 10; Q2 = 75;

d = 75 Q = 0
2
dQ2

79.
1. 
= :
40 = 15 + 0,5Q1 Q1 = 50;
80 = 5 + Q2 Q2 = 75;
1 = 4050 10 1550 0,25502 = 615;
2 = 8075 5 575 0,5752 = 307,5.
2. ,
,
,

.
d1/dQ1 = dTC2/dQ1:
40 15 0,5Q1 = 2Q1 Q1 = 10.

373

= 2922,5.
80.
1.

.
(70 0,5N) (50 0,5N) = 20.
2. =
50 0,5N = 10 + 2N N = 16.

374

375

3. MU = ,
70 0,5N = 10 + 2N N = 24.
4. , 24 .
, (50 0,524) = 38. 
(10 + 2 24) = 58. , 
20 . .
81.
1. 

. 
:

:
: 140004, , . , 1  , 1;
: 140004, , . ,
1 , 1;
: www.books.urait.ru. email: books@books.urait.ru

180 3Q 0 < Q 40;

P = 140 2Q 40 < Q 60;


80 Q 60 < Q 80;

MC = 2 + Q .
(. ) 
: 2 + Q = 140 2Q Q = 46; MC = 48.

..
.. , ..
.. .
16.09.05. 6090 1/ 16. .
Petersburg. . . . . 23,5.
3000 .
B

2. = 48 1 32 ; 2
12, 3 .
2. = = 25 1 55 
, 2 35 3 15. 
.

40004, , . , 1  , 1

. (095) 7440012. Email: publish@urait.ru. www.urait.ru

Оценить