Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

Renewable Energy Systems

Buchla, Kissell, Floyd

Renewable Energy Systems Buchla, Kissell, Floyd 10

10

Chapter Outline

Geothermal Power Generation

10

Renewable Energy Systems

Buchla, Kissell, Floyd

10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 TYPES OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICAL POWER LOW-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL HEAT
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
TYPES OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES
GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICAL POWER
LOW-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL HEAT
GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMPS
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Three attributes of a high quality geothermal source are heat, water,
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Three attributes of a high quality geothermal source are heat, water,

Three attributes of a high quality geothermal source are heat, water, and permeability of the ground. Locations with these attributes are called high- enthalpy resources.

Enthalpy is defined as the amount of energy in a system capable of doing mechanical work; it is a function of temperature, pressure, and volume.

work; it is a function of temperature, pressure, and volume. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources The geothermal gradient refers to the increasing temperature at increasing depths
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources The geothermal gradient refers to the increasing temperature at increasing depths

The geothermal gradient refers to the increasing temperature at increasing depths within the earth. The thermal gradient varies widely according to location; it is about 25 o C/km in most locations but can be as much as 200 o C/km.

C/km in most locations but can be as much as 200 o C/km. Renewable Energy Systems
C/km in most locations but can be as much as 200 o C/km. Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Three temperature classifications of geothermal sources are: 1. High temperature
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Three temperature classifications of geothermal sources are: 1. High temperature

Three temperature classifications of geothermal sources are:

1. High temperature sources are >150 o C. These sources are useful for generating electricity.

2. Moderate temperature sources are between 90 o C and 150 o C. These sources are useful for space heating, drying, and industrial heat and in some cases are used for electricity production.

3. Low temperature sources are <90 o C. Low temperature sources are useful for heating buildings, fish farms, and bathing.

are useful for heating buildings, fish farms, and bathing. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources To exploit high temperature hot dry rock , water is generally
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources To exploit high temperature hot dry rock , water is generally

To exploit high temperature hot dry rock, water is generally injected from nearby wells. The water boils and the steam is used to drive a steam turbine.

One plant at the 750 MW Geysers in Northern CA, is shown here. Recycled water
One plant at the 750 MW
Geysers in Northern CA, is
shown here. Recycled
water from nearby Santa
Rosa is piped in to be
injected to create steam
for the turbine.
Renewable Energy Systems
David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Source: NREL

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Geopressurized reservoirs consist of high-pressure, hot brine in deep underground
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Geopressurized reservoirs consist of high-pressure, hot brine in deep underground

Geopressurized reservoirs consist of high-pressure, hot brine in deep underground reservoirs. They are characterized by dissolved methane. The best known areas for geopressurized reservoirs are along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast.

Energy can be obtained from the thermal energy, from the hydraulic high pressure, or from burning the dissolved methane.

© Coprid/Fotolia
© Coprid/Fotolia
or from burning the dissolved methane. © Coprid/Fotolia Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Hot water reservoirs are natural steam reservoirs that are typically found
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Hot water reservoirs are natural steam reservoirs that are typically found

Hot water reservoirs are natural steam reservoirs that are typically found along fault lines in the earth. The temperatures are high enough to create steam, which can be used to drive turbines.

For moderate temperature reservoirs, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) generators are used. ORC generators are shown at the Chena Hot Springs Resort in AK.

generators are shown at the Chena Hot Springs Resort in AK. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Source: Courtesy of Chena Hot Springs
Source: Courtesy of Chena Hot Springs

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

| Thomas Floyd Source: Courtesy of Chena Hot Springs Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-1

Types of Geothermal Sources

10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Normal ground temperature sources are useful for underground geothermal heat pumps.
10-1 Types of Geothermal Sources Normal ground temperature sources are useful for underground geothermal heat pumps.

Normal ground temperature sources are useful for underground geothermal heat pumps. In most locations in the world, the ground is a constant 10 o C at relatively shallow depths. This is sufficient to keep heat pumps working efficiently even when the outdoor temperature is freezing.

Source: NREL
Source: NREL

The photo shows drilling of a geothermal well for a heat pump in Klamath Falls, OR.

of a geothermal well for a heat pump in Klamath Falls, OR. Renewable Energy Systems David

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2

Geothermal Electrical Power

10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 1. Dry steam Renewable Energy
10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 1. Dry steam Renewable Energy

Three methods for generating geothermal electricity:

1. Dry steam

methods for generating geothermal electricity: 1. Dry steam Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell
methods for generating geothermal electricity: 1. Dry steam Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2

Geothermal Electrical Power

10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 2a. Flash steam (single flash)
10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 2a. Flash steam (single flash)

Three methods for generating geothermal electricity:

2a. Flash steam (single flash)

geothermal electricity: 2a. Flash steam (single flash) Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell |
geothermal electricity: 2a. Flash steam (single flash) Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2

Geothermal Electrical Power

10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 2b. Flash steam (double flash)
10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 2b. Flash steam (double flash)

Three methods for generating geothermal electricity:

2b. Flash steam (double flash)

geothermal electricity: 2b. Flash steam (double flash) Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell |
geothermal electricity: 2b. Flash steam (double flash) Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2

Geothermal Electrical Power

10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 3. Binary-cycle Renewable Energy
10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Three methods for generating geothermal electricity: 3. Binary-cycle Renewable Energy

Three methods for generating geothermal electricity:

3. Binary-cycle

for generating geothermal electricity: 3. Binary-cycle Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell |
for generating geothermal electricity: 3. Binary-cycle Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2

Geothermal Electrical Power

10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is one in which a geothermal site
10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is one in which a geothermal site

An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is one in which a geothermal site is made productive by artificial means including fracturing networks to increase permeability and improved drilling methods including horizontal drilling and laser drilling.

