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2015

[575+902]:81'27
P 69

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DESCRIEREA CIP A CAMEREI NAIONALE A CRII

Aleksey A. Romanchuk

, .
- :
Y- = The East-Eurasian hypothesis
of Dene-Caucasian Motherland : once again about the haplogroups of
Y-chromosome / . . : Stratum Plus, 2015.
198 p.
Tit. paral.: lb. rus, engl. Bibliogr.: p. 180198.
1 disc optic (CD-ROM): sd., col.; n container, 13 13 cm.
Cerine de sistem: Windows 98/2000/XP, 64 Mb hard, PDF Reader.
ISBN 978-9975-4482-4-6.
[575+902]:81'27
P 69
- ,
Y-.
R Q - , . ,
, , , .

ISBN 978-9975-4482-4-6.
. . , 2015
-: . .

The East-Eurasian hypothesis


of Dene-Caucasian Motherland:

once again about the haplogroups of Y-chromosome

E d i t o r i n C h a r g e:
Doctor of History R. A. Rabinovici
R e v i e w e r s:
Doctor of Chemistry T. L. Yailenko,
Doctor of History V. N. Polivtev

Kishinev
2015

6. N1-LLY22
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1. , Q R :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.
Object-Verb . . . . . . 19
3. R
. . . . . . . . . . . . 38

7. (J, G, E, L T) ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
7.1. (J, G, E T)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.2. (J, G, E, L T)
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.3. G1 :
? . . . 133
8. R Q . . . . . . . . . . .142
8.1. R Q
? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
8.2 R1 R1b:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

3.1 R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2. R1b-269 . . . . . . . . 41
3.3. R1b-M269 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.4 R , . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157

4. Q . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

4.1. Q . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.2. Q ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.3. Q
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5. L :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.1. L,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.2 L
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.3. R-V88 OV- . . . . . . . 91

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199

Chapter 6. The East-Asian haplogroup N1-LLY22 and the origin of


Ural race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

C o n t e n t s
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 1. The Y-chromosome haplogroups , Q, and R and
Eastern Eurasia: some introductory remarks. . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 2. The East-Eurasian hypothesis of Dene-Caucasian
Motherland and the areal of Object-Verb word order
model in Eurasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chapter 3. The haplogroup R of North-Caucasian peoples and
some their relatives and neighbors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.1. The haplogroup R at the North Caucasus. . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. The haplogroup R1b-269 of the Armenians and modern
Assyrians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. The haplogroup R1b-M269 at the territory of Turkey, East
Balkans and of the Cartvelians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. The haplogroup R of Basques, Burusho and Kets . . . . . .

. . 38
. . 41
. . 48
. . 52

Chapter 4. The haplogroup Q and Western Eurasia . . . . . . . . . . 56


4.1. The haplogroup Q and Kets against of background of Eurasia 56
4.2. The haplogroup Q in West Asia, North Africa and Europe. . . 61
4.3. The haplogroup Q and North-Eurasien substratum in the
eastern borders of Wets Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Chapter 7. The West-Asian haplogroups (J, G, E, L T) of Basques,


Burusho, and in the East Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
7.1. The West-Asian haplogroups (J, G, E T) of Basques and
Burusho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.2. The West-Asian haplogroups (J, G, E, L T) in the East Asia 123
7.3. The haplogroup G1 in Kazakhstan and Central Asia: the Iranian
peoples or Upper Paleolithic migration?. . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Chapter 8. The haplogroups R and Q in East Asia. . . . . . . . . . .142
8.1. Are the haplogroups R and Q in East Asia the only real
candidates to the role of primordial Sino-Tibetan?. . . . . 142
8.2. The haplogroups R1 and R1b: the place of origin and
consequent divergence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199

Chapter 5. The haplogroups L and : from Pakistan to the North


Caucasus and North Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.1. The haplogroup L, its origin and the Himalayan language
union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.2. The haplogroups L and as a derivates of haplogroup K in India
and West Asia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.3. The haplogroups and R-V88, and Object-Verb- languages
in Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

, ( 2008; 2009; 2009a; 2012; 2013;


, 2009), -
( -)
. , ,
- ,
(
( 2012: 322327) . . -
).
, , . , ,
Y-
-
(, 2014; 2015; 2015). 1.
, (, 2014; 2015; 2015),
,
.

1
(,
2014; 2015), , . ,
. . .

, Q R ...

1.

, Q R
:

, R Y-,
R Q, , , (Malyarchuk, Derenko
et l. 2011: 583; Karafet, Mendez et al. 2015; Haak, Lazaridis et al.
2015).
: It is assumed
that haplogroup P-92R7 consisting of subclades Q-M242 and
R-M207 originated in Central Asia about 40Ka (Malyarchuk,
Derenko et l. 2011: 583).
, - : Interestingly, the monophyletic
group formed by haplogroups R and Q represents the only
subclade with K2b that is not geographically restricted to Southeast
Asia and Oceania. an initial rapid diversification process of
K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent
westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q
(Karafet, Mendez et al. 2015: 369).

. , , .
, R (,
; , -

10

, ) . ( 24 ) (Raghavan et
al. 2014; 2014; 2014).
II ( 17 ).
( ), 45

- (Fu
et al. 2014).
, R ( )
: - R?
, . ,
, ,
(Balanovsky, Utevska, Balanovska
2013: 24).
, , ( , )
,
. ,
, , ,
.
R
. , ,
- R.
11

, Q R ...

,
.
, ,
,
.
, R
( 80 %
), , R
.
, .
, , R
( ).
, ,
(, 2014; 2015), R

- -, , 2.

, . . , -
- ( 1988: 152154;
2007: 312358; Starostin 2007b: 818; 2015:
188).
. . (, . )
. : Evidence will be presented to demonstrate that
Proto-Indo-European is the result of the imposition of a Eurasiatic
language to use Greenbergs term on a population speaking
one or more primordial Northwest Caucasian languages (Bomhard
2015).
, , ( . ), ,
, , , . , .
,
.
,
, (
) . (
2013: 273274). , , , (Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015:

2 2014 . . , R1b
- .
. . . ,
.
, . . , , , , , . . ,
( , , , ), (
, , ) , ,
. , -

12

(, ,
)
. , , , .
, . . , .
, ,
( )
.

13

, Q R ...

44). , .
. , , :
, - ( 2015: 190).
, . . :
.
, , . . - .
- .
, -, . ,
, ,
. , . .
( 2009;
2009) - , 3.

, - , ( ), ,
- .
, .
, , -

3
. . (2015: 192)
, - , .
( , -
;
) ,
. , , , , , ( :
2009; 2009; , 2014: 60). ,
,
.
: . . . . ( & 2007: 879 f.) -

14

-
( Proto-AfrasianProto-North Caucasian isoglosses
) ( 2015: 192). .
(,
2014: 6061). , -, , ,
(. ).
, .
, , ,
. . (2015),
-
, . , .
, & 2007: 876881
.-. . , . . . ,
. , 2- .
43 . . .,
( 2015: 190191).
, , .
S. Starostin 2007a: 819,
.
,
- .
, : ( > ) ( 2015: 160).

15

, Q R ...

, . , -
, (
).
- (, ). - , ,
. ,

(, (, 2014:
5052)) (
; ).
, -
.
, - .
(, , )
.
, -, :
( . ( . )) .
: R -
, -, , terminus post quem R
26 . R -

. , ,
, - , . ( ), , . . (Starostin
2007: 768), , , , , . , , .
4.
-, : - , , , R (Nasidze, Ling et al.
2004: 213; Balanovsky et al. 2011: 8, 27, tab. 2; Myres et al. 2011:
9697; 2011: 14; Yunusbaev et al. 2012: Suppl., tab.3).

16

, ,
(
,
( 2009: 367; 2012: 305, 312; , 2014: 51)),
, , .
,
16, 14 1210 (.: Starostin 2007 a: 450; 2003;
1991: 14; 2015). ,
. , , -
. -.
, , - -- 23 2018 (
2003). , ( ).
,
. ,
Homo Sapiens sapiens,
- .
4

17

R ,
, Q L.
, ,
. ,
,
,
.

2.



Object-Verb

. ,
, - ,
.
, ObjectVerb ,
, Q. ,
, , -
, . , ,
5.
, ,
, , (, ,
)
.
,
,
,
. , the Gilaki and Mazandarani
5
, ,
: , 2005.

18

19

...

languages (but not other Iranian languages) share certain typological


features with Caucasian languages (Nasidze, Quinque, Rahmani et
al. 2006: 668).
, .
, .
, two language types will henceforth be labeled VO
(Verb-Object, e. g., Arabic) and OV (Object-Verb, e. g., Turkish)
In addition to Arabic and Turkish, we can also cite various
languages in the Middle East and surrounding areas whose syntactic
patterns conform to each of these ideal opposite types, or close to
the ideal types. Arabic and languages of Mediterranian area (e. g.,
Romance, Berber, Albanian, Greek) are very close to the ideal VO
set of features listed. On the other hand, standard Turkish, the Turkic
languages of Iran, Central Asia and Siberia, Northeast Caucasian
languages (Chechen, Ingush, Lezgi and other Daghestan languages),
Georgian, Armenian, the Aryan and Dravidian languages of India,
and the indigenous languages of central and eastern expanses of
northern Eurasia all fit the OV ideal rather closely or even exactly
(Stilo 2005: 3536).
, , , .
.
. , 6070
. VO\OV ,
( : , )
.

,
, . . Branching Direction Theory (Dryer
1996; , , ( 2001)).

, , , ( ) .
( 1999). ,
- , : -,
,
, . -,
(1999: 197).
, , : , , . , , (http://linguistics.
buffalo.edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/DryerWalsSOV.pdf). ,
. .

, .
(
),
, , . : , , -
, , , ( 1980: 329);
. ( 2007: 1417) 6.

20

6
, , . .
: , XX
, , ,
-

21

...

, , , -,
. -, ,
, .
, -
( 1980: 328).
,
- (http://tapemark.narod.
ru/les/022e.html).
, , : ,
VO\OV .
, SVO\SOV . . . ., .
, , . : there are a few
respects in which SVO languages exhibit properties intermediate
between those of V-final languages and V-initial languages, they in
general pattern very much like V-initial languages, thus supporting
the OV: VO typology (Dryer 1991: 443).
, , , , ,
-

VO\OV.
.
, , ,

\ .
, , , VO\OV
, , , . . , , . .. ,

, . , , -

(, 1970: 12) , , . .
- .
, : ,
VO OV
, . , , .
. .
, 50 %
(,
. , ,
), .
.
, . , , -

( 2003: 246). ,
. . , ,
, ( 2003: 249). ,

, . ,
( 2003: 250).

22

23

...

, OV (Stilo
2005: 39).
,
OV : Armenian and Georgian whose
classical languages both switched completely from consistent VO in
the medieval period to consistent OV in their modern versions (Stilo
2005: 38). (http://wals.info/feature/83A#2/18.0/152.8),
( ) .
,
OV. ,
OV , . ., 100 % , ,
(Stilo 2005: 5354, tab. 34). 91 % OV,
. 88 %,
75 %.
.
. , -
84 % OV.
- , 69 %.
(Stilo 2005: 55, map 3; 36, map 1), . ( 1990) -
: , , . (http://
tapemark.narod.ru/les/010c.html).
.
OV (http://wals.info/feature/83A#2/18.0/152.8).
,
( , ( 1979: 2251;
, , , 1998: 131)),
.

, - , .
, .
( ) ,
,
, , (,
, , 1998: 83).
, -
OV.
- .

( . 1999: 163). , , (: ) : SOV
(http://tapemark.narod.ru/les/325a.html). ,
, . 7.
,
S
O2 O1 P, S , 2 , 1 , P .
.
1 P ( 1999: 173).

24

7
, : - - (
),

, ,
( . 1999: 163).

25

...

, ,

[ . .] +
+ ( . 1999: 214). , ,
,

, , . .,
SOV.

( 2007: 17).

(, , )
( 1999:
259).
, OV.
. : , , OV 56 %.
, , . ,
.
, 50 %, 40 %.
44 %. , ( ) 22 %.
, ,
: 97 %, 94 %, ,
88 %.
8475 %.
5359 %, 59 %.
, . ,
, , VO OV.

69 % OV
(Stilo 2005: 61, map 4).
OV.
-
OV 5666 %.
.
-,
OV 2255 %.
,
OV ,
: - . , .
, -, , ,
, ,
. -, OV ,
, ,
Q R.
, , , : , (
, , ) OV- -. , ,
, ( ), , , -
. , , ,
. , , , (
, )
, OV- -

26

27

...

, .
, , -. ( ), OV- -, ,
, - OV-.
, , ,
, . OV . ,
OV,
, - OV (http://linguistics.buffalo.
edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/DryerWalsSOV.pdf). ,
, . . (2015: 39), .
V (S)O
, .
, , SV.
;
( 1967: 160). ,
, , , , :
I
menuae ini pili aguni . , , : utabi Imenuani Iipuinei ( ) ,
( 1953: 285).
, , . . (2015:
39), [] [] (,

, , . . ) .
(Taracha 1988), [] []
.
, , -
OV.
. .
( ), VO.
. . : ,
: [. .,
VSO. . .]. , ,
, (, .),
. : -
, ,
()
, . ,
, [. ., SVO. . .]. ,

( 1991: 28).
, -
SVO, VSO.
. : the most
common basic word order throughout Chadic is S-V- This almost
certainly represents the word order of P [roto]-C [hadic]. V-S-,
which occurs in a handful of Biu-Mandara languages spoken in the
Nigeria-Cameroon border area (e. g., Gude and Ga'anda), is almost
certainly an areal innovation (Newman 2006: 199200).

28

29

...


