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The Finite Element Method for the Analysis of

Non-Linear and Dynamic Systems


Prof. Dr. Eleni Chatzi
Lecture 1 - 16 September, 2014

Institute of Structural Engineering

Method of Finite Elements II

Course Information
Instructor
Prof. Dr. Eleni Chatzi, email: chatzi@ibk.baug.ethz.ch
Office Hours: HIL E14.3, Wednesday 10:00-12:00 or by email
Assistant
Adrian Egger, HIL E13.1, email: egger@ibk.baug.ethz.ch

Course Website
Lecture Notes and Homeworks will be posted at:
http://www.ibk.ethz.ch/ch/education
Suggested Reading
Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures by T.
Belytschko, W. K. Liu, and B. Moran, John Wiley and Sons, 2000
The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite
Element Analysis by T. J. R. Hughes, Dover Publications, 2000
The Finite Element Method Vol. 2 Solid Mechanics by O.C.
Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor, Oxford : Butterworth Heinemann, 2000
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Method of Finite Elements II

Course Outline
Review of the Finite Element method - Introduction to
Non-Linear Analysis
Non-Linear Finite Elements in solids and Structural Mechanics
-

Overview of Solution Methods


Continuum Mechanics & Finite Deformations
Lagrangian Formulation
Structural Elements

Dynamic Finite Element Calculations


- Integration Methods
- Mode Superposition

Eigenvalue Problems
Special Topics
- Boundary Element & Extended Finite Element methods
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Method of Finite Elements II

Grading Policy

Performance Evaluation - Homeworks (100%)


Homework
Homeworks are due in class 2-3 weeks after assignment
Computer Assignments may be done using any coding language
(MATLAB, Fortran, C, MAPLE) - example code will be
provided in MATLAB
Commercial software such as CUBUS, ABAQUS and SAP will
also be used for certain Assignments
Homework Sessions will be pre-announced and it is advised to bring
a laptop along for those sessions

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Method of Finite Elements II

Lecture #1: Structure

Lecture #1: Structure


Review of the Finite Element Method
Strong vs. Weak Formulation
The Finite Element (FE) formulation
The Iso-Parametric Mapping
Examples
The Bar Element
The Beam Element

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Method of Finite Elements II

Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)


Classification of Engineering Systems
Discrete

Continuous
q|y+dy
q|x

dy
dx

q|x+dx

q|y

h1

h2
Flow
of water

Permeable Soil
Impermeable Rock

F = KX
Direct Stiffness Method

2
2x

2
2y

=0

Laplace Equation

FEM: Numerical Technique for approximating the solution of continuous


systems. We will use a displacement based formulation and a stiffness
based solution (direct stiffness method).
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Method of Finite Elements II

Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)


How is the Physical Problem formulated?
The formulation of the equations governing the response of a system under
specific loads and constraints at its boundaries is usually provided in the
form of a differential equation. The differential equation also known as the
strong form of the problem is typically extracted using the following sets
of equations:

Equilibrium Equations
aL + ax
ex. f (x) = R +
(L x)
2
Constitutive Requirements
Equations
ex. = E 
Kinematics Relationships
du
ex.  =
dx
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Axial bar Example


q(x)=ax

x
aL

ax

f(x)
L-x
Method of Finite Elements II

Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)


How is the Physical Problem formulated?
Differential Formulation (Strong Form) in 2 Dimensions
Quite commonly, in engineering systems, the governing equations are of a
2
second order (derivatives up to u 00 or 2 ux ) and they are formulated in terms
of variable u, i.e. displacement:
Governing Differential Equation ex: general 2nd order PDE
2

u
u u
A(x, y ) 2 ux + 2B(x, y ) xy
+ C (x, y ) 2 yu = (x, y , u, y
, y )

Problem Classification

Boundary Condition Classification

B 2 AC < 0 elliptic
B 2 AC = 0 parabolic
B 2 AC > 0 hyperbolic
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Essential (Dirichlet): u(x0 , y0 ) = u0


order m 1 at most for C m1
u
Natural (Neumann): y
(x0 , y0 ) = u 0
order m to 2m 1 for C m1
Method of Finite Elements II

Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)


Differential Formulation (Strong Form) in 2 Dimensions
The previous classification corresponds to certain characteristics for each
class of methods. More specifically,
Elliptic equations are most commonly associated with a diffusive or
dispersive process in which the state variable u is in an equilibrium
condition.
Parabolic equations most often arise in transient flow problems where
the flow is down gradient of some state variable u. Often met in the
heat flow context.
Hyperbolic equations refer to a wide range of areas including
elasticity, acoustics, atmospheric science and hydraulics.

