Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 145

-

. .



MATLAB
MAPLE

-
2010


............................................................................................. 3
1
..................................................... 6
2 .......................................... 13
2.1 .............................................................................. 13
2.2 ........................................................................................... 15
2.3 ................................................................................... 17
2.4 .......................................................................... 20
2.5 ................................................................................ 22
2.5.1 , ................................ 22
2.5.2 , ............... 25
2.6 ........................................................................................................ 26

3 .................................. 28
4 ................................................... 30
.............................................................................................................. 32

5 ........................................................................ 33
5.1 .............................................................................. 35
5.2 .................................................................... 36
5.3 ................................................................... 38

6 ...................................................... 39
6.1 .................................................................................... 39
6.2 ............................................................. 41
6.3
.......................................................................................................................... 45
6.4 .................. 48
6.4.1 . ........................................................ 48
6.4.2. . .................................................................................... 48
6.4.3 . .............................................. 48
6.5 ............................................. 50
6.6 ............................................. 52
6.7 ...................................................... 53
6.8 ........................................................................................................ 54

7 .......................................................... 57
7.1 ................................................................. 57
7.2 ........................................ 59
7.3 ........................................................................................................ 61

8 ....................................................................... 62
.............................................................................................................. 64

9 ............................................................................ 66
9 ............................................................................ 67

.............................................................................................................. 70

10 ......................................................... 71
11 ....................................................... 73
.............................................................................................................. 75

12 .................................... 76
13 ........................................ 80
13.1 ......................................................................... 80
13.2 ........................................................... 82
13.3 ......................................................................... 84
13.4 ...................................................................................................... 88

14 ..................................... 91
14.1 ............................................ 93
14.2 ..................................................................................................... 95
14.3 .................................................................................................. 97

15 ................................................................ 100
15.1 ..................... 102
15.2 ............................................ 104
15.3 .................................................................................. 104
15.3 .................................................................................. 105
15.4 ..................................................................... 107
15.5 .................................................................................................... 109

16 ......................................... 111
16.1 () ........................................... 111
16.2 ............................................................................. 115

17
................................................. 117
17.1 .................................................................... 118
17.2 ................................................................................ 121
17.3 , ..... 125
18.1 .................................................................................... 129
18.2 ........................................................... 133
18.2 ........................................................... 134
18.3 ...................................................................................... 137
18.4 ................................................................... 139

.................................................................................... 140
C ...................................................................... 141

........................................................................................ 142

,
[1].
,
, ,

. -

, ,
.


,
,
,

.

,
, ,
.

[2].

,


,
.

,

. ,

, . , ,
,
.
,

.

,
,
, . .
.
,
, ,
S,
. ,
,
.

,

.
, ,
,

- ,
: ,
, ,
,
,
,
.
.

, ,
, . .
.


, ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
.

, ,
,
S.
.

, . ,
,
,
.

.

,
.
.


() S.
S

.
,
, -
.
,

.

MATLAB MAPLE [3,4].

1

.
,
,
.
dx/dt = f(t) f
= f(t), t,
, , ,
, .
,
, [5]:
1.1. :
dx
= x2 + t 2
dt
x(t), '(t)
= dx/dt. :
d2y
dy
+
3
+ 7y = 0
dx 2
dx
: ( ) '
( ) ".
.
1. ,
.
2.
.
3. .
,
- , 3 + 72 - 11 + 41 = 0.

= (),
'() = 2() .
, .
1.2.

y ( x ) = Ce x

(1.1)

2
2
dy
= C 2 xe x = ( 2 x ) Ce x = 2 xy
dx

, () (1.1)
:
dy/dx=2xy
(1.2)
. , (1.1)
,
.
[5] ,
(1.2) ,
(1.1).

.
t,
, , ,
.
1.3. , ,
: (
t) T(t)

(. 1.1). ,
dT
= k (T A) ,
dt

(1.3)
k . , > , dT/dt < 0,
t, .
< , dT/dt > 0, .
, (1.3). k ,
T(t), , ,
.
A
T

.1.1. ,

,
.. (1.3),

.

. 1.2.
, .. (1.4),

.
7

1.4. ,
V , (.
1.2),
:
dV
= k y
(1.4)
dt
k .
, V = , dV/dt = A(dy/dt).
(1.4) :

dy
= h y
dt
h =k/A .
1.5.

P(t) . :
dP
= kP
(1.5)
dt
k .
1.5 . ,
:
P(t)=ekt
(1.6)
(1.5).
:
P'(t) = Ckekt = k(Cekt) = kP(t)
t.
(1.6) (1.5) ,
(1.5).
, k ,
dP/dt = k
P(t)=ekt,
"" ,
.

, .
1.6. , P(t)=ekt
t. t = 0
1000 .
P(t)
:
1000 = (0) = Ce0 = C,
2000 = (1) = Cek.

, = 1000 ek = 2, k = ln 2
0.693147. k (1.5)
:
dP
= (ln 2) P 0.693147 P
dt
k = ln 2 = 1000 (1.6) P(t) =
ln2 t
1000(e ) = 10002t ( eln2 =2),
. ,
. ,
(t = 1.5) :
(1.5) = 1000 23/2 2828.
(0) = 1000 6 ,
, t = 0
" ". . 3
P(t) = ekt k = ln 2.
dP/dt = k
, . ,
P0 P (0).
, ,
(0)=P0 ,
.
MATLAB
k=log(2);
t=-1:0.5:5;
C=[ -0.12; -0.06; -0.03; -0.01; -0.005; 0.005; 0.01; 0.03; 0.06; 0.12];
P=C*exp(k*t);
plot(t,P);
title('P(t)=C*e^k^*^t');
xlabel('t');
ylabel('P(t)');
text(3.1,2.78, 'P(t)= 0.12*e^k^*^t\rightarrow');
text(3.45,1.78, 'P(t)= 0.06*e^k^*^t\rightarrow');
text(3.2,0.85, 'P(t)= 0.03*e^k^*^t\rightarrow');
text(3.1,-0.78, 'P(t)= -0.03*e^k^*^t\rightarrow');
text(3.45,-1.78, 'P(t)= -0.06*e^k^*^t\rightarrow');
text(3.1,-2.78, 'P(t)= -0.12*e^k^*^t\rightarrow');
grid on
1.5 1.6
(. 1.4),
.

P(t)=C*ek*t
4
3

P(t)= 0.12*ek*t

P(t)= 0.06*ek*t

P(t)

P(t)= 0.03*ek*t

0
P(t)= -0.03*ek*t

-1

P(t)= -0.06*ek*t

-2

P(t)= -0.12*ek*t

-3
-4
-1

2
t

. 1.3. P(t) = ekt k = ln 2.

. 1.4.

10

1. .
.
2. .
3.
, ,
.
,

. (P t),
,
, (dP/dt = k, (0)=P0 ),

.
(
, t).
, ,
.
,
.
,
. , (1.5)
P(t) = ekt ,
k P(t)
.
,
,
, .
,
1.5, ,
.
, (1.5)
. ,

.

, .
, , .

:
,
,
,
. ,

11

,
.
, ,
. , ,

. ,

.
,
,
.

12

2
2.1


( ,
), , [6].
( ) :
x = f( t)
.. , t.
:
v(t)=f(t), .. v = dx/dt.
a(t) a(t) = v'(t) = x"(t) ,
:
dv d 2 x
a=
=
dt dt 2
(
) , F(t) ,
, :
ma(t) = F(t); .. F = ma,
m .
F , x"(t) = F(t)/m
. ,
x(t). ,
.
0= (0)
v0 = v(0) .
. , F,
= F/m, . :
dv
a=
(a ).
dt
, :
v(t ) = adt = at + C1
, v = v0, t = 0,
C1= v0.

v(t ) =

dx
= at + v 0 .
dt

:
1 2
at + v 0 t + C 2 ,
2
t = 0, x = x0 2 = x0. :
x (t ) = vdt = (at + v 0 )dt =

13

(2.1)

1 2
at + v0t + x0 .
(2.2)
2
, (2.1),
, (2.2)
t, ,
v0 x0.
x (t ) =

14

2.2
. 2.1
w = 2. = ,
. ,
,
:

x2
v R = v0 1 2 .
(2.3)
a
(2.3) ,
, vR = v0, vR = 0 .
y
vR
(a , 0)

vs

(a , 0)

. 2.1. .

, (, 0)
vs
. .2.1,
( ) vs
vR. ,
:
v
tan = R .
vS
tan = dy/dx, (2.3)
:
dy v0 x 2
= 1
(2.4)
dx v S a 2
= () .

2.1. , 2 ,
v0 = 15 /.
vs = 5 /, (2.4) :
y = 3(1 x2) = 3 3x2.
:
y ( x ) = (3 3 x 2 )dx = 3 x x 3 + C

15

.
(1) = 0 = 2. :
3
(x) = 3x x + 2.

(1) = 3 1 + 2 = 4.
, 4 ,
2 .

16

2.3
, (, 0),
,
(0,0). v0
, w.
. 2.2, , .
. 2.3
. :
v0 x
dx
dt = v 0 cos = 2
x + y2

dy = v sin = v0 y
+w
0
2
2
dt
x
+
y

. 2.3.

. 2.2.

, = f(x)
:

dy dy / dt
1
=
=
v0 y w x 2 + y 2 .
dx dx / dt v0 x

(2.5)

k=w/v0, . k,
, (2.5)
:
y 2
dy y
= k 1 +
dx x
x

1/ 2

y = xv, ' = v + xv' :


1
1
dv
=

k
1+ v2
x dx.
, , :

ln v + 1 + v 2 = k ln x + C ,

17

(2.6)

v(a) = 0 C = klna. , :
k
k
x
x
x
2
2
ln v + 1 + v = k ln x + k ln a = k ln = ln v + 1 + v =
a
a
a

1
2
x
x
v
v
1
+
+
+
=
+
=


2
a
a
v + 1+ v

2v 2 + 2v 1 + v 2 + 2
v + 1 + v2

v + 1 + v2

) = 2v

2v v + 1 + v 2
v + 1 + v2

) + 1 = v + 2v 1 + v
2

v + 1 + v2

+ 1 + v2 + 1

v + 1 + v2

k
k
1 x
x
v = + .
2 a
a

y=xv, :
a x
y ( x ) =
2 a

1 k

1+ k

x
+
a

(2.7)

.
, . 2.4,
(2.7), k < 1 (. .
w < v0), .
w = v0 ( k = 1), (2.7) y(x)=(1/2)(1
2/2), (0, /2),
(0,0). , w > v0 ( k > 1) ,
(2.7), +, x 0.
MATLAB
clc
clear
syms a v0 u x k
a = vpa('800'); %
v0= vpa('800'); % , /
w = vpa('40'); % , /
k = w/v0;
y=a/2*( (x/a)^(1-k)-(x/a)^(1+k));
ezplot(y);
if eval(k) < 1
d_y=diff(y,x);
% ,
% , . y(x) 0<x<a
x_del_a= solve(d_y,x)/a;
y_max=simplify(a/2*(x_del_a^(1-k)-x_del_a^(1+k)))
end

18

400.0 (0.00125 x)0.5 - 400.0 (0.00125 x)1.5


35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

. 2.4. 2.7.

19

2.4
2.2.
450 (/).

() 2.5 (/2) (
, , ).

, " " (v = 0
)?
. x(t)
(. 2.5).

t = 0. v0 = 450 (/, ,
x(t) ), = +2. 5,
v ( |v|). (2.1)
(2.2) :
v(t) = 2.5t - 450
(2.8)

x(t) = 1.25 t2 450t + x0,


(2.9)
x0
t = 0,
.
(2.8) , v = 0 ( )
, t =450/2.5=180 (. . 3 ); t =
180, = 0 (2.2) :
x0= 0 (1.25)(180)2 + 450(180)= 40500 .
.. x0= 40.5 . ,
,
40.5 .
3 .
y

. 2.5. .