- : Chadic is
a very early offshoot from AA, either the earliest (if Omotic is not
the first-either because it is not AA or because it properly belongs
within Cushitic) or the second offshoot after Omotic (Newman
2006: 189).
, , [:
. . .] ( 1991:
28).
-, Syntactically,
Proto-Indo-European seems to have had many of the characteristics
of an SOV language, though there must, no doubt, have been a
great deal of flexibility in basic word order patterning (Bomhard
2015: 2). , .
,
, , .
, , .
,
VO (http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/
DryerWalsSOVNoMap.pdf),
. , The
dominant order at the clause level in transitive clauses in Mandarin is
SVO, SOV word order is also possible, though this word
order is less common (Dryer 2003: 48).
, Nevertheless, the frequency of postpositions is
somewhat unexpected of a VO language This makes Mandarin
highly unusual from a cross-linguistic perspective: among 199 VO
languages in my database that I code for order of adpositional phrase
and verb, only three are PP-V, while the other 196 are V-PP. The three

that are PP-V are all Chinese languages: Mandarin, Cantonese, and
Hakka. The Chinese languages are thus the only known instances of
languages of this sort (Dryer 2003: 49).
, .
, .
, : Among 254 VO languages in my database
for which I code the order of relative clause and noun, all are NRel,
except for the three Chinese languages (Mandarin, Hakka, and
Cantonese) and Bai (Dryer 2003: 50).
, ,
Hashimoto (1976) has shown a similar gradation from southern
Chinese dialects to northern Chinese dialects. southern forms of
Chinese share more features with their non-Chinese VO neighbors
and northern form of Chinese share more features with their nonChinese OV neighbors (Stilo 2005: 56).
, , . :
Chinese is a VO language but atypical of such in a number of
respects: it has postpositions in addition to prepositions, preverbal
adpositional phrases, an unusually ordered comparative construction,
preverbal manner adverbs, relative clauses preceding the nouns
they modify. Additionally, Chinese has the genitive preceding the
noun, sentence final question particles, interrogative phrases which
are not clauseinitial. Chinese is very unusual in having these more
typically OV characteristics (. : Guillaume, Aime 2005:
133). , , , the explanation behind
these phenomena is not to be found in the fact that the presumed
original word order for ST was OV and that these features are
retained. Instead, Dryer suggests that this is a result of contact
with the OV languages to the North (. : Guillaume, Aime
2005: 133).
, - OV: The distribution of OV and VO order among
Tibeto-Burman languages is fairly clearcut and easy to describe.

30

31

...

VO order is found in only two groups, namely Karen and Bai, and
the remaining languages are all not only OV but generally fairly
rigidly verb-final (Dryer 2008: 11).
, Karen represents the most southeastern of
the Tibeto-Burman languages, the ones closest to Tai-Kadai and
Mon-Khmer languages. Bai is spoken in an area of China east of
Myanmar (Burma). , - .
- - - .
, Bai and the Karen languages, the only in [ibeto]-
[irman] to be VO, show features which are atypical for such word
order (Guillaume, Aime 2005: 132). ,
. . , ( I . . .)
(Starostin 2007c: 580).
OV: Word order is
SOV. Objects may precede subjects for discourse pragmatic reasons,
but nothing but a sentence operator a final or subordinating
particle or a nominalizer follows the highest verb (DeLancey
2003: 265).
. , (
- (,
-)) VO , ,
, ,
.
, . : From the fact that we can
clearly see changes in the word order of these three languages over
time, and cannot see such changes in the Tibeto-Burman languages
other than Bai and Karen, we assume that it was Bai, Karen, and
Chinese that changed rather than all the other Tibeto-Burman

languages (La Polla 2003: 28). ,


, We can therefore assume MODIFIER-MODIFIED order in
N-N structures, and GENITIVE-HEAD, HEAD-ATTRIBUTE,
NEGATIVE-VERB, and RELATIVE-NOUN word order patterns
for P [roto]-S [ino]-T [ibetan].
, . , ,
, ,
. , , ( . ) (
), ,
OV-
.
, ,
. , VO-
(Dryer 2003: 53), ,
.
.
, OV\VO , , -
(, , ), , , ,
.
, OV-, RelN ( ), NRel ( ) (Dryer 2003: 52, map 3.3), .
, these characteristics are best understood in terms
of areal influence from languages of northeast Asia, .

32

33

...

, ,
( ),
RelN. .
, ,
- .
, ,
, ( ) OV . : 1,25
( ) ,
2,85 , 2,5 , 3,5 . , , 4,25 (5,25) (Stilo 2005: 56, tab. 5).
. , ,
( 2011).
. ,
, OV: One
of the most studied properties of Basque syntax is its preverbal focus
position. In this language, a wh or focused phrase (wh/f -phrase)
must be left-adjacent to the verb. In the question, the wh-subject is
left-adjacent to the verb, resulting in OSV word order (as opposed
to the neutral SOV word order); similarly, in the answer, the focused
subject, which constitutes the `answer' to the question, is also leftadjacent to the verb. In neutral sentences (i. e. answers to What
happened?), the most natural word order in Basque is SOV. In
sentences in which some constituent is a wh/f-phrase, it must be leftadjacent to the verb (Arregi 2001).
,

,
, VO.
, ( ) OV . , .

: , .
, OV . (http://www.
philology.ru/linguistics1/grinberg-70.htm).
. , OV ,
, , . (,
1970: 94),
. , , ,
. (, ) .
, , (
. ),
(, 1970: 14; 1980).
,
, ,
, .

( , ), ,
, (
;
).
: OV .
,
SOV .

SOV ( 2012: 5658; .: 1984).
- (http://linguistics.buffalo.
edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/DryerWalsSOV.pdf).
, , . , -

34

35

...

. , , ,
( ) , : VS, SVO, VOS, .
. .
(1972), , .
,
, -,
, - (, ,
, )

, . ,
S 1 2 V ( 1 , ) S
1 V (http://www.philology.
ru/linguistics1/klimov-72.htm).
, , ,
:
, , ( 1999: 35).
, .
, \\ ,
,
-
( ).

, : ,
OV , (http://linguistics.buffalo.
edu/people/faculty/dryer/dryer/DryerWalsSOV.pdf).
,
, , (: ; .
2013: 271272; , 2014: 55, 60) .
, :
OV- - (,
: - OV-).
, ,
-, ,
OV ,

- .
,
. , ,
.

36

37

R ...

3.
R

3.1. R
, R1a*-M198 (xM458) has an average frequency in the
Caucasus as low as 5 %, but was found in 20 % of the Circassians
and 22 % of the Dargins, two populations that occupy opposite parts
of the Caucasus (Balanovsky et al. 2011: 8). R1b1b2-M269 Lezghins (30 %) and in Ossets-Digor (16 %).
, 15 % 12 %
(Balanovsky et al. 2011: 27, tab. 2; . : Myres et al. 2011:
9697).
( 2013: 11),
- R1a1-M198, 15 % .

2 % 68 % R1b3 ( 2006: 15).
, (Yunusbaev et al. 2012: Suppl., tab.3)
Rb1b2-M269 8. .

8
. , R1b1a2 2003
2005 R1b3, 2008 2011 R1b1b2.
, .

38

, 68 %
- , . ( ) 40 %.
,
G-M201 (
G2-P287), J-12f2 (J1-M267 J2-M172) R1-M173 (
R1a1a-M198 R1b1b2-M269) [ . .].
( 2010:
39). , G, J R1 [ . .],
G2, J1*, J2a*, J2a2*, R1a1 R1b1b2,
86.4 %
( 2010: 24).
, ,
R1 ( R1b1b2-M269) . J1 G
, . J2, J1 G - .
,
G2, J2, J1 (
2011: 1011, . 1).
, R , ( )
( 2010: 29; 2010: 13; ,
. 2011: 74; 2011: 6; 2013: 21;
. 2013: 55, 60).
,
.
, , R1b ( 2010: 29; 2011: 6), 39

R ...


. , R1b1a2a-L23 90 %
R1b-M343 - , . ,
,
.
,
, R1b-M343 ( 2013: 13).
, , R1b-Z2105 [. .,
R1b1a2a-L23 . .]
R1b-Z2105
(36,2 %) (21,2 %) ( 2015: 19).
R1b1a2a-L23 R1b1a2a2

, (
) R (Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015: 19, tab.2) 9.
, , ,
: this individual was basal to most west
Eurasian R1b individuals which belong to the R-M269 lineage as
well as to the related R-M73/M478 lineage that has a predominantly
non-European distribution. The occurrence of chromosomes basal
to the most prevalent lineages within haplogroups R1a and R1b in
eastern European hunter-gatherers, together with the finding of basal
haplogroup R* in the ~24,000-year old Malta (MA1) boy suggests

the possibility that some of the differentiation of lineages within


haplogroup R occurred in north Eurasia (Haak, Lazaridis et al.
2015: 44).

( 2013)
( ,
).
R1a . , , the initial
episodes of R1a-M420 diversification occurred in the vicinity of Iran
and Eastern Turkey, and we estimate that diversification downstream
of M417/Page7 occurred ~5800 years ago (Underhill, Poznik et al.
2015: 130).

, , . .,
R1a-Z93.
, , R1a-M420 (,

), .
,
.
, R1b269
.

9
(Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015), (Bomhard
2015), . . .

40

3.2. R1b-269
,
, ,
. ,
, -
41

R ...

. ,
(, 1988;
2015), ( - (
, - (,
2013: 117)) 10.
, (. ., , ), ,
, - : , ,
, ,
, ( 1968:
237). , , , , . ,
,
( 1968: 231).
, , R1b3-269 ,
( . 2013: 55, . 1). , . . ,
: - (, ,
, , ) G2a3b-P303, R1a1-M198 J2-M172, G1-M285 J2a2-M67, L1b-M317, G2a3bP303 J2-M172 ( 2013: 6). ( 2011:
14), 22.6 %

G1, .
, ,
J231,5 %, R1b3-343 9 %.
, . . . .
( . . (2012: 33, . 13)) . ,
- .
(Herrera et al. 2011: 2, fig.2;
Hovhannisyan et al. 2014: 9, fig.2),

, G2 G1. G1 -
, ,
G1: The distinctive G1-M285 lineages are restricted
to region 3 (Cinnioglu et al. 2004: 130).
(Balanovsky, Zhabagin et al. 2015: 3, tab.
1), G1,
.
13 %;
-
, 12 %. -, 42 %.
- G1
6 %. , 26
, .
, G1 . , ,
- . :
The expansion in the Hemsheni Armenian is genetically dated to
1150 YBP using our rate. It corresponds well with the historical
evidence that the Hemsheni originated from relatives and servants


( 2013: 273274).
10

42

43

R ...

of Prince Shapuh Amatuni, who migrated in 791 from the Abbasid


Persian state (Balanovsky, Zhabagin et al. 2015: 15).
,

, J 30 %; (
)
35 %-45 % (Yepiskoposian et al. 2006: 205, tab. 1). hg2
BR* (xB2b, CE, F1, H, JK) ( , ,
G: the modal
haplogroup BT* (xDE, JK) in the Hamshenis is most likely to be
the haplogroup G (Margaryan et al. 2012: 412)),
20 %-21 % (
, ).
734 ,
.
, , R1b3-269
(Herrera et al. 2011; Hovhannisyan et al. 2014; Yepiskoposian et al.
2006) , , .
: the majority of Armenian Y-chromosomes
belong to lineages believed to have originated and expanded during
or following the Neolithic, including E1b1b1c-M123, G-M201,
J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1b1-L23 Of particular prominence in
Armenia are haplogroups R1b-M343 and J2-M172, which are
detected in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van at frequencies
higher than those observed in any of the Near Eastern populations
analyzed in this study (Herrera et al. 2011: 7).
, The haplogroup R1b1a2-M269 is the most
frequently encountered subclade in all Armenian samples, except
Sasun, which differs from others due to the predominance of
haplogroup T (20 %) (Hovhannisyan et al. 2014: 9). ,
R1b1a2-M269 30 %,

16 % 36 % (Herrera et al. 2011: 2, fig.2;


Hovhannisyan et al. 2014: 9) 11.
, ,
(
732 ,
), .
, hg1 22 %
(
, ;
) 40 % , . 42 % (Weals et al. 2001: 662, tab. 1).
(Haplogroup
numbers follow a nomenclature expanded from that of Vogt et al.
(1997) and Rosser et al. (2000)), hg1 (* (xR1b8, R1a, Q3) (YCC
2002: 340, 342)) , ,
R1b (xR1b8).
: ( ,
) hg1 32 %, 22 %.
, , , , R1 (hg3)
46 %, 9 % .
R1* 0,5 % 1 % . , In this study we
found that the marker M17 splits the old haplogroup 3 (hg3) into two
further subgroups. We retain the name hg3 for M17G individuals
and assign the new name hg29 to M17G+ individuals (Weals et
al. 2001: 661).

44

(Hovhannisyan et al. 2014) R1b-M269


L23, R1b1a2-M269 , (Herrera et al. 2011) R1b1b* R1b1b1*.
11

45

R ...

( )
: The highest frequencies of hg1 (or P*
(xR1b8, R1a, Q3)) were observed in Karabakh, Syunik, and Assyrians
(42.79 %, 40.00 % and 41.51 %, respectively), the lowestin Syrians
and Azerbaijanis (9.72 % and 7.50 %, respectively) (Yepiskoposian
et al. 2006: 195) 12.
, , R1b-M269
.
, , R1 b-M269 (
).
, , R1b-M2698,5 %. R1b-M269 (: ) 29.2 %
(Grugni et al. 2012: 4); ,
56 % (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1), . , 23,5 %.
, , -, -
.
, , .
, ,
.
, , , . ., :

The self-designations of modern Syriacs and Assyrians, Sryy


and Sry, are both derived from the ancient Assyrian word for
Assyrian, Aryu (Parpola 2004: 16). , in classical Syriac,
the toponym Srya also covered Mesopotamia and Assyria.
, II . . .

( 1968: 233). ,
( 1968:
190), .

lingua franca: ,
,
,
( 1968: 233).
, XIXXX . ( .
. ) - (,
, , 2007: 6). ,
, .
, ,
Sryy () Sry .
, : the Assyrian
population either experienced Eurasian gene flow (possibly from
Armenia) or that enforced relocations and expulsion of conquered
people with different origin led to the integration of descendants
with R haplogroup (Lashgary et al. 2011: 364). ,
The genetic results indicate a relationship between Armenian and
Assyrian groups in Iran Assyrians had elevated frequency (40 %)
of R* (xR1a) and low frequency (11 %) of J.