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Method of Finite Elements II

Strong Form - 1D FEM


Reference Problem
Consider the following 1 Dimensional (1D) strong form (parabolic)


du
c(x)
+ f(x) = 0
dx
d
c(0) u(0) = C1
dx
u(L) = 0
d
dx

(Neumann BC)
(Dirichlet BC)

Physical Problem (1D)

Diff. Equation

One dimensional Heat


flow

+ = 0

+ = 0

Axially Loaded Bar

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Quantities
T=temperature
A=area
k=thermal
conductivity
Q=heat supply
u=displacement
A=area
E=Youngs
modulus
B=axial loading

Method of Finite Elements II

Constitutive
Law
Fourier
= /
= heat flux
Hooke
= /
= stress
10

Weak Form - 1D FEM


Approximating the Strong Form
The strong form requires strong continuity on the dependent field
variables (usually displacements). Whatever functions define these
variables have to be differentiable up to the order of the PDE that
exist in the strong form of the system equations. Obtaining the
exact solution for a strong form of the system equation is a quite
difficult task for practical engineering problems.
The finite difference method can be used to solve the system
equations of the strong form and obtain an approximate solution.
However, this method usually works well for problems with simple
and regular geometry and boundary conditions.
Alternatively we can use the finite element method on a weak
form of the system. This weak form is usually obtained through
energy principles which is why it is also known as variational form.
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Method of Finite Elements II

11

Weak Form - 1D FEM

From Strong Form to Weak form


Three are the approaches commonly used to go from strong to weak
form:
Principle of Virtual Work
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
Methods of weighted residuals (Galerkin, Collocation, Least
Squares methods, etc)
*We will mainly focus on the third approach.

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Method of Finite Elements II

12

Weak Form - 1D FEM


From Strong Form to Weak form - Approach #1
Principle of Virtual Work
For any set of compatible small virtual displacements imposed on the body
in its state of equilibrium, the total internal virtual work is equal to the
total external virtual work.
Z
Wint =

T d = Wext =

T bd +
u

ST TS d +
u

iT RC i
u

where
TS : surface traction (along boundary )
b: body force per unit area
RC : nodal loads
: virtual displacement
u
: virtual strain
: stresses
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Method of Finite Elements II

13

Weak Form - 1D FEM


From Strong Form to Weak form - Approach #2
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
Applies to elastic problems where the elasticity matrix is positive definite,
hence the energy functional has a minimum (stable equilibrium).
Approach #1 applies in general.
The potential energy is defined as the strain energy U minus the work of
the external loads W
=UW
Z
1
T C d
U=
2
Z
Z
T bd +
W=
u

ST Ts dT +
u

i
T
u
i RC

(b Ts , RC as defined previously)
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Method of Finite Elements II

14

Weak Form - 1D FEM


From Strong Form to Weak form - Approach #3
Galerkins Method
Given an arbitrary weight function w, where

S = {u|u C 0 , u(l) = 0}, S 0 = {w |w C 0 , w (l) = 0}


C 0 is the collection of all continuous functions.
Multiplying by w and integrating over
Z

w (x)[(c(x)u 0 (x))0 + f (x)]dx = 0

[w (0)(c(0)u 0 (0) + C1 ] = 0

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Method of Finite Elements II

15

Weak Form - 1D FEM


Using the divergence theorem (integration by parts) we reduce the
order of the differential:
Z

wg dx =

[wg ]l0

gw 0 dx

The weak form is then reduced to the following problem. Also, in


what follows we assume constant properties c(x) = c = const.
Find u(x) S such that:
Z

w cu dx =
0

wfdx + w (0)C1
0

S = {u|u C 0 , u(l) = 0}
S 0 = {w |w C 0 , w (l) = 0}
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Method of Finite Elements II

16

Weak Form
Notes:
1

Natural (Neumann) boundary conditions, are imposed on the


secondary variables like forces and tractions.
u
For example, y
(x0 , y0 ) = u 0 .