20

MATLAB
clc
clear
x=0; %
a=2.5; %
v0=-450; %
t=-v0/a %
x0=x-1/2*a*t^2-v0*t %
m

. ,
(F=ma) , v ,
m, :
dv
m = FG
(2.10)
dt
FG = mg , g
( ).
2.3. ,
(y0 = 0) v0 = 49 (/).
(2.10) g = 9.8 :
dv
= 9.8 , v(t) = (9.8)t + v0 = (9.8)t + 49.
dt

, ( )
y(t) :
y ( t ) = ( 9.8 ) t + 49 dt = ( 4.9 ) t 2 + 49t + y0 = ( 4.9 ) t 2 + 49t.

, v(t) = (9.8)t + 49 =
0. , t = 5 (). , :
ymax = y(5) = (4.9)(52) + (49) (5) = 122.5 ().
, = (4.9)t(t 10) = 0, .. 10
.
. FR,
m,
(2.10):

dv
= FG + FR
dt

21

2.5
(Principia Mathematica)
, , FR
: FR = kv2.
,
.
, FR = kvp, 1 2 k
, .
, =1 =2
, 1 < < 2.
" " " "
, k.
,
. , FR
, =1 =2. ,
,

.
2.5.1 ,
m
.
FG FR ,
( = 1). , ,
.
, = 0
, :
FG = mg FR = kv
(2.11)
k v = dy/dt .
, "" (2.11) FR (
), (v ) FR
( ) (v
). , , :
F = FR + FG = FG = kv mg,
F = m(dv/dt)
dv
m = kv mg .
dt
,
dv
= v g ,
(2.12)
dt

22

= k/m > 0. ,
,
(2.12) dv/dt = v + g.
(2.12)
, :

g
g
v(t ) = v0 + e t .
(2.13)

v0 = v(0) . , :
g
vT = lim v(t ) = .
t

, ,
,
, :
g mg
vT = =
.
(2.14)

k
, .
,
.
(2.13) :
v (t ) =

dy
= ( v0 vT ) e t + vT .
dt

(2.15)

:
y(t) = (1/)(v0 vT)et + vT t + C.
0 t y0 = y(0)
, , = y0 + (v0 vT)/ , :
y(t) = y0 + vT t + (1/)(v0 vT)(1 et).
(2.16)
(2.15) (2.16) v ,

. y0 ,
v0 . (
, , -
aR = v.)
vT, (2.14).
, ,
1.5, |vT| 6.5
. -,
, ,
, , 0.5, |vT| 20
.
2.4. ,
v0 = 49 / .

23

, =
0.04 (2.12). ,
,
2.3.
. y0 = 0, v0 = 49 vT = /g = 245 (2.13)
:
v(t) = 294et/25 245, y(t) = 7350 245t 7350et/25.
, ,
( v = 0). :
v(t) = 294et/25 245 = 0
tmax = 25ln(294/245)4.558 (). ymax=
v(tmax)108.280 ( 122,5 ,
). , ,
:
y(t) = 7350 245t 7350et/25= 0.
,
t0 = 8 tn+1 = tn y(tn)/y'(tn)
.
MATLAB.
clc
clear
a=7350;
b=245;
c=25;
%
t = 8:0.001:10;
y = a-b*t-a*exp(-t/c);
plot(t,y);
grid on
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30

8.2

8.4

8.6

8.8

9.2

9.4

9.6

9.8

10

24

, y(t) Ot t
= 9.4. :
f = @(t)a-b*t-a*exp(-t/c);
z = fzero(f,9)
z = 9.4109.
, tf 9.41 (
10 , ).
|v(tf )| 43,227 / (
49 /).
,
,
. ,
, .
2.5.2 ,
,
:
FR = kv2
(2.17)
k > 0. ,
.
FR < 0 ( v >
0) FR > 0 ( v < 0). , FR
v, (2.17)
:
FR = kv|v|
:
dv
m
= FG + FR = mg kv v ,
dt
..
dv
= g v v ,
(2.18)
dt
= k/m > 0. .
. ,
y0 v0 > 0.
(2.18) v > 0 :

dv
= g v 2 = g 1 + v 2
dt
g

. , ( )
y0 v0 0.
(2.18) v<0 :

dv
= g + v 2 = g 1 v 2 .
dt
g

25

2.6
1. Maserati
250 / .
100 / 10 .
,
200 /?
2. , ,
v , dv/dt = kv.
) , t
: v(t) = v0ekt x(t) = x0 + v0(1 ekt)/k.
b) , ,
.
3. , 1.5 /,
, 10
0.5 /. , 2,
,
, .
?
4. , ,
v,
dv/dt = kv2. ,
v(t) = v0/(1+ v0kt) x(t) = x0 + ln(1+ v0kt)/k.
, 2, x(t)
t .
5.
( 4), ,
3
?
6. , , v,
, dv/dt= kv3/2. ,
v(t ) =

(kt

4v 0
v0 + 2

2
2
.
v 0 1

k
kt v0 + 2
,
3/2, .
7. ,
3 /2,
x(t ) = x0 +

26

0.05 /2
.
) () .
b) , 90%
, ?
8. 7, ,
- (0,001 )v2 /2,
v /.
9. 14000 ,
2500 . , 100
/ v .
14000

dv
= 2500 100v.
dt

,
?
10. 3000 ,
20 , .
, ? , : pv /2 = 0.15
=1.5 . (.
.)
11. , ,
400 , ,
,
.
160 / 8 .
. (. , ,
160 /. ,
400 .)
12. ,
W = 260 2 ,
(v0 = 0).
, , :
m

dv
= W + B + FR ,
dt

,
( ), FR ,
, 1.5 .
22.5 ,
, ,
? (. 1000 /3.)

27

3

,
, , .
,
M m, :
GMm
F= 2 ,
(3.1)
r
G .
,
, .

2006

G
11
=(6.674280.00067)10 --1, -.
,
.
r
.
3.1. ,
53 ,
, 1477 /.
, ,
= 4 /2.
,
" " (v = 0 )?
. r(t)
t (. 3.1). ()
() F/m = GM/r2
(3.1), ,
:
d 2r
GM
=T 2
(3.2)
2
dt
r
= 7.351022 () , R = 1.74106
( 1740 , ). ,

t, :
dr
d 2 r dv dv dr
dv
v= ,
=
=

=
v
dt
dt 2 dt dr dt
dr
:

dv
GM
=T 2
dr
r

r. r

28

1 2
GM
v = Tr +
+C ,
2
r

(3.3)

( = 0),
( = 4).

rR

. 3.1. , .
. = 0 (3.3)
:
1 2 GM
v =
+ C1
r
2

(3.4)
1 = v0 GM/r0,
2

v0 = 1477

1
14770
1000

3600
36

r0 = (1.74106) + 53000 = 1.793106 (


-).
. = 4 v = 0, r = R
( ) (3.3) :
1 2
GM
+ C2
v = 4r +
2
r

(3.5)

2 = 4R GM/R v = 0, r =
R .

(3.4)
(3.5). , h
,
(3.3) (3.4). r = (C1 C2)/4 =
1.78187106 , , h = r R = 41870 (. . 41.87 ). ,
r (3.4) v = 450 /
.

29

4
, 1865
, ,
, , .
,
v0 , .
, v=dr/dt t
> 0, . r(t)
t (. 4.1).
r
v(t)
m
r(t)
R

. 4.1. .
:
dv d 2 r
GM
= 2 = 2
(4.1)
dt dt
r
(3.2), = 0 ( ) M =
5.9751024 () ,
R = 6.378106 (). dv/dt = v(dv/dr) :
v

dv
GM
= 2 .
dr
r

r :
1 2 GM
v =
+C .
2
r

v = v0 r = R, t = 0, C = (1/2)v2 GM/R, ,
, v2 :
1 1
v 2 = v02 + 2GM .
r R

(4.1) v
r . :
2GM
v 2 > v 02
R

30

v , v02 >

2GM
.
R

:
v0 =

2GM
.
R

(4.2)

G R,
v0 11180 (/).
. (4.2)
() ,
. ,
R , ,
v0 2375 /.
. ,
(.
).

31


1. 329320 , ,
109 .
) ( ) ,
, . .
c = 3108 / ?
b) () .
2. , , ,
, ,
r(t) (
)
GM
GM m
d 2r
= 2e +
;
2
2
dt
r
(S r)

r ( 0 ) = R,

r ( 0 ) = v0 ,

Me Mm ; R
S = 384400 .
,
, .
" .
v0,
.

32

5
, . 5.1.
t = 0.
y v = dy/dt t.
, (
) ( ) . m m(t) .
y

c
x

. 5.1. .
,
:
dP
=F,
(5.1)
dt
( ), a F
(, . .).
m , (5.1)
F = m(dv/dt) = ma. m .
, m m + m,
v v + v
t t + t.
:
P (m + m)( v + v) mv = mv + vm + mv.
,
, m,
v c. ,
t :
P (m + m)( v + v) mv = (mv + vm + mv) + (m)(v c) =
mv + cm + mv.

33

t t 0,
dP/dt (5.1),
:
m

dv
dm
+c
=F.
dt
dt

(5.2)

F = FG + FR, FG = mg FR = kv
, , (5.2)
:
dv
dm
= mg kv .
m +c
(5.3)
dt
dt

34

5.1
,
[0, t1],
m0 m1. ,
m(0) = m0, m(t1) = m1, m(t) = m0 t, dm/dt = t t1, (5.4)
t = t1.
5.1. (5.4)
(5.3), :

( m0 t )

dv
+ kv = c ( m0 t ) g .
dt

(5.5)

, :
gm0
c
v ( t ) = v0 M k / +
1 M k / ) +
1 M k / ) ,
(
(
k
k
v0 = v(0) M = m(t)/m0 = (m0 t)/m0
t.

35

5.2
5.2.
k = 0 (5.5) . :
v(t) = v0 gt + cln(m0/(m0 t)).
(5.6)
m0 t1 = m1, ,
(t = t1) :
v1 =v(t1) = v0 gt1 + cln(m0/m1).
(5.7)
5.3. (5.6) .
:
y(t) = (v0 + ct)t (1/2)gt2 (c/)(m0 c)ln(m0/(m0 t)).
,

y1 = y(t1) = (v0 + ct)t1 (1/2)gt12 (cm1/)ln(m0/m1).


5.4. V-2,
,
12850 , 68.5 % .
, 70 ,
2 /. ,
1.45
. V-2
, ,
.
Maple
> # V-2 (-2)
> restart:
> # ()
> M_start_common:=12850:
> #
> p:=0.685:#68.5 %
> # ()
> M_start_fuel:=M_start_common*p:
> m[0]:=M_start_common:
> # (Weight of useful loading)
> M_useful_loading:=M_start_common-M_start_fuel:
> # (/)
> beta:=M_start_fuel/70:
> #
> g:=9.81:
> # (/) (Speed of emission of
exhaust gases)
> c:=2000:
> #

36

> k:=1.45:
> #

> P:=t->k/(m[0]-beta*t):
> Q:=t->beta*c/(m[0]-beta*t)-g:
> my_sys_ode:=diff(v(t),t)+P(t)*v(t)=Q(t):
> #
> ro:=simplify(exp(int(P(t),t))):
> #
> Q(t):=simplify(Q(t)*ro):
> #
> ro_v:=simplify(int(Q(t),t) + 1):
> # -
> V:=ro_v/ro:
> `1`:=C1:
> rrr:=eval(V,t=0)=0:
> C1:=solve(rrr,C1):
> #
> h:=int(V,t=0..70);
h := 41436.56270

> plot(V,t = 0..70);

37

5.3
, ,
, , , g = k =
0. g = 0 (5.7) ,
m0 m1 v = v1 v0 = cln(m0/m1).
, v
m0/m1,
. , (v0 = 0)
= 5 / m0/m1 = 20,
v1 = 5ln20 15 /. ,
, ,
, () .