12
hg3 (R1a1) highest levels were observed in Turks, Azerbaijanis,
and in the southern region of Armenia (Syunik)11.17 %, 10.00 % and 9.29 %,
respectively; the lowest values were revealed among the Iranian Armenians,
Assyrians, and Yezidis1.79 %, 1.89 % and 2.04 %, respectively (Yepiskoposian
et al. 2006: 195).

46

47

3.3. R1b-M269
,


,
R1b3-M269 being preponderate at 14.5 % overall in Turkey
(Cinnioglu et al. 2004: 131). , ,
, 3, 4 7 33 76
(Cinnioglu
et al. 2004: 130, fig. 2). , -,
. ,
, , (
- )
( 2015: 191).
(,
( )
, ,
( 1968: 190224)), R1b3
, .
, R1b1b2269
14 % ( Hg I is particularly frequent in the Balkans
where it characterizes 36.3 % of the total Y chromosomes) (Battaglia
et al. 2009: 822).
, The most prevalent haplogroups in Bulgarians
are IM423 (20.2 %) and E-V13 (18.1 %). They represent the
autochthonous and nearly endemic sub-clades of I-P37 and E-M78 in
Southeastern Europe, respectively. Haplogroup R-L23*,
the eastern branch of the western Eurasian R-M269 haplogroup,
relates the paternal ancestry of 5.2 % of Bulgarians (Karachanak,
Grugni et al. 2013: 34).
808 , .

48

R ...

(,
, ) ,
R , ( . 2013: 55, .
1). , , G2a, J2 L1 ( ( . 2013: 59): L1b-M317,
G2a3b-P303 J2-M172).

(Nasidze, Ling et al. 2004: 213; 2006: 18; 2010:
2428; 2010: 11, .1; Yunusbaev et al. 2012: Suppl.,
tab. 3). L. ,
L .
R ( R1a1a71,5 %) -
14 %, 9 % R11 ( 2010:
11, .1). R* . . . . (, , ).
(Nasidze, Ling et al. 2004: 213, tab. 3) R11*
10 % , 4 % 8 % . R1* 10 % , 8 % . 1 ( R2) 1 %, * (. ., * (xR1b8,
R1a, Q3 . ) 3 %.
.
\ L
, , ,
. . . .
( , 72\82).
; . . ( ) .
, , ,
49

R ...

(
2006: 159). ( 2006: 162).
, ,

.
, ( 2010: 11, .1), 50 %
G (G2 ).
G J 80 %. (Nasidze, Ling et
al. 2004: 213), J272 %. . . 92 % F*,
. (Tarkhnishvili t al. 2014: 17),
G2, 80 % 13.
(Rootsi et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. 4) , G 50 %. ,
, G-P16 ( G21-16)
35 %. , ,
. . .
,
66 , - (Yunusbaev et al. 2001).

, (Yepiskoposian et al. 2006: 205, tab. 1), hg2


BR* (xB2b, CE, F1, H, JK) ( , , G), 48 %. J 30 %.
106 (,
,
), .
, L 1 %.
(* (xR1b8, R1a, Q3)
10 %, R115 %.
R1* , ,
.
, , .
R . , .
, , (in close proximity to Armenia),
R1b
(, , )
2550 % (Tarkhnishvili t al. 2014: 17). , ,

, (.: 1985: 202;
: 2013: 266267).
, ,
, , G2 ( ,
) J2 ( , ; J2

13
, (Tarkhnishvili t al. 2014)
224 ( 87
Georgian DNA Project Family Tree DNA), ( 1020 ). , ,
( 78 )
, G2, G2, 7586 %.
, , , ,
, (http://www.balto-slavica.
com/forum/index.php? showtopic=15112).

50

51

R ...

20\29 ) (Tarkhnishvili t al. 2014: 49, fig. 2; 53,


append. 1).
,
- (:
2013: 275276). J2 ( :
( )
J2a4b-67 (xM92), 51 %
87 % .
9 %
( 3 %) ( 2011: 10)) , .
,
.
, , ,
,
R1b -
.

- ,
.
: (),
( , ),
- , R
, , .
: R1a125 %, R214 %, R-20710 %, R1-1731 %,
R11d-PK52 % (Firasat et al. 2007: 123) 14.
, R
52 %.

R-207 . ., R*,
R11d-PK5 15.

R . ,
R-2070,6 % (!), R28 %, R1-1735 %, R1a137 %.

3.4. R ,
, R1b,
(, ,
) R2 17 % ( 3 %). ,
R22,8 % (Grugni et al. 2012: 4).
, R1 R1b , R2 , . ,
, (Yunusbaev et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. 3). 1,5 % ( 2010: 11, .1).
, , 52

14
, : ,
-
, -, , ( ,
- ) .
, .
-,
.
, .
, , 2006 ,
- , . , , ,
.
15
, R11d-PK5 R1a1b2a1-M560 (Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015: 126).

53

R ...

, R R2 R-207,
(!) , .
, , -
, R1b 80 % (Young et
al. 2011). , ( ),
(Lopez-Parra et al.
2008: 45).
,

R1b ( R1b1) R
, 7 (Haak, Lazaridis et al.
2015: 25, tab.2).
-
, R1a1 (4 %). ( (
2004); ,
) R .
R1a1 19 %, R1b 6,1 % ( 2012:
1314, 2; 2013: 80).
R -. ,
, .
, R ? , ,
.
, : , Q R
R (
),
( -), , , -

( R) , ,
- . , -
R.

54

55

4.

4.1. Q
R,
Q. ,
, (Malyarchuk, Derenko et l. 2011: 583; Bortolini
et al. 2003: 527; Zegura et al. 2004: 168).
- Q . Q
75 % 90 % (Bortolini et al. 2003: 527; Zegura et al.
2004: 168; Malhi et al. 2008: 424, tab 1; Dulik, Owings et al. 2012:
8473, Tab. 1; Roewer et al. 2013: tab. S2).
- Q
.
, Q
(94 %) ( . 2007: 680). ,
, - Q
66 %.
515 % ( . 2007: 680; 2012:
1314, 2). (, . 2011:
28), Q ( ) .
,
.
56

, Q
, , . , : Q 1 % 2 % ( 2012:
15, . 7; . 2011: 15, . 2).
1 %.
.
, Q1a (94 %), (66 %) , ,
(, . 2011: 28).
, (150 Tuvan male subjects from the Altai region in Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region): The Chinese Tuvans also had the
highest frequency of QM242 lineage (25.0 %), but this lineage was
highly varied among the three villages (for example, up to 63.0 %
in village Baihaba) (Chen et al. 2011: 493).
, Q Q1a3 84 % (, . 2011: 28; 2012:
1314, . 2; 2013: 80).
, , Q
.
Q
, 6 %
(Balanovsky et al. 2011: 27, tab. 2). , Q1a3
( 2013: 86).
( 2010: 11, .1), Q ( )
, . 57

Q 3,4 % (. :
Yunusbaev et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. 3).
1,8 %. (
) 0,4 %
1,5 % (Hovhannisyan et al. 2014: 9).
, ( ) Q
. , .
: Q , (
2010: 11, . 1; Yunusbaev et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. 3). , (1\76).
(5\135). , ,
.
: Q
(, , L) ,
5 %, (
. 2013: 279). ,
,
. ,
.
.
, Q (Varzari
2006: 51, tab. 5.8; Varzari et al. 2009) (-

*-452 %) (Nasidze et al. 2007: tab. 3) 16.


( 2010: 11, . 1; Yunusbaev
et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. 3) . . .
, Q
, .

( . 2013) . ,
( Q) . , ,
Q
.
, (Bahmanimehr, Nikmanesh 2014; Andonian, Rezaie et al. 2011)
Q,
, .
, , Q
17.
, ,
Q. , : , , -

58

16
, , Q-M242 (1,9 %) ,
(Varzari 2006: 51, tab. 5.8). , Q-M242 , (. .,
) (Martinez-Cruz
et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. S1). ,
.
17
, (http://www.
balto-slavica.com/forum/index.php? showtopic=15112),
Q1 2 %, 5 %.
, , . .

59

, (
. 2011: 17).
, ( )
Q*
4 (4\9) 7 (3\9), 3 (1\9) (Cinnioglu 2004: 130,
fig. 2). , -
,
,
, .
, ,
Q* -
.
Q ,
.
,
8,5 %. , ,
a large pre-existing Anatolian population would have reduced
the impact by the subsequent arrival of Turkic speaking Seljuk and
Osmanl groups from Central Asia (Cinnioglu et al. 2004: 125).
,
( ,
30 %),
. , , ,
,
. ,
(, , ,
: -

(,
2009)).
: ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,

.
, , ( 2012: 35).

60

4.2. Q ,

, , . .
, (Bekada et al. 2013) Y-
.

(3581 , 3115 . .).
, Q (MEH2, M242, P36.2, M25,
M346) 6 %, 1,46 % ( 618 ), 1,2 %.
, Q ,
.
,
Q1* . : 61

7,7 %,
2,6 % ( , , 1,7 %) (Grugni et al.
2012: 7, tab. 1).
Q.
, -, , ( ,
;
), (Q1a3 2 %) (Q1a1 4,2 %).
Q1a3 1,6 %.
: ,

: The Gilaki and Mazandarani occupy the South Caspian
region of Iran It has been suggested that their ancestors came
from the Caucasus region, perhaps displacing an earlier group in the
South Caspian. their Y chromosome types most closely resemble
those found in groups from the South Caucasus (Nasidze, Quinque,
Rahmani et al. 2006: 668).
, J2 R1
: Haplogroup J2* (M172) was
found at high frequency in both groups, as was haplogroup R1*
(M173); together, these two haplogroups account for more than
50 % of Mazandarani and Gilaki Y chromosomes. Interestingly, the
frequency of haplogroup J2* (M172) in these groups is more similar
to the frequency in South Caucasus groups than in other Iranian
groups (Nasidze, Quinque, Rahmani et al. 2006: 668). (Nasidze, Quinque, Rahmani et al. 2006: Suppl., tab. S2),
J2*M172 30 % 40 %, . R1*M17322 % , 14 % . ,
.
(QuintanaMurci et al. 2001: 531, tab. 1).
, (Nasidze, Quinque, Rahmani et al.
2006: Suppl., tab. S2) P*M45, . .,

Q 4 % (, ). P1-M124, . ., R24 % ( ,
, ).
,
?
G
, 1 % ,
14 % .
. ,
, coming perhaps from the
region of Destn (Negahban 2001: 618). G
, . ,
,
, J1-M267 (xP58):
44 % 99 % ( 2011: 10).
J2 , 6 %. 18.
, J1
J1-M267*
(11 % ; 4 % (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1)).
, ,
(.
: Al-Zahery et al. 2011: 10, fig. 6).
,
.
:
Q1a3 (1 %; 381 )
: the haplogroups L1, Q1a3, R1,

62

18
IM170, 26 %
- ( 2006: 20). , , ,
. , ( ,
, 34 %) (Nasidze, Quinque, Rahmani et al. 2006: Suppl.,
tab. S2).

63

R1a, R1a1 and R2 (10.5 %) A comparison of the relative incidences


of E-M78 (V22), E-M123, G, J, L, Q and R on the Comoros with
populations around the Arabian Sea shows greatest similarities with
Southern Iran and, to a lesser extent, Turkey (Msaidie et al. 2011:
91, 90, fig. 1). Q1a3, ( ),

800 . .
, ,
, Q1a3 (0,6 %). Q*-242, 12 %, , ,
(Abu-Amero et al. 2009: 5, tab 1; Zalloua et al. 2008: 876, fig. 2).
PQR2 , (Behar, Yunusbayev et al. 2010: Suppl., tab. 4).
PQR2 : 38\856; 7\57; 10\329; Cochini Jews 19\45; 7\62; 11\25; 17\49; 24\79;
3\834; 2\292;
3\377; 8\174; 13\140; 1\15; 7\74; 5\31;
12\102; 0\49; 2\57;
0\705; 0\116; 0\34; 0\196;
1\82; 0\126; 6\145.
.
, Q*, , : R1b3 (1.35 %) Q* and R2 (each 0.67 %)
(Mohammad et al. 2010: 5). , , , It has also been proposed that the
Awazim may have originated from the Caucasus also consistent
with the theory of Suluba. , , R1a1 (at 42.8 %).

, Q (MEH2, M242, P36.2, M25, M346) , (0,27 %), ,


0,64 % (Bekada et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. 6).
156 .
Q
.

. ,
In concordance, an ancient DNA study from Ibero-Maurusian
bone remains from Taforalt in Morocco detected the presence of
haplogroups U6, V, T and probably H, pointing to a Paleolithic
genetic continuity in Northwest Africa. Additionally, male lineages
also provide support to a Paleolithic Asia to Africa back migration
with Holocene trans-Saharan spreads as testified by the haplogroup
R-V88 distribution (Bekada et al. 2013: 2). (Kefi,
Stevanovitch, Bouzaid, Beraud-Colomb 2005: 1), Mitochondrial
diversity in Taforalt shows the absence of sub-Saharan haplogroups
suggesting that Ibero-Maurusian individuals had not originated in
sub-Saharan region The genetic inheritance of Taforalt population
(12,000 years) is composed of Eurasiatic component (J/T, H, U
et V) and North African component (U6). , : Toutes
les sequences des specimens de Taforalt presentent des haplotypes
appartenant a des haplogroups eurasiatiques. Parmi les haplogroupes
majoritaires, H est considere comme originaire du Proche Orient,
emergence de cet haplogroupe datee a 35.000 ans, tandis que
l'haplogroupe JT, originaire du Proche Orient egalement, aurait un
age egal a 50.000 ans; enfin l'haplogroupe U6 originaire du Nord de
l'Afrique est propose comme etant contemporain de l'haplogroupe
JT. Les presences de JT et H traduiraient les flux migratoires
paleolithiques venant du Moyen Orient (Kefi, Stevanovitch,
Bouzaid, Beraud-Colomb 2005: 10).
,
, , -

64

65

( ),
- () . ,
-, , . .
( 2013: 271272, . 6). , R-V88 -
, .
. ,
. : ,
R-V88 .
- (,
2014: 55, 60).
.
: Q - 0,39 % (
776 ). -- 0,18 %
( 3401 ), - 0,13 %,
0,15 % ( 1971 ) (Bekada et al.
2013: Suppl., tab. 6).
, Q ,
, , - .
,
.
, (

), , -

Q, Q* (xQ3) (Adams, Bosch et al. 2008: 728,


fig. 1).
, (Karachanak, Grugni et al. 2013: 4,
fig. 2) , (Bekada et al. 2013), Q,
0,42 %,
. , -,
. Q* (0,7 %),

, (Pericic et
al. 2005: 1966, fig. 2).
, Q
(Lappalainen et al. 2008: 2, tab. 1)
.
( 2012: 14, . 5).
, , ,
, ,
(
2012: 25; Der Sarkisean et al. 2013; Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015).
, ,
,
Q
,
.
, : ,
, ,

( , 3, , ),
, Q
( Q* Q1a3) .
.