Essential (Dirichlet) or geometric boundary conditions, are imposed


on the primary variables like displacements.
For example, u(x0 , y0 ) = u0 .

A solution to the strong form will also satisfy the weak form, but not
vice versa.Since the weak form uses a lower order of derivatives it can
be satisfied by a larger set of functions.

For the derivation of the weak form we can choose any weighting
function w , since it is arbitrary, so we usually choose one that satisfies
homogeneous boundary conditions wherever the actual solution
satisfies essential boundary conditions. Note that this does not hold
for natural boundary conditions!
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Method of Finite Elements II

17

FE formulation: Discretization
How to derive a solution to the weak form?
Step #1:Follow the FE approach:
Divide the body into finite elements, e, connected to each other
through nodes.

Then break the overall integral into a summation over the finite
elements:
"
#
Z xe
X Z x2e
2
w 0 cu 0 dx
wfdx w (0)C1 = 0
e

x1e

x1e

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Method of Finite Elements II

18

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


Step #2: Approximate the continuous displacement using a discrete
equivalent:
Galerkins method assumes that the approximate (or trial) solution, u, can
be expressed as a linear combination of the nodal point displacements ui ,
where i refers to the corresponding node number.
X
u(x) u h (x) =
Ni (x)ui = N(x)u
i

where bold notation signifies a vector and Ni (x) are the shape functions.
In fact, the shape function can be any mathematical formula that helps us
interpolate what happens at points that lie within the nodes of the mesh.
In the 1-D case that we are using as a reference, Ni (x) are defined as 1st
degree polynomials indicating a linear interpolation.
As will be shown in the application presented in the end of this lecture, for the
case of a truss element the linear polynomials also satisfy the homogeneous
equation related to the bar problem.
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Method of Finite Elements II

19

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


Shape function Properties:

Bounded and Continuous


One for each node
Nie (xje ) = ij , where

1 if i = j
ij =
0 if i 6= j
The shape functions can be written as piecewise functions of the x
coordinate:
This is not a convenient notation.
x x
Instead
of using the global coordinate
i1

,
xi1 x < xi

x, things become simplified when


xi xi1
xi + 1 x
Ni (x) =
using coordinate referring to the
, xi x < xi+1

x
local
system of the element (see page

i+1
i

0,
otherwise
25).
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Method of Finite Elements II

20

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


Step #2: Approximate w (x) using a discrete equivalent:
The weighting function, w is usually (although not necessarily) chosen to
be of the same form as u
X
w (x) w h (x) =
Ni (x)wi = N(x)w
i

i.e. for 2 nodes:


N = [N1 N2 ]

u = [u1

u2 ]T

w = [w1

w2 ]T

Alternatively we could have a Petrov-Galerkin formulation, where w (x) is


obtained through the following relationships:
w (x) =

X
he dNi
(Ni +
)wi
dx
i

= coth(

Pe e
2
) e
2
Pe

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coth =

e x + e x
e x e x

Method of Finite Elements II

21

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


Note: Matrix vs. Einsteins notation:
In the derivations that follow it is convenient to introduce the
equivalence between the Matrix and Einsteins notation. So far we
have approximated:
X
u(x) =
Ni (x)ui (Einstein0 s notation) = N(x)u (Matrix notation)
i

w (x) =

Ni (x)wi = N(x)w

(similarly )

As an example, if we consider an element of 3 nodes:


u(x) =

3
X

Ni (x)ui = N1 u1 + N2 u2 + N3 u3

u1
u(x) = [N1 N2 N3 ] u2 = N(x)u
u3
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Method of Finite Elements II

22

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


Step #3: Substituting into the weak formulation and rearranging
terms we obtain the following in matrix notation:
Z l
Z l
0
0
w cu dx
wfdx w (0)C1 = 0
0

0
l

(wT NT )0 c(Nu)0 dx

wT NT fdx wT N(0)T C1 = 0

Since w, u are vectors, each one containing a set of discrete values


corresponding at the nodes i, it follows that the above set of equations can
be rewritten in the following form, i.e. as a summation over the wi , ui
components (Einstein notation):

dN
(x)
j
dx
c
wj
dx
0
i
j


Z l X
X

f
wj Nj (x)dx
wj Nj (x)C1
=0
0

j
j

dNi (x)
ui
dx

x=0

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Method of Finite Elements II

