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Measurementsthatareusedtodescribemotion

Distance:thelengthofapathbetweentwopoints.(Scalar)
Position:specificpointrelativetoapointoforigin.(Vector)
Displacement:thestraightlinedistanceanddirectionfromonepointtoanother
Forexample,IfIstartedtoruntowardeast9mandrunwestfor5m,thetotaldisplacement
wouldbe14mbecause9+5(totalmovements)

2waystomeasuremotion.
Scalarquantity:Sizeofamovement.Scalarquantityismagnitudeonly.(Example:Iwalked
4km/h)
Vectorquantity:Magnitudeanddirection(Example:Iwalked4km/hEast)

ScalarandVector

TheLanguageofMotion

Section8.1(McGrawHillScience)

StudyGuideMotionScience
byJordan,Jack,Jaewon

Directionsaredividedas+and
North,East,up,andrightare+
South,West,down,andleftare
Simplythinkofagraph.

Usinggraphtorepresent
Whenthecarismovinginauniformmotion,itmeanscarisinsamespeedandfacingthesame
direction.Inthegraph,itwouldbeastraightlinebecausetherewillbenochanges.

ThecarabovewillcanbedescribedasFig2becausethereisnochangeofspeed.

Fig1graphiskeepconstantlygoingup.Itmeansthatthespeedisgettinghigherinasame
time.Forexample,motorthatiswarminguptoworkcanbetheexampleforthegraphfigure1
becauseitstartswithaslowspeedandgetsintohigherspeedasthetimepasses.

Graphfigure3showsthedecreasinginthegraph.Thismeansthatanobjectisslowingdown
thespeedasthetimepasses.Thiscanbeanexampleofacarslowingdowninfrontoftraffic
light,however,Itwillbeslowingdowninaconstantspeed.

Whentheobjectspositionischangingovertimeitcanbedeterminedbyusingpositiontime
graph

TeachersNote:Allofthesegraphsshowconstantmotion.Fig1showsthecarmovingforward
ataconstantvelocity.Fig2showsthecaratrest.Fig3showsthecarmovingbackwardata
constantvelocity.Onadistancetimegraph,m=d/tandslope=velocitysoiftheslopeis
constantthenthevelocityisconstant.

Factsaboutgraph
Time(xaxis)Position(yaxis)
ApositiveslopemeanstheobjectismovingintoNorth,East,Up,Right
Iftheslopeisnegative,theobjectisleft,down,west,south
Zeroslopemeansnomovementofanobject

Section8.2(McGrawHillScience)

AverageVelocityandGraph

Simplevocabstoknow!
Velocity:Howquicklythepositionofanobjectchanges.
Speed:Measurethemagnitudeofvelocity.

Aboutvelocity
Isitpossibletohavedifferentvelocitybutsamespeed?
Yes,whentheyarefacingthedifferentdirections,samespeedcanshowthedifferencein
velocity

Theslopeshowstheaverageofhowfaranobjecthavemovedincertaintimeinterval.
RiseoverRunistheformulaforgettingaslope

Slopeshowstheaveragevelocity
AveragevelocityisRateofchangeinpositionovertimeinterval.

Theblackstraightlinewouldbetheaveragevelocity.


Sinceitisalmostimpossibletohaveanobjectthatmovesinaperfectuniformmotion,thegraph
wontbestraight.Therefore,theaveragevelocitywillhelpthegraphlinemoresmoothandshow
theaverageinstraightline.

Theformulaforgettinganaveragevelocityofanobject.

Theaveragevelocityisalwayslessthanorequaltothe
averagespeedofanobject.Thiscanbeseenbyrealizingthatwhiledistanceisalwaysstrictly
increasing,displacementcanincreaseordecreaseinmagnitudeaswellaschangedirection.

(Chapter13BCScience10)

Acceleration

Accelerationisdefinedastherateofchangeofvelocity.
Accelerationisavectorquantitysimilartodisplacementandvelocity.
Equation:changeofvelocity/timeinterval

Uniformmotioniswhenanobjectistravellingataconstantvelocity(nochangeforspeedand
direction)hasnoacceleration.

Fallingobject's:Accelerationduetogravity
ObjectsfallbecausetheforceofgravityattractsthemtoEarth.

NegativeAcceleration:
Accelerationisdefinedasachangeinvelocityovertime
Thechangeinvelocitycanbeeitherdecreaseorincrease
NegativeAcceleration:anobjectthatundergoesadecreaseinvelocity,thatis,thefinal
velocityislessthantheinitialvelocity

Thisisdifferentfromdeceleration

GraphingAcceleration

ConstantAcceleration:
Objectsacceleratedbygravityhaveaconstantaccelerationifotherforcesarenegligible
Constantaccelerationiswhenthevelocitychangesataconstantrate,andtheresulting
velocitytimegraphisastraightline

Determinetheaccelerationfromthegraph:
Iftheobjecthasaconstantacceleration,thelinewillbestraightandhaveaconstant
slope
Apositiveslopeindicatesthattheobjecthasapositiveacceleration(increasing
velocity)
Anegativeslopeindicatesthattheobjecthasanegativeacceleration(decreasing
velocity)

