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TOPIC 1

STEAM POWER PLANT


( LOJI JANAKUASA STIM )

OUT COMES
This topic describes the steam
power plant
application,
main
components of a steam power
plant,
boilers,
the
various
connections to boiler and the types
of boiler, construction, function of
13 essentials fitting, the purpose
and
use
of
heat
conserving
equipment / thermal
insulation
facility of a steam power plant
also discussed.

Nesjavellir Power Plant in Iceland

A thermal power
station near Sofia,
Bulgaria

Mohave Generating
Station near Laughlin
Nevada (1,580 MW)

Pengkelasan Operasi Loji Kuasa


Stim
Litar
Litar
Litar
Litar

gas relau
stim
air penyejuk pemeluwap
udara penyejuk

Steam Power Plant

Steam Power Plant Design

Komponen asas dalam Loji


Kuasa Stim

Dandang (boiler)
Turbin stim (steam turbine)
Pemeluwap (condensor)
Tangki bekalan (feed tank)
Pam bekal (feed pump)
Menara penyejuk (cooling
tower)
Pemanas lampau (super
heater)

Susun atur asas bagi sebuah loji


kuasa stim

DANDANG (BOILER)

Dandang digunakan untuk menjana stim


bagi menggerakkan penggerak utama
(prime mover).
Dandang adalah bekas tertutup, dimana
air di bawah tekanan ditukar menjadi
stim akibat menerima haba hasil dari
pembakaran bahan api.

DANDANG (BOILER)

Bentuk dandang adalah seperti sebuah


silinder tertutup.
Pelbagai jenis reka bentuk dandang,
umumnya
dandang tiub api
dandang tiub air.
Diperbuat daripada keluli.
Dram (gelendong) dan tiub biasanya
terletak di bahagian atas relau.

DANDANG (BOILER)

Air yang dirawat secara kimia akan


dipam ke dalam dram (gelendong).
Air dipanaskan secara pembakaran
bahan api di dalam relau, atau secara
penyaluran gas bersuhu tinggi di dalam
penukar haba.
Stim yang dijana boleh mencapai
tekanan maksimum 240Mpa dengan
suhu maksimum 540 darjah C.

Authorized Safe Working


Pressure (ASWP)
Means the maximum possible pressure at
which a steam boiler or unfired pressure
vessel may be operated as assigned by the
Chief Inspector and as stated on the current
certificate of fitness relating to such steam
boiler or unfired pressure vessel
Chief Inspector and Inspector mean officer
appointed under section 4(1) of the Act

Design Pressure ..
Means the maximum pressure at
which the manufacturer of the steam
boiler or unfired pressure vessel or any
setting or pipe work associated there
with designed the same to operate.

Working Pressure
Normal operating pressure of the
boiler which is always lower than the
ASWP

Basic Boiler Principle

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water


or other fluid is heated. The heated or
vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in
various processes or heating applications

Basic Boiler Principle

Direction of axis of shell @ drum


vertical / horizontal
The way of erected stationary ,
portable, marine
Location of the furnace internally @
externally fired
Position of water & hot gases water
tube @ fire tube.
As special boiler natural circulation,
force circulation and one through

Basic Boiler Principle


There are 3 range of boiler depending on
usage

LOW PRESSURE STEAM BOILER


raging up to 15 psi
Used for space heating, cooking, and hot
water distribution within building

Basic Boiler Principle


There are 3 range of boiler depending on
usage

MEDIUM PRESSURE STEAM BOILER


raging between 25psi to 50psi
Used in industrial heating, cooking, and
sterilization

Basic Boiler Principle


There are 3 range of boiler depending on
usage

HIGH PRESSURE STEAM BOILER


Pressure more than 100psi

Basic Boiler Principle

Classed by the relative


arrangement of hot gas
passages, for example

Water tube boiler.

Fire tube boiler


Water tube boiler

Fire tube boiler

Boiler Principle

Diagram of
a fire-tube
boiler

Boiler Principle

Diagram of a
water-tube boiler

TUGASAN INDIVIDU
i. Apakah yang membezakan antara tiub
dan paip
ii. 15 psi = ? Bar

FIRE TUBE BOILER

FIRE TUBE BOILER

A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in


which hot gases from a fire pass
through one or more tubes running
through a sealed container of water.

FIRE TUBE BOILER

The heat energy from the gases


passes through the sides of the tubes
by thermal conduction, heating the
water and ultimately creating steam.