38

6
6.1
:
dx
= kx
dt

(k )

(6.1)


,
.
.
[7]. , P(t)
(, ),
(
).
t
P(t)t P(t)t , P(t)
:
P(t) ( )P(t)t
:
dP
P
= lim
= kP ,

0
dt
t

(6.2)

k = .
[8]. A(t) ( )
t ( ). ,

r. ( , 10%-
r = 0.10)
, t
A = rA(t)t, :
dA
A
= lim
= rA
dt t 0 t
.
N(t)
t. ,
(
) .
, ,
( ).
N(t),
(6.2), N , k > 0
= 0. , :
dN
= kN .
dt

39

k .
,
, ,

14 . ,
14 ,

, 14
12.
, ,
, , ,
.
14
, , 14 ,
- 14N
( ) 14
. ,
.
, ,
,
14. 14 ,
14 .
, ,
.
k. 14 : k 0.0001216, t .
( , .

,
.
, , ,
14 .
,
,
.)
. ,
A(t)
,
. :
dA
= A
dt

> 0. .

40

6.2
dx/dt = k x(t) > 0
( ) k
:
1

x dx = kdx

ln x = kt + C.

:
eln x = ekt + C; x = x(t) = eCekt = Aekt.
= .
= (0) = 0, (6.1)
(0)=0 :
x(t) = 0ekt.
(
, ),
:
dx
= kx
dt

,
. . 6.1 .6.2 x(t)
k > 0 k < 0.
x(t)=x0*ek*t
8

x(t)

1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

. 6.1. (k>0)

41

x(t)=x0*ek*t
1
0.9
0.8
0.7

x(t)

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

. 6.2. (k < 0 )
MATLAB
clc
clear
k=2; % -2
t=0:0.01:1;
x0=1;
P=x0*exp(k*t);
plot(t,P);
title('x(t)=x0*e^k^*^t');
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x(t)');
grid on

6.1. , www.census.gov,
6.7
2008 . 21
18 . ,
,
:
() k?
() XXI
?
() ,
, .. 60 ? (
, ,

42

.)

) P(t) ,
. t = 0 2008 , P0 =
6.7. (21-18)606024 = 259200,
0.0002592 t=0. ,
'(0) = (0.0002592) (365.25) 0.09467
. ' = kP t = 0
:
k=

P ( 0 ) 0.09467

0.01413 .
P ( 0)
6.7

,
1.41% ( ,
2008 ). k :
P(t) = 6.70.01413t
() t = 51
(51) = 6.7e(0.01413)(51)= 6.7e0.72063 13.77 ()
2050 ( 2008
, ).
(c) 60 ,

60 = 6.70.01413t; . . t = (1/0.01413)ln(60/6.7) 155


. . 2163 .

.
,
, .
, , P(t)
,
, , , ,
.
,
,
.

, :
(t)
t;
(t)
t.

43

,
[t, t + t], ()
:
(t)P(t)t.
(t)P(t)t,
, P
[t, t + t] t :
P={ }{ }(t)P(t)t
(t)P(t)t,
:
P
( t ) ( t ) P ( t ) .
t


t0,

:
dP
= ( ) P ,
dt

(6.3)

= (t), = (t), P = P(t). (6.3)


.
, (6.3)
k = . ,
t.
. P(t).
6.2. ,
100 =
0 ( ).
= 0.0005. , ,
(6.3) (
):
dP
= ( 0.0005 ) P 2 ,
dt

P ( 0 ) = 100

(t ). :
1

dP = ( 0.0005 )dt ;

1
=0.0005t + C.
P

t = 0, = 100 = 1/100, pe
: P(t) = 2000/(20 t).
, , (10) = 2000/10= 200, 10
. P
t 20, "" 20 .

44

6.3


.
.
,
.
, ,
, , =
0 1P, 0 1 .
= 0 , (6.3) :
dP
= ( 0 1 P 0 ) P;
dt

dP
= aP bP 2 ,
dt

(6.4)

= 0 0 b = 1.
b , (6.4)
.
P(t)
, :
dP
= kP ( M P ) ,
dt

k = b M = a/b .
6.3. ,
:
dP/dt = 0.0004P(150 P) = 0.06P 0.0004P2.
. ,
. :
dP

P (150 P ) = 0.0004dt 150 P + 150 P dP = 0.0004dt


ln P ln 150 P = 0.06t + C

P
C
= eC e0.06t = Be0.06t . ( B = e )
150 P

t = 0 = 0 150 ,
=0/(150 0). ,
P0 e0.06t
P
.
=
150 P 150 P0

,
:
P (t ) =

150 P0
P0 + (150 P0 ) e 0.06t

45

t, 0
= (0).
. 6.3 ,

0 = 20 0 = 300. ,
= 150.
, , lim
P ( t ) = 150
t
0 > 0.
MATLAB
clc
clear
k=-0.06;
t=0:0.2:150;
length_t = length(t);
P=t;
P0=[ 20; 50; 80; 100; 120; 150; 200; 240; 270; 300];
length_P0 = length(P0)
for i_P0=1:length_P0
for i_t=1:length_t
P(i_t)=150*P0(i_P0)/(P0(i_P0)+(150-P0(i_P0))*exp(k*t(i_t)));
end
plot(t,P);
hold on
end
title('P(t)=150*P0/(P0+(150-P0)*e^-^0^.^0^6^*^t');% \lambda
xlabel('t');
ylabel('P0');
hText=text(10,30,'\leftarrow P0=20');
hText=text(12,210,'\leftarrow P0=300');
grid on

46

P(t)=150*P0/(P0+(150-P0)*e-0.06*t
300

250

P0=300

P0

200

150

100

50

P0=20
0

50

100

150

. 6.3. P=0.06P
0.0004P2.

47

6.4
,
.
6.4.1 .

. , ( ) M P,
MP .
= k(M P),
dP
= ( ) P = kP ( M P ) .
dt


.
6.4.2. .
, , = ,

dP
= ( P ) P = kP ( M P ) .
dt


,
- . ,
,
.
6.4.3 . P(t)
,
.
. P'(t)
M P, dP/dt
= k(M P). ,
.
.
6.4. , t = 0
=100 10
. 1 P(t) , ,
(1) = 20 . , P(t)
, , 80%
.
.

48

dP
= kP ( M P ) , P(0)=P0.
dt

P (t ) =

MP0
.
P0 + ( M P0 ) e kMt

MAPLE
:
> my_diff_yravn2:=diff(P(t),t)=k*P(t)*(M-P(t));
my_diff_yravn2 :=

> ics:=P(0)=P[0];

d
P( t ) = k P( t ) ( M P( t ) )
dt

ics := P( 0 ) = P0

> v12:=dsolve({my_diff_yravn2,ics});
v12 := P( t ) =

P0 + e

P0 M
( k M t )

Me

( k M t )

P0

0 = 10 = 100 () ,
:
P(t)=100/(1+9e-100kt).
:
P(1)=100/(1+9e-100k)=20.
e-100k :
e-100k = 4/9 k = 0.01ln(9/4) 0.008109.
P(t)=80 :
80=100/(1+9e-100kt).
t:
e-100kt = 1/36.
, 80% ,
t = (ln36)/(100k) = (ln36)/(ln 9/4) 4/42,
.. 4 3 .

49

6.5
P(t)
,

. ,
/2
/2, , 2. ,
k2 ( , k
). ( //
) = kP.
, (1)

dP
= kP 2 P = kP ( P M )
dt

(6.5)

( = /k > 0),
.
, (6.5) ,
(6.4).
,
,
,
0 , .
6.5. P(t),
:
dP
= 0.0004 P 2 0.06 P = 0.0004 P ( P 150 ) .
dt

(6.6)

P(t) ) (0) = 200; b) (0) = 100.


. (6.6),
. :
dP
1 1
1
P ( P 150 ) = 0.0004dt 150 P P 150 dP = 0.0004dt
P
= eC e 0.06t = Be 0.06t . ( B= eC)
ln P ln P 150 = 0.06t + C
P 150
a) t = 0 = 200 ,
= 4. ,
P
= 4e0.06t P = 4e 0.06t ( P 150 ) = 4e 0.06t P 600e 0.06t
P 150
600e 0.06t
P = 0.06t
.
4e
1

50

(6.7)

, t, T = (ln4)/0.06
23.105, (6.7)
0. , P t T.
.
b) t = 0 = 100 = 2.
:
P=

300e0.06t
300
=
0.06 t
2e
+ 1 2 + e0.06t

(6.8)

, , t
(6.8) . ,
P 0 t . .
, 6.5 ,
,
, = 150.

,
.

51

6.6
:
dx
= ax bx 2 h
dt

(6.9)

, b h )
. ,
, h .
6.6. (6.9) :
dx
= kx ( M x ) h ,
(6.10)
dt
h = 0, ..
. , h > 0,
k2 + k h = 0
:
H, N =

kM

( kM )

4hk

2k

1
M M 2 4h / k .
2

, h
, , 4h < k2, ,
H N , 0 < < N < .
(6.10) :
dx
= k ( N x )( x H ) .
dt

.
6.7.
6.6 , k=1 =4
x(t) ,
, t . ,
400
. , h=3,
300 ( ).
(6.10) dx/dt = (4 x) 3,
x2 + 4 3 = (3 )( 1) = 0
= 1 N = 3. ,
100 , ()
300 . , 100
, t 300 .
100 , ,
.

52

6.7


.
,
. k ,
t = N =(1/2)N0 N(t) = N0e-kt, (1/2)N0 = N0ek
. , , = ln2/k.
, 14 (ln2)/(0.0001216), . .
5700 .
6.8. , ,
63% 14
. ?
. t = 0 ,
, N0
14,
. N=(0,63) N0,
(0,63)N0= N0e-kt k = 0.0001216. ,
t = - ln (0.63)/0.0001216 3800 ().
, 3800 .
- ,
, ,
1800
.

53

6.8
1. ( .) 25000
2008 , 2010 30 000
. ,
.
2015 ?
2. ( .) ,
10 .
, ?
3. 30
120 000 . S(t)
, S(t)=120t/20 t .
12% ,
6%.
() t, ,
A(t) t .
(b) A(25) 55 .
4.( .) ,
,
14, ,
. ?
5.( .) ,
, , ,
4.61010 14 . ,
, 5.01010 14
. .
?
6. ( .)
cy 300000 . ,
8% , .
.
?
7. ( .) ,
,
50 100
. 5%-
, ,
, ?
8.( .) ,
(pentobarbital) .
,
45 .

54

, ,
5 . ,
50- 1 ?
9. 5.27 . ,

100 , . ?
( .)
10. , ,
, - ,
238U ( 4.51109 ),
238U.
238U
0.9, ?
11.
. ,
( 1.28109 )
.
, ,
?
12. , ,
t ,
dA/dt = kA (k > 0). 25% 1 ,
, ?
13. I
dI/dx = (1.4)I.
() I0
( = 0)?
(b) 10 ( I0
10 )?
(c) 1%
?
14. 100 000

. 10000 .
, . ,
, .
?
15. ,

235
U 238U. 235U 137.7
238U. 238U (4.51109 )
235
U ( 7.1108 ), .

55

16.
,
.
15 , 5 10
. , 1
.
(a) , A(t)
( ) t .
(b) 8 ?
(c) = 1 ,
?
17. 3300
. ,

1.5 6 .
?
18.
.
. , ,
. ,
1.5 6000 . 150
.
?
19. ,
. 7
. 8 3 ,
( 10 ),
3 .
(a) t = 0 , ;
, t.
,
(. .
, ). , :
k

dx 1
= k
dt t

(b). ?
20. C 7 , 19.
, 8 6 9 4 .
? ,
, k,
.