66

67

,
( 2012: 35).

, , Q, ,
,
. , , , -.
,
.
, . . .,
,
() .
Q,
(32 %). 1718 %
( . 2011: 17).
-, ,

.
, , ,
(25 %), - (23 %) (
. 2011: 17; , . 2014: 52, .
3). , ,
.
, , : Q
, ?
Q1a2-25 Jawzjan.

4.3. Q

, ,
.
, , , ( Q) Q1a1-M120, is widely
distributed in both SEAS and NEAS populations, but absent outside
East Asia except for one incidence observed in northern Pakistan
(Zhong et al. 2011: 723).
, (2 % ), Q-242
(Firasat et al. 2007: 123).
, , Q* Q
. , Q* 16 % (Haber et al. 2012: Suppl., tab. S4). , ,
. , , .
, , Q 11\25.
, , Q-242
6 % (Di Cristofaro et al. 2013: 7).
, Jawzjan ( - ) Q1a231 %.
Q , :
13 %, 11 %, 3 % (Sharma
et al. 2007: 2).
68

69

Q1a2-25 , , , - 42,6 %.
(, , XVII )
(1,6 %) , ,
. (Di Cristofaro et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. 7),
.
Jawzjan.
, Q1a2-25
, -
.
, , ( , , ) 4 . .,
. .
, ( ,
),
, . ,
(13 %) Q ( ) (Gokcumen et al. 2011). . ., ,
.
, Q1a2
?
(Malyarchuk, Derenko et al.
2011: 584, tab. 2; Dulik et al. 2011: 2, tab. 1; 2012: 14, .
2; Duggan et al. 2013: 12, tab. 4), Q1a2 . (Malyarchuk,
Derenko et al. 2011: 585), Rare haplogroup Q1a2-M25 previously
detected mostly in Iranians, Turks, Uygurs, Uzbeks and Han, was
found also in Kalmyks (1.1 %). ,

. , Q1a2
, .
, , Q1a2 (1,8 %), ,
(1,4 % 4 %) (Zhong et al. 2011: 720, fig. 2). ,
(Di Cristofaro et al. 2013:
Suppl., tab. 7).
, Q1a2
. ,
,
, Q 35 %, 14 %
(Seilstad et al. 2003: 701,
tab. 1) 19. , Q1a2
. , , , ,
. ,
, ,
.
(Balaresque et
al. 2015: Suppl., fig. 1, tab. 2), Q (: Q -36, . .,
Q1) 43\461, . ., 9 %.
Q (0\31; 1\29; 7\29; 17\35, , 25\114, . ., 21 %). (
)

70

19
(Wells et al. 2001: 10245, tab. 1) Q 2 %.
, , 14 % .
, , , , , ( )
,
.

71

9\40, . ., 22 %.
( ) 6\54 (11 %).
Q 0\51. ,
(On Trt Uruw) 1\54 (. ., 2 %).
2\50 (. ., 4 %),
(2\46; 0\20; 1\22, 3\88).
, . , Q
, .
, ,
Q1a2 , , ,
Q1a2 ( )
.
, ,
Q1a2
, .
, -,
, 3 .
-, , , NO*, NLLY22g* (2,9 %) (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1). . .
. , , N Q. , .
L3 ( ) 5,6 % (. : Mirabal et al. 2009: 1264, fig. 2). , L3 20 %.

L :
Haplogroup L, which was confined to this settlement, comprised

more than half of the haplotypes there (Gokcumen et al. 2011). , , it is difficult to directly
associate haplogroup L with the larger Turkic migration (s).
, :
,
Q1a2 ( L)
.
?
,
N , ( ),

. , , N (
) ,
(, 2014: 5960) 20.

72

20
,
3 (
) . 3, , : The northward expansion
of Hg C in East Asia started ~40 thousand of years ago (KYA) alongthe coastline
of mainland China and reached Siberia ~15 KYA (Zhong, Shi et al. 2010: 428).
, , .
, . , , O2b*-SRY465 O2b147z
- . (Kim et al. 2011:
2), The ages of the haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages (~9,900 years) and the
pattern of variation within the lineages suggested an ancient origin in a nearby
part of northeastern Asia, followed by an expansion in the vicinity of the Korean
Peninsula. , , the early Korean population may have shared a
common origin with Mongolian ethnic groups who inhabited the general area of
the Altai Mountains and Lake Baikal regions of southeastern Siberia (Kim et al.

73

,
Q1a2 .
, ,
, Q1a2 ,
, 0,7 % ( Q-3782,1 %)
(Al-Zahery et al. 2011: 3, fig. 2).
( ),
, , 21.
, :
Q1a2 , , ,
. Q . ,
-
-, -

, , -
- Q
.
, , ( ),
( 2009: 371372; 2012: 322327; ,
2014: 54).

2011: 7). , , are consistent with linguistic,


archaeological and historical evidence (Kim et al. 2011: 10).
21
,
, (
2015: 304). . .
, . : - - -
, .
: , -. .
, , . , Haplogroup R1 is present
at a significantly lower frequency in the Marsh Arabs than in the Iraqi sample (2.8 %
vs 19.4 %; P < 0.001), and is present only as R1-L23 [ . .]
(Al-Zahery et al. 2011: 4).

74

75

L ...

5.

L :

5.1. L,

,
L (, 2014: 5455;
2015).
L , 3,4 % (L2) 3 % (L2), 14 % (L3) (Balanovsky et al. 2011: 27,
tab. 2). , L*-M20
( ), L1 - .
, LM20, , . : 7,2 % , 5,2 %
, 2,3 % 0,1 %
, 0,5 % , 1,7 % 1,8 %
() ( 2011: 14, . 3).
, LM20 3,8 % (Hovhannisyan et al. 2014: 9).
(Bekada et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. 6), ,
L (M11, M20, M27, M76, M317, M274, M349,
M357) 8,5 % ( 566 ),
4,2 % ( 523 ), -
3,4 % ( 2741 ). 2,9 % (76

3581 ). ,
, ,
, , L .
.
, , L*, 3
(10\21), 4 (2\21) 7 (3\21) (Cinnioglu 2004: 130, fig. 2). ,
- , 3
. ., , .
L* ( 1,6 %)
, (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1). , (Di Cristofaro et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. 7), (1\25) \.
L . ,
, (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1). , ,
.
, L1 L3 ,
1,6 %.
L21,4 %. L3.
, L , -
-, , , . , ,
L
.
, , L20,
L*, 48\914, 5 % (Zalloua
et al. 2008: 876, fig. 2). , : ,
.

77

L ...

: ,

, .
, VII ( XVII . 1560 .),
( 1992).
-,
. , .
- , L .
L3 12 %, L*-20
(Firasat et al. 2007: 123).
, L*- 20 4 %
3 %. L3
2 %. , L3 .
, , L1c-M357 is
significantly higher in Burusho and Kalash (15 % and 25 %) than in
other populations (Di Cristofaro et al. 2013: 7). L1aM76 is most frequent in Balochi (20 %), and is found at lower
levels in Kyrgyz, Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek and Turkmen populations.
( ). . ., , ,
, ( ).
, , L
, (Karafet et al. 2008: 6; Mendez
et al. 2011: 47). , . ( 2007 ) (Lacau et al. 2012: 1068).
, (: ), L (, 2014: 54).
, ,

: LM20 most likely


originated in what is today Pakistan rather than in India (Lacau et
al. 2012: 1068).
, . , : , L -
. , , ()
,
L (Lacau et al. 2012: 1064, fig. 2; .
: Sahoo et al. 2006: 846, fig. 2).
L*, L3
20 % 4 % .
, , , (: ) L -
, ,
,
.
, , ( , ) L

, 22.

78

22
, ( 2009: 371372; 2012: 322327; ,
2014: 54). -
( , ),
, , , ,
( 2009: 372).
, , P. miliaceum: The
available genetic data, from microsatellite markers, lend more weight to the
hypothesis of a single (Chinese) domestication rather than multiple (European
and Chinese)domestications, but the evidence is still equivocal (MotuzaiteMatuzeviciute et al. 2013: 1074).

79

?
, , .
, , ( 2009; 2009), ,
The wild ancestor of broomcorn millet is not known with certainty, A
weedy form, P. miliaceum subsp. ruderale, has a widespread distribution across
a region spanning from the Aralo-Caspian basin to China [
. .]. Weedy types are also found in central Europe and in north America (Hunt
et al. 2011: 4757).
, ( ) (
2009: 371; , 2014: 48, 6061).
, . , 19 .
,
, ,
.
, (,
, . . Zizania aquatica). , ,

.
.
,
,
. , : ,
, (: 2008; 2009).
(, , )
.
, P. miliaceum
: The eastern cluster (blue) includes the majority of samples from China
and Mongolia, those from Nepal and northeastern India, the Russian Far East, Korea
and Japan, and a minority of five scattered samples from more westerly locations.
The western cluster (red) includes the vast majority of samples from Ukraine, the
Caucasus and European Russia, central Asia, northwestern India and Pakistan and
ten samples from ChinaMongolia (Hunt et al. 2011: 4763).
, , . , (Hunt et al. 2011: 4764, fig. 4) .

80

L ...

, Dravidian speaking populations harbored


a significantly higher percentage of L haplogroup compared to
the Indo-European speakers, 11.2 and 3.7 % respectively (Trivedi et
al. 2007: 401), ,
L . -
- L (Sengupta et al. 2006: 208, tab. 6; Sahoo et al. 2006: 849,
tab. 2; Kumar et al. 2007: 5, fig. 2; Reddy 2007: 9, tab. 5; Karafet et
al. 2010: 1836, fig. 2; Chaubey, Metspalu et al. 2011: Suppl., tab.1);
(Trivedi et al. 2007: 398, tab. 2) 0,7 %.
, , , , L
, - ,
- ( , -). , , L -
-
.
, ,
.

,
,
(, 1970: 15;
1980: 22).
. . (1978): ,
(, ),
,
, , . . , P. miliaceum
- ( ).

81

L ...

, .
, , , , , ,
, (http://www.
philology.ru/linguistics1/edelman-78.htm).
, ,
. . .,
.
, ,
( )
.
, , ( , . ., ).
, ( 1980: 31; 2009: 92).
, . .
,
, ,

( 1980: 23, 27, 30).
, ,
, . , -


( ).
, , , ? ,
\?
, , , ,
R, R2, ,

(, 2014: 54).
(,
, -) - ( )
-.
L, R2 R1,
-
.
, : L
, ,
?

82

5.2. L

- L . , -: the
geographic distribution of the two sister clades, haplogroup L and
haplogroup T, overlap in the Near East, although L has a more
easterly epicenter in India and Pakistan (Mendez et al. 2011: 47).
83

L ...

, , haplogroup T
originated in the Near East and subsequently expanded from there
(Mendez et al. 2011: 47).
.
: major revision of the Y chromosome phylogeny
subdivides haplogroup K into two main clades, one containing
haplogroups L and T, and the other containing all the remaining
haplogroups downstream of K (i. e., M, N, O, P, Q, R, and S)
(Mendez et al. 2011: 44).
,
F ( DE ), ,
G, J, I,
F ( , , ;
, , , . ., ).
L T.
, (
F) M, N, O, P, Q, R
S, .
L T.
.
, ,
: L
T ( , LT)
- ?
F
J2 L T.
F J - 1,4 % 5 %, (Trivedi et al. 2007: 398,
tab. 2). J2 - , ,

5,6 % (
5,8 %). F 4,8 %, 2,7 %.
, F -
() 4 %, 353 (8 ) (Reddy et al. 2007: 9, tab. 5). 11 %
64 .
789 , F 3,3 % (Kumar et
al. 2007: 5, fig. 2). , 92 ,
11 %.
, F 34 %.
J2 45 %. , ,
. , , -
.
L, , , .
, , ,
, L
, F J2
.
, , (Trivedi et al. 2007: 398, tab. 2),
- R21,4 %
( 21 % 14 % ); R1a10,7 %. R (R*, R1, R1,
R1b3) ( (Sahoo et al. 2006: 849,
tab. 2) -
R2).
, (Trivedi et al. 2007: 399, tab. 2b),
- , - -

84

85

L ...

. , R2 10,6 %
R1 R1 0,6 %. R27,1 % (
27 %; 38 %).
(Chaubey, Metspalu et al. 2011: Suppl., tab.1)
R2 , R1 7\246 (. .,
3 %). R25\286 (. ., 2 %),
R114\286 (. ., 5 %).
(Kumar et al. 2007: 5, fig. 2; Reddy et al. 2007: 9,
tab. 5) - R1, R2
5 % .
,
, , , .
, J2 (Chaubey, Metspalu
et al. 2011: Suppl., tab.1) 16\286 (. .,
5 %), 6\246 F 16\286
, 19\246 .
, . ,
.
. .
.
- (Chaubey,
Metspalu et al. 2011: Suppl., tab.1; Trejaut et al. 2014: 23, fig.2)
. (Trivedi et al. 2007: 398, tab. 2), 2
( 2002 2008 )
- 1,4 %. 4,3 %, 3,3 %.
(Trivedi et al. 2007: 399, tab. 2b), , -
22,2 %, 2,8 %,
11,1 %.