FIRE TUBE BOILER

Types of fire tubes boiler


Horizontal Fire-Tube boiler
Vertical Fire-Tube boiler
Lancashire boiler
Cornish boiler
Scotch marine boiler
Locomotive boiler

FIRE TUBE BOILER


a. Horizontal Return
Tubular boiler
Horizontal Return
Tubular boiler (HRT) has a
horizontal cylindrical shell,
containing several
horizontal flue tubes, with
the fire located directly
below the boiler's shell,
usually within a brickwork
setting
Flue : serombong asap;serombong
Brickwork : binaan bata

FIRE TUBE BOILER

Horizontal Return Tabular


(HRT)

FIRE TUBE BOILER


b. Vertical boiler
Type of fire-tube boiler
where the boiler barrel is
oriented vertically instead
of the more common
horizontal orientation.
Vertical boilers were used
for a variety of steampowered vehicles and
other mobile machines,
including early steam
locomotives.
barrel : tong

Three river steamboats


featuring a vertical boiler

FIRE TUBE BOILER

Lancashire boiler in Germany


Side-section of a Scotch marine
boiler: the arrows show direction
of flue gas flow; the combustion
chamber is on the right, the
smokebox on the left.

OPERATION OF FIRE TUBE


BOILER

FIRE TUBE BOILER


Operation

Schematic diagram of a "locomotive" type fire-tube boiler

In the locomotive-type boiler, fuel is burnt in a


firebox to produce hot combustion gases.
The firebox is surrounded by a cooling jacket of
water connected to the long, cylindrical boiler
shell.

FIRE TUBE BOILER


Operation

Schematic diagram of a "locomotive" type fire-tube boiler

The hot gases are directed along a series of fire


tubes, or flues, that penetrate the boiler and heat
the water thereby generating saturated ("wet")
steam.
The steam rises to the highest point of the boiler,
the steam dome, where it is collected.

thereby : dengan yang demikian

FIRE TUBE BOILER


Operation

Schematic diagram of a "locomotive" type fire-tube boiler

The dome is the site of the regulator that


controls the exit of steam from the boiler.

FIRE TUBE BOILER


Kelebihan dandang tiub
api

Pembinaan dan rekabentuk


mudah
kos permulaan yang
rendah

Kekurangan dandang tiub


api

Padat dalam rekabentuk


Menduduki ruang lantai
yang minima

Kebuk dan sambungan terdedah


kepada haba relau,
menambahkan bahaya letupan
Isipadu adalah besar dan
peredaran air kurang baik,
mengakibatkan reaksi yang
perlahan kepada perubahan
kepada keperluan stim
Muatan, tekanan dan suhu stim
adalah terhad
Masa diperlukan untuk
menjalankan dandang daripada
sejuk adalah lama disebabkan
peredaran air kurang baik.

WATER TUBE BOILER

WATER TUBE BOILER


A water-tube boiler is a type of
boiler in which water circulates in
tubes heated externally by the fire.
Water-tube boilers are used for
high-pressure boilers

WATER TUBE BOILER


Classified into

Straight-tube water
tube boiler

Vertical water tube


boiler

Bent-tube boiler

Modern bent-tube
boilers

WATER TUBE BOILER


a. Straight-tube

(a) Longitudinal-drum type

(b) cross-drum type.

Early straight-tube water tube boiler.

WATER TUBE BOILER


b. Vertical water
tube boiler

WATER TUBE BOILER


c. Bent-tube boiler

WATER TUBE BOILER


c. Bent-tube boiler

WATER TUBE BOILER


d. Modern Bent-Tube Boilers

Jenis D

Type A

Jenis O

OPERATION OF
WATER TUBE BOILER

WATER TUBE BOILER

Fuel in water-tube boiler is burned inside


the furnace, creating hot gas which heats
up water in the steam-generating tubes

WATER TUBE BOILER

In smaller boilers, additional generating


tubes are separate in the furnace, while
larger utility boilers rely on the water-filled
tubes that make up the walls of the furnace
to generate steam.

WATER TUBE BOILER

The heated water then rises into the steam drum.


Here, saturated steam is drawn off the top of the
drum. In some services, the steam will reenter the
furnace in through a superheater in order to
become superheated.

WATER TUBE BOILER

Superheated steam is used in driving turbines.


Since water droplets can severely damage turbine
blades, steam is superheated to 730F (390C)
or higher in order to ensure that there is no water
entrained in the steam.