56

7
7.1
, T(t)
, ,
T:
dT
= k (T A)
dt

k .
:
dx
= ax + b .
dt

(b = 0)
.
7.1. ,
20, 180 17:00. 30
, T(t) 55 .
85 ( , ).
. t , t = 0
17:00. ( ),
T(t) . T(t)
< = 180, (0) = 20 (30) = 55. :
dT
1
= k (T 180 ) ;
dT = kdt ; -ln(180-T) = kt + C; 180-T = Be-kt.
dt
180 T
T(0) = 20 = 160, T(t) = 180 160e-kt.
, = 55 t = 30.
:
k = -(1/30) ln(125/160) 0.00822.
, :
85 = 180 -160e(-0.00822)t
tf = -[ln(95/160)]/(0.00822) 64 (), ,
.
17:00, 18:04.
MAPLE
> restart:
> ins:=T(0)=20:
> A:=180:
> my_diff:=diff(T(t),t)=-k*(T(t)-A);
my_diff :=

d
T( t ) = k ( T( t ) 180 )
dt

> dsolve({my_diff,ins});
T( t ) = 180 160 e

57

( k t )

> T:= t -> A-160*exp(-k*t):


> r:=T(30)=55;
r := 180 160 e

( 30 k )

= 55

> k:=evalf(solve(r,k));
k := 0.008228669263

> t[f]:=evalf(solve(T(t)=85,t));

tf := 63.35130347

58

7.2
,
,
,
, :
A(t) = 0 + 1cos t + b1sin t.
= /12, 24 (
). ,
.
21 t = 4 (), 33
, t = 16 (4 ). :
A(t) = 27 6cos((t 4)) =27-3cos(t) 3(3)1/2sin(t).

u(t) t,
A A(t)
,
:
du
= k ( u A ( t ) ) ;
dt


du
+ ku = k ( a0 + a1 cos t + b1 sin t )
(7.1)
dt
() P(t)k Q(t)kA(t)
0.2 0.5 ( k
, 0.5
, , 0.2
( ) ).
. , (
t0 = 0) ,
.
,
.
(7.1)
u(t)=u0 (
). .
:
u(t) = 0 + c0ekt + c1cos t + d1sin t,

c0 = u0 a0

k 2 a1 kb1
k 2 a1 kb1
k a1 k 2b1
=
=
,
c
,
d
,
1
1
k2 + 2
k2 + 2
k2 + 2

= /12.

59

0 = 27, a1 = 3, b1 = 3(3)1/2 = /12 k = 0.2 (),


() :
u(t)=27+et/5(u023.3877)3.61225cos(t/12)+0.46772sin(t/12).
(7.2)
, (7.2)
t, "
" :
usp(t) = 27 3.61225cos(t/12) + 0.46772sin(t/12).
, 24
27 ,
.
,

, k .
. (
?)

60

7.3
1. ,
25. 0.
, 20 15.
5?
2. 100
22 . 30
60. 38?
3.
22 . 12
27, 13:00 - 24. ,
36,6
. ?
4. , = 1
, r = 0.
r = kt (k ), (
). (
):
d
v ( 0 ) = 0,
( mv ) = mg ,
dt
m , v = dy/dt ,
. , dv/dt = g/4. ,
, .

61

8
, ,
. .
y(t) t, V(t)
.
, , :
v = 2 gy
(8.1)
.. ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
:
v = c 2 gy
0 1 (
0.6 ).
= 1 .
(8.1) :
dV
= av = a 2 gy
dt
,
dV
= k y ,
dt

k = a 2 g .
, .
()
,
:
y

V = A ( y )dy
0

, dV/dy =
(), :
dV dV dy
dy
=
= A( y)
(8.2)
dt
dy dt
dt
(8.1) (8.2) :
A( y)

dy
= a 2 gy = k y .
dt

62

(8.3)

8.1. () 4
. t=0 0.1 .
?
. . 8.1 :
() = r2 = [16 - (4 - )2] = (8 - 2).
(8.3) :
3
1

dy
16 32 2 52
k
k
( 8 y 2 ) = k y 8 y 2 y 2 dy = dt
y y = t +C .

dt

3
5

, = 0, . . :
tf = C/k.
(0) = 4. :
C=

16 32 2 52 448
4 4 =
29.8666 .
3
5
15

:
tf 3.1429.8666/[0.1 (29.81)1/2] 2118.298.
, 35 20 .
36 ,
.

. 8.1.

63


1. ,
3 . t = 0 ()
. 1
1 . ,
?
2. , 35 0.9
0.025 .
, ,
3 ?
3. t = 0 ( )
5 . 1
3 . ?
4. , ,
V0 , T
. , ,
tT V=V0[1-(t/T)]2.
5. ,
= 4/3 y. 12 ,
4 . 13:00 2
. ?
6. ,
2 = by y. 1.5 12 ,
. 13:00
0.4 .
() y(t) , t .
(b) ?
() , ()
0.6 . ?
7. 1.5 0.9
, . ,
0.025
. ,
?
8. 1.5 ,
0.025 .
, ?
9. ,
1 .
1 .
13:00, ?

64

10.
. r .
13:00 , 13:30
0.6 .
() :
dV
= 0.6 r 2 2 gy ( ),
dt

, .
(b) ?
11. (, .) ()
12- , , . 8.2 (r =
0.5 , h = 1.5 ). , ,
= f(x) .
? ,
10 ?
12. . 8.3 ,
Q. ,
,
r

h
y=f(x)

x=g(x)

. 8.2.

( Q) .
1696
6 (
1697 ). ,

, 29
1697 .

65

:
.
, ,
= ()
,
. ,
, , :
(sin )/v = const
(i)
( )
, ctg = '() (?) v = (2gy)1/2
,
( = (1/2)mv2 = mgy =
).
(i) :
dy
2a y
=
(ii)
dx
y
a .
(b) = 2 sin2t, dy = 4 sint cost dt (ii),
:
x = a(2t sin2t), = a(l cos2t),
(iii)
t = = 0, = 0. , = 2 (iii)
= ( sin), = a(l cos)
,
, x.

. 8.3. ,

66

9

, ,
, .
, x(t)
t,
x(0) = x0 t = 0. , ci
ri
,
r0 .
x(t),
x
[t, t+t]. ,
t ricit . ,
:

ri
ci
( t )

, .
,
, 0(t)
t. ,
. 9.1, 0(t) = x(t)/V(t), V(t) (
ri = r0) t.
x = { }
{ } ricit r0c0t.
t:
x
rc
i i r0 c0 .
t

, t 0.
x(t) ,
,
:
dx
= rc
i i r0 c0
dt

ri, ci r0 , c0

0(t)=x(t)/V(t)
t. ,
x(t)
:

67

r
dx
= ri ci 0 x .
dt
V

(9.1)

: ricit
x(t)
V(t)
c0=x/V
:
r0c0t

. 9.1. .
V0 = V(0), V(t) = V0 + (ri r0)t, (9.1)

(t) t.
. (9.1) .

[t, t+t],
.
9.1. , 480 3
( ) (
) 350 3 . , t = 0
(),
, (
!), ,
. ,
. ,

?
. :
V = 480 (3), ri = r0 = r = 350 (3/), ci = c(
) 0 = (0) = 5V, :
x(t)=2cV? (9.1)
:
dx
r
= rc x ,
dt
V

:
dx
+ px = q
dt

68

p=r/V, q = rc.
=ept.
MATLAB.
clc
clear
x=dsolve('Dx=r*(c-x/V)','t')
:
x(t) =V*c C1/exp((r*t)/V).
: (0) = 5V = V*c C1 C1 = 4V.
, , x(t) = 2cV,
:
V*c + 4V/exp(rt/V) = 2Vc 1+4/exp(rt/V) = 2 4/exp(rt/V) = 1 4 =
exp(rt/V)
ln 4 = rt/V t = (V/r) ln 4 = (480/350) ln 4 1.901 ().
9.2. 450- 40
340 . , 480
, 15 .
11
. ?
. -

, V(t) = 340+t .
t t +
t () :
(15)(0.48) t 11x/(340+t)t,
:
dx
11
+
x = 7.2 .
dt 340 + t

:
11

dt
11
( x ) = e 340+t = e11ln (340+t ) = ( 340 + t ) .

:
Dt[(340+t)11x] = 7.2(340+t)11 (340+t)11x = (7.2/12)(340+t)12 +C=
0.6(340+t)12 + C.
: (0) = 40. C = 164(340)11.
t :
x(t) = 0.6(340+t) 164(340)11/(340+t)11.
27.5 , t = 27.5, :
x(27.5) = 0.6(340+27.5) 164(340)11/(340+27.5)11 150 ()
.

69


1. 1000 100 .
5 ,
.
, 10
?
2. 220 ,
0,25%.
14000 0,05%
.
,
0.10%?
3. 220 .
, 200 ,
6 , ( )
11 .
, 55 .
() t .
(b) ?

70

10

[6].
, ( ) m
, FS,
, FR (. 10.1). ,
FS
(
),
FR v = dx/dt. . 10.2
:
(10.1)
FS = kx

FR = cv (k, c > 0).


, "" FS
x, FR v.
F = ma :
mx = FS + FR.

m
FS

x, v > 0

FR

. 10.2.
,

m.

x(t)
x=0 x>0

. 10.1. ,
,
,

d 2x
dx
m 2 + c + kx = 0.
(10.2)
dt
dt
, ,
x(t) m.

.
, , FS FR m
F(t),
(10.2) :
d 2x
dx
m 2 + c + kx = F ( t ) .
(10.3)
dt
dt

71



F(t).
,
.
(. 10.3).
W = mg s0,
= s0.
(10.1), FS = W
, mg = ks0, s0 = mg/k. .
,
. (10.3)
.

s0
y=0

m
y

.10.3. ,

72

11
(10.3) ,

. , , .
m, (
) L,
, . 11.1.
t ( )
(t) (
).
m,
,
.

h
0

. 11.1.
0
m s = L. ,
v = ds/dt = L(d/dt),

1
1 ds
1
d
T = mv 2 = m = mL2

2
2 dt
2
dt

,
(. 11.1).
V mg h = L(l cos)
, . .
V = mgL(l cos).
T V , :
2

1 2 d
mL
+ mgL (1 cos ) = C .
2
dt

t, :
2
d
d d
mL2
= 0.
2 + mgL ( sin )
dt
dt dt

73

, mL2(d/dt), :
d 2 g
+ sin = 0 .
(11.1)
dt 2 L
, sin .
|| /12 ( 15) sin
. ,
15.
, (11.1) sin .
c
, , (10.2):
+ c + k = 0,
(11.2)
k = g/L.
, m ,
. ,
sin ,
(11.2)
.
,
.

74


1 4 ,
L L +g = 0, g = GM/R2
, ( R
; M ).
1. L1 L2,
R1 R2, , p1 p2.
,
p1 R1 L1
=
.
p2 R2 L2

2. , R63665
(), 2 40 .
1, .
3. 2.54 , ,
R = 63730 (), ,
2.54 , .
1, .
4. ,
. 10
76.2 . ,
?