23

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


This is rewritten as,

"Z
wj
0

X
i

dNi (x) dNj (x)


cui
dx
dx

#
fNj (x)dx + (Nj (x)C1 )|x=0 = 0

The above equation has to hold wj since the weighting function w (x) is
an arbitrary one. Therefore the following system of equations has to hold:
!
Z l X
dNi (x) dNj (x)
cui
fNj (x)dx + (Nj (x)C1 )|x=0 = 0 j = 1, ..., n
dx
dx
0
i

After reorganizing and moving the summation outside the integral, this
becomes:
#
"
Z l
X Z l dNi (x) dNj (x)
c
ui =
fNj (x)dx + (Nj (x)C1 )|x=0 = 0 j = 1, ..., n
dx
dx
0
0
i

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Method of Finite Elements II

24

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


We finally obtain the following discrete system in matrix notation:
Ku = f
where writing the integral from 0 to l as a summation over the
subelements we obtain:
e

K = Ae K K =

x2e

NT
,x cN,x dx

x1e

f = Ae f e f e =

x2e

x1e

x2e

BT cBdx

x1e

NT fdx + NT h|x=0

where A is not a sum but an assembly (see page and, x denotes


differentiation with respect to x.
dN(x)
is known as the strain-displacement
In addition, B = N,x =
dx
matrix.
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Method of Finite Elements II

25

1D FE formulation: Iso-Parametric Formulation


Iso-Parametric Mapping
This is a way to move from the use of global coordinates (i.e.in
(x, y )) into normalized coordinates (usually (, )) so that the finally
derived stiffness expressions are uniform for elements of the same
type.

Shape Functions in Natural Coordinates


x() =

Ni ()xie = N1 ()x1e + N2 ()x2e

i=1,2

1
N1 () = (1 ),
2
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1
N2 () = (1 + )
2
Method of Finite Elements II

26

1D FE formulation: Iso-Parametric Formulation


Map the integrals to the natural domain element stiffness matrix.
Using the chain rule of differentiation for N((x)) we obtain:
Z 1
Z x2e
NT,x cN,x dx =
(N, ,x )T c(N, ,x )x, d
Ke =
x1e

where N, =
and x, =

d 
d

1
(1
2

1
(1
2

+ )

1
2

1
2

x e x1e
h
dx
= 2
= = J (Jacobian) and h is the element length
d
2
2
,x =

d
= J 1 = 2/h
dx

From all the above,


Ke =

c
x2e x1e

1
1

1
1

Similary, we obtain the element load vector:


Z x2e
Z 1
NT ()fx, d + NT (x)h|x=0
fe =
NT fdx + NT h|x=0 =
x1e

Note: the iso-parametric mapping is only done for the integral.


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Method of Finite Elements II

27

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


So what is meant by assembly? (Ae )
It implies adding the components of the stiffness matrix that correspond to
the same degrees of freedom (dof).
In the case of a simple bar, it is trivial as the degrees of freedom (axial
displacement) are as many as the nodes:
2:K2

1:K1
1

Red indicates the node each


component corresponds to

3
1

1 1

Element Stiffness Matrices (2x2): 1 =


1 1

1
1

Total Stiffness Matrix (4x4): = 1 1 + 1


0
1
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1
2,

0
1
1

1 1
2 =

1 1

2
3

1
2
3

Method of Finite Elements II

28

1D FE formulation: Galerkins Method


In the case of a frame with beam elements, the stiffness matrix of the elements is
typically of 4x4 size, corresponding to 2 dofs on each end (a displacement and a
rotation):
2