WATER TUBE BOILER


Kelebihan Dandang Tiub
Air

Menggunakan tiub bergarispusat


kecil bagi membolehkan
penghantaran haba berlaku dengan
cepat
Kerosakkan pada tiub kecil tidak
akan mengakibatkan letupan.
Peredaran air adalah baik, oleh itu
stim boleh didapati dengan cepat
apabila dipanas daripada sejuk.
Tekanan dan suhu tinggi disebabkan
oleh saiz kebuk kecil, dan banyak
stim boleh diperolehi.
Semua bahagian-bahagian senang
didekati untuk dibersihkan,
diperiksa dan diperbaiki.
Reaksi dengan cepat kepada
keperluan stim
Kadar kecekapan yang tinggi

Kekurangan Dandang
Tiub Air

Kos pembinaan tinggi


pada permulaannya.
Proses pembersihan
adalah sukar merujuk
kepada rekabentuknya.
Menggunakan tiub yang
terlampau banyak.
Terdapat tiub-tiub
berbeza saiz
Saiznya yang besar
merupakan satu isu

WATER TUBE BOILER


Function of baffles
Support the tubes for structural
rigidity,
Prevent tube vibration and
sagging
Divert the flow across the bundle
Obtain a higher heat transfer
coefficient
rigidity : ketegaran;kekakuan

WATER TUBE BOILER

Schematic flow through baffles tube bundles.


Effect of baffles

LEKAPAN DANDANG

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Lekapan dandang bermaksud komponen


asas yang terpasang pada dandang
untuk membantu kecekapan dan
keselamatan dandang semasa
dioperasikan

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Antaranya

Injap keselamatan (safety valve)


Tolok tekanan (pressure gauge)
Injap tiub turun (blowdown valve)
Pam suaan (feed water pump)
Feed water check valve
Palam boleh lebur (fusible plug)

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Antaranya

Low water fuel cut out


Main steam stop valve
Tolok air (glass gauge)
Tiang air (water column)
Injap-injap

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Injap keselamatan (safety valve)

Untuk menjamin tekanan dandang tidak melebihi


tekanan selamat yang telah disetkan.

Melepaskan stim yang berlebihan ke atmosfera dan


menutupkannya secara automatik apabila tekanan
dandang kembali normal.

Injap ini terbahagi kepada dua iaitu jenis tetap dan


boleh laras.

Dipasang pada bahagian atas dandang atau bahagian


stim terkumpul.

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Exterior and sectional views of


spring pop safety valve

LEKAPAN DANDANG

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.

Consolidated maxi
flow safety valve

spring compression
lifting gear
spindle
back pressure
blow down control
lift stop adjustment
groove disk holder
upper adjusting ring
thermel disk seat
inlet neck
inlet connection

LEKAPAN DANDANG
To release the boiler pressure in the event of high pressure
exceeding the ASWP

must be able to discharge the steam & maintain pressure


NOT MORE THAN 10 % ASWP

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Tolok tekanan (pressure gauge)

Untuk mengetahui tekanan stim dalam


dandang.

Tolok Bourdon adalah alatan yang


sesuai

Terletak pada bahagian atas dandang


atau bahagian stim terkumpul.

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Steam pressure gauges

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Various forms of connection for a


stem gauge

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Blowdown valve
to remove impurities and control water level

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Feed Water Pump


to draws water from feed
tank and deliver it under
pressure to the boiler

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Feed Water Check Valve
Feed Water Check Valve is to
control amount of water to
the boiler & to prevent
backflow of feed water from
boiler

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Prevent backflow of
feed water from
boiler

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Palam boleh lebur (fusible plug)

Pada dandang tiub air, dipasang pada bahagian paling atas


ruang pembakaran.

Tidak sesuai untuk dandang yang menggunakan gas


sebagai bahan pemanas

Keadaan normal palam tidak akan lebur sebab disejukkan


oleh air disekelilinginya

Pada dandang tiub api, dipasang pada paras air paling


minima yang diperlukan oleh dandang

Tetapi sekiranya paras air berkurangan dan mendedahkan


palam pada haba pemanasan, maka timah pada saluran
tengah palam akan melebur dan membenarkan stim
ditolak ke ruang pembakaran bagi memadamkan api
pembakaran

LEKAPAN DANDANG
to give early protection from direct heat in the event of loss
of water boiler use in solid fuel boiler

Three fusible plug design in common


Use on steam boiler
a.
b.
c.