2 , 10 %.
(Sengupta et al. 2006: 208, tab. 6), 2
( 728 ) ( 176 )
.
,
( ; ), () 2,7 % (Sharma et al.
2012: 2, fig.2).
(Kumar et al. 2007: 5, fig. 2) 2 - . (Reddy
et al. 2007: 9, tab. 5), K-M9*
(xM11, M45, M175) , ( L, P
O). - (
, ) 5,7 %. ,
. , , , , .
, (Kumar et al. 2007: 5, fig. 2; Reddy
2007: 9, tab. 5; Chaubey, Metspalu et al. 2011: Suppl., tab.1)
-9 . , , - .
, , , .
(Di
Cristofaro et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. S7; Lacau et al. 2012; Haber et al.
2012: Suppl., tab. S4). (Grugni
et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1).
, L
. L, , R
( R2)
( , R11). , J2 F.

86

87

L ...

,
, , , . ,
, , ,
.
, ,
L, ( , . ., LT) . , J2
L, ( LT)
.
,
L, ( LT)
.
, , L,
( LT) .
, J2 , , : J2-M172 is the
main Iranian haplogroup (22.5 %) (Grugni et al. 2012: 4).
: Haplogroup J is predominant in Iran
where both its subclades, J2-M172 and J1-M267, are observed. Its
highest frequencies are registered in the populations located along
the southwestern shores of the Caspian Sea and along the Zagros
Mountains ridge. Exceptionally high is the frequency observed in
the Baluchi of Sistan Baluchestan, in agreement with their likely
Caspian Sea origin (Grugni et al. 2012: 4).
, , ,
( 10 %; 7,9 %), . . , . : (8,5 %), (6,8 %) ,

(3,9 %) (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1).


: (6,4 %) (5 %).
3,4 % ( 938 ) (Grugni et al. 2012: 7, tab. 1). (Becada et al.
2013: Suppl., tab. 6) 2,1 % ( 566 );
-, 4 %
( 2741 ).
(20 %) .
,
( LT) J2
,
(, , ) .
, , .
,
,
(Mendez et al. 2011: 4748).
, J1.
J1 ( ,
) . , -
,
(Al-Zahery et al. 2011: 10, fig. 6; Grugni et al. 2012:
10). : J1-M267* shows high variance in the Middle
Eastern region including Eastern Turkey, North-West Iraq, and
North-West Iran (Gilan Mazandaran), where probably originated
(Grugni et al. 2012: 10). , The Arab J1-Page08, likely originated in the region at
the border between south-eastern Turkey and North Iraq, underwent
an important Neolithic expansion in the southern countries of the
Middle East and represents the most important haplogroup in the
modern populations of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa
(Grugni et al. 2012: 11).

88

89

: , ,
- .
, : , , ,
J1.
, , ,
, .
, , J1-M267* almost restricted
to north-western Iranian groups ( ,
11 %) (Grugni et al. 2012: 10). J1-M267* (
J1c3 PAGE08, ).
, , : L , L,
.

R Q.
, , -, .
, . .

, (:
, 2014: 5052, 54).
, L
-. .
?

90

L ...

5.3. R-V88 OV

.
R-V88.
R-V88
.
:
With the exception of rare incidences of R1b-V88 in Corsica,
Sardinia and Southern France, there is nearly mutually exclusive
patterning of V88 across trans-Saharan Africa vs the prominence
of P297-related varieties widespread across the Caucasus, CircumUralic regions, Anatolia and Europe. The detection of V88 in Iran,
Palestine and especially the Dead Sea, Jordan provides an insight into
the back to Africa migration route (Myres et al. 2011: 96).
, R-V88, (,
2014: 55), ( ).
, .
-,
R-V88 : ,
( ) , ()
.
: T1 is found mainly in the Middle East (Palestine,
Lebanon, Oman, Turkey, southern Iran), North Africa (Egypt,
Morocco), sub-Saharan Africa (especially in eastern Africa: Ethiopia,
Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda) (Capredon et al. 2013: 7).
(Fadhlaoui-Zid
et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. 2; Becada et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. 6).

91

L ...

R-V88, ,
(Wood et al. 2005: 872;
Berniell-Lee et al. 2009: 1584). ,
(
).
: R1b1a [ R-V88; R1b1. . .] has been observed at high frequencies in
Northwest Africa (27 % in the Egyptian Berbers), with peaks in the
Chadic-speaking populations from Central Africa, ranging from
29 to 96 % in Cameroon, and very rarely is found outside Africa
(Ottoni et al. 2011: 122). R 13 %. , Haplogroup K-M9 is restricted
to Hausa and Gaalien with low frequencies and is absent in NiloSaharan and Niger-Congo. Haplogroup R-M173 appears to be the
most frequent haplogroup in Fulani, and haplogroup R-P25 has
the highest frequency in Hausa and Copts and is present at lower
frequencies in north, east, and western Sudan (Hassan et al. 2008:
317). \ R1 (xR1b)
14\26 , , (Hassan et al. 2008: 320).
, , R -V88 .
-, .
(Wood et al. 2005: 871, fig. 2), R, R-V88,
( 22 %,
236 ; - 2,5 %
( 705 ), 2,2 % ( 90 )) 23.

: The first observation was that the


highest frequencies of the R1b1a haplogroup were found among
Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations from the Central Sahel, with
Chadic mostly contributing to this pattern. We have now extended
our analysis to a further 258 unrelated male subjects from northern
Cameroon the extended data fully confirm the pattern originally
observed (Cruciani, Trombetta et al. 2010: 1186).
(Cruciani, Trombetta et al. 2010: 1186, tab. 1), R-V88 90 %. , 40 %.
, , R-V88 (- )
21 % ( 105 )
71 % ( 31 ).
, R-V88
- 5,2 %; 883 (Berniell-Lee et al. 2009: 1584).
520 %; . : (Veeramah et al. 2010: 9, tab. 4). (de
Filippo et al. 2011: Suppl., tab. 3), R

( ).
, 5 .
-
,
: Both the KS and the BAN
showed low levels (3.3 % and 0.6 %, respectively) of assimilation

, - . , Mande languages are


quite distinct from other Niger-Congo families, and because of this, their inclusion in

the phylum is sometimes questioned (Sands 2009: 567).


.

23

92

93

L ...

of the Eurasian Y chromosome haplogroups I, K* (xR), R1a1, and


R1b (Naidoo et al. 2010: 7).
the
most frequent E subclade amongst the KS was E1b1b1* (15.8 %).
-35.
-35
(Tishkoff et al. 2007:
2184, fig. 4; de Filippo et al. 2011: Suppl., tab 3; Trombetta et al.
2011: Suppl., tab. 2).
, Haplogroup E-M329 was observed almost
exclusively in eastern Africa, where E-M2 is virtually absent.
Using the principle of the phylogeographic parsimony, the
resolution of the E1b1b trifurcation in favor of a common ancestor of
E-M2 and E-M329 strongly supports the hypothesis that haplogroup
E1b1 originated in easternAfrica, as previously suggested (Trombetta
et al. 2011: 2). Within E-M35, there are striking parallels
between two haplogroups, E-V68 and E-V257. Both contain a lineage
which has been frequently observed in Africa (E-M78 and E-M81,
respectively) and a group of undifferentiated chromosomes that are
mostly found in southern Europe. An expansion of E-M35 carriers,
possibly from the Middle East as proposed by other Authors, and
split into two branches separated by the geographic barrier of the
Mediterranean Sea, would explain this geographic pattern.
, -35, . ,
,
24.
.

, (Tishkoff et al. 2007:


2184, fig. 4; Hassan et al. 2008: 319, fig. 2), -35 . . - 50 % . 25 : The E3b1 (E-M78) lineage is most
frequent in Afroasiatics (22.5 %) (Wood et al. 2005: 872).
-35.
-35* 9,9 %, 6,4 %
(Wood et al. 2005: 871, fig. 2).
.

(
) -
( , , ,
, ). , ( . . ) 26.
, R -V88
?
?
, OV- (http://wals.info/feature/
83A#2/18.0/152.8).
, (: )

, Genetic and archaeological data have been interpreted


as possible evidence for an ancient San presence in eastern Africa (Knight et al.
2003: 470471; . : Blench 2004: 13).
24

94

25
-
( 2013: 16). , ,
.
26
,
. , ( 1990),
. . (, , ) (http://www.tapemark.narod.ru/les/015b.html).

95

L ...

R-V88 . ,
.

R-V88 . , , R-V88 , , , VO.
(, ( ), - ), OV- (
. . , SOV (http://mandelang.kunstkamera.
ru/index/mandelang/semya_mande/)), ( ) R-V88. , , 27.
, R-V88\OV (, )
. , .
, , , OV . ,
( ),
, OV-.

From a syntactic point of view, the Southern Cushitic


languages, as most Cushitic languages, display moderate SOVcharacteristics, i. e. the finite verb is clause-final Not all the WestRift languages display the same pattern of typological features in
these respects. Thus, Iraqw and Gorwaa stick closely to the rigid
SOV order under all circumstances, whereas Alagwa and Burunge
allow for a variation of SOV and SVO order depending on pragmatic
factors (Kieling 2000: 72).
: Cushitic and
Omotic languages are generally dependent-marking and verb-final at
sentence level. The Agaw language are quiet strict in their OV syntax,
while most East Cushitic languages (with the notable exception of
Saho and Afar) generally place the modifier after their head, often
giving rise to typologically unusual word patterns (Tosco 2003:
90).
, - ,
R-V88 R OV-. ,
4\39 R1, 2\42 R1b (Hassan et al.
2008: 319, fig. 2). ( , -
) 3\26 R1b.
R1b, ,
R-V88.
, ( ), - R-V88
V-,
(7\50), (7\28),
V-.
\OV-
, , , , ,
, ,
OV- -

27
,
, (Vydrin 2009). , ,
R-V88.
, R-V88 (14 %)
(- ) (Cruciani,
Trombetta et al. 2010: 1186, tab. 1) OV. , , .
OV ( - ).
.

96

97

L ...

. , V- ( 1991: 28) 28.


, OV-
- , : , ,
, , , , . : .
Sahelian as an alternative name for Nilo-Saharan, since it is
nearly equivalent in a geographic sense and a bit more convenient
(Bender 1977: 11). , R-V88 ,
OV-, -
,
.
OV- ( , ). ,

.
, ,
, OV- ,
( ) , .
- .
- .
, , The most
convincing hypothesis is that Ongota is an East Cushitic language
with a Nilo-Saharan substratum. In other words, it appears that
the Ongota used to speak a Nilo-Saharan language but shifted to
speaking a Cushitic language, while retaining some characteristics
of their earlier linguistic system (Sands 2009: 565) 29.

, , , : there have been repeated


questions as to whether Omotic can be considered Afroasiatic
at all. One view is that only the most divergent set of Omotic
languages, the Aroid languages (including languages Ari, Hamer,
and Dime), are actually Nilo-Saharan (Sands 2009: 565; . :
. 2013: 38).
, .
: (, , ,
) OV-
( ) \ -35
.
, -
, : , ( 34 % ) (- 50 % )
-35. , , ,
. ,
.
-35, , .

\ ( OV- (http://wals.info/feature/83A#2/18.0/152.8);
VO (http://www.philology.ru/linguistics4/okhotina-90b.
htm)) .
, , , ,
.

J1 (, , ) (Al-Zahery et al.
2011: 10, fig. 6) R-V88 , OV- .
29
. -
(http://elanguage.net/journals/sal/article/viewFile/3720/3621).
28

98

99

L ...

,
, , ,
( . 2008: 262). :
,
, , , ,
( . 2008: 268).
( )
. . (2013: 474) :


,
( )
. , ,
( . 2013: 449). , , , ( . 2013: 474).
, , :
[ . . .] ( -)
, ,
, , ,
( . 2008: 276).
, .
-, ( , , -35)
OV- , . , .

-, .
-, , , ,
, , , , -
.
-35, OV-,
-
,
. ,
( 2013: 271272),
, . . . ,
: , . . , ,
(,
2014: 60). , .
. , ( 20 , ) . : hunter-gatherer ceramic traditions originating in
the east may have also influenced the development of pottery in the
Near East, which is associated with agricultural communities. If so,
Eastern hunter-gatherer pottery would have ultimately influenced
ceramic traditions in southern Europe, which spread out of the Near
East in association with farming around 8,500 years ago (Gibbs,
Jordan 2013: 15).
R-V88

.

100

101


, , , , . , ,
, , - .
.
, , .
- (http://elanguage.
net/journals/sal/article/viewFile/3720/3621).
, , - (,
2014: 55) , R -V88 (-)
.
L
, , . , L,
R2 ( ), - ,
. ,
-.

102

6.


N1-LLY22

, .
: (
)
N1*.
: N1-LLY22,
N1b, N1 (xN1c1). ( . 2011: 19),
N1 (xN1c1) N1b,
.
, N1* : (2 %),
(1 %), (1,4 %) (Balanovsky et al. 2011: 27, tab. 2).
, .
, ,
, , -
,
, Q, N1*
.
, N1-LLY22 9 % 21 % ( 2013: 12). , . . ,
.
, ,
.
, , :
N1-LLY22 ?

103

N1-LLY22...

N1b : The age of N1bP43 was also very old (18.90 kya), indicating a relatively rapid
northward migration during the Paleolithic period from southern
China northward into Siberia (Shi et al. 2013: 5) 30.