75

12
,
, ,
(10.2) :
mx + kx = 0.
(12.1)

k
0 =
m
(12.1) :
(12.2)
x + 02x = 0.
(12.2) :
x(t) = s0t + Bsin0t.
, ,
,
cos =

C = A2 + B 2 ,

A
B
sin = .
C
C

(12.3)

.
12.1.
C

. 12.1 C .
, tg = /,
, /2 <
< /2. , . 0 2 ,
(12.3), A,
. :
arctg ( B / A ) ,
A > 0, B > 0 ( )

= + arctg ( B / A ) ,
A < 0 ( )
2 + arctg ( B / A ) , A < 0, B < 0 ( )

arctg (B/A) (/2 < < /2).


(12.2) (12.3) :
x(t) = C(cos cos 0t + sin sin 0t).
,
:
x(t) = Ccos(0t ).

76

, ,
.
1.
C.
2.
0.
3.
.
.
t , 0
(/).
,
(). :
T = 2/0
. :
= 1/T = 0/2
(). ,
1 . ,
, .
,
, , .. ,
:
x(t) = C(cos(0t ) = C(cos(0(t /0)) = C(cos(0(t )),
= /0 .
12.1. m = 1/2 ()
. 100 ()
2 (). 0 = 1 ()
v0 = 5 (/). (,
, t = 0
.) , ,
, .
. k = 100()/2().
(12.2) (1/2)" + 50 = 0
" + 100 = 0.
,
0 = (100)1/2 = 10 (/). :
T = 2/0 = 2/10 0.6283 (),
:
= 1/T = 0/2 = 10/2 1.5915 ().
(0) = 1 (0) = 5 :
x(t)=Acos10t + Bcos10t x(t) = 10Asin10t + 10Bcos10t.
A=1 B= 1/2, ..
:
x(t) = cos10t (1/2)cos10t.

77

, :
C=

(1)2 + 1
2

1
5 ().
2

, :
x(t ) =

5 2
1
5

cos10t
sin 10t =
cos(10t ) ,
2 5
2
5

:
2

cos =

> 0 sin =

1
5

< 0.

, :
1/ 5
1
= 2 arctg 5.8195.
= 2 + arctg

2
2/ 5

= /0 0.5820 ().
,
:
x (t )

1
5 cos(10t 5.8195 ).
2

. 12.2.
x(t)=C*cos(wt- )
1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.5

1.5
t

2.5

. 12.2. x(t)=Ccos(t-)
C1.118, T0.628 0.582.

78

MATLAB
%
clc
clear
t=0:0.005:3;
C=1.118;
T=0.628;
sigma=0.582;
omega_0=2*pi/T;
alfa=sigma*omega_0;
y=C*cos(omega_0*t-alfa);
plot(t,y);
title('x(t)=C*cos(wt-\alpha)');
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x');

79

13

: m" + cx + k = 0
(13.1)
" + 2px + 02 = 0,
1/2
0 = (k/m)
p =c/(2m) > 0.
r2 + 2pr + 02 = 0
(13.1):
(13.2)
r1,2 = p (p2 02)1/2.


p2 02= c2/(4m2) k/m = (c2 4km)/( 4m2)
ccr ccr =
(4km)1/2. : > ccr, = ccr, < ccr.

13.1
: > ccr, (2 > 4km).
,
.
(13.2) r1 r2,
. :
x(t) = c1exp(r1t) + c2exp(r2t).
, x(t) 0 t .
- . 13.1
.
x0,
v0.
( ).
MATLAB
%
clc
clear
t=0:0.005:5;
C1=-4; C2=5;
r1=[-4, -1, -2, -0.8];
r2=[-6, -5, -3, -0.9];
for i=1:length(r1)
x=C1*exp(r1(i)*t)+C2*exp(r2(i)*t);
plot(t,x);
hold on

80

end
title('x(t)=C1*e^r^1^*^t+c2e^r^2^*^t');
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x');
grid on
x(t)=C1*er1*t+c2er2*t
1

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
t

3.5

4.5

. 13.1. : x ( t ) = c1er t + c2e r t r1 < 0 r2 < 0.


x0
.
1

81

13.2

= ccr, (2 = 4km). , (13.2), : r1 = r2 = p.


:
x(t) = ept(c1 + c2).
ept > 0, c1 + c2
t,
. , x(t) 0 t .

. 13.2.
,
(. . 13.1).

.
,
.
MATLAB
%
clc
clear
t=0:0.005:10;
length_t =length(t);
x=t;
C1=1.5;
C2=-3.0;
p=[4, 1, 2, 0.8];
length_t =length(t);
for i=1:length(p)
for j=1:length_t
x(j)=exp(-p(i)*t(j))*(C1 + C2*t(j));
end
plot(t,x);
hold on
end
title('x(t)=e^p^*^t(c1+c2*t');
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x');
grid on

82

x(t)=ep*t(c1+c2*t
1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

5
t

10

. 13.2. : x ( t ) = ( c1 + c2t ) e pt r1 < 0 r2 < 0.


x0
.

83

13.3

< ccr, (2 < 4km).


p i 02 p 2 .
:
x(t) = ept(Acos1t + Bsin1t),
(13.3)
1 = 02 p 2 =

4km c 2
.
2m

(13.4)

, (13.3)
:
B
A

x ( t ) = Ce pt cos 1t + sin 1t ,
C
C

C = A2 + B 2 ,

x(t) = Ceptcos(1t ),
cos =

A
B
sin = .
C
C

(13.3)
. x(t)
x(t) = Cept Cep,
, 1t .
, , ,
1 (, ,
), T1 = 2/1
, Cep ,
.
,
13.3. (13.4) , 1
, 0, T1
T ,
, . ,
, , .
1. (
() ).
2. , . .
.
,
( )
.
13.1. , 12.1,
, , ,
1
.
(0) = 1 '(0) = 5, 20.

84

,
, , ,

= 0.
.
.
. , m = 1/2 k = 50.
= 1. (10.2) (1/2)" + ' + 50 = 0
" +2' + 100 = 0.
: r2 + 2r + 100 = (r + 1)2 + 99
= 0. r1,2 = 1 i(99), :
x ( t ) = e t A cos 99t + B sin 99t .
(13.5)

, 1 =
(99) 9.9499 ( 0=10 12.1). T1 =
2/1 0.6315 1 =1/T1 = 1/2 1.5836 ( T
0.6283 < T1 1.5915 > 1 12.1).
(0) = 1 '(0) = 5, (13.5). :

x ( t ) = e t A cos 99t + B sin 99t + 99e t A sin 99t + B cos 99t .

,
(0) = A = 1 '(0) = A + B(99) = 5.
. A = l B = 4/(99). ,
:
4

x ( t ) = e t cos 99t
sin 99t .
99

:
2

4 t
115 t

Ce = (1) +
e = 99 e .
99

, :
x (t ) =

115 t
4
115 t

e cos 99t
e cos
sin 99t =
99
99
99

1 :
cos 1 = (99/115)1/2 > 0 sin 1 = 4/(115)1/2 < 0.
1 , . .:
4 / 115
4
= 2 arctg
5.9009,
99
99 / 115

1 = 2 + arctg

:
1 = /1 0.5931 .

85

99t 1 ,

( 0.5820 < 1 12.1). ,


:
x (t )

115 t
e cos
99

99t 5.9009 .

(13.6)


, ,
. 13.3 ( 12.1).
1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.5

1.5

2
t

2.5

3.5

. 13.3 x(t) = C1etcos(1t - 1)


12.1 ( ), x(t) = Ccos(0t - )
12.1 ( ) x(t) = 1et.
MATLAB
% :
clc
clear
t=0:0.005:4;
Csqrt115=sqrt(115);
Csqrt99 =sqrt(99);
Csqrt115del99 =sqrt(115/99);
x1=Csqrt115del99*exp(-t);
x2=-Csqrt115del99*exp(-t);
x0=Csqrt115del99*(cos(Csqrt99*t)/Csqrt115del99-4*sin(Csqrt99*t)/Csqrt115);
x = x0.*exp(-t);

86

plot(t,x);
hold on
plot(t,x0);
hold on
plot(t,x1);
hold on
plot(t,x2);
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x');
grid on
(13.5) , (
= 0) , cos(1t - 1) = 0, . . :
1t - 1 = 3/2, /2, /2, 3/2, ,
t = 1 3/(21), 1 /(21), 1 + /(21), , 1 + 3/(21), .
, 12.1 ( )
:
t = 0 3/(20), 0 /(20), 0 + /(20), 0 + 3/(20), .
13.1 t1,
t2, t3, t4,
. ,
.
3.1.
n
tn ()
tn ()

1
2
0.1107 0.4249
0.1195 0.4352

87

3
0.7390
0.7509

4
1.0532
1.0667

13.4
1. 4
16 /.
2.
0.75 48 /.
3. 3 , 20
15 . 0 = 0
v0 = 10 /. ,
.
4. 250 , 25
9 . t = 0 1
( ) 5 /.
) x(t) Ccos(0t - ).
b) .
5. r
h 0.5 (, 1
/3). , , .
,
. t = 0 .
: , mg = r2hg,
, r2xg
, = x(t) ,
t (. 28). ,
= ph
= 2(h/g)1/2. , =
0.5 /3, h = 200 , g = 980 /2.
6. 45.5 ,
. , ,
10 .
, .

. 13.5. 6.

88

7. , , R =
63730 (), . ,
. m,
r ,
Fr = GMrm/r2, r ,
r.
) , Fr = GMmr/R3.
b) ,
,
. m t=0
. r(t)
t (. 13.6).
(),
, r"(t) = k2r(t), k2 = GM/R3 = g/R.
c) g = 9.81 /2. (b), ,

84 .
d) ( ) ,
, .
(). ? ?
) ( /) ?
f) ( ) ,
, .
(). ?
?
m

FR

. 13.6. m, ,
( 7)
8. ,
. :

89

: m = 25, = 10 k = 2. ,
(0) = 0 '(0) = 5.
) x(t) .
b) , ,
.

90

14
:
d 2x
dx
m 2 + c + kx = F ( t ) .
(14.1)
dt
dt

m,
( k) (
), F(t).
,
, (
), :
(14.2)
F(t) = F0cos(t) F(t) = F0sin(t),
F0 ,
.
,
,
(. 14.1).

m0

. 14.1. ,
( m0) m m0.
a .
( ).
( k) .
,
. x(t)
( ). . 14.1
, x :
x=

( m m0 ) x + m0 ( x + a cos t ) = x + am0 cos t.


m

,
mx = kx, k.
x . :

91

..

mx m0a2cost = kx,

mx + kx = m0a2cost.
(14.3)

,
, F0 = m0a2.
,

. (14.1)
(14.2) .

92

14.1

F(t) = F0cos(t) (14.1) = 0.
:
mx + kx = F0cost.
(14.4)

:
xc = c1cos0t + c2sin0t.
0 = (k/m)1/2 (, )
, ,
.
,
: 0. , =Acost
(14.4). ( ,
'.) :
m2Acost + kAcost = F0cost,

A = F0/(k m2) = F0/m/( 02 2),


(14.5)

xp(t) = cost F0/m/( 02 2)
(14.6)
, = + :
(14.7)
x(t) = c1cos0t + c2sin0t + cost F0/m/( 02 2)
c1 c2 (0) (0).
(14.7) :
(14.8)
x(t) = cos(0t ) + cost F0/m/( 02 2).

: 0,
.
14.1. , m = 1, k = 9, F0 = 80 = 5.
(14.4) :
x + 9x = 80cos(5t).
. 0 = 3
=5 , , .
= Acos5t .
25A + 9A =80, A = 5. , :
= 5cos5t.

