The Finite Element Method for the Analysis of
NonLinear and Dynamic Systems
Prof. Dr. Eleni Chatzi
Lecture 1  16 September, 2014
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
Course Information
Instructor
Prof. Dr. Eleni Chatzi, email: chatzi@ibk.baug.ethz.ch
Office Hours: HIL E14.3, Wednesday 10:0012:00 or by email
Assistant
Adrian Egger, HIL E13.1, email: egger@ibk.baug.ethz.ch
Course Website
Lecture Notes and Homeworks will be posted at:
http://www.ibk.ethz.ch/ch/education
Suggested Reading
Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures by T.
Belytschko, W. K. Liu, and B. Moran, John Wiley and Sons, 2000
The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite
Element Analysis by T. J. R. Hughes, Dover Publications, 2000
The Finite Element Method Vol. 2 Solid Mechanics by O.C.
Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor, Oxford : Butterworth Heinemann, 2000
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
Course Outline
Review of the Finite Element method  Introduction to
NonLinear Analysis
NonLinear Finite Elements in solids and Structural Mechanics

Overview of Solution Methods
Continuum Mechanics & Finite Deformations
Lagrangian Formulation
Structural Elements
Dynamic Finite Element Calculations
 Integration Methods
 Mode Superposition
Eigenvalue Problems
Special Topics
 Boundary Element & Extended Finite Element methods
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Method of Finite Elements II
Grading Policy
Performance Evaluation  Homeworks (100%)
Homework
Homeworks are due in class 23 weeks after assignment
Computer Assignments may be done using any coding language
(MATLAB, Fortran, C, MAPLE)  example code will be
provided in MATLAB
Commercial software such as CUBUS, ABAQUS and SAP will
also be used for certain Assignments
Homework Sessions will be preannounced and it is advised to bring
a laptop along for those sessions
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Method of Finite Elements II
Lecture #1: Structure
Lecture #1: Structure
Review of the Finite Element Method
Strong vs. Weak Formulation
The Finite Element (FE) formulation
The IsoParametric Mapping
Examples
The Bar Element
The Beam Element
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Method of Finite Elements II
Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)
Classification of Engineering Systems
Discrete
Continuous
qy+dy
qx
dy
dx
qx+dx
qy
h1
h2
Flow
of water
Permeable Soil
Impermeable Rock
F = KX
Direct Stiffness Method
2
2x
2
2y
=0
Laplace Equation
FEM: Numerical Technique for approximating the solution of continuous
systems. We will use a displacement based formulation and a stiffness
based solution (direct stiffness method).
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Method of Finite Elements II
Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)
How is the Physical Problem formulated?
The formulation of the equations governing the response of a system under
specific loads and constraints at its boundaries is usually provided in the
form of a differential equation. The differential equation also known as the
strong form of the problem is typically extracted using the following sets
of equations:
Equilibrium Equations
aL + ax
ex. f (x) = R +
(L x)
2
Constitutive Requirements
Equations
ex. = E
Kinematics Relationships
du
ex. =
dx
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Axial bar Example
q(x)=ax
x
aL
ax
f(x)
Lx
Method of Finite Elements II
Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)
How is the Physical Problem formulated?
Differential Formulation (Strong Form) in 2 Dimensions
Quite commonly, in engineering systems, the governing equations are of a
2
second order (derivatives up to u 00 or 2 ux ) and they are formulated in terms
of variable u, i.e. displacement:
Governing Differential Equation ex: general 2nd order PDE
2
u
u u
A(x, y ) 2 ux + 2B(x, y ) xy
+ C (x, y ) 2 yu = (x, y , u, y
, y )
Problem Classification
Boundary Condition Classification
B 2 AC < 0 elliptic
B 2 AC = 0 parabolic
B 2 AC > 0 hyperbolic
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Essential (Dirichlet): u(x0 , y0 ) = u0
order m 1 at most for C m1
u
Natural (Neumann): y
(x0 , y0 ) = u 0
order m to 2m 1 for C m1
Method of Finite Elements II
Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)
Differential Formulation (Strong Form) in 2 Dimensions
The previous classification corresponds to certain characteristics for each
class of methods. More specifically,
Elliptic equations are most commonly associated with a diffusive or
dispersive process in which the state variable u is in an equilibrium
condition.