Waterside
Bolt-head fireside
Socket-head fireside

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Palam boleh lebur


(fusible plug)

LEKAPAN DANDANG
to stop the boiler immediately by cut out fuel & air
supply in the event of very low water level

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Main Stop Valve
to put boiler into service & stop the steam supply when
boiler is shut down

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Tolok air (glass gauge)

Penunjuk paras air dalam dandang

Diperbuat daripada kaca bulat dan ditandakan dengan


tiga tandaan
paras air paling minima
paras air pertengahan
paras air paling maksima

Dipasang pada kedudukan bawahnya terletak dua inci


lebih atas dari paras air dandang yang terendah. Ini
bertujuan untuk memastikan tidak ada sebarang
kerosakkan sebelum paras terendah tercapai

LEKAPAN DANDANG
High-pressure gauge glass

Low-pressure gauge glass

Tolok Air (Gauge Glass)

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Tiang air (water column)

Tiang air disambung antara bahagian atas (stim)


dengan bahagian bawah (air dandang)

Berfungsi sebagai penstabil dan mencegah air


daripada naik dan turun dengan keterlaluan dalam
tolok air

Juga bertindak sebagai perangkap kekotoran


kerana ia mudah ditanggalkan dan dibersihkan

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Water column on the


fire tube boiler

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Water column on the water tube boiler

PEMELUWAP

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan
Classified into two main types the coolant and condensate

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan
Condenser is a heat exchanger which
condenses a substance from its gaseous to its
liquid state. In so doing, the latent heat is
given up by the substance, and will transfer to
the condenser coolant. Use of cooling water or
surrounding air as the coolant is common in
many condensers.

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan

Tray condenser

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan

Spray condenser
Forced draft, air cooled exchanger
used as a condensor

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan

Example of shell-side condenser with a single tube-side pass

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers


Association (TEMA) shell-type condenser

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan

Basic construction of a plate-fin exchanger

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Pemeluwap Permukaan

Spiral exchanger for condenser application

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)
Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to
transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)
Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of
water to remove process heat and cool the
working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature
or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to
near the dry-bulb air temperature.

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)
Common applications include cooling the circulating
water used in oil refineries, chemical plants, power plants
and building cooling.

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)
The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very
large hyperboloid structures (as in Image 1) that can be
up to 200 meter tall and 100 meter in diameter, or
rectangular structures (as in Image 2) that can be over
40 meter tall and 80 meter long.

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)
Smaller towers are normally factory-built, while larger
ones are constructed on site

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK
Cooling Tower (Menara Penyejuk)

Image 1
Natural draft wet cooling hyperbolic towers at
Didcot Power Station, UK

PEMELUWAP PERMUKAAN DAN MENARA


PENYEJUK

Image 2
A mechanical induced draft cooling tower

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
Fungsi peralatan penjimat
Meningkatkan kecekapan, menjimatkan
kos kendalian dan memastikan kadar
kehilangan haba paling minima
Berfungsi dengan bantuan
stim yang telah diekzoskan (primary feed
water heater), atau
gas panas hasil pembakaran (secondary
feed water heater)

PERALATAN PENJIMAT

PERALATAN PENJIMAT

Peralatan Penjimat haba


Pemanas lampau (superheater)
Pemanas air suaan (feed water heater)
i. sistem terbuka
ii. sistem tertutup
Penjimat (economizer)
Pra pemanas udara (pre-air heater)
Pembersih stim (stim purifier)

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
a. Pemanas Lampau (Superheater)

A superheater is a device in a steam engine that


heats the steam generated by the boiler again,
increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the
likelihood (kemungkinan) that it will condense
(memeluwap) inside the engine.

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
a. Pemanas Lampau (Superheater)

Superheaters increase the efficiency of the steam


engine. Steam which has been superheated is
logically known as superheated steam.

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
a. Pemanas Lampau (Superheater)

General arrangement of a superheater installation in a steam


locomotive

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
a. Pemanas Lampau (Superheater)
Superheater viewed from
the smokebox.
Top center is the
superheater header, with
pipes leading to cylinders.
Tubes below feed steam
into and out of the
superheater elements
within the flues
(serombong).
The stack and the damper
have been removed for
clarity (kejelasan).

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
b. Pemanas air suaan (feed water heater)

Boiler feed water is water used to supply


("feed") a boiler to generate steam or hot
water.
At thermal power stations, the feed water is
usually stored, pre-heated and conditioned
in a condensor, and forwarded into the boiler
by a boiler feed water pump.