= c1cos3t + c2sin3t,
:
x(t) = c1cos3t + c2sin3t 5cos5t,

93

x(t) = 3c1 sin3t + 3c2 cos3t + 25sin5t.


(0) = 0 (0) = 0 , c1 = 5 c2 = 0,
:
x(t) = 5cos3t 5cos5t.
MATLAB
%
clc
clear
y=dsolve('D2x+9*x=80*cos(5*t)','x(0)=0, Dx(0)=0');
y=simple(y)
ezplot(y);
grid on
5 cos(3 t) - 5 cos(5 t)
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-6

-4

-2

0
t

. 14.2. x(t) = 5cos3t 5cos5t 14.1


. 14.2, x(t)
2 2/3 2/5 .

94

14.2
, (14.7)
(0)=(0)=0, :
c1 = F0/(m( 02 2)) c2 = 0.
:
x (t ) =

2 F0
( cos t cos 0t ) .
m (02 2 )

(14.9)

2sinA sinB =cos(A B)


cos(A + B) A = (0 + )t/2 B = (0 )t/2, (14.9)
:
( 0 ) t ( 0 + ) t
2 F0
x (t ) =
sin
(14.10)

sin
.
2
2
m (02 2 )

, 0, 0 +
0 . sin((0+)t/2)
, sin((0)t/2)
. , (14.10)
() (0 + )/2,
x(t) = A(t)sin((0 + )t/2),
:
A(t ) =

( ) t
2 F0
sin 0
.
2
2
2
m ( 0 )

14.2. m = 0.1, F0 = 50, 0 = 55 = 45


(14.10) :
x(t) = sin(5t)sin(50t).
. 14.3
(0 + )/2 = 50, "" A(t) =
sin5t (0 )/2=5.

. ,

( )
, 0/(2) = 258 ,
/(2) = 254 , , (..
) :

(0 ) / 2 = 258 254 = 2 ().


2

95

x(t)=sin(5*t)*sin(50*t)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4

0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

0.5

1.5

2
t

. 14.3.

96

2.5

3.5

14.3
(14.6) , 0
,
. (14.5) :
A=

F0
F0 / k
pF
=
= 0 .
2
2
k m
k
1 ( / 0 )

(14.11)

F0/k
k F0, p .
:
1
p=
(14.12)
2
1 ( / 0 )
, p 0.
( 0) (
) 0)
0.
, 0.
, 0 ? (14.4),
m :
F
x + 02 x = 0 cos 0t.
(14.13)
m
cos(0t)
,

:
xp(t) = t(Acos(0t) + sin(0t)).
(14.13) , = 0
= F0/(2m0). , :
(14.14)
xp(t) = F0t sin(0t)/(2m0).
xp(t), . 14.4, m=1,
F0=100 0=50, , ()
, =0.

.

97

x(t)=F0/(2*m*omega0)*t*sin(omega0*t)
4
3
2

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

. 14.4.
MATLAB
clc
clear
F0=100;
omega_0=50;
m=1;
t=0:0.005:pi;
x=F0/(2*m*omega_0)*t.*sin(omega_0*t);
plot(t,x);
title('x(t)=F0/(2*m*omega_0)*t*sin(omega_0*t)');
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x');
grid on
14.3. , ,
(. 14.1), m = 5 k = 500 /.
0=(k/m)1/2 = 10 /; . . 10/(2) 1.59 .
,
1.59 60 95 .

98

.
, ,
.
, , ,
, .
, .
: , 1831
Broughton Bridge.

" ". ,
- 1981 , Skywalk
(" ") .
- ,

.
19 1985 .
, ,
. ,

, ,
, ,
, . ,
( )
(). -
.
,
.

99

15
RLC ,
[10].
, . 15.1,
:
- ( ),
R ;
- ( ),
L ;
- ( ),
.

(, ), t
E(t) (). , . .
. 15.1 .
t I(t) (), Q(t) ().
Q I :
dQ
= I (t ).
(15.1)
dt
,
.
C

E
R

. 15.1. ,
,

15.1.
, . 15.1,
:
()
, .

100

15.1

dI
dt

RI
1
Q
C

, ,
, (. 15.1),
:
dI
1
L + RI + Q = E ( t ) .
(15.2)
dt
C
(15.1) (15.2),
:
1
LQ + RQ + Q = E ( t )
(15.3)
C
Q(t) E(t).
I,
Q. (15.3), I
Q' :

LI + RI +

1
I = E (t ) .
C

101

(15.4)

15.1
, (15.3) (15.4)
, :
m" + ' + kx = F(t),
(15.5)
( ,
),
F(t).
,
. 15.2
.
15.2



m
L
c R
k
1/,

Q ( (15.3) ( I (15.4))
F
E (
E)
,
, . ,

,
.
, , 15.2,

,

,
.
,
(, )
, .
.


.
E(t) = E0sin(t).
(15.4) :

102

LI + RI +

1
I = E 0 cos t.
C

(15.6)

,
, , ,
,
, (15.)
( ,
) Itr, t (
, (15.6) ,

), Isp.
:
(15.7)
I = Itr + Isp.
,
(15.5) F(t) = F0cos(t) :
F0 cos(t )
x sp (t ) =
,
2
2 2
(k m ) + (c )
c
a = arctg
2 , 0 .
k m
m L, R, k 1/ F0 E0,
:
E 0 cos(t )
I sp (t ) =
,
(15.8)
2
1

2
R + L

:
RC
a = arctg
(15.9)
2 , 0 .
1 LC

103

15.2
(15.8):
2

Z = R + L
()
C

(15.10)

, ,
,
. :
E
I sp (t ) = 0 cos(t ),
(15.11)
Z
a :
(15.12)
I0 = E0/Z,
I = E/R.
(15.11)
, E(t)
= E0sin(t) . Isp ,
, :
S = L 1/(C).
(15.13)
2
2 1/2
Z = (R + S ) . (15.9) , ,
15.2, = /2.
(15.11) :
E
E S
R
E
I sp (t ) = 0 (cos cost + sin sint ) = 0 cost + sint = 0 (cos sint + sin cost ).
Z
Z Z
Z
Z
,
E
I sp (t ) = 0 sin (t ),
(15.14)
Z
LC 2 1
S
.
(15.15)
= arctg = arctg
RC
R
( )
/ ( ) Isp.
.

= - /2

. 15.2.

104

15.3
, ,
I(0) Q(0).
I(0). t=0 (15.2).
:
1
LI ( 0 ) + RI ( 0 ) + Q ( 0 ) = E ( 0 ) ,
(15.16)
C
I(0) ,
.
15.1. RLC (. . ,
, ), R = 50 (), L = 0.1
() = 5104 (). t = 0, I(0)
Q(0) ,
110 60 .

.

60 , = (2)(60) /, . .
377 /. E(t) = 110sin377t ( ,
). (15.6)
:
(0.1)I + 50I + 2000I = (377)(110)cos377t.
(15.10) R, L, = 377,
: Z = 59.58 .
:
I0 = 110 ()/59.58 () = 1/846 ().
(15.15),
, :
= arctg(0.648) = 0.575.
:
/ = 0.575/377 = 0.0015 c,
:
Isp = (1.846)sin(377t 0.575).
(0.1)r2 + 50r + 2000 = 0
r1 44 r2 456. ,
:
I(t) = c1e44t + c2e456t + (1.846)sin(377t 0.575),

I(t) = 44c1e44t 456c2e456t + 696cos(377t 0.575).
I(0) = Q(0) = 0, (15.16) , I(0)
= 0. , :

105

I(0) =
c1 +
c2 1.004 = 0,
I(0) = 44c1 456c2 + 584 = 0.
c1 = 0.307, c2 = 1.311. :
Itr(t) = (0.307)e44t + (1.311)e456t.
, |Itr(0.2)| < 0.000047 A (
,
). ,
.
15.2. , RLC 15.1
I(0) = Q(0) = 0 t = 0
110 . .

E(t) 110, (15.16) :


I(0) = E(0)/L = 110/0.1 = 1100 (A/c),
:
(0.1)I + 50I + 2000I = E(t) = 0.

, 15.1:
I(t) = c1e44t + c2e456t.
:
c2 = 0,
I(0) =
c1 +
I(0) = 44c1 456c2 = 1100,
c1 = c2 = 2.670. :
I(t) = (2.670)(e44t e456t).
, I(t) 0 t ,
.

106

15.4
(15.6),
E(t) = E0sint.
, :
I0 (t ) =

E0
=
Z

E0
1

R + L
C

(15.17)

I0 , R, L, E0
. 15.3. I0
m = 1/ LC , . m
.

( ,
, ).
I0
I0 (t ) =

E0
1

R2 + L
C

. 15.3. I0 .
, ,
.
.
RLC (. . ,
, ). L
R , , .
, ,
E(t) = E0sint
.
Isp ,
. , ,
I0 Isp.

107

( )
"" , ,
, I0. ,
(15.17) ,
C. , I0 :
1
L
= 0.
C
, :
C = 1/(L2).
, ,
, .
.
- .
.
, .
, ,
, 455 ()
. 455 (
)
. , RLC ,
455 , .
(,
)
.

108

15.5
1-6 RL-,
R , L
(. 15.4) (),
. (15.2)
:
LI + RI = E(t).
E

. 15.4. 1-6
1. , . 15.4 L = 5 , R = 25 ,
100 .
, 1
, . . 4 .
t = 0 2, I(0) = 4
= 0 t 0. I(t).
2. , 1. ,
2, t =
0 1 , I(0) = 0 = 100 t 0.
I(t) , I(t) 4 t .
3. , 2
E(t) = 100cos60t . ,
, I(t).
4. , . 15.4.
1 L = 2, R = 40, E(t) = 10010t, I(0)
= 0. t 0.
5. , . 15.4.
1 L = 2, R = 20, E(t) = 100
10t
cos60t, I(0) = 0. t 0.
6. , . 15.4.
1 L = 1, R = 10, E(t) = 30cos60t +
40sin60t.
a) Isp(t) = Acos60t + Bsin60t,
A B , , Isp .
b) Isp(t) = Ccos(t ).

109

7-10 RC-, . 15.5.


R ,
, , .
L = 0 (3), ,
:
1
RQ + Q = E ( t )
C
Q=Q(t) t. ,
I(t)=Q'(t)
C

E
R

. 15.5. 7 - 10
7. a) Q(t) I(t) , E(t)=0
( , )
t = 0, .. Q(0) = 0.
b) , lim
Q ( t ) = E0C lim I ( t ) = 0.
x
x
8. , . 15.5 R = 10, = 0.02, Q(0) = 0, a
E(t) =1005t (),
a) Q(t) I(t).
b) t 0
, .
9. , . 15.5 R=200, =2.5104, Q(0)=0,
E(t)=100cos120t.
) Q(t) I(t).
b) ?
10. t = 0 RC-,
. 15.5, , E(t)
= E0cost, RC-. Q(0) = 0. Qsp(t) =
Acost + Bsint , ,
:
E0C
Qsp ( t ) =
cos (t ) ,
2 2 2
1+ R C
= arctg(RC).

110

16
16.1 ()

,

.

, . 16.1.
,
( 16.1 ).
= (), . . .
, . 16.2.
.
L

. 16.1.
()

. 16.2.