u1

*The process will be shown explicitly


during the HW sessions

u2y
2

1:K1

2
2:K

u2x

Green indicates the dof each


component corresponds to

u3

u1

1
11
1
12
1
Element Stiffness Matrices (4x4): = 1

13

1
14

u2y

1
12
1
22
1
23
1
24

1
13
1
23
1
33
1
34

1
2
44
+ 22
1
Total Stiffness Matrix (2x2): = 34
0

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u2x

1
14
2
u1
11
1
2
24
1
12
2
1 u2y, = 2
34

13

1 2
2
44

14

u2y

1
34
1
33
2
24

u2x

u3

2
12
2
22
2
23
2
24

2
13
2
23
2
33
2
34

0 2
2 u2y

24
2
u2x
11

Method of Finite Elements II

3
2
14

2
24

2
34

2
44

u2x
2
u3
3

Fixed dofs are


not included in
the total
stiffness matrix

29

Axially Loaded Bar Example


A. Constant End Load

Given: Length L, Section Area A, Youngs modulus E


Find: stresses and deformations.
Assumptions:
The cross-section of the bar does not change after loading.
The material is linear elastic, isotropic, and homogeneous.
The load is centric.
End-effects are not of interest to us.
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Method of Finite Elements II

30

Axially Loaded Bar Example


A. Constant End Load
Strength of Materials Approach
From the equilibrium equation, the axial force at a random point x
along the bar is:
R
A
From the constitutive equation (Hookes Law):
f(x) = R(= const) (x) =

(x)
R
=
E
AE
Hence, the deformation (x) is obtained from kinematics as:
(x) =

(x)
Rx
(x) =
x
AE
Note: The stress & strain is independent of x for this case of
loading.
=

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Method of Finite Elements II

31

Axially Loaded Bar Example


B. Linearly Distributed Axial + Constant End Load

From the equilibrium equation, the axial force at random point x


along the bar is:
f(x) = R +

aL + ax
a(L2 x 2 )
(L x) = R +
( depends on x)
2
2

In order to now find stresses & deformations (which depend on x)


we have to repeat the process for every point in the bar. This is
computationally inefficient.
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Method of Finite Elements II

32

Axially Loaded Bar Example


From the equilibrium equation, for an infinitesimal element:

d
A = q(x)x + A( + ) A |{z}
lim
+ q(x) = 0 A
+ q(x) = 0
x
dx
x0

Also,  =

du
d 2u
, = E , q(x) = ax AE 2 + ax = 0
dx
dx
Strong Form
d 2u
+ ax = 0
dx 2
u(0) = 0 essential BC

du
f(L) = R AE
dx
AE

= R natural BC

x=L

Analytical Solution
u(x) = uhom + up u(x) = C1 x + C2

ax 3
6AE

C1 , C2 are determined from the BC


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Method of Finite Elements II

33

Axially Loaded Bar Example


An analytical solution cannot always be found
Approximate Solution - The Galerkin Approach (#3): Multiply by the weight function
w and integrate over the domain
L

AE
0

d 2u
wdx +
dx 2

axwdx = 0
0

Apply integration by parts




Z L
d 2u
du l
du dw
AE
wdx
=
w

AE
dx
2
dx
dx
dx dx
0
0
0

 Z L
Z L
d 2u
du dw
du
du
AE 2 wdx = AE
(L)w(L) AE
(0)w(0)
AE
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx dx
0
0

AE

But from BC we have u(0) = 0, AE du


(L)w(L) = Rw(L), therefore the approximate
dx
weak form can be written as
L

AE
0

du dw
dx = Rw(L) +
dx dx

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axwdx
0

Method of Finite Elements II

34

Axially Loaded Bar Example


Variational Approach (#1)
Let us signify displacement by u and a small (variation of the) displacement by u. Then
the various works on this structure are listed below:
L

Z
Wint = A

dx
0

Wext = Ru|x=L
L

qudx

Wbody =
0

In addition, = E du
dx
Then, from equilibrium: Wint = Wext + Wbody
L

E
0

du d(u)
dx =
dx dx

qudx + Ru|x=L
0

This is the same form as earlier via another path.