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
b. Pemanas air suaan (feed water heater)

Sistem pemanas air suapan terbuka

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
b. Pemanas air suaan (feed water heater)

Sistem pemanas air suapan


tertutup

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
c. Penjimat
Economizers are heat exchange devices that heat fluids,
usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point
of that fluid.
Economizers are so named because they can make use of
the enthalpy in fluid streams that are hot, but not hot enough
to be used in a boiler, thereby recovering more useful
enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency.
They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by
using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold
water used to fill it (the feed water).

Enthalpy ?

In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry,


the enthalpy (denoted as H, h, or rarely as
), which can be used to calculate the heat
transfer during a quasi-static process
(kelihatan seperti proses tetap) taking place
in a closed thermodynamic system under
constant pressure.

The term enthalpy was composed of the


prefix en-, meaning "to put into" and the
Greek word -thalpein, meaning "to heat",
although the original definition is thought to
have stemmed (kata dasar) from the word
"enthalpos"

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
d. Pra-Pemanas Udara

An air preheater or air heater is a general


term to describe any device designed to
heat air before another process
(for example, combustion in a boiler)
with the primary objective of increasing the
thermal efficiency of the process.
They may be used alone or to replace a
recuperative heat system or to replace a
steam coil.

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
d. Pra-Pemanas Udara

Schematic diagram
of typical coal-fired
power plant steam
generator
highlighting the air
preheater (APH)
location. (For
simplicity
(kemudahan), any
radiant section
tubing is not
shown.)

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
d. Pra-Pemanas Udara

The tubular air heater is


basically a nest of tubes
enclosed in a steel casing

PERALATAN PENJIMAT
d. Pra-Pemanas Udara

Gases flow through here,


while the air is directed
across tubes by baffles

Air passes inside tube


while the hot gas crosses at
the righ angles

RAWATAN AIR

RAWATAN AIR
Tujuan utama rawatan air adalah untuk
i.

Memanjangkan hayat dandang

ii.

Mencegah pembentukan sisik pada permukaan panas

iii. Mengawal jumlah enap cemar dalam air dandang


iv. Mengurangkan berlakunya kakisan
v.

Mengurangkan berlakunya bawa sebelah.

vi. Mencegah berlakunya rapuh kostik pada plat


sambungan bagi dandang
vii. Menghapuskan oksigen terlarut kerana mengakibatkan
kakisan berulang.
viii. Mengeluarkan kotoran umum dalam bekalan air
semulajadi seperti gas-gas larut, kekerasan, dan
bendasing.

RAWATAN AIR

Objektif utama dalam merawat air dandang


Pencegahan kotoran dalam dandang.
Pencegahan kakisan dalam dandang.
Pencegahan keretakan pada sambungan paip.
Pencegahan pencemaran stim.

RAWATAN AIR

Cara umum merawat air


i. Menggunakan penyejat (evaporator)
ii. Rawatan Lime Soda
iii. Rawatan lime soda sejuk
iv. Rawatan Zeolit

RAWATAN AIR
Kaedah Rawatan Air Dandang
Melibatkan rawatan air
i. dalaman
ii. luaran.
Penambahan pelembut lime soda digunakan
untuk bertindak balas dengan mineral larut serta
bahan asing.
Penapisan bertujuan mengeluarkan bahan asing
dan bahan bahan organik yang tak larut
Penukaran ion adalah dengan mengeluarkan
bahanbahan larut ketika air melalui kawasan
neutral.

RAWATAN AIR
a.

Rawatan air dalaman

Tindakan melembutkan air berlaku


dalam dandang.
Sesuai untuk loji kecil dan sederhana
dimana syarat kendalian tidak ketat.
Memasukkan bahan kimia terus ke
dalam air bekalan dandang.

RAWATAN AIR

b.

Rawatan air luaran

Rawatan air dilakukan di tempat lain


sebelum air suaan dipam masuk ke dalam
dandang

Terdapat loji rawatan air khas yang akan


merawat air.

RAWATAN AIR
Kesan Penggunaan Air Tidak Dirawat
i.

Wujud kerak

ii. Wujud enap cemar


ii. Terbentuk pembuasaan (foaming)
iii.Terbentuk penyebuan (priming)
iv. Bawa sebelah
v. Rapuh kostik

RAWATAN AIR
Priming
A violent, spasmodic, action which
result in the throwing of slugs of water
with steam. It is caused by too high
water level, uneven water circulation
and rapid changes in a steaming rate.