Parabolic equations most often arise in transient flow problems where
the flow is down gradient of some state variable u. Often met in the
heat flow context.
Hyperbolic equations refer to a wide range of areas including
elasticity, acoustics, atmospheric science and hydraulics.
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Method of Finite Elements II
Strong Form  1D FEM
Reference Problem
Consider the following 1 Dimensional (1D) strong form (parabolic)
du
c(x)
+ f(x) = 0
dx
d
c(0) u(0) = C1
dx
u(L) = 0
d
dx
(Neumann BC)
(Dirichlet BC)
Physical Problem (1D)
Diff. Equation
One dimensional Heat
flow
+ = 0
+ = 0
Axially Loaded Bar
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Quantities
T=temperature
A=area
k=thermal
conductivity
Q=heat supply
u=displacement
A=area
E=Youngs
modulus
B=axial loading
Method of Finite Elements II
Constitutive
Law
Fourier
= /
= heat flux
Hooke
= /
= stress
10
Weak Form  1D FEM
Approximating the Strong Form
The strong form requires strong continuity on the dependent field
variables (usually displacements). Whatever functions define these
variables have to be differentiable up to the order of the PDE that
exist in the strong form of the system equations. Obtaining the
exact solution for a strong form of the system equation is a quite
difficult task for practical engineering problems.
The finite difference method can be used to solve the system
equations of the strong form and obtain an approximate solution.
However, this method usually works well for problems with simple
and regular geometry and boundary conditions.
Alternatively we can use the finite element method on a weak
form of the system. This weak form is usually obtained through
energy principles which is why it is also known as variational form.
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Method of Finite Elements II
11
Weak Form  1D FEM
From Strong Form to Weak form
Three are the approaches commonly used to go from strong to weak
form:
Principle of Virtual Work
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
Methods of weighted residuals (Galerkin, Collocation, Least
Squares methods, etc)
*We will mainly focus on the third approach.
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Method of Finite Elements II
12
Weak Form  1D FEM
From Strong Form to Weak form  Approach #1
Principle of Virtual Work
For any set of compatible small virtual displacements imposed on the body
in its state of equilibrium, the total internal virtual work is equal to the
total external virtual work.
Z
Wint =
T d = Wext =
T bd +
u
ST TS d +
u
iT RC i
u
where
TS : surface traction (along boundary )
b: body force per unit area
RC : nodal loads
: virtual displacement
u
: virtual strain
: stresses
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Method of Finite Elements II
13
Weak Form  1D FEM
From Strong Form to Weak form  Approach #2
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
Applies to elastic problems where the elasticity matrix is positive definite,
hence the energy functional has a minimum (stable equilibrium).
Approach #1 applies in general.
The potential energy is defined as the strain energy U minus the work of
the external loads W
=UW
Z
1
T C d
U=
2
Z
Z
T bd +
W=
u
ST Ts dT +
u
i
T
u
i RC
(b Ts , RC as defined previously)
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Method of Finite Elements II
14
Weak Form  1D FEM
From Strong Form to Weak form  Approach #3
Galerkins Method
Given an arbitrary weight function w, where
S = {uu C 0 , u(l) = 0}, S 0 = {w w C 0 , w (l) = 0}
C 0 is the collection of all continuous functions.
Multiplying by w and integrating over
Z
w (x)[(c(x)u 0 (x))0 + f (x)]dx = 0
[w (0)(c(0)u 0 (0) + C1 ] = 0
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Method of Finite Elements II
15
Weak Form  1D FEM
Using the divergence theorem (integration by parts) we reduce the
order of the differential:
Z
wg dx =
[wg ]l0
gw 0 dx
The weak form is then reduced to the following problem. Also, in
what follows we assume constant properties c(x) = c = const.
Find u(x) S such that:
Z
w cu dx =
0
wfdx + w (0)C1
0
S = {uu C 0 , u(l) = 0}
S 0 = {w w C 0 , w (l) = 0}
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Method of Finite Elements II
16
Weak Form
Notes:
1
Natural (Neumann) boundary conditions, are imposed on the
secondary variables like forces and tractions.
u
For example, y
(x0 , y0 ) = u 0 .