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Method of Finite Elements II

35

Axially Loaded Bar Example


In Galerkins method we assume that the approximate solution, u can be expressed as

u(x) =

n
X

uj Nj (x)

j=1

w is chosen to be of the same form as the approximate solution (but with arbitrary
coefficients wi ),
w(x) =

n
X

wi Ni (x)

i=1

Plug u(x),w(x) into the approximate weak form:


L

AE
0

n
X
j=1

uj

Z L X
n
n
n
X
dNj (x) X dNi (x)
ax
wi Ni (x)dx
wi
dx = R
wi Ni (L) +
dx
dx
0
i=1
i=1
i=1

wi is arbitrary, so the above has to hold wi :


n Z
X
j=1


Z L
dNj (x)
dNi (x)
AE
dx uj = RNi (L) +
axNi (x)dx
dx
dx
0

i = 1...n

which is a system of n equations that can be solved for the unknown coefficients uj .
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Method of Finite Elements II

36

Axially Loaded Bar Example


The matrix form of the previous system can be expressed as

Z
Kij uj = fi where Kij =
0

dNj (x)
dNi (x)
AE
dx
dx
dx

axNi (x)dx

and fi = RNi (L) +


0

Finite Element Solution - using 2 discrete elements, of length h (3 nodes)


From theiso-parametric
 formulation we know the element stiffness matrix
1
1
e
AE
K = h
. Assembling the element stiffness matrices we get:
1
1

Ktot

e
K11
1

K12
=
0

Ktot

1
AE
1
=
h
0

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1
K12
1
2
K22 + K11
2
K12

Method of Finite Elements II

1
2
1

0
2
K12

2
K22

0
1
1
37

Axially Loaded Bar Example

We also have that the element load vector is


Z L
axNi (x)dx
fi = RNi (L) +
0

Expressing the integral in iso-parametric coordinates Ni () we have:


d
2
= , x = N1 ()x1e + N2 ()x2e ,
dx
h
Z L
2
fi = R|i=4 +
a(N1 ()x1e + N2 ()x2e )Ni () d
h
0

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Method of Finite Elements II

38

The Beam Element


After the vectors are formulated we proceed with solving the main equation
Ku = f u = K1 f.
The results are plotted below using 3 elements:
Notice how the approximation is able to track
the displacement u(x), despite the fact that in
reality the solution is a cubic function of x
(remember the analytical solution).
Since the shape functions used, Ni (x), are
linear the
P displacement is approximated as:
u(x) = i Ni (x)ui , where ui corresponds to
nodal displacements.
The strain is then obtained as
dN
du
=
ui where in slide 25 we have
=
dx
dx
dN
defined B =
to be the so-called
dx
strain-displacement matrix.

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The Beam Element


*The section on the Beam Element is taken from Prof. H. Waismans
notes of the FEM II course - CEEM Department, Columbia University
F-16 Aeroelastic Structural Model

Exterior
model
95% are
shell
elements

FEM model:
150000 Nodes

Internal structure
zoom. Some Brick
and tetrahedral
elements

http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/Felippa.d/FelippaHome.d/Home.html

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Beam Elements
Two main beam theories:
Euler-Bernoulli theory (Engineering beam theory) -slender beams
Timoshenko theory thick beams
Euler - Bernoulli Beam

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Beam Elements
Euler Bernoulli Beam Assumptions - Kirchhoff Assumptions
Normals remain straight (they do not bend)
Normals remain unstretched (they keep the same length)
Normals remain normal (they always make a right angle to the neutral
plane)

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Beam Elements - Strong Form

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Method of Finite Elements II

43

Beam Elements - Strong Form


Equilibrium
distributed load per unit length

shear force

Combining the equations

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44

Beam Elements - Strong Form


(1)

Free end with applied load

(2)

(S)

(3)

Simple support

(4)
Clamped support

(5)

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Beam Elements - Strong Form to Weak Form


Multiply
(4)w(5)
byintegrate
w and integrate
the domain
Multiply Eqns.
(1), Eq.
(4) (1),
(5) by
and
over theover
domain

First integration by parts


by parts
First integration
First integration
First integration
by parts by parts

Second integration
by by
parts
gives
Second integration
parts gives
Second integration by parts gives

Second integration by parts gives

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Beam Elements - Strong Form to Weak Form


Arrive at
Arrive
at the
the weak
weak form
form

(W)

Note:

Note:1. The spaces are C1 continuous, i.e. the derivative must also be
continuous
1. The
spaces are C 1 continuous, i.e. the derivative must also be
continuous
2. The left side is symmetric in w and v (bi-linear form: a(v,w)=a(w,v)
2. The
left
is to
symmetric
instiffness
w and matrix
(bi-linear form:
this
willside
lead
symmetric
a(, w )=a(w , )) this will lead to a symmetric Stiffness Matrix
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Beam Elements - FE Formulation