, -, N1*, ,
(
7 % -), - 2 %
(Shi et al. 2013: 3).
-, N1-LLY22
(, N*- LLY22g*),
, :
(2,3 %), ,
(2,9 %) (Grugni et al. 2012:
5, tab. 1).
N1b,
. . . .
, ,
6 % (, . 2011: 31) 31. ,
N1b - , - .
- ( .
2011: 19; , . 2011: 29, . 1).
N1b

30
(, 2014: 5960) , N - ,
. N 1412 ,
, - . ., ,
.
, ,
(Bengtson, Blaek 2011: 5859), -
.
. . ( ) . .
- . .
: -
, - .
XIII . . . - , ,
. -
AST 6 . . ., .
[Dumond, 2010], - .
-:
.
( 2015: 130).
, -
14 .
. . : - .

, -,
, . , -

104

, , ,
,
( 2015: 131).
, -
.
, ,
: ( ) ( 2015: 124). ( 2015: 131).
31
, , (Regueiro et al. 2006: 135,
fig. 1), 33 . , , .

105

N1-LLY22...

N1c1 5 % ,
4 %.
, , Q: Q N1b (, . 2011:
34). N1b
- : reaching
further north to Siberia about 1214 kya (Shi et al. 2013: 1).
, N1
(xN1c1). N1 (xN1c1)-A
, - . N1
(xN1c1)- - ( . 2011: 20). , N1 (xN1c1)-A N1 (xN1c1)- 10 500 .
, , . . , ,
( 2012: 29).
, -, N1b - , -.
, -, ,
- ( . 2013: 42).
, N1b
. .
, N1b
-
-,
-, .
- -
- .

,
(Der Sarkisean et al. 2013; Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015: 25, tab. 2).
, , ,

R1b1* (xR1b1a1, R1b1a2)
. R1a ,
7,5 (Haak, Lazaridis
et al. 2015: 5). R1a SRY10831.2, . ., (Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015: 120, fig.
1) R1a1*.
, . .
, R1b1* (xR1b1a1, R1b1a2) (Haak,
Lazaridis et al. 2015: 25, tab. 2), .
: .
IV-a (
). , .
, VII . . .,

(, 2000: 281; . :
2011).
( ), ,
(
2004). , , ,
.
,

106

107

N1-LLY22...

, , , , -,
. . . . , (
2012: 310): . . (2004)
.
, : ,
, , Q.
, -, , Q
.
( ) .
, ,
, , -
, , ,
(, 1984:
131). ,
;
,
( ) (
. . ) ( 1982: 42).
, , . . : ,
-
( 1982: 39).
. . : . .

, , . -,
, ,
,
. . -, , , , ( 2004:
181182).
,

( 2012: 305312).
. .
. . , 32.
,
, ( 2013: 30).
.
, - -
.
.

.

( 2013: 30). , ,

108

32
, . . (, , : )
( 2012) , , , .

109

N1-LLY22...

-
, ,
- (
2013: 31).
- .
, . . ,
- , ,
.
, ,
, , , , ,
- 33.
, ,
, -, . , ,
, , N.
, , . . (2014) .
. ,
, , .

,
.
, -,
- -
, , .
, , ,
, .
( ( 2012: 321)),
, .
, , , , N. N1b.
: N1b
,
(
2012: 27).
, N
12 % ( N1b 4 %) ( 2013: 80).
() N,
N1b, 7 %. N 86 %; 64 %; 22 %. 92 %
( 5 % ).
, : , ,
( 2014: 29).
: ,
: - (6070 %) ( . 2006: 33).

, , ,
. . (, 2009).
33

110

111

N1-LLY22...

, : the western Eurasian founders, giving rise to Siberian


specific subclades, trace their ancestry only to the early and midHolocene, though some of genetic lineages may trace their ancestry
back to the end of LGM (Derenko et al. 2014: 8).
, , I
( . 2011: 16).
, (.: , .
2014: 5051) .
, , ,
, : , ( , Q, ,
R) , N, N1b.
, N ( , ),
.
, : - N?
.
, ,
, 34.

, , ,
N ?
, - ? , , - -
?
, .
, , , -
- .

, , , . , 34

112

,
;
(, 2014: 5052).
- , , . ., 1211
( 2015: 311).
- ,
(, , ( 2002)), ,
N.

N, , . , , ,
- : the discussed evidence
altogether supports the proposal that the AA homeland was located somewhere
not far from the mid-Yangtze valley, probably in the nearby mountains in modern
Sichuan (Peiros 2011: 112). , .

(, 2009).
- . , , ( 23 )
- (, 2009: 442, 5).
, ,
N .

113

N1-LLY22...

, - N1b
R. -
: R-M269, R-M198 N-M231,
49 % 100 % (
2015: 16). N1b (N-P43) ,
. . ,
, 6 % 34 %.
12 %; R 37 % ( 2015: 22). ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, -
,
- ( -).
, , .
, . .,
, -
, - () , , (: 2013:
268270). ,
,
.
, -
- .
: R1b-M269
L23. , , , M412,

,
L23 (xM412). R1b-L23 (xM412) R1b-Z2105,
,
. -
R1b-Z2105 ( 2015: 19). , -
-78, 14 %
10,2 % ( 2015: 20). ,
-35.
, ,
-
. . - ( . . ) (, : 2013:
271272).
, , - . , .
,
, ,
,
.
, , , , .
. ( . 2013)
.

114

115

N1-LLY22...

,
, , . ,
-.
, . . ,
- (,
2013; 2014: 3447). , ,
35.
, , ,
. . (2012),
.
, .
, (), ().

()
.
,
, ( 2012: 32).
, .
,
3

(. 16). -,
- ( , ,
, ) ( 2012: 32). ( 2012: 34, . 16), ,
,
, , , , (). - ,
, ,
( ). , (, , ) .
, ( ,
), ( ,
, - , ) - .
, , ,
.

.
: , . .
.

, .
, . ,

, . .
-, - . , .
.
.
35

116

117

. ,
, .
, ,
, .
, , (,
), , . ,

N1-LLY22 .
, , , N1-LLY22 - .
,
. ,
,
,

, - .
, ,
.
, N1-LLY22

- ,
, - . , ,
,
, . . . . .

118

7.


(J, G, E, L T) ,

7.1. (J, G, E T)

, , ( ,
, )
- .
.
, the most frequent haplogroups in the
Caucasus were G2a3b1-P303 (12 %), G2a1a-P18 (8 %), J1*-M267
(xP58) (34 %), and J2a4b*-M67 (xM92) (21 %), which together
encompassed 73 % (Balanovsky et al. 2011: 7).
, G J ,
: Hg J is most common (50 %) in the Middle
East and Anatolia, with a spread zone spanning from northwest
Africa to India (Battaglia et al. 2008: 7). Haplogroup
J is predominant in Iran where both its subclades, J2-M172 and
J1-M267, are observed. Its highest frequencies are registered in the
populations located along the southwestern shores of the Caspian
Sea and along the Zagros Mountains ridge (Grugni et al. 2012: 4).
, \ ,
( , 7 % ( 2006:
119

(J, G, E, L T)...

20); 9,5 % ( 2011: 11, .1))


( , 5,2 %\7,8 % (
2010: 30; Herrera et al. 2011: 4);
12 % (Hovhannisyan et al. 2014: 9);
E3b1b1-M3510,7 %), 9 %. (13 %)
(9 %) (Grugni et al. 2012: 9), . ,
,
- ,
.
,
, , , 20 %.
3,4 % 10 % , 8,5 % 3,9 % .
,
, ,
.
- ,
, (, 2014: 58; 2015), .
- 36.
, ,
.
, : E1b1b (5.6 %), J2a (4.0 %),
G2a (1.5 %), L (0.8 %) T (0.8 %) (Young 2011: 460). ,

J 13 % (Semino
et al. 2004: 1029, tab. 2); J
.
,
,
: , , .
(Alonso et al. 2005:
1295, fig. 1), (72 ),
(74 ) ( , 22 ) - ,
(Young 2011: 460).

9 %, 4 % . ,
30 % (
692 ).
( ), . .
(Adams, Bosch et al. 2008: 728, fig. 1).
,
, , -,
- (
). -
, . , .
Representatives of this male component carried haplogroups
C, E1b1b1, G and J, which in the whole Pyrenean sample, accounted
for 8.9 % of lineages although the proportion was rather unevenly

36
, , (
-),
(Malhi et al. 2008: 424, tab 1; Dulik, Owings et al. 2012: 8473, Tab.
1; Roewer et al. 2013: tab. S2). , ,
.

120

121

(J, G, E, L T)...

distributed across the 5 Pyrenean populations: 4 % in Valle de


Aran, 8.1 % in Cerdana, 12.9 % in Jacetania, 20.5 % in Alto Urgell
and absent in Cinco Villas. As a comparison we can take the nonBasque Iberians (N = 692) studied by Alonso et al. (2005) among
whom nearly 30 % of Ys could be associated with the above
mentioned component, in clear contrast with the proportion of 8.9 %
in the Basque sample (N = 168) from the same study (coincidentally,
it exactly matched our estimate for Pyreneans).
Therefore, concerning the relative amount of the postNeolithic genetic substrate, most Pyrenean populations resemble
Basques more than they resemble other Iberians (Lopez-Parra et
al. 2008: 45).
, (Becada et al. 2013: Suppl., tab. S6), (E,
G, J) 22 %.
, , 1971 .
2 %. L .
- E, G, J 20 % ( 776 ).
- 1 %.
L 0,5 %.
, , ,
( ) ( , )
, . , the gene pool of the
early Neolithic farmers [ . .] was drastically different
from the modern European one, but showed close affinities with
the modern (and probably ancient) Near Eastern gene pool
(Balanovsky, Utevska, Balanovska 2013: 29).

, -,
: J27,2 % (

13,2 %), J-12f21 % ( 3 %), G 1 %


( 2,7 %) (Firasat et al. 2007: 123) 37.
, (
), . ,
.
, , ,
,
,
- (
).
,
-
.

122

7.2. (J, G, E, L
T) :
.
G, J, , L ( ) (Xue et al. 2006: 2434; Bittles et al. 2007: 79; Gan, Pan et al.
2008: 306; Wen et al. 2004: 859; Gayden et al. 2007: 887; Sengupta
et al. 2006: 207).

(Zhong et al.
2011: 721). 3826 .
37
, -, (Semino et al. 2004:
1029, tab. 2), (. ., ), J 13,2 %. ,
23,9 % . ., .
, ,
, .

123

(J, G, E, L T)...

(, )
. : The rest
of the Y chromosomes, accounting for 6.79 % in total, were identified
as haplogroups E-SRY4064, C5-M356, G-M201, H-M69, IM170,
J-P209, LM20, Q-M242, R-M207, and T-M70, and we define
these haplogroups as CSA- and WE-related haplogroups Among
them, E-SRY4064, C5-M356, G-M201, H-M69, IM170, LM20,
and T-M70 have low frequencies (0.040.24 %), whereas J-P209,
Q-M242, and R-M207 have relatively high frequencies, 1.09 %,
1.66 %, and 3.06 % respectively (Zhong et al. 2011: 721).
, .
, . ,
, . .
,
.
R , ( ).
, : the impact of the
ancient Silk Road can also be reflected by the sporadic appearance
of the minor CSA and WE-related haplogroups, such as E-SRY4064,
C5-M356, IM170, J2a2*-M67, Jab2-M241, and T-M70 (Zhong
et al. 2011: 725).
, (,
2014: 5758; 2015) ,
(Zhong et al. 2011: 720), J, G L . -

, , .
, The estimated ages of the nonsouthern origin
haplogroups using data only from East Asian populations suggest
that there were Paleolithic migrations (more than 10 Ka) from
CAS and/or WE via the northern route, although recent East-West
admixture in NEAS (less than 3 Ka) also existed (Zhong et al.
2011: 724). the existence of demographic expansions toward East
Asia via the northern route, which started 1518 Ka (following the
last glacial maximum) Among them, haplogroup Q-M242 and
R-M207 likely represent the earliest settlers via the northern route
(Zhong et al. 2011: 725).

( , . . ).
, ,
, , , (TMRCA) (. . , -email
02.01.2015). ,
.
, .
, Q R, (Zhong et al. 2011)
. , 24
R , .
. .: the presence of an ancient western
Eurasian genomic signature in the Baikal area before and after the

124

125

(J, G, E, L T)...

LGM [Last Glacial maximum . .] suggests that parts of southcentral Siberia were occupied by humans throughout the coldest
stages of the last ice age (Raghavan et al. 2014: 3).
, (
(Zhong et al. 2011))
2015 , 1815 , .
.
, .. there is a single highly divergent K1a17b-lineage from
Baikal region populations nested within western Asian subclade
K1a17, pointing to a gene flow from western Asia to southern Siberia,
which might have occurred at the end of LGM but not earlier than
1821 kya. The phylogenetic nesting patterns suggest that several
minor lineages may have been introduced in Siberia at the same time
(with some lost later by drift). Thus for example, U7a2*, HV13a,
and N1a1b1a1 mtDNAs, with their nesting within preliminary
western Asian lineages. were most likely assimilated not earlier than
18.324.2 kya, whereas U2e1i southern Siberian founder having
a putative Caucasus origin may have been introduced into northern
Asia later, ~ 15.816.6 kya (Derenko et al. 2014: 8).
,
, 1815 , .
,
.
, ,

Homo sapiens -.
,
-
; (
2010: 282283).

,
25 ,
, , ( 2008:
84). , ( ,
27 ),
,
, (
2008: 84).
, . . ,

() - ( ) ,
( 2005: 12).
, Y-
(Zhong et al. 2011),
, ,
. ( )
, 2015 .
, .
, , , via the
northern route, .
: , --

126

127

(J, G, E, L T)...

- ,
- ( ,
). (
G2a1, ) -.
- .
, . , J1 5,6 %
( - ,
) 7,1 % ( ,
- ) 2 % 4,5 %
(Zhong et al. 2011: 720). (, ; ,
,
), J1 10 % 1,6 % .
, ,
, - .
.
, , 1815 .
, ,
via the northern route,
Q ( Q1b) R ( , , R11*).
Q, Q11,
.
, R Q .

1815 . , R Q,


, .
, : ,
, ,
,
.
,
. .
, ,
?
, .
R Q,
,
.
, via the northern
route, ( ) Q
R, J1, J2a*, G2a* G2a1.
J1 (. ),
.
, J2a* (3,4 % 2,6 %)
, , .
2,5 % 38.
( 8 % 16,7 %),
(, ) (
, ; -
) 8 %.
G2a*
2,2 %, ( ) 4,5 %,
6 %, 1,6 %.