Areaunderavelocitytimegraph:
Ifanobjectistravellingataconstantvelocity,thenitsaccelerationiszero
=slopeofthelineonthevelocitytimegraphwillalsobezero
Whentheaccelerationisconstant,onehalfoftheheightisthesameastheaverage
velocityandthebaseisthechangeintime


(VelocityTimeGraph)Thisdisplacementistheareaunderthegraphvelocityversustime.
Thisareacanbreakinto2parts.Rectangle=displacementcoveredifthecardoesnot
acceleratebutkeepsthesamevelocityof10m/s.Triangle=theadditionaldisplacementdueto
theacceleration

InstantaneousAcceleration:
Instantaneousacceleration:accelerationofanobjectataparticularinstantintime
Bycalculatingtheslopeofthetangenttothelineofavelocitytimegraphwecan
determinetheinstantaneousacceleration

ObjectsinMotion

Threetypesofmotiongraphs:positiontime,velocitytime,andaccelerationtime.
Theslopeofthepositiontimegraphcreatestheslopeofthevelocitytimegraphandthis
createstheslopeoftheaccelerationtimegraph.

Slopeofthepositiontimegraphisconstantlychanging,indicatingthechangeinvelocity.
Alsobecausetheslopeinthevelocitytimegraphisincreasingataconstantinterval,the
accelerationisconstant.

ExampleQuestions:

1. Question:Brendacanrunat5m/sandHillarycanrunat7m/s.HillarygivesBrendaa
25mheadstartina100mrunningrace.Thegraphbelowinfigure6showsa
distancetimegraphfortherace.HillarysdistanceisshowninredandBrendasdistance
isshowninblue.Whowinstherace?Howmanymetresseparatethetworunnersatthe
endoftherace?

Solution:WecanseeonthegraphthatBrendawasgivena25mheadstartbecauseher
originaldistanceis25m.WecanalsoseefromthegraphthatHillarywinstheracebyabout4m

2.Questions:Thegraphbelowshowsthevelocityofacyclist.Attheendof15s,howfarhad
thecyclisttravelled?

Solution:Thedisplacementisequaltothetotalareaundertheline.Thecyclistaccelerates
duringthefirst5s.Sincethecycliststartedwithaninitialvelocityof2m/seast,theareaisa
rectangleandatriangle.

Fortheorangerectangle:
Area=lw=(2m/s)x(5s)=10m{E}
Forthegreentriangle:
Area=1/2xhxb=(6m/s)x(5s)x(1/2)=15m{E}
Thedisplacementwhileacceleratingis25m{E}
Forthebluerectangle:
Thecyclisttravelledataconstantvelocityforthelast10s.Theareaisarectangle.
So,theareais(8m/s)x(10s)=80m{E}.

Finally,thetotaldisplacement(howfarthecyclisttravelled)is80+25=105m{E}.

3.Question:Apersonwalks8.5kmin2.2h.Whatwasthepersonsaveragespeed?

Solution:Substitutethevaluesintotheaveragespeedequation.

Vav=d/t
Vav=8.5km/2.2h
Vav=3.9km/h

4.Question:Sunlighttakesabout500storeachEarth.Lighttravelsat3.0x10^8m/s.Howfar
istheSunfromEarth?

Solution:Changetheformoftheaveragespeedequationtosolveford.Then,substitutethe
valuesintotheequationandsolve.

Vav=d/t
d=Vavt
(3.0x10^8m/s)(500.s)
d=1.5x10^11m

Thesunis1.5x10^11mfromEarth

PracticeQuestions:

1. Paulskatesatthevelocityof12m/s{E}.Benskatesatthevelocityof10m/s{E}.They
areracingtogetherina400mrace.PaulgivesBena5sheadstart.Whowinstherace?
Howmuchseparatedwillthetwoskatersbeattheend?

2. Figure5showsthemotionfor30sofapersonridingamotorcycle.Determinethe
displacementofthepersonduringthetimeshown.

3.IfapersonweretotravelfromBtoCtoDtoA,whatishisdisplacement?(Notthetotal
distance)

SolutionstoPracticeQuestions

1. Paul
Bendidstartedtherace5secondearlierthanPaul,however,theyarenotinracinginthesame
speed.SincePaulismoving12m/sandthetotaldistanceis400m,Paulhaveenoughtimeto
beatBen.Evenwith5sheadstart,Benwouldneed35secondstocompletetheraceandPaul
wouldonlyneed33.3s.

2. About558m

Determiningthedisplacementessentiallymeansthatwehavetofigureouttheareaofthe
shapethatvelocitytimegraphrepresents.Therefore,wecoulddividetheshapeintoatriangle
andarectangle.

Then,ifwegettheareasofthesetwoshapesbyapproximating,itwouldbearound558m.

3. 4meter

Thedisplacementisnotthetotaldistanceonetravels.Itishowfartheoneendsupfromthe
startingpoint.Thismeansthatthedisplacementis4maccordingtothediagramsincethe
personendsupatAwhichis4mfromB(hisstartingpoint).