Physical domain

Natural domain

Element
displacement
vector

Element
force
vector

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Beam Elements - Shape Functions


HermitePolynomials
Polynomials
Hermite

Note: The choice of a cubic polynomial is related to the homogeneous


strong form of the problem EI 0000 = 0.
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Beam Elements - Galerkin


Finally, the weight functions and trial solutions are:
 


d
d
() = H1 1 + H2
+ H3 2 + H4
d 1
d 1 2
However note, that the rotation is actually the derivative of the (vertical)
d
deflection: =
dx
d
d
The connection between
and
is delivered via the Jacobian. This is
dx
d
calculated from the coordinate transformation relationship:
d
l e d
1 e 1+ e
x1 +
x2
==
2
2
d
2 dx
dx
le
J=
=
d
2
x=

where l e is the length of the element.


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Beam Elements - FE Matrices


From the weak form, we had

The second derivative of the shape functions of the element, He ,


therefore needs to be calculated:


dHe
dHe 2
1 6
6
e
=B =
J = e e 3 1 e 3 + 1
dx 2
d 2
l
l
l
le
where J =
2
d 2
Matrix Be now connects the curvature of the element,
to the
dx 2
e
nodal displacement vector d :
d 2
= Be de
dx 2
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Beam Elements - FE Matrices


Stiffness matrix

Force vector

Assuming constant distributed force

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Beam Elements - Example

Consider a clamped-free beam

Consider a clamped-free beam


with EI = 104 Nm2
s = 20N
m = 20Nm

Pre-processing

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53

Beam Elements - Example

For element (1)

[1]

For element (2)

[2]

[3]

[4]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Assembly into a Global Stiffness Matrix

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Beam Elements - Example


Boundary force matrix

Element (1) has no boundary on S or M


[3]

For element (2) we have

[4]
[5]
[6]

Assembly to global boundary force vector

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Beam Elements - Example


Body force vector
(distributed
loads)

(Point loads)

For element (1) Given:

For element (2) Given:

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Beam Elements - Example


The global force vector
9
15.
3
4
15.
3
20
20

=KNOWN

Post-processing

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The Beam Element


The results are plotted below using 2 elements:

Notice how the approximation is able to


accurately track the displacement u(x)
Since the shape functions used, Hi (x),
are cubic the moment is linear as a 2nd
derivative and the shear is constant as a
3rd derivative.
If one wishes a better approximation, the
use of 3 elements instead f two would be
preferable in this case.
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Strong Form - 2D Linear Elasticity FEM


Governing Equations

Equilibrium Eq:
Kinematic Eq:
Constitutive Eq:
Traction B.C.:
Displacement B.C:

s + b = 0
 = s u
=D 
n = Ts
u = u

t
u

Hookes Law - Constitutive Equation


Plane Stress
Plane Strain
zz = xz = yz = 0, zz =
6 0

1
0
E
1
0
D=
1 2
0 0 1
2

zz = xz = yz = 0, zz 6= 0

1
E

D=
(1 )(1 + )
0

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Method of Finite Elements II

1
0

0
0
12
2

59

2D FE formulation: Discretization
Divide the body into finite elements connected to each other through
nodes

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2D FE formulation: Iso-Parametric Formulation


Shape Functions in Natural Coordinates
1
N1 (, ) = (1 )(1 ),
4
1
N3 (, ) = (1 + )(1 + ),
4

1
N2 (, ) = (1 + )(1 )
4
1
N4 (, ) = (1 )(1 + )
4

Iso-parametric Mapping

x=

y=

4
X
i=1
4
X

Ni (, )xie
Ni (, )yie

i=1

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Bilinear Shape Functions

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2D FE formulation: Matrices
from the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (see slide #9)

=0Kd =f
d
where
Ke =

BT DBd,

fe =

N T Bd +

Z
eT

N T ts d

Gauss Quadrature
Z 1Z 1
I =
f (, )dd
=

1 1
Ngp
Ngp
XX

Wi Wj f (i , j )

i=1 i=1

where Wi , Wj are the weights and


(i , j ) are the integration points.
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