EGS has successfully produced an additional 1.7 megawatts from an existing well field using EGS fracturing methods at Brady Hot Springs, NV (shown here). Other successes are at Newberry, OR and Desert Rock, NV.

Source: David Buchla
Source: David Buchla
at Newberry, OR and Desert Rock, NV. Source: David Buchla Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-2

Geothermal Electrical Power

10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Another innovative proposal is to harness the heat in underground coal seam
10-2 Geothermal Electrical Power Another innovative proposal is to harness the heat in underground coal seam

Another innovative proposal is to harness the heat in underground coal seam fires. These fires represent an ecological disaster as they can burn for tens of decades in a very wide area and emit tons of pollutants as well as consume a valuable resource. Most are caused by man and they have been nearly impossible to extinguish.

by man and they have been nearly impossible to extinguish. One study has shown that there

One study has shown that there is significant energy that can be recovered by using standard methods developed in geothermal plants. The heat would be used to drive ORC turbines.

plants. The heat would be used to drive ORC turbines. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-3

Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat

10-3 Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat Low-temperature sources can be used for space heating and cooling.
10-3 Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat Low-temperature sources can be used for space heating and cooling.

Low-temperature sources can be used for space heating and cooling. Cooling is accomplished with an absorption type refrigeration system in four steps:

1 •Generator: The generator heats the refrigerant (lithium bromide solution); this causes the water in
1
•Generator: The generator
heats the refrigerant (lithium
bromide solution); this causes
the water in solution to boil,
creating water vapor at high
pressure.
3
•Expansion valve: High pressure
liquid water passes through an
expansion valve and
becomes a cold liquid vapor
mix. The pressure (and the
boiling point) are reduced.
mix. The pressure (and the boiling point) are reduced. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

2 •Condenser: The high pressure vapor is condensed to a liquid at higher pressure. Heat
2
•Condenser: The high pressure
vapor is condensed to a liquid
at higher pressure. Heat from
compressing is removed.
4
•Evaporator and Absorber: The
cold water absorbs heat from
the space to be cooled and is
absorbed by the LiBr to form a
weaker solution. The solution is
returned to the generator.

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

solution. The solution is returned to the generator. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All

10-3

Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat

10-3 Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat Snow melting is an application for low-temperature heat in areas
10-3 Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat Snow melting is an application for low-temperature heat in areas

Snow melting is an application for low-temperature heat in areas with ample geothermal sources like Iceland. The idea is being tested also in other locations on bridges and overpasses.

Tubing for snow melting is installed before concrete is poured. This installation is in Klamath Falls, OR. The city has more than 50,000 sidewalks and crosswalks with district heating.

Source: NREL
Source: NREL
sidewalks and crosswalks with district heating. Source: NREL Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-3

Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat

10-3 Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat Greenhouses and fish farms are another application for
10-3 Low-Temperature Applications for Geothermal Heat Greenhouses and fish farms are another application for

Greenhouses and fish farms are another application for low-temperature geothermal heat. Farming operations include aquatic plants and animals as well as certain food drying applications (including onion, garlic, carrots, and celery dehydrators).

Alligators are raised in Colorado at an elevation of over 7500 ft (2300 m). These are part of the Colorado Gators Reptile Park, which also has other reptiles and birds on display. A geothermal well keeps the water warm year round.

Source: NREL
Source: NREL
well keeps the water warm year round. Source: NREL Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-4

Geothermal Heat Pumps

10-4 Geothermal Heat Pumps A conventional heat pump operates in a standard refrigeration cycle. Here it
10-4 Geothermal Heat Pumps A conventional heat pump operates in a standard refrigeration cycle. Here it

A conventional heat pump operates in a standard refrigeration cycle. Here it is operating in the heat cycle:

refrigeration cycle. Here it is operating in the heat cycle: Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |
refrigeration cycle. Here it is operating in the heat cycle: Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-4

Geothermal Heat Pumps

10-4 Geothermal Heat Pumps A geothermal heat pump uses the same principle of operation but absorbs
10-4 Geothermal Heat Pumps A geothermal heat pump uses the same principle of operation but absorbs

A geothermal heat pump uses the same principle of operation but absorbs heat from the ground into a glycol solution.

but absorbs heat from the ground into a glycol solution. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |
but absorbs heat from the ground into a glycol solution. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla |

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-4

Geothermal Heat Pumps

10-4 Geothermal Heat Pumps The coefficient of performance (COP) is a measure of efficiency for heat
10-4 Geothermal Heat Pumps The coefficient of performance (COP) is a measure of efficiency for heat

The coefficient of performance (COP) is a measure of efficiency for heat pumps and is the ratio of heat energy delivered to energy supplied to the heat pump. Geothermal heat pumps are very efficient.

to the heat pump. Geothermal heat pumps are very efficient. A heat pump rated for 5

A heat pump rated for 5 kW is on for 30 min and delivers 40,000 BTU of heat in that time. What is the COP?

delivers 40,000 BTU of heat in that time. What is the COP? The energy supplied in

The energy supplied in 30 min is (5 kW)(0.5 h) = 2.5 kWh

The energy delivered = 40,000 BTU/(3413 BTU/kWh) = 11.7 kWh

The COP = 11.7 kWh/2.5 kWh = 4.69

BTU/kWh) = 11.7 kWh The COP = 11.7 kWh/2.5 kWh = 4.69 Renewable Energy Systems David

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

10-5

Environmental Impact

10-5 Environmental Impact Water Geothermal plants use steam and need to recycle water to maintain the
10-5 Environmental Impact Water Geothermal plants use steam and need to recycle water to maintain the

Water Geothermal plants use steam and need to recycle water to maintain the source, so monitoring of the quality of injected water and flow is important. Plants like the Geysers use treated wastewater for injection.

Monitoring of ground water can be done by injecting chemical tracers. Tracer tests are used to evaluate the injected water flow through the reservoir and the amount of injection-derived steam that is produced.

and the amount of injection-derived steam that is produced. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Source: NREL
Source: NREL

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Source: NREL Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education,

10-5

Environmental Impact

10-5 Environmental Impact Air Air pollution from geothermal plants is minor and is less that 1%
10-5 Environmental Impact Air Air pollution from geothermal plants is minor and is less that 1%

Air Air pollution from geothermal plants is minor and is less that 1% of an equivalent fossil-fueled plant. Small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) may be in the steam; most can be removed at the plant. Other gases include small amounts of CO 2 and NO x .

Source: NREL
Source: NREL
small amounts of CO 2 and NO x . Source: NREL Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Selected Key Terms

Selected Key Terms Binary-cycle plant Coefficient of performance (COP) Double-flash steam plant Dry-steam plant A
Selected Key Terms Binary-cycle plant Coefficient of performance (COP) Double-flash steam plant Dry-steam plant A

Binary-cycle plant

Coefficient of performance (COP)

Double-flash steam plant

Dry-steam plant

A geothermal power plant that uses the brine

water or steam from the geothermal reservoir to heat and vaporize a secondary fluid with a lower boiling point to drive the turbine and generator.

A measure of efficiency for a heat pump; it is the

ratio of the heat produced to the energy

consumed and it varies with the outside

temperature.

A geothermal plant with two pressure reducing

stages to create high pressure and low pressure steam. The high and low pressure steam is routed to two different turbines, which turn a generator.

A geothermal electrical plant that uses

superheated dry steam from a geothermal reservoir and routes it directly to a steam turbine and generator to produce electricity.

to a steam turbine and generator to produce electricity. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Selected Key Terms

Selected Key Terms Enhanced Geothermal System Enthalpy Solar module Flash steam plant A system in which
Selected Key Terms Enhanced Geothermal System Enthalpy Solar module Flash steam plant A system in which

Enhanced

Geothermal

System

Enthalpy Solar module

Flash steam plant

A system in which a geothermal site that is

deficient in water or permeability is made to be productive by artificial means.

The amount of energy in a system capable of doing mechanical work; it is a function of temperature, pressure, and volume.

A geothermal plant that creates steam from high

pressure hot water (brine) using a special control valve or orifice plate to reduce the pressure and cause some of the liquid to boil (or flash) into steam, which is used to drive a steam turbine and generator to produce electricity.

drive a steam turbine and generator to produce electricity. Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas

Renewable Energy Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Systems David Buchla | Thomas Kissell | Thomas Floyd Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.

true/false quiz

1. A high enthalpy site for geothermal power is one that has high heat, water, and permeability.

true/false quiz

2. Low-temperature geothermal sources are useful for generating electricity.

true/false quiz

3. Hot water reservoirs are not found in cold climates.

true/false quiz

4. Most locations in the world can use geothermal energy for heat pumps.

true/false quiz

5. An advantage of a flash power plant is that it isolates underground water from the turbines.

true/false quiz

6. The Organic Rankine cycle is used with double-flash power plants.

true/false quiz

7. Enhanced Geothermal Systems do not use artificial means to improve output.

true/false quiz

8. Low-temperature geothermal sources can be used to cool buildings.

true/false quiz

9. Geothermal heat pumps tend to be more efficient than standard heat pumps.

true/false quiz

10. Tracers can track the flow of water through a reservoir and the amount of steam that is produced.

Answers:

true/false quiz

1.T

6.F

2.F

7.F

3.F

8.T

4.T

9.T

5.F

10. T