128

38
J, ,
Yajiang, 2,1 % (Wang et al. 2014: Suppl., tab. S1).

129

(J, G, E, L T)...

, G2a1
, 4,8 %.
.
, G1 15 . (1,6 %), ,
- . ,
( ), : ?
.
,
.
,
via the northern route
.
, ,
,
-- - . ,
, ,
.
, G
26 % (, . 2011: 14, . 2). ,
J 3 % 39.
,
G1 ,
, (Balanovsky, Utevska, Balanovska

2013: 31, fig. 5; Balanovsky, Zhabagin et al. 2015: 9).


G1 80 %.
G1, G2 J2 (Dulik,
Osipova, Schurr 2011: 3).
J2* 11 % 16 % ; 11 % 32 %;
13 % (Nasidze et al. 2005: 850).
G 3 %, J
5 % (, . 2011: 14, 2).
, , ,

.
: the Muslim populations (Hui) in China were immigrants
from Central Asia, the Persians and Arabs during Yuan Dynasty
(~700 years ago) (Zhong et al. 2011: 725).

, .
, , , G1 . , .
,
, , .
, , ,

1815 Q R.
, , ,
- 1110 .
, - , , .
, ,
, ,

39
( . 2006: 35), J 18 %.
331 .

130

131

(J, G, E, L T)...

. , , - ,
, -
. J G.
, ; , , , J1-M267* ,
.
,
, -
. :
,
-
(: 2012: 322327).
,
, . , ,
-
.
, ,
-
.
, ,

1815 ,
.

7.3. G1
:
?

132

, , G1.
, , .
.
, , , (
)
( 12 8 ). (,
2014: 57), .
,
,
12 , (, 2014: 58). , ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
, ,
- ,
, -
. .
, , , G1.
,
( -) .
, , , , . ,
, .

133

(J, G, E, L T)...

, (,
) - .
, (
), , ,
.
, G J - (Derenko et al. 2006: 595).
, , ,
.
, ,
- , . 0,5 %, 1 %, 1 %. 1 % ( . 2011: 14, . 2).
, L
3 %, 1 %.
,
( . 2011: 449, . 1).
, 3,3 % 4,7 %
( . 2014: 206, 1). , ,
- R.
, J2*, J21b1 J* 0,6 % ( ) ( . 2013: 1419). ,
J2* J*, .
J2* (Duggan et al. 2013: 12, tab.4).
: Y-chromosome haplogroup J, more probably reflect
an ancient gene flow from West Eurasia through Central Asia and
South Siberia (Fedorova et al. 2013: 1).
.

, E1b1b1 ( , 67 ).
L*, J (Fedorova et al. 2013: 5, fig.2).
, : L, 0,6 % (Kim 2011: 5, tab. 2). 1108 .
,
. , , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,

.
, ,
G1.
, , ,
G1
, . ,
, , .
, , G1,
.
Much higher STR variation in the west part of the IranianArmenian plateau makes the mountain homeland a more probable
candidate. This conclusion fits the Anatolian theory of IndoEuropean origins, and the pattern of STR diversity fits especially
well. Migrations from Iran to Central Asia are also clear from
paleoanthropological data. Though haplogroup G1 certainly cannot
serve as a marker for the Indo-European expansion in general,
this haplogroup might be a genetic component carried by a wave

134

135

(J, G, E, L T)...

of Iranic-speaker migration and brought northward to the Eurasian


steppe (Balanovsky, Zhabagin et al. 2015: 15).
, G1 . , .
, , The genetic
dates suggest that all principal branches already existed when this
migration started. Indeed, even the last split into the Bashkir and
Armenian clusters is dated back to 8000 YBP, while the Armenian
linguistic branch separated around 4600 YBP and Indo-Iranian
languages separated around 4200 YBP (Balanovsky, Zhabagin et
al. 2015: 15).
, , , .

.
, -, ,
,
40.
-, , ,
. :
,
,
, . ,
, ( 2012: 123). , , , , -

, , ,
, , ,
( 2012: 125).
. . :
( , , )
, .
, ,
, . ,
(, 2015: 5758).

.
, G1 ,
, ,
, .
-, ,
.
,
I . . . (, 2005:
284). ,
VII . . .. ,

, - ,
, - . , , ( 2009: 144).

-, : ; ,
, .
40

136

137

(J, G, E, L T)...

,
.
, -

,

( . 2009: 180).
, - G1 80 % (Balanovsky, Zhabagin et al.
2015: 9). , , , . . ., ,

-, (
. . )
( 2013: 261263).
, -

, . ,
. ,

, -, ,

(, 1984: 4243).
, :
-

? -


, . . . . ?
.
G1
.
, , ,
80 % , G1
. , ,

. ,
,
.
, ,
, , [ . .], 58 %
( . 2006: 32). ,
.
, ,
42 %.
, .
G1 ( ,
Y-
J E), : , Y-
. , .

,

138

139

(J, G, E, L T)...

, - . :
, .
(.
1) ,
(, 2009: 84).
, , -
- ,
, . , ,
,
(, 2009: 92).
, : -
G1
.
: , -
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, G1
. , ,

,
(Zhong et al. 2011).
, , .

140

141

R Q

8.

R Q

8.1. R Q

-?
(Zhong et al. 2011).
,
.
, ,
via the northern route, , 69.55 % of them belong to two haplogroups Q and R
(Zhong et al. 2011: 724).
, 1815
, Q-M242 R-M207 -
( 2012: 309312). , - Q
R 41.
41
, : - . , Q
, . R , (, 2014: 5052),
- . Q (

142

, , , Q
R 70 % via the northern
route,
5 %.
.
.
,
. , , ,
: - Q R ( , ). Y-.

, .
, , , , .
Q R
,
.
, Q1a1-M120 and Q1a3*-M346 have similar ages of
STR variation, 15.42 and 17.77 Ka, respectively. Q1a1-M120 is an East
Asianspecific subhaplogroup. Collectively, the phylogeographic
structure of haplogroup Q reveals early demographic expansions via
northern Eurasia (Zhong et al. 2011: 724).
R: R1a1*M17, recently renamed R1a1a*, has similar distribution pattern
with Q1a1-M120 and Q1a3*-M346 in East Asia The STR variation
Q5 (Sharma et al. 2007))
.

143

R Q

age of R1a1* in East Asia (15.37 Ka) is also similar with those of
Q1a1-M120 and Q1a3*-M346, suggesting that R1a1* was one of the
lineages entering East Asia via the northern route. Interestingly,
the STR variation age of East Asian R1a1*- M17 is similar with
the age of West Indian R1a1*-M17 (15.8 Ka), both of which are
older than the R1a1*-M17 in CSA and WE [
. .] (Zhong et al. 2011: 724).
, Q1a1-M120 () Q1a3*M346
- .
, Q11
. 5,6 % 7,1 %
, 10 % , 7,7 % , 5,3 %
, 7 % , 4,4 7,7 , 7,7 ,
4,3 % , 3,4 % 10 %
, . . 2,5 %. , , ,
4,3 % (Wang et al. 2014: Suppl., tab. S1).

, , , 1,4 % 2 %. (Hazak) Q11 (,
). , , ()
, 3,2 %.
(, 27 ) Q 242 55,5 % (Trejaut et al.
2014: 23, fig.2). , -
. ,
, .
R11 3,7 %.
R11*
( Q11),
8,9 % 10 % .

(0,3 %; Q) - (
) 0,5 % (Trejaut et al.
2014: 23, fig.2).
, Q11, R11*
( 35 %), 10 %.
R1b1b1 R1b1b2. R1b1b1 : 1,8 %; 2,6 % 2,9 %;
0,5 %; 8,3 %;
1,4 % 2 %. 25 %, ,
, ; 2 %
(, . 2011: 14, . 2).
R1b1b2: (2,5 %) (1,5 %);
5,6 %; 1,6 %.
R2 3,7 % , 6,7 %
, 3,4 % . ,
,
6,2 % (Wang et al. 2014: Suppl., tab. S1). R2 1,5 %, 2,1 % 4,2 %,
3,2 %.
, R . ,
-
.
, Q11 . ,
, ,
Q11 -
.
, , , R.

144

145

8.2. R1 R1b:

, R .
, , the initial episodes of haplogroup
R1a diversification likely occurred in the vicinity of presentday Iran, 6 (Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015: 124).
,
R , ,
,
.
R1b,
(Myres et al. 2011: 95).
, ,
, ,
. .
, ,
R
, -
.
, .
, R1b R1
?
,
.
, R1b1* (xR1b1a1, R1b1a2)
. , the possibility that some of the differentiation of lineages

146

R Q

within haplogroup R occurred in north Eurasia (Haak, Lazaridis et


al. 2015: 44).

- ( , , ),
.
R1a ,
7,5 (Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015:
5). R1a SRY10831.2, . ., (Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015: 120, fig. 1) R1a1*.
, (Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015)
R1a.
, R1a-M420
, .
-, ,
, R1a-Z282*, . R1a
, ,
R1a-Z282*
, R1a-Z282*
.

, , , R1a-M420.
-, , R1aZ93 . , the paragroup R1a-Z93* (Figure 3b) is
most common (more than 30 %) in the South Siberian Altai region
147

R Q

of Russia, but it also occurs in Kyrgyzstan (6 %) and in all Iranian


populations (18 %) (Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015: 126). R1aZ93* ,
. .,
(Underhill, Poznik et al. 2015: 127, fig. 3b),.
, R1a-Z2125 R1a
780,
, .
, R1a-Z2125, ( 40 %) , ( 10 %) ,
.
R1a 780 ,
.
, R1
:
,
.
R1
.
R1b.
, R1b-73, ,
. , R1b1M
(73) .
, ,
-
( )
( ). R1MM
, (
10 %) ( 15 %). ,
-

(,
2011: 31).
R1b-269 -, , R1b-L23 (xM412),
, - .
, R1b-412,
.
, R1b .
, ,
G1.
, R11* .
, , . ,
,

. , , R1a1 , . :
, ,
R1a1,
( 2013: 1420).
, ,
,
,
( 2010: 2728, 289). , , , R1a1,
G1 , -

148

149

R Q

.
,
Q13
.
R1a1.
, , :
Q13 - - , ,
, ,
.
( 2013: 1418).
, ,
R1a1
.
, R1a
- .
, -,
, -
R1a1, . , -
( ,
)
(, . 2014: 51).
, R1a1 (
60 %)
(, 2011: 28). ,
: R1a1: -
.

R1a1 50 % (,
2011: 32).
, ( )
37 %, - 18 % (,
. 2014: 52).
,
, , ,
(-),
(, . 2011: 34).
, G1 .
R1a1 .
, ,
.
.
, , ,
.
, R1a ( R) , . ,
R1a, N1c1 20 %, ,
, R1a
N1c1 (, . 2011:
32). , , , ,

150

151

R Q


(, . 2014: 53).
, R .
, R N. , , R.
, N.
, N
.
R, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
:
R1a1

l (M170), 1 (35), R1Mc- (269) ,
(, . 2011: 3334).
,
, R1a1
.
, . . . ,
(,
. 2014: 50). R1a1a R1b1b1.
. . , -


,
( 2011: 282). , ,
, .
, . . , ,
, ,
.
, 2
- ( ),

( 2004: 180).
2 (
, , , ),
. . . , 2 , 3 (
2008: 357). , ( 2004: 185, .
. 1), , , , .
.
, ,
,
( 2013: 30).
. . , , .
: , , 2

152

153

R Q

, , . , , , ,
, , , , , , .
.
(
), ( 2008: 357).
, , . . : - ,
, ,
. , . , ,
(
2008: 358).
,

, .
, . ., -: , ,
(
2004: 181).
, , , .
( . . ) -

. : 4 (14 % 12 % )
. ,
, , , ( 2004:
182).

. . . , , .

(, , ) .
,
R1Mb1, . ., R1b-M73 (,
2011: 32). , ,
.
Q .
Q , 50 % Y- (, 2011: 28).
,
R1a1 ( 50 %). : R1a1 , 15 % (,
2011: 32).
, ,
R1a1 N1b.
, , ,
N11 31 % ( .
2011: 15, . 2).
,
R \ Q N. , ,

.

154

155

, , ,
R
.
, ,
(. ), - .
R
, , .
, - ,
R1 R1b, R2
42.
.

42
( 2012: 312) -. , - ,
. . . , ,
, :
,
, ( 1989: 427). , :
- ,
, ( 1989: 431).
, :
R -
?
, ,
- .

156

.
, ,
, , .
, ,
, .
, , , ,
Q R,
. , , . ,
R
(, ; ,
, ) .
(
24 ) (Raghavan et al. 2014; 2014;
2014).
II ( 17 ).
, : , Q R
, R
, ? ,
?

157


R , - -, (). ,
-, - --
.
( 2008; 2009;
2009a; 2012; 2013) -
. . -
. , (,
2014; 2015), R
-.
( 80 %)
R
(. . , . ) - -.


. : Object-Verb,
,
Verb-Object.
, - ObjectVerb. , Object-Verb
.
, , .

, -
Verb-Object.
, , ,
-,
.
R .
, R , . , , R1 (
R1b1b2-M269) .
, R1b1b2-M269 68 %
- (, ).
, ,
, , R
, .

R, R1b, , 40 %. ,
- .
- ,

, R 52 %. ,
.
R R2 R-207, (!) ,
.

158

159

, , -
, R1b 80 % (Young et
al. 2011). , ( ),
(Lopez-Parra et al.
2008: 45). R1b .
,

R1b ( R1b1) R
, 7 (Haak, Lazaridis et al.
2015: 25, tab.2).
R,
Q.
, Q
- 75 % 90 %
. .
- .
, Q (84 %) - .
66 %.

515 %.
, , Q
.
Q
, 6 %
(Balanovsky et al. 2011: 27, tab. 2). , Q1a3
( 2013: 86).
, Q
, .