Foaming
Condition that results from the
formation of bubbles on the drum
water surface by the saponification
agents like oil, high alkalinity and
so on

RAWATAN AIR
Biologigal Oxygen Demand (BOD)
BOD (permintaan oksigen biokimia) bermaksud
menilai atau mengira keterlarutan oksigen yang
terkandung dalam air setelah proses pereputan
oleh mikroorganisma.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Bermaksud ujian kimia yang mengukur jumlah
oksigen yang boleh bergabung dengan sebatian
organik dalam sampel air.

PEMERIKSAAN DANDANG

PEMERIKSAAN DANDANG
Sebab kepada keperluan pemeriksaan dandang
i. Dandang lama digunakan dan tidak diselenggarakan
akan mengalami

Kehausan

Kakisan

Kerak

Minyak

Keretakan

ii. Bertujuan mengelakkan berlaku letupan dandang.


iii. Pemeriksa dandang dikawal oleh DOSH.
iv. Lesen pengendalian dandang hanya boleh
diperbaharui selepas pemeriksaan.

PEMERIKSAAN DANDANG
Langkah-langkah Penyediaan Dandang
Untuk Pemeriksaan
i.

Menanggalkan jelaga
Meniupkan udara atau stim panas lampau pada
dinding rongga pembakaran.

ii.

Menyalirkan dandang
Membiarkan tekanan dandang jatuh sehingga sifar
seterusnya buka injap cuci supaya air keluar.

iii. Membersihkan dandang


Selepas menanggalkan plat lorong (mainhole) dan
lubang tangan pada bahagian air, cuci kelompang
menggunakan air bertekanan tinggi.

PEMERIKSAAN DANDANG
Langkah-langkah Penyediaan Dandang Untuk
Pemeriksaan
iv. Mencari kesan minyak
Periksa kebuk di sepanjang paras air untuk mengesan
minyak dengan menyentuh sepanjang garisan
permukaan air. Caranya..
v.

Menanggalkan kerak
Periksa kelompang dan tiub dalam untuk mencari sisik.
Tanggalkan enapan lembut menggunakan pengikis dan
sisik keras dengan menggunakan tukul serpih.

vi. Jika palam boleh lebur pada drum(gelendung) stim berada


di dalam keadaan boleh lebur, maka ianya perlu diganti.
vii. Dandang sekarang adalah sedia untuk di periksa oleh
pihak yang berkuasa.

UJIAN DANDANG

UJIAN DANDANG
Ujian Dandang
Bertujuan memeriksa kebocoran pada sambungan
tiub, injap dan peralatan dalam gelendong (drum).

Setiap dandang mesti menjalani ujian hidrostatik

sebelum ia digunkan pada kali pertama.

selepas sebarang pembaikan yang boleh


mempengaruhi atau menjejaskan kekuatan dandang
pada jangka masa tidak lebih dari 7 tahun ianya
digunakan

UJIAN DANDANG
Antara lain tujuan menjalani ujian hidrostatik
keatas dandang.

bertujuan mengesan kebocoran tekanan dandang


bertujuan mengesan pesongan pada bahagianbahagian dandang.
bertujuan mengesan erotan pada bahagian-bahagian
dandang

UJIAN DANDANG

Dandang dibawah 100 psi diuji pada dua kali


ganda tekanan kerja maksima.
Dandang yang lebih dari 100 psi, tekanan
ujian ialah tekanan kerja x 1.5 + 50 psi.

UJIAN DANDANG
Langkah-langkah ujian hidrostik dandang
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

injap keselamatan pada gelendong ditanggalkan dan


ditutup
tolok tekanan dandang digantikan dengan tolok tekanan
pemeriksaan.
gelendong diisi air hingga penuh.
tekanan dinaikkan dengan mengisi kedalam dandang
melalui pam suaan mengikut tempoh masa tertentu
bila tekan ujian telah dicapai, injap cegah balik ditutup
dan pam suaan diberhentikan.
tekanan mestilah dibiarkan dalam dandang sekurangsurangnya selama 20 minit
jika terdapat kebocoran atau bahagian tekanan gagal,
tekanan akan diturunkan.
jika tekanan dipertahankan pada jeda ujian tanpa
kebocoran, pesongan atau erotan , maka dandang itu
diluluskan oleh pemeriksa.

Faktor Pemilihan Dandang?

Faktor Mengurangkan Kecekapan Dandang?

end..