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.

I,

12

12

.
.
,
:

0
i

pi -

+ RTlnpi =

0
i

+ RTlnxip =

i
;

0
i

0
i

+ RTlnxi (12.1)

; xi

0
i

.
,

.
.
G = ni

(12.2)

:
G

= n1

+ n2

= n1

+ n2

(12.3)

xi

,
(12.1) (12.2):
G

= n1

+ n2

= n1

+ n2

+ RT(n1 lnx1 +n2lnx2 ) (12.4)

:
G

= RT(n1 lnx1 +n2lnx2 )


,
G

(12.5)

,
<0.

1
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I,

12

:
G
T

S ....(12.6)
p

R (n1 ln x1

n 2 ln x 2 )....(12.7)

= H

-T S

(12.8)

=0

(12.9)

,
-

,
,

.
,

.
.

.
,

.
dG = -SdT + Vdp
,

(12.5),

(12.10)

G
p

0....(12.11)
T

2
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I,

12

.
)=

(12.12)

G = nA
nA ,

+ nB

(12.13)

; nB .

;
1

A,

:
nA = 1 -

(12.14)

n =
-

(12.15)

)
G= (1 - )

.
+

(12.16)
:

xA

xB

nA
nA

(12.17)

nB
nB

nA

(12.18)

nB

:
=

+ RTlnpA =

0
B

+ RTlnpB =

+ RTlnp + RTlnxA =

0
B

+ RTlnp + RTlnxB =

+ RTlnp + RTln(1 - )

0
B

+ RTlnp + RTln( )

(12.19)
(12.20)

3
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(12.13)
G = (1 - )
((1 - )

+( )

0
B )

I,

12

+ (1 - ) RTlnp + RT(1 - ) ln(1 - ) + ( )

0
B

+ ( ) RTlnp + RT( ) ln( ) =

+ RTlnp + RT((1 - ) ln(1 - ) + ( ) ln( ))

(12.21)
.

,
(1 - )

12.5).
.

,
G

0
A +

0
B

(1-

,
.

.
-

(12.22)

p ,T

(12.21)

4
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G = ((1 - )

+( )

0
B )

+ RTlnp + RT((1 - ) ln(1 - ) + ( ) ln( ))

0
B +

I,

12

(12.21)

RT (-ln(1 - ) + (1- ) (1/ (1 - ))(-1)+ ln( )+( ) (1/ )) = 0;

p ,T

+ RTln(1 - ) =

+ RTln( )

(12.22)

(12.23)

.
(12.22)

:
0
A

x2
x1

0
B

RT

(12.24)

,
.
.

.
.

.
.
,

:
.
pi = pi* xi

(12.25)
,

,
,

,
5
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I,

12

,
.
,

.
,
:

x1

p1
p1

p2

......(12.26)

.
,

,
,

,
,

.
pi = Kixi

(12.27)
.
.

.
.

,
,

:
=

(12.28)
i

0
i

+ RTlnpi

(12.29)
6
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I,

12

i
:

0
i

=
*
i

0
i

+ RTlnxi pi* =

+ RT lnpi*
(12.30)
:

+ RT lnpi* + RTlnxi =

0
i

*
i

+ RTlnxi (12.30)
.

(12.28)

*
i

+ RTlnxi

(12.31)

*
i

( =1).

(12.31)

.
.

,
G = ni

(12.32)

:
G

= n1

+ n2

+ n2

= n1

= n1

+ n2

*
2

+ RT(n1 lnx1 +n2lnx2 ) (12.34)

(12.33)

:
G

= n1

+ n2

= RT(n1 lnx1 +n2lnx2 )= RTn( x1 lnx1 +x2 lnx2 )

(12.35)
.

:
S

= - Rn( x1 lnx1 +x2 lnx2 )

(12.36)

,
.

7
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