Essential (Dirichlet) or geometric boundary conditions, are imposed
on the primary variables like displacements.
For example, u(x0 , y0 ) = u0 .
A solution to the strong form will also satisfy the weak form, but not
vice versa.Since the weak form uses a lower order of derivatives it can
be satisfied by a larger set of functions.
For the derivation of the weak form we can choose any weighting
function w , since it is arbitrary, so we usually choose one that satisfies
homogeneous boundary conditions wherever the actual solution
satisfies essential boundary conditions. Note that this does not hold
for natural boundary conditions!
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Method of Finite Elements II
17
FE formulation: Discretization
How to derive a solution to the weak form?
Step #1:Follow the FE approach:
Divide the body into finite elements, e, connected to each other
through nodes.
Then break the overall integral into a summation over the finite
elements:
"
#
Z xe
X Z x2e
2
w 0 cu 0 dx
wfdx w (0)C1 = 0
e
x1e
x1e
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Method of Finite Elements II
18
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
Step #2: Approximate the continuous displacement using a discrete
equivalent:
Galerkins method assumes that the approximate (or trial) solution, u, can
be expressed as a linear combination of the nodal point displacements ui ,
where i refers to the corresponding node number.
X
u(x) u h (x) =
Ni (x)ui = N(x)u
i
where bold notation signifies a vector and Ni (x) are the shape functions.
In fact, the shape function can be any mathematical formula that helps us
interpolate what happens at points that lie within the nodes of the mesh.
In the 1D case that we are using as a reference, Ni (x) are defined as 1st
degree polynomials indicating a linear interpolation.
As will be shown in the application presented in the end of this lecture, for the
case of a truss element the linear polynomials also satisfy the homogeneous
equation related to the bar problem.
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Method of Finite Elements II
19
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
Shape function Properties:
Bounded and Continuous
One for each node
Nie (xje ) = ij , where
1 if i = j
ij =
0 if i 6= j
The shape functions can be written as piecewise functions of the x
coordinate:
This is not a convenient notation.
x x
Instead
of using the global coordinate
i1
,
xi1 x < xi
x, things become simplified when
xi xi1
xi + 1 x
Ni (x) =
using coordinate referring to the
, xi x < xi+1
x
local
system of the element (see page
i+1
i
0,
otherwise
25).
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Method of Finite Elements II
20
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
Step #2: Approximate w (x) using a discrete equivalent:
The weighting function, w is usually (although not necessarily) chosen to
be of the same form as u
X
w (x) w h (x) =
Ni (x)wi = N(x)w
i
i.e. for 2 nodes:
N = [N1 N2 ]
u = [u1
u2 ]T
w = [w1
w2 ]T
Alternatively we could have a PetrovGalerkin formulation, where w (x) is
obtained through the following relationships:
w (x) =
X
he dNi
(Ni +
)wi
dx
i
= coth(
Pe e
2
) e
2
Pe
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coth =
e x + e x
e x e x
Method of Finite Elements II
21
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
Note: Matrix vs. Einsteins notation:
In the derivations that follow it is convenient to introduce the
equivalence between the Matrix and Einsteins notation. So far we
have approximated:
X
u(x) =
Ni (x)ui (Einstein0 s notation) = N(x)u (Matrix notation)
i
w (x) =
Ni (x)wi = N(x)w
(similarly )
As an example, if we consider an element of 3 nodes:
u(x) =
3
X
Ni (x)ui = N1 u1 + N2 u2 + N3 u3
u1
u(x) = [N1 N2 N3 ] u2 = N(x)u
u3
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Method of Finite Elements II
22
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
Step #3: Substituting into the weak formulation and rearranging
terms we obtain the following in matrix notation:
Z l
Z l
0
0
w cu dx
wfdx w (0)C1 = 0
0
0
l
(wT NT )0 c(Nu)0 dx
wT NT fdx wT N(0)T C1 = 0
Since w, u are vectors, each one containing a set of discrete values
corresponding at the nodes i, it follows that the above set of equations can
be rewritten in the following form, i.e. as a summation over the wi , ui
components (Einstein notation):
dN
(x)
j
dx
c
wj
dx
0
i
j
Z l X
X
f
wj Nj (x)dx
wj Nj (x)C1
=0
0
j
j
dNi (x)
ui
dx
x=0
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Method of Finite Elements II
23
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
This is rewritten as,
"Z
wj
0
X
i
dNi (x) dNj (x)
cui
dx
dx
#
fNj (x)dx + (Nj (x)C1 )x=0 = 0
The above equation has to hold wj since the weighting function w (x) is
an arbitrary one. Therefore the following system of equations has to hold:
!