,
( , ['(x)]2
),
,
:
(16.1)
EIy(4) = F(x),
E ;
I

;
F(x) , .
? ,
. , ,
[, + ], F(x). F(x)
. ,
, , ,
w , F(x) w. (16.1) :
(16.2)
EIy(4) = w,
, I w

111

-
(16.1)
(16.2). ,
.
, . ,
(16.2) ,
, .. .
,
, I,
.
. I = a4/4
.
, (16.2)
,
, .
(16.2) , , :
EIy(3) = wx + 1.
:
EIy = wx2/2 + 1x + 2.
:
EIy = wx3/6 + 1x2/2 + 2x + 3.
, :
EIy = wx4/24 + 1x3/6 + 2x2/2 + 3x + 4,
1, 2, 3 4 .
(16.2) :
w 4
y ( x) =
x + Ax 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D,
(16.3)
24 EI
A, , D , .

, .. x = 0 x = L. . 16.3
, .
, . 16.4
x = 0, ( ) x = L.
16.1 , ,
.
, .
x=0

x=L



x=L
x=0


()

112

. 16.3.

. 16.4. ,
,

16.1.
, ,


()


y = y = 0
y = y = 0
y = y(3) = 0

, . 16.4
(16.3), A, , D
:
(16.4)
y(0) = y(0) = 0 y(L) = y(3)(L) = 0,
. . = 0 , = L (
).
(16.4) (16.2)
.
16.1.
L w ,
.
. :
y(0) = y(0) = y(L) = y(L) = 0.
(16.3),
EIy(4) = w ,
() .
:
EIy(3) = wx + A; EIy = wx2/2 + Ax + B.
"(0) = 0, = 0, y(L) = 0 , :
0 = wL2/2 + AL.
A = wL/2 :
EIy = x2/2 wLx/2.
. :
EIy = wx3/6 wLx2/4 + ,
:
(16.5)
EIy(x) = wx4/24 wLx3/12 + x + D.
(0) = 0 , D = 0. , (L) = 0,
0 = wL4/24 wL4/12 + L.
= wL3/24. (16.5)
:
y ( x) =

w
x 4 2 Lx 3 + L3 x ) ,
(
24 EI

, .

113

,
ymax , , . x = L/2, :
w 1 4 1 4 1 4
L
ymax = y =
L L + L .
4
2
2 24 EI 16

y max

5wL4
.
=
384 EI

(16.6)

MAPLE
> restart:
> # E -
> # II -
#

> # w -
> f:=E*II*diff(y(x),x$4)=w;

d4

f := E II 4 y( x ) = w
d x

> #
> yx0:=y(0)=0,(D@@2)(y)(0)=0,y(L)=0,(D@@2)(y)(L)=0:
> simplify(dsolve({f,yx0},y(x)));
y( x ) =

w x ( x3 2 L x2 + L 3 )
24 E II

16.2. , ,
, ,
, 6.1 ,
0.03 . ,
= 7.75 /3, E = 21012 /c2.
( ) :
= a2 = (1.5)2(7.75) 54.75 /.

w = g = (54.75 /)(981 /c2) 53713.4 /c2.


( ) a
I = a4/4, :
I = (1.5)4/4 3.97 4.
(16.6) , :
ymax (5)( 53713.4)(610)4/[(384)( 21012)(3.97)] 12.2 .
,
, , . , ymax
L4, ,
, 16 .
I = a4/4, (16.6) ,
, .

114

16.2
. 16.5 L.
.
, .
y

y = y(x)

P
x=0

P
x
x=L

. 16.5.
,
= () 0 L.
:
EIy + Py = 0, y(0) = y(L) = 0.
(16.7)
() .
, , I
,
. :
= P/(EI),
(16.8)
(16.7) :
y + y = 0, y(0) = y(L) = 0.
(16.9)
, {n} :
n 2 2
n = 2 , n=1,2,3,
(16.10)
L
n, yn(x) =
sin(nx/L).

, , (16.8) P = EI.
(16.11)
Pn = nEI = n22EI/L2, n = 1, 2, 3,
.
P ,
"",
() . ,
,
(16.12)
P1 = 2EI/L2.

1 .
, ,

, .

115

. (
,
.)
16.3. ,
L =
3.5 , ,
0.015 . (--)
:
E = 2 1012 /2, I = (1.5)4/4 3.97 4 .
(16.12), ,

:
P1 6.4 108 .

116

17


.

, ,
( ).
.
, t,
x1, x2, x3, , x, y, z, .
t.
,
. ,

:
f ( t , x, y, x, y ) = 0

g ( t , x, y , x, y ) = 0
f u g .
t x(t), y(t) t,

.
.
m,
F, t, (x(t), y(t),
z(t)) (x(t), y(t), z(t)).
ma = F , :
mx = F1 ( t , x, y, z , x, y, z )

my = F2 ( t , x, y, z , x, y, z )
mz = F t , x, y, z , x, y, z
)
3(


, , z, t.
F1, F2, F3
F.

117

17.1
17.1-17.3 ,
.
17.1. ,
, . 17.1, f(t)
m2, . x(t)
() m1
(
, , f(t) = 0), y(t) m2
. , ,
, .
. 17.1 , x
. "
", . 17.2,
mx = k1 x + k2 ( y x )

my = k2 ( y x ) + f ( t )

(17.1)

x(t) y(t) .

. , m1=2, m2=1, k1 = 4, k2 = 4, f(t) = 40sin3t
, (17.1)
:
2 x = 6 x + 2 y

y = 2 x 2 y + 40sin 3t
k2

k1

m1
x(t)

k1x

m2

f(t)
k2(y x)

y(t)

m1
m2

k2(y x)

f(t)

. 17.2.

17.1.

. 17.1

MAPLE

17.1

> dsolve({2*diff(x(t),t,t)=-6*x(t)+2*y(t),diff(y(t),t,t)= 2*x(t)2*y(t)+40*sin(3*t)}, {x(t),y(t)});

{ x( t ) = sin( 3 t ) + _C1 cos( t ) + _C2 sin( t ) + _C3 cos( 2 t ) + _C4 sin( 2 t ),


y( t ) = 6 sin( 3 t ) + 2 _C1 cos( t ) + 2 _C2 sin( t ) _C3 cos( 2 t ) _C4 sin( 2 t ) }

17.2. ,
. 17.3. 1 x(t) 400 ,
2 y(t) 800 .
,
.
. . 17.3. ,

118

1 80 / ,
2 80 / (
, ).
x/400 y/800
.
,
x(t) y(t):
x
y
3
1

x = 120 400 + 40 800 = 10 x + 20 y

y = 120 x 40 y 80 y = 3 x 3 y

400
800
800 10
20

20 x = 6 x + y

20 y = 6 x 3 y
80 /

40
/

y(t)

x(t)
1

120 /

80 /

. 17.3. 17.2
MAPLE
> dsolve({20*diff(x(t),t)=-6*x(t)+y(t),20*diff(y(t),t)= 6*x(t)-3*y(t)},
{x(t),y(t)});

9/40 +
x( t ) = _C1 e

33
40

9/40 +
1
+ _C1 33 e
2

+ _C2 e
33
40

33

9/40
t
40

9/40 +
3
, y( t ) = _C1 e
2

9/40
3
+ _C2 e
2

33
40

33
40

9/40
1
_C2 33 e
2

33
40

17.3. ,
. 17.4. I1(t) ,
( ) L, I2(t) ,
R2. , R1
, I = I1 I2.
()
. ( )

119

. 17.4.
, :
dI
2 1 + 50 ( I1 I 2 ) 100 = 0,
(17.2)
dt

100 .
:
(17.3)
125Q2 + 25I2 + 50(I2 I1) = 0,
Q2 . dQ2/dt = I2,
(17.3), :
dI
dI
125 I 2 + 75 2 50 1 = 0.
(17.4)
dt
dt
(17.2) (17.4) 2 25 ,
, I1(t)
I2(t):
dI1
+ 25 I1 25 I 2 = 50,
dt
dI
dI
2 1 3 2 5 I 2 = 0.
dt
dt
L: 2

E0:
100

I1

C: 0.008

R1:
50

I2

R2:
25

. 17.4. 17.3
MAPLE
> restart:
> dsolve({diff(I1(t),t)+25*I1(t)-25*I2(t)=50,2*diff(I1(t),t)-3*diff(I2(t),t)5*I2(t)=0}, {I1(t),I2(t)});
I1(t)=2-0.1* {e-5t [-12C1sin(5*61/2/3*t)+ 61/2C1cos(5*61/2/3*t)12C2cos(5*61/2/3*t) - 61/2C2sin(5*61/2/3*t)]}, I2(t)= e-5t [C1sin(5*61/2/3*t)+
C2cos(5*61/2/3*t)].

120

17.2

,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
( ),
.
,
,
.
()
. 17.5 , V1,
V2 V3 . 1,
1 2 3
3. xi(t) ( ) i
t i = 1, 2 3.
r ( , r
),
:
x1 = k1 x1

x2 = k1 x1 k2 x2
(17.5)
x =
k2 x2 k3 x3
3
(17.6)
ki = r/Vi, i = 1,2,3.

1
V1

2
V2

3
V3

. 17.5.

121

17.4. V1 =20, V2 =40, V3 =50, r =10 ( ),


( ):
x1(0) = 15, x2(0) = x3(0) = 0.
t 0.
.
[11].
(17.5) (17.6),
( ).
:
0
0
0.5

x ( t ) = 0.5 0.25
0 x,
0
0.25 0.2

15
x ( 0 ) = 0
0

(17.7)

(t) = [x1(t), x2(t), x3(t)]T.


0.5
A I = 0.5
0

0
0.25
0.25

0
0.2
0

(17.8)

:
|A I | = (0.5 )( 0.25 )( 0.2 ) = 0.
, (17.7)
1 = 0.5, 2 = 0.25, 3 = 0.2.
1. 1 = 0.5. = 0.5. (17.8),
:
0
0 a
0

|A +(0.5)I|v = 0.5 0.25 0 b = 0


0 0.25 0.3 c

v = [a, b, c]T.
, 0.25 0.05 ,
:
2a + b
=0
5b + 6c = 0.
b = 6 = 5,
= 3. , :
v1 = [3, 6, 5]T
1 = 0.5.
2. 2=0.25. = 0.25. (17.8),
:
0
0 a
0.25

|A +(0.25)I|v = 0.5
0
0 b = 0
0
0.25 0.05 c

v = [a,b,c]T.
= 0, 0,05 :
5b + c = 0.

122

b = 1, = 5. ,
2 = 0.25 :
v2 = [0, 1, 5]T
3. 3 = 0.2. = 0.2. (17.8),
:
0
0 a
0 .3

|A +(0.2)I|v = 0.5 0.05 0 b = 0


0
0.25 0 c

v = [a, b, c]T.
, = 0 b = 0 ,
(
). ,
v2 = [0, 0, 1]T
3 = 0.2.
, :
x(t ) = c1v1e 1t + c2 v2 e 2t + c3v3e 3t

:
3
0
0

( 0.5 )t
( 0.25 )t
+ c2 1 e
+ c3 0 e (0.2 )t
x(t ) = c1 6 e
5
5
1

:
x1(t) = 3c1e0.5t
x2(t) = 6c1e0.5t + c2e0.25t
x3(t) = 5c1e0.5t 5c2e0.25t + c3e0.2t.
x1(0) = 15, x2(0) = x3(0) = 0, :
3c1
= 15
= 0
6c1 + c2
5c1 5c2 + c3 = 0
( ) : c1 =5, c2 =30 c3 = 125.
, , t
:
x1(t) = 15e0.5t
x2(t) = 30e0.5t + 30e0.25t
x3(t) = 25e0.5t 150e0.25t + 125e0.2t.
MATLAB MAPLE.
Maple
> restart:
> V1:= 20: V2:= 40: V3:=50:
> r1:= 10: r2:= 10: r3:=10:
> k1:=r1/V1: k2:=r2/V2: k3:=r3/V3:
> my_diff_yravnenie:={diff(x1(t),t)=-k1*x1(t),diff(x2(t),t)=k1*x1(t)k2*x2(t),diff(x3(t),t)=k2*x2(t)-k3*x3(t),x1(0)=15,x2(0)=0,x3(0)=0};

123

my_diff_yravnenie := { x1( 0 ) = 15, x2( 0 ) = 0, x3( 0 ) = 0,

d
1
x1( t ) = x1( t ),
dt
2

d
d
1
1
1
1
x2( t ) = x1( t ) x2( t ), x3( t ) = x2( t ) x3( t ) }
dt
dt
2
4
4
5

> v2:=dsolve(my_diff_yravnenie);
v2 := { x1( t ) = 15 e
x3( t ) = 25 e

t
2

, x2( t ) = 30 e

150 e

t
4

+ 125 e

+ 30 e

t
5

>
. 17.6 x1(t), x2(t) x3(t).
, 1 ""
, x1(t) 0 t . x2(t) x3(t) 2
3 , ,
t .
15

10

10

15

20

25

30

. 17.6. ,
17.4.