Q 6 % (Bekada et al. 2013),


, .
, Q
, ,
Q (,
Q* Q1a3) , , .
R.
(
, )
L .
, , - , , L.
, L ,
, ,
. , -
J2 F ,
. ,
L T (, , ,
LT)
. , , -, .
,
(, 2014: 54), ,
L - ,
- . .

160

161

,
, ( -35) OV- . ,
, ,
-
. - .
(
35) .
,
N1-LLY22 ( N1b) -
, -.

R1b1* (xR1b1a1, R1b1a2)
.
, ,
. ,
R1b1* (xR1b1a1, R1b1a2) (Haak, Lazaridis et al. 2015: 25, tab. 2),
- .
, , - .
, R1b1*
(xR1b1a1, R1b1a2) -

- . , -.
,

, , , ,
-, . . -

. ( ) - - .

. . .
, : ,
( . . (2004)), , Q.
, , ,
Q .
- , ,
.
, , ,
, .
, , , N, N1b.
: N1b
,
(
2012: 27).
. .
(2012). .
, (), ().

()
.
-

162

163

, ,
( 2012: 32).
, .
, 3 , - ( ,
, , ) ( 2012: 32).
( 2012: 34, . 16), ,
,
, , , , (). - ,
, ,
( ). , (, , ) .
, ( ,
), ( ,
, - , ) - .
, , ,
.

.
, ,
. . .

, . ,


. ,
, .
, ,
, .
, , (,
), , . ,

N1-LLY22 .
, , , N1-LLY22 - .
,
. ,
,
,

, - .
, ,
.
, N1-LLY22

- ,
, - . , ,
,

164

165

, . . . . .
(J, G, E, L T) - ,
: , -.
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, , , , ( ) ( ,
)
, . , the gene pool of the early Neolithic farmers [
. .] was drastically different from the modern European one, but
showed close affinities with the modern (and probably ancient)
Near Eastern gene pool (Balanovsky, Utevska, Balanovska 2013:
29).
(, ) 2 % (Zhong et al. 2011: 721).


, .

( ) ,
.
, , , ,
, , (Zhong et al. 2011: 721), -

, 1815 .

,
.
-, Q R . , (Zhong et al. 2011)

.
-,
( ),
1815 , (Derenko et al. 2014: 8).
, -,
.
, ,

Homo sapiens -
( 2005: 12; 2008: 84;
2010: 282283).
, , ,
(
, )
1815 Q R.
, , ,
- 1110 .
, - , , .
, , , ,
.

166

167

, ,
-
.
, ,

1815 ,
.
, , , , --
- ,
- ( ,
). (
G2a1, ) -.
( ), - .
,
.
,
.
( )
G1. .
,

:
( , , -

) ,
.
, ,
,
. , (, 2015: 5758).
, G1 ,
,
,
,
.
-, G1 80 %,
- (Balanovsky,
Zhabagin et al. 2015: 15). , ,
- (, 2009:
92).
, , G1 .
, , G1
.
, , R Q .
, Q R 70 % , via the northern
route,
5 %.
, , , , , , : -

168

169

Q R
( , ).
-
Y-.
, .
R1 R1b.
, .
,
, -,
- R1
.
: : , , R1a1,

( 2013: 1420).
- :
-,
, -
R1a1, . ,
- ( ,
)
(, . 2014: 51).
-, R1a ,
. , , , 5060 %,

R1b (, ), R1a (, )
Q (), ,
, .
. . , ,
, 2
,
, .
, , , ,
, , , , , , .

. (
),
( 2008: 357).
,
, .
, ( . . )
. :
4 (14 % 12 % ) .
, , , , ( 2004: 182).
, .
,
, ,
R
. , . -

170

171

, - ,
R1 R1b .
.
,
.
, , : ,
. ,
. , ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
. , .
:
.
, , ,
.

: , ,
,
.
, ,
:
.

172

. .
Y-, . ,
,
. . . .
, .
. . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . ,
. . ,
. . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . . . .
, , .
, ,
( ). , ,
.

, .
, ,
.

173

Summary

Summary

The East-Eurasian hypothesis of Dene-Caucasian Motherland: once again about the haplogroups of Y-chromosome
More than seven years ago A. A. Romanchuk (
2008; 2009; 2009a), basing on the analysis of archaeological,
paleobotanical and linguistic data, suggested the localization of the
Dene-Sino-Caucasian Motherland in Eastern Eurasia. The EastEurasian hypothesis of Dene-Sino-Caucasian Motherland had found
new confirmations from the analysis of physical anthropologys
data: odontological ( 2012) and craniological (
2013).
The previous results ( 2008; 2009; 2009 a; 2012;
2013) suggest the localization of Dene-Caucasian Motherland in the
area of so-called Chinese-Siberian Late Upper Paleolithic.
To continue the verification of East-Eurasian hypothesis,
there was considered the distribution of some (East-Eurasian by
origin) haplogroups of Y-chromosome R and Q (as well as
some others haplogroup L, first of all) through the continuum of
linguistic phyla in Eurasia (, 2014; 2015).
This book revises the issue of R and Q haplogroups in the
context of East-Eurasian hypothesis and provides new evidences
that the R haplogroup spread from Eastern Eurasia into the western
parts of continent with migrations of Sino-Caucasian peoples.
Thus, haplogroups R and Q, as well as their parent, haplogroup
P, appeared in Eastern Eurasia (Karafet, Mendez et al. 2014), at least
more than 25 KYA. This conclusion is supported by the fact that
haplogroup R was found in the Upper Paleolithic boy from Malta
(Middle Siberia, 24 KYA) (Raghavan et al. 2014). The genome from
Afontova gora (Middle Siberia, 17 KYA) is very close to Malta.
174

Further, the analysis demonstrates that all Dene-Caucasian


peoples have (absolutely Basques, Burusho, Kets, and Na-Dene;
or relatively, in comparison with the neighboring populations
North-Caucasians) high frequencies of R and\or Q haplogroups.
Thus, haplogroup R in Basques is near 90% (Young et al. 2011).
This is 10% higher than their neighbors have (Lopez-Parra et al.
2008: 45; Becada et al. 2013: Suppl.). The frequency of haplogroup
R in Burusho is 52% (Firasat et al. 2007). It is much higher than
average in Pakistan and India.
It does matter to point out that in Dagestan R1b-M269 riches up
to 68% right in some highlanders (namely, in Bagvalians) (Yunusbaev
et al. 2012: Suppl.).
Next, it is not astonishing that the Na-Dene people have up to
92% of haplogroup Q. However, Kets have 84% haplogroup Q as
well, which is the highest frequency in Eurasia ( .
2011). The Selkups (who are the closest relatives to Kets from
anthropological point of view ( 2004)) have 66% of Q.
While the average frequency of haplogroup Q in Siberia is
515%.
The Indo-European peoples in Europe have high frequencies of
haplogroup R too up to 80%. And, many linguists (starting from
S. A. Starostin (1988) and right up to A. Bomhard (2015)) suppose
that Proto-Indo-Europeans had an North-Caucasian substratum.
In West Asia Armenians and modern Assyrians, have higher
frequencies (up to 40%) of R1b haplogroup than their neighbors
do. And, both populations have strong Hurritian and Urartian
substratum.
On the other hand, the West-Asian haplogroups (G, J, E, L, and
T} are absent or have very low frequencies in the Dene-Caucasian
population outside of West Asia.
Thus, West-Asian haplogroups are absent in Kets and Na-Dene,
and are less than 10% in Basques. Whereas the populations of Iberian
Peninsula have more than 22% of West-Asian haplogroups. As well
as the population of France does.
175

Summary

Summary

The Burusho people has 8% of West Asian haplogroups. It is


twice or more lower than average of Pakistan.
In East Asia the West-Asian haplogroups are virtually absent
less than 2% (Zong et al. 2011).
This pool splits on two categories: the first consists of WestAsian haplogroups that spread both in the Sino-Tibetan and nonSino-Tibetan peoples of East Asia, and the second in the nonSino-Tibetan only.
The greater part (more than 2\3) of West-Asian haplogroups
belong to the first category, which penetrated East Asia during the
Upper Paleolithic after the Last Glacial Maximum (1815 KYA).
This date supported by archaeological data ( 2005: 12;
2008: 84; 2010: 282283), as well as
by analysis of mtDNA (Derenko et al. 2014: 8).
It is evidently too early for the divergence of Sino-Caucasian
language (which happened 1110 KYA).
The frequency of R and Q haplogroups in East Asia is 4,5%. The
R and Q haplogroups both entered East Asia after the Last Glacial
Maximum (1815 KYA) too.
Although, the frequency of R and Q in East Asia is very low, but
as I tried to demonstrate we have no another real candidates to the
role of primordial Sino-Tibetan haplogroups.
Thus, I think that the analysis of haplogroups of Y-chromosome
supports the East-Eurasian hypothesis.
Evidently, looking at these facts through the archaeological data,
I come to conclusion that the spread of R haplogroup from Eastern
Eurasia into the western parts of continent, which occurred in the
final of Late Pleistocene Early Holocene, was closely related with
Sino-Caucasian peoples.
Besides these principal conclusions, many interesting results
were received as well, especially in chapters two, five, six, seven,
and eight.
So, in the chapter two I attract attention to the fact that all
but three (Chinese, Karen and Bai) Dene-Caucasian languages

are Object-Verb by word order. The North-Caucasian languages


are very strong representatives of Object-Verb model too, as
well as Hurrritian, Hattian and Urartian languages. And, Chinese
language is very unusual among Verb-Object languages (Dryer
2003), so, we can suppose that the Proto-Sino-Tibetan language was
Object-Verb as well (LaPolla 2003).
The Object-Verb model strongly predominates in Eastern
Eurasia, while the Verb-Object model is most popular in Western
Eurasia and especially among the Afrasien languages. The ProtoAfrasien language was Verb-Object language too (
1991; Newman 2006).
Thus, this is a very ancient phenomenon, and Dene-Caucasian
languages belong to East-Eurasian cluster.
Chapter six discuses the issue of East-Asian haplogroup
N1-LLY22, which appeared in Volga-Ural region from Middle
or West Siberia in Early Holocene (10 KYA). This date coincides
with the date of Sino-Caucasian family divergence (1110 KYA).
The interesting fact is that the archaic subclade R1b1* (xR1b1a1,
R1b1a2) appeared in Volga-Ural region in the same time (Haak,
Lazaridis et al. 2015: 25, tab. 2). And, this R1b1* (xR1b1a1, R1b1a2)
is found in the man who belongs to the Proto-Ural anthropological
type (, 2000: 283).
The Proto-Ural anthropological type originated in Eastern
Eurasia (more probably Middle Siberia), in the Early Holocene. I
suggest that the origin of this type is mainly the result of an ancient
metization between the bearers of North-East-Eurasian haplogroups
Q and R, and bearers of haplogroup N (first of all N1-LLY22),
which more probably came to Middle Siberia from South China
1412 KYA. This correlates with conclusion of some other
researchers: N1b , ( 2012: 27).
So, I think that all these facts make probable the supposition
that N1-LLY22 in Volga-Ural region also marks the migration

176

177

Summary

Summary

of some Sino-Caucasian people from Eastern Eurasia in Early


Holocene.
The important data, I think, present here some recent results
of O. P. Balanovsky ( 2012: 34, . 16). He detected
and mapped the so-called South Chinese continuum of mtDNA
haplogroups. This continuum includes Caucasus, Volga-Ural region,
South-Western coast of Caspian Sea, and Transcaucasia (and do
not include the territory of Turkey, North-Western Iran, and Zagros).
I suppose, it evidently correlates with the conclusions of EastEurasian hypothesis.
Chapter seven (7.3) pay special attention to the issue of
G1 haplogroup also. I think that G1 came into Kazakhstan and
Central Asia not later than in Early Holocene. The evident argument,
besides some others (look at: , 2015: 5758),
is the fact that G1 riches the highest frequencies (up to 80%) in NorthEastern Kazakhstan, where according to anthropological data the
Kazakh populations exhibit more frank mongoloid traits (,
2009: 92).
The same situation we see with haplogroups R1a and R1b in
Altay region and Tuva (chapter 8.2). The R1a in Tuva demonstrate
the highest frequencies in Todja population, which is more mongoloid
than populations of Western Tuva ( 2013: 1420). And, in
South Altay region this haplogroup riches the highest frequency
(up to 60%) in more mongoloid Altay-Kjji population as well
(, . 2014: 51).
In the North Altay region the Northern Altayans and Shors exhibit
the highest frequencies (more than 60%) of R1a or R1b, and Q. And,
namely these populations belong to very clear representatives of Ural
anthropological type ( 2004: 182; 2008: 357).
I think, the more reasonable explanation is the supposition that
all these haplogroups, including G1, were presented in Central Asia
before the Ural and Mongoloid races appeared.
To finish this summary, I would like to drow attention to chapter
five, which considers haplogroups L and T. The haplogroups L

and T are descendants of haplogroup K (as well as East-Eurasian


P, R, Q, S, N. O, M), but originated in West Asia. However, some
peculiaritias of their spread in India (both L and T are abcent or near
abcent in Austro-Asiatic peoples in India, while haplogroups J and
F are present, and with frequencies as high as in Dravidians) allow
me to suppose that their immediate ancestor, haplogroup LT, came to
West Asia from Noth-Eastern Eurasia during the Upper Paleolithic,
but later than haplogroups J and F entered India.
Next, I tried to demonstrate (in 5.3) also that there is a clear
correlation of haplogroups T and E-M35 with OV-languages in Africa.
This correlation coincides with my previous suppositions (
2013: 270271; , 2014: 60; this paper, chapters
4.2 and 6) concerning the so-called Khartum Mesolithic.
Therefore, these are some main results and conclusions of this
research.

178

179

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. . 2013. : .
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-, -
.
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, ). . XXIII
(), 2: 2536.
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. . 2014. -,
- . . XXIII
(), 2: 4655.
. . 2012. :
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1975 . 1997
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E-mail: dierevo@mail.ru ,dierevo5@gmail.com
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