Z l X
dNi (x) dNj (x)
cui
fNj (x)dx + (Nj (x)C1 )x=0 = 0 j = 1, ..., n
dx
dx
0
i
After reorganizing and moving the summation outside the integral, this
becomes:
#
"
Z l
X Z l dNi (x) dNj (x)
c
ui =
fNj (x)dx + (Nj (x)C1 )x=0 = 0 j = 1, ..., n
dx
dx
0
0
i
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Method of Finite Elements II
24
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
We finally obtain the following discrete system in matrix notation:
Ku = f
where writing the integral from 0 to l as a summation over the
subelements we obtain:
e
K = Ae K K =
x2e
NT
,x cN,x dx
x1e
f = Ae f e f e =
x2e
x1e
x2e
BT cBdx
x1e
NT fdx + NT hx=0
where A is not a sum but an assembly (see page and, x denotes
differentiation with respect to x.
dN(x)
is known as the straindisplacement
In addition, B = N,x =
dx
matrix.
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Method of Finite Elements II
25
1D FE formulation: IsoParametric Formulation
IsoParametric Mapping
This is a way to move from the use of global coordinates (i.e.in
(x, y )) into normalized coordinates (usually (, )) so that the finally
derived stiffness expressions are uniform for elements of the same
type.
Shape Functions in Natural Coordinates
x() =
Ni ()xie = N1 ()x1e + N2 ()x2e
i=1,2
1
N1 () = (1 ),
2
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1
N2 () = (1 + )
2
Method of Finite Elements II
26
1D FE formulation: IsoParametric Formulation
Map the integrals to the natural domain element stiffness matrix.
Using the chain rule of differentiation for N((x)) we obtain:
Z 1
Z x2e
NT,x cN,x dx =
(N, ,x )T c(N, ,x )x, d
Ke =
x1e
where N, =
and x, =
d
d
1
(1
2
1
(1
2
+ )
1
2
1
2
x e x1e
h
dx
= 2
= = J (Jacobian) and h is the element length
d
2
2
,x =
d
= J 1 = 2/h
dx
From all the above,
Ke =
c
x2e x1e
1
1
1
1
Similary, we obtain the element load vector:
Z x2e
Z 1
NT ()fx, d + NT (x)hx=0
fe =
NT fdx + NT hx=0 =
x1e
Note: the isoparametric mapping is only done for the integral.
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Method of Finite Elements II
27
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
So what is meant by assembly? (Ae )
It implies adding the components of the stiffness matrix that correspond to
the same degrees of freedom (dof).
In the case of a simple bar, it is trivial as the degrees of freedom (axial
displacement) are as many as the nodes:
2:K2
1:K1
1
Red indicates the node each
component corresponds to
3
1
1 1
Element Stiffness Matrices (2x2): 1 =
1 1
1
1
Total Stiffness Matrix (4x4): = 1 1 + 1
0
1
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1
2,
0
1
1
1 1
2 =
1 1
2
3
1
2
3
Method of Finite Elements II
28
1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method
In the case of a frame with beam elements, the stiffness matrix of the elements is
typically of 4x4 size, corresponding to 2 dofs on each end (a displacement and a
rotation):
2
u1
*The process will be shown explicitly
during the HW sessions
u2y
2
1:K1
2
2:K
u2x
Green indicates the dof each
component corresponds to
u3
u1
1
11
1
12
1
Element Stiffness Matrices (4x4): = 1
13
1
14
u2y
1
12
1
22
1
23
1
24
1
13
1
23
1
33
1
34
1
2
44
+ 22
1
Total Stiffness Matrix (2x2): = 34
0
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u2x
1
14
2
u1
11
1
2
24
1
12
2
1 u2y, = 2
34
13
1 2
2
44
14
u2y
1
34
1
33
2
24
u2x
u3
2
12
2
22
2
23
2
24
2
13
2
23
2
33
2
34
0 2
2 u2y
24
2
u2x
11
Method of Finite Elements II
3
2
14
2
24
2
34
2
44
u2x
2
u3
3
Fixed dofs are
not included in
the total
stiffness matrix
29
Axially Loaded Bar Example
A. Constant End Load
Given: Length L, Section Area A, Youngs modulus E
Find: stresses and deformations.