124

17.3 ,
,
. 17.7, ,
.
F = ma ,
:
m1 x1" = k1 x1 + k2 ( x2 x1 )

"
m2 x2 = k2 ( x2 x1 ) + k3 ( x3 x2 )

....
m x" = k x x + k x x
6( 6
5)
7( 7
6)
6 6
m x" = k ( x x ) k x
7
7
6
8 7
7 7

: X = [x1,x2,x3,x4,x5,x6,x7]T,
:
m1
0

M =0
0

0
0

0
m2

0
m3

0
0

0
0

0
m4
0

0
m5

0
0
m6

0
0
0

0 ,
0

0
m7

k2
0
0
0
0
0
( k1 + k2 )

k2
( k 2 + k3 )
k3
0
0
0
0

k3
( k3 + k 4 )
k4
0
0
0
0

K =
0
0
k4
( k 4 + k5 )
k5
0
0
.

0
0
0
k5
k6
0
( k5 + k 6 )

0
0
0
0
k6
k7
( k6 + k7 )

k7
0
0
0
0
0
( k7 + k8 )

, [] 16
, m=16000 .
k = 10 (
) . ,
,
. . 17.8. ,
, . 17.7,
MX = X n = 7, mi = 16000 ( i) ki = 10000
(/) 1 i 7 (k8=0).
X = AX c A:

125

x7(t)

x6(t)

x5(t)

x4(t)

x3(t)

x2(t)

x1(t)

. 17.7.

k(xi xi-1)

k(xi+1 xi)

. 17.8. , i .

126

0
0
0
0
0
1.25 0.625
0.625 1.25 0.625
0
0
0
0

0
0.625 1.25 0.625
0
0
0

0
0.625 1.25 0.625
0
0
A= 0
0
0
0
0.625 1.25 0.625
0

0
0
0
0.625 1.25 0.625
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.625 0.625

MATLAB (i),
(i) (Pi). 17.1.
17.1.
.

i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

-38.2709
-33.3826
-26.1803
-17.9094
-10.0000
-3.8197
-0.4370

i = i

Pi =

6.1863
5.7778
5.1167
4.2320
3.1623
1.9544
0.6611

()
1.0157
1.0875
1.2280
1.4847
1.9869
3.2149
9.5042

, ,
2 , -
( 1.9869 ) .
,
, cost = 2cost,
F = ma = m2cost
. :
x = A + (2cost)b,
(17.9)
b = [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1], (1), E = 10.
(17.9), ,
:
(A + 2I)C = 2.

127

xp(t)=cpcost. (A + 2I) (),


2 = . MATLAB C = (A + 2I)12:
C = [8.2242 9.6523 9.9195 9.9760 9.9896 9.9927 9.9930]T.

,
, .

19 1985 .

128

18
18.1
XVII 1
, ,
2. ,

, .
1. ,
.
2. -, ,
() , 3.
3.
4.
(Principia Mathematical 1687)
,

. , ,
, 5.
,
6. - :
r(t) = (x(t), y(t)) = xi + yj,
(18.1)
i = (1,0) j = (0,1) .
,

r"(t) :
r =

kr
,
r3

(18.2)

r = x 2 + y 2 .
t (r(t), (t)),
( ,
1

1609 1619 .
14 1546 , 24 1601 .
.
. ,
.
3 , .
4 ,
.
5 , ,
, .
.
6 . ,
:
,
.
2

129

), (
. 18.1) 1:
ur = icos + jsin u = i sin + j cos.
(18.3)
ur, ,
,
u ur 900.
1. (18.3)
, :
dur
d
du
d
= u
= u r
.
(18.4)
dt
dt
dt
dt
y

ur
u
(r(t), (t))

. 18.1. ur
u.
2. (18.4),
r=rur ,
:
v = dr/dt = urdr/dt + rd/dtu.
(18.5)
3. , ,
a= dv/dt :
2
d 2r
1 d 2 d
d
a = 2 r
r
u .
ur +
dt
r dt dt
dt

(18.6)

4.
(18.5) (18.6) ,
- , :
1 d 2 d
r dt r dt = 0.

, :
r2

d
=h,
dt

, ur u .

130

(18.7)

(18.8)

h . ,
A(t), . 18.2, dA
= r2d/2. (18.8) , A(t)
, 1.
5. (18.5)
(18.6), (18.8), ,
( ) r(t)
:
d 2 r h2
k

.
(18.9)
dt 2 r 3
r2
(r(t), (t))

A(t)

(r(0), (0))

. 18.2. ,
() .
6.
,
2 r = r(),
(18.8), , r = 1/z, :
dr
dz
= h
.
dt
d

, (18.9)
, z() = 1/r() :

,
,
( )
.
, , :
,
. :

.
. (, ,
, .
.
2
r2d/dt = h. ,
, , h 0. (
) , , .. = (t),
t = t(). ,
r = r().

131

d 2z
k
+
z
=
.
(18.10)
d 2
h2
7. , (18.10) :
(18.11)
z() = Asin + Bsin + k/h2.
8. , (18.11) , r() =1/z()
:
r () =

L
,
1 + e cos ( )

(18.12)

e = Ch2/k, Ccos = A, Csin = B L = h2/k.


(18.12)
, e.

0 e < 1, e = 1, e > 1.
( ) ,
, e < 1.
. 18.3, = .
9. ,
(18.12) ,
. ,
e, L(.
18.3), ,
:
x(t) = r(t)cos t, y(t) = r(t)sin t, 0 t 2.
e 0.0167, .
. , (
, ),
0.0068 0.0933 ,
0.2056 0.2486 .
. ,
e 0.97 (. 18.4)1.


. , , .
, .
.

132

r1
x

r2

. 18.3. r =

L
,
1 + e cos ( )

r1 = L/(1 + e),
r2 = L/(1 e).

. 18.4. .

133

18.2

. , ,
GM = 1 ( G ).
,
:
d 2x
x
=
,
3/ 2
2
dt
( x2 + y2 )

d2y
y
=
,
3/ 2
2
dt
( x2 + y2 )

(18.13)

T .
, T
. , GM = 1, :
T2 = 42a3.
(18.14)
x y x1=x,
x2 = y, x3 = x1 x4 = x2, (18.13)
:
x1 = x3

x2 = x4

x1
x3 =
3/ 2

x12 + x22 )
(

x2
x4 = 2
3/ 2

( x1 + x22 )

a) MATLAB 44
y(0)=1,
: x(0)=1, y(0)=0, x(0)=0,
=1.
(18.14) , T = 2.
b) : x(0)=1,
y(0)=0, x(0)=0, y(0)=(3/2)1/2,
, =2.
(18.14) , T=4 (6)1/2.
MATLAB
function solv_movement
clc
clear
%
X0=[1; 0; 0; 1];
% osci1
%
long_T=4*pi;
[T,X]=ode45(@osci1, [0 long_T], X0);
%

134

% ( - , - )
plot(T,X(:,1),'r.-')
%

% - , - )
hold on
plot(T,X(:,2),'k.:')
%
xlabel('\itt')
legend('x', 'y',4)
grid on
hold off
%
function F = osci1(t,x)
F=[x(3); x(4); -x(1)/(x(1)^2+x(2)^2)^(3/2); -x(2)/(x(1)^2+x(2)^2)^(3/2)];
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

x
y
0

10

12

.18.5. ().

135

14

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3

x
y
0

10

15

20

25
t

30

35

40

45

.18.6. (b).

136

50

18.3

( ) 9 1986 . (
.)
P0 = (0.325514, 0.459460, 0.166229) v0 = (9.096111, 6.916686, 1.305721)
,
..., .. ( , . .
), .
:
d 2x
d2y
x
y
d 2z
z
=

,
=

,
= 3 ,
(18.5)
2
3
2
3
2
dt

dt

dt

= 4 r = x + y + z .
(18.5). (
Maple.)
Maple
> restart:
> with(plots):
> mu:=-4*Pi*Pi:
> r:=(x(t)^2+y(t)^2+z(t)^2)^(3/2):
>my_diff_yravnenie_0:={diff(x(t),t,t)=mu*x(t)/r,diff(y(t),t,t)=mu*y(t)/r,diff(
z(t),t,t)=mu*z(t)/r,x(0)=0.325514,D(x)(0)=-9.096111,y(0)=0.459460,D(y)(0)=6.916686,z(0)=0.166229,D(z)(0)=-1.305721}:
> v2:=dsolve(my_diff_yravnenie_0,numeric):
> odeplot(v2,[x(t),y(t)],0..300);
2

137

> odeplot(v2,[x(t),z(t)],0..300);

> odeplot(v2,[y(t),z(t)],0..300);

138

18.4
2010
.
, , : 0
30 .

. : P0=
(x0, y0, z0) v0 = (vx0, vy0, vz0). ,
:
(
) ( );
;
;
.
, -
, (18.5).

, .

,
, (
).

139


,

.

.
60-70-
,
.
,
. ,
. 1980-

, , , ,
, .
,

.
-, (
) .
,
(, , ,
), (, ).
-, ()

, ,
(
) .
,
,
( !)
.

(
)
.
,
( )
.

140

C
1. . . . .: , 1988. 400 .
2. . . .
.:, 1978. 418 .
3. . ., . ., . . MATLAB 7. - .:
-, 2005. - 1104 : .
4. .. . Maple 9.5/10 , .
.:-, 2006. 720 .: .
5. ..
. 2- ., . .:, 2005. 384 .
6. .. : .
: , 1999, 572 c.
7. . . .
1. : , 2002. 232 .
8. .., .. : .
.; , 2002. - 624 : .
9. .. :
/ -
( ). , 2006. 223
10. .. : . .: ,
2006. 336 . ( )/
11. .. . .2.
.:-, 2004. 544 .

141

2009 ,
12 ,

.

, 20092018 .


1945-1966 ( ). 1945 .
.
17 1945 . , ,
,
, , .
, 11.
1951 .
..., . . ,
,
.

.
( )
.
2, , -8 .
1951 1954
,
, , .. ( ).
11 . , 1952-1953

142


.
1954 .. , ,
11.
.
,
,
.
, 1956 . ( 0705).
1970
.

-
()
. ,
.
:
.
0705


.
.. .
1973 ...
... ..
.
.

- -1-.
..
1974 ,
.
1959 ... ..
( ..., ). ..
.
.
.. . .
1976 1996

.. ( , 1988 1992
.. ..,

143

, ).

.
.
.

,
.. .. .
1996 ...,
...

-
( 2205),
090104
,
- .
1998
,

.
4500
. 50
, 10
.

144