Assumptions:
The crosssection of the bar does not change after loading.
The material is linear elastic, isotropic, and homogeneous.
The load is centric.
Endeffects are not of interest to us.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
30
Axially Loaded Bar Example
A. Constant End Load
Strength of Materials Approach
From the equilibrium equation, the axial force at a random point x
along the bar is:
R
A
From the constitutive equation (Hookes Law):
f(x) = R(= const) (x) =
(x)
R
=
E
AE
Hence, the deformation (x) is obtained from kinematics as:
(x) =
(x)
Rx
(x) =
x
AE
Note: The stress & strain is independent of x for this case of
loading.
=
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Method of Finite Elements II
31
Axially Loaded Bar Example
B. Linearly Distributed Axial + Constant End Load
From the equilibrium equation, the axial force at random point x
along the bar is:
f(x) = R +
aL + ax
a(L2 x 2 )
(L x) = R +
( depends on x)
2
2
In order to now find stresses & deformations (which depend on x)
we have to repeat the process for every point in the bar. This is
computationally inefficient.
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Method of Finite Elements II
32
Axially Loaded Bar Example
From the equilibrium equation, for an infinitesimal element:
d
A = q(x)x + A( + ) A {z}
lim
+ q(x) = 0 A
+ q(x) = 0
x
dx
x0
Also, =
du
d 2u
, = E , q(x) = ax AE 2 + ax = 0
dx
dx
Strong Form
d 2u
+ ax = 0
dx 2
u(0) = 0 essential BC
du
f(L) = R AE
dx
AE
= R natural BC
x=L
Analytical Solution
u(x) = uhom + up u(x) = C1 x + C2
ax 3
6AE
C1 , C2 are determined from the BC
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Method of Finite Elements II
33
Axially Loaded Bar Example
An analytical solution cannot always be found
Approximate Solution  The Galerkin Approach (#3): Multiply by the weight function
w and integrate over the domain
L
AE
0
d 2u
wdx +
dx 2
axwdx = 0
0
Apply integration by parts
Z L
d 2u
du l
du dw
AE
wdx
=
w
AE
dx
2
dx
dx
dx dx
0
0
0
Z L
Z L
d 2u
du dw
du
du
AE 2 wdx = AE
(L)w(L) AE
(0)w(0)
AE
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx dx
0
0
AE
But from BC we have u(0) = 0, AE du
(L)w(L) = Rw(L), therefore the approximate
dx
weak form can be written as
L
AE
0
du dw
dx = Rw(L) +
dx dx
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axwdx
0
Method of Finite Elements II
34
Axially Loaded Bar Example
Variational Approach (#1)
Let us signify displacement by u and a small (variation of the) displacement by u. Then
the various works on this structure are listed below:
L
Z
Wint = A
dx
0
Wext = Rux=L
L
qudx
Wbody =
0
In addition, = E du
dx
Then, from equilibrium: Wint = Wext + Wbody
L
E
0
du d(u)
dx =
dx dx
qudx + Rux=L
0
This is the same form as earlier via another path.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
35
Axially Loaded Bar Example
In Galerkins method we assume that the approximate solution, u can be expressed as
u(x) =
n
X
uj Nj (x)
j=1
w is chosen to be of the same form as the approximate solution (but with arbitrary
coefficients wi ),
w(x) =
n
X
wi Ni (x)
i=1
Plug u(x),w(x) into the approximate weak form:
L
AE
0
n
X
j=1
uj
Z L X
n
n
n
X
dNj (x) X dNi (x)
ax
wi Ni (x)dx
wi
dx = R
wi Ni (L) +
dx
dx
0
i=1
i=1
i=1
wi is arbitrary, so the above has to hold wi :
n Z
X
j=1
Z L
dNj (x)
dNi (x)
AE
dx uj = RNi (L) +
axNi (x)dx
dx
dx
0
i = 1...n
which is a system of n equations that can be solved for the unknown coefficients uj .
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
36
Axially Loaded Bar Example
The matrix form of the previous system can be expressed as
Z
Kij uj = fi where Kij =
0
dNj (x)
dNi (x)
AE
dx
dx
dx
axNi (x)dx
and fi = RNi (L) +
0
Finite Element Solution  using 2 discrete elements, of length h (3 nodes)
From theisoparametric
formulation we know the element stiffness matrix
1
1
e
AE
K = h
. Assembling the element stiffness matrices we get:
1
1
Ktot
e
K11
1
K12
=
0
Ktot
1
AE
1
=
h
0
Institute of Structural Engineering
1
K12
1
2
K22 + K11
2
K12
Method of Finite Elements II
1
2
1
0
2
K12
2
K22
0
1
1
37
Axially Loaded Bar Example
We also have that the element load vector is
Z L
axNi (x)dx
fi = RNi (L) +
0
Expressing the integral in isoparametric coordinates Ni () we have:
d
2
= , x = N1 ()x1e + N2 ()x2e ,
dx
h
Z L
2
fi = Ri=4 +
a(N1 ()x1e + N2 ()x2e )Ni () d
h
0
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
38
The Beam Element
After the vectors are formulated we proceed with solving the main equation
Ku = f u = K1 f.
The results are plotted below using 3 elements:
Notice how the approximation is able to track
the displacement u(x), despite the fact that in
reality the solution is a cubic function of x
(remember the analytical solution).
Since the shape functions used, Ni (x), are
linear the
P displacement is approximated as:
u(x) = i Ni (x)ui , where ui corresponds to
nodal displacements.
The strain is then obtained as
dN
du
=
ui where in slide 25 we have
=
dx
dx
dN
defined B =
to be the socalled
dx
straindisplacement matrix.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
39
The Beam Element
*The section on the Beam Element is taken from Prof. H. Waismans
notes of the FEM II course  CEEM Department, Columbia University
F16 Aeroelastic Structural Model
Exterior
model
95% are
shell
elements
FEM model:
150000 Nodes
Internal structure
zoom. Some Brick
and tetrahedral
elements
http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/Felippa.d/FelippaHome.d/Home.html
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
40
Beam Elements
Two main beam theories:
EulerBernoulli theory (Engineering beam theory) slender beams
Timoshenko theory thick beams
Euler  Bernoulli Beam
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
41
Beam Elements
Euler Bernoulli Beam Assumptions  Kirchhoff Assumptions
Normals remain straight (they do not bend)
Normals remain unstretched (they keep the same length)
Normals remain normal (they always make a right angle to the neutral
plane)
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
42
Beam Elements  Strong Form
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
43
Beam Elements  Strong Form
Equilibrium
distributed load per unit length
shear force
Combining the equations
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
44
Beam Elements  Strong Form
(1)
Free end with applied load
(2)
(S)
(3)
Simple support
(4)
Clamped support
(5)
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
45
Beam Elements  Strong Form to Weak Form
Multiply
(4)w(5)
byintegrate
w and integrate
the domain
Multiply Eqns.
(1), Eq.
(4) (1),
(5) by
and
over theover
domain
First integration by parts
by parts
First integration
First integration
First integration
by parts by parts
Second integration
by by
parts
gives
Second integration
parts gives
Second integration by parts gives
Second integration by parts gives
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
46
Beam Elements  Strong Form to Weak Form
Arrive at
Arrive
at the
the weak
weak form
form
(W)
Note:
Note:1. The spaces are C1 continuous, i.e. the derivative must also be
continuous
1. The
spaces are C 1 continuous, i.e. the derivative must also be
continuous
2. The left side is symmetric in w and v (bilinear form: a(v,w)=a(w,v)
2. The
left
is to
symmetric
instiffness
w and matrix
(bilinear form:
this
willside
lead
symmetric
a(, w )=a(w , )) this will lead to a symmetric Stiffness Matrix
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
47
Beam Elements  FE Formulation
Physical domain
Natural domain
Element
displacement
vector
Element
force
vector
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
48
Beam Elements  Shape Functions
HermitePolynomials
Polynomials
Hermite
Note: The choice of a cubic polynomial is related to the homogeneous
strong form of the problem EI 0000 = 0.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
49
Beam Elements  Galerkin
Finally, the weight functions and trial solutions are:
d
d
() = H1 1 + H2
+ H3 2 + H4
d 1
d 1 2
However note, that the rotation is actually the derivative of the (vertical)
d
deflection: =
dx
d
d
The connection between
and
is delivered via the Jacobian. This is
dx
d
calculated from the coordinate transformation relationship:
d
l e d
1 e 1+ e
x1 +
x2
==
2
2
d
2 dx
dx
le
J=
=
d
2
x=
where l e is the length of the element.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
50
Beam Elements  FE Matrices
From the weak form, we had
The second derivative of the shape functions of the element, He ,
therefore needs to be calculated:
dHe
dHe 2
1 6
6
e
=B =
J = e e 3 1 e 3 + 1
dx 2
d 2
l
l
l
le
where J =
2
d 2
Matrix Be now connects the curvature of the element,
to the
dx 2
e
nodal displacement vector d :
d 2
= Be de
dx 2
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
51
Beam Elements  FE Matrices
Stiffness matrix
Force vector
Assuming constant distributed force
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
52
Beam Elements  Example
Consider a clampedfree beam
Consider a clampedfree beam
with EI = 104 Nm2
s = 20N
m = 20Nm
Preprocessing
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
53
Beam Elements  Example
For element (1)
[1]
For element (2)
[2]
[3]
[4]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
Assembly into a Global Stiffness Matrix
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
54
Beam Elements  Example
Boundary force matrix
Element (1) has no boundary on S or M
[3]
For element (2) we have
[4]
[5]
[6]
Assembly to global boundary force vector
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
55
Beam Elements  Example
Body force vector
(distributed
loads)
(Point loads)
For element (1) Given:
For element (2) Given:
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
56
Beam Elements  Example
The global force vector
9
15.
3
4
15.
3
20
20
=KNOWN
Postprocessing
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
57
The Beam Element
The results are plotted below using 2 elements:
Notice how the approximation is able to
accurately track the displacement u(x)
Since the shape functions used, Hi (x),
are cubic the moment is linear as a 2nd
derivative and the shear is constant as a
3rd derivative.
If one wishes a better approximation, the
use of 3 elements instead f two would be
preferable in this case.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
58
Strong Form  2D Linear Elasticity FEM
Governing Equations
Equilibrium Eq:
Kinematic Eq:
Constitutive Eq:
Traction B.C.:
Displacement B.C:
s + b = 0
= s u
=D
n = Ts
u = u
t
u
Hookes Law  Constitutive Equation
Plane Stress
Plane Strain
zz = xz = yz = 0, zz =
6 0
1
0
E
1
0
D=
1 2
0 0 1
2
zz = xz = yz = 0, zz 6= 0
1
E
D=
(1 )(1 + )
0
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
1
0
0
0
12
2
59
2D FE formulation: Discretization
Divide the body into finite elements connected to each other through
nodes
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
60
2D FE formulation: IsoParametric Formulation
Shape Functions in Natural Coordinates
1
N1 (, ) = (1 )(1 ),
4
1
N3 (, ) = (1 + )(1 + ),
4
1
N2 (, ) = (1 + )(1 )
4
1
N4 (, ) = (1 )(1 + )
4
Isoparametric Mapping
x=
y=
4
X
i=1
4
X
Ni (, )xie
Ni (, )yie
i=1
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
61
Bilinear Shape Functions
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
62
2D FE formulation: Matrices
from the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (see slide #9)
=0Kd =f
d
where
Ke =
BT DBd,
fe =
N T Bd +
Z
eT
N T ts d
Gauss Quadrature
Z 1Z 1
I =
f (, )dd
=
1 1
Ngp
Ngp
XX
Wi Wj f (i , j )
i=1 i=1
where Wi , Wj are the weights and
(i , j ) are the integration points.
Institute of Structural Engineering
Method of Finite Elements II
63
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