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020100.62 , , ()
240100.62 , ,
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020201.65 , ,
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1.2. ,
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2012

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, 2012. 71 .

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020100 240100
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1. .

1.1. .....

1.2. ....

16

2.

44

1. ..

44

2 3. .

52

2.

54

3. () ...

57

3. ...

63

70



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1.


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1.1.
,
, .
, ,
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, ,

.
:
= f(C0, x, r),

(1)

; 0
; x ; r
. (1),
,
.

,
.
A A + B R + S
:
,

(2)

CA ;
; x, y, z x,
y, z ; D ;
( );
;



( ) ,
( );

( ).
9

(2),
(
)
(-), (-)
().


- (. 2),
,
,
. ,
,
. ,
(. 6).
, ,
(. 6).
-
(2):

,
C A C A C A
=
= 0,

x
y
z

- wx

CA
C
C
- wy A - wz A = 0
x
y
z

2C
2 C A 2C A
= 0,
D 2A +
+
2
2

x
y
z

A
= rA ,
t
.
,
dC A = -C A,0 dxA
(3), :
dx
dt = C A,0 A

rA
:

xA

(3)

dx A
(4)
0 rA
(4)
,
.

t = A, 0

10

. 6. .

- ,
(4),
(, , ,
..) :
= +
(5)
:
Vr =

Vt
24a

(6)

V ;
.
() :
m=

24
t

(7)



(. 3),
.
.
,
(. 6).

(2):

l ( ), ,
x l, :
C A
C
- wx
= -w A ,
x
l
.
C A
C A
-wy
= -w z
=0
y
z
,
2 C A 2C A 2C A
= 0.
D
+
+
,
2
2
2
y
z
x
:
C A
C A
- rA
= -w
(8)
t
l
(8) ,
.
.

C A
=0
t
C A
= rA
-w
dl
(9) : CA = CA,0(1 xA)
:

(9)
l = ,

xA

dx A
0 rA

t = C A,0

(10)

(10) (4),
-. -
,
,
( , ).


(. 4),
.

.
,
. 6.
, CA (. 6)
,
xA, (2)
.
:
BA = BA A ..,
(11)
BA ,
; BA ,
; A .. ,
.
B A = 0 A . . = B A . ,
A .. = rAVr
BA = V(CA,0 CA) = VCA,0xA (V
), : C A,0Vx A = rAVr
(12)

.
1



13

A+BR+S

:
4.8102

A,0 = B,0 = 7102 /3,



1.4102 /3,
Vp = 0.2 3.
.
:
:
1. :
xA=

C A, 0 - C A
C A, 0

0.07 - 0.014
0.07

= 0.8

2.
: rA=kC, C ()
.
,
,
: A = B = A,0(1xA);
: rA=k 2A,0 (1xA)2.
3.
:
_

xA
dx A
dx A
xA
1
1
0,8
1
= C A, 0
=

= 0.33
2
2
kC A, 0 1 - x A 0.48 0.07 0.2 3600
0 rA
0 kC A, 0 (1 - x A )

xA

t = C A, 0

4.
:
= CR,
(

3
);

CR (

)
3

:
=

0. 2 3
3
= 0.61
; R = C A,0 x A = 0.07 0.8 = 0.056
0.33

:
= C R = 0.61
: = 33.9

56
= 33.9

2.
1 .
:
1.
-
14

t=

C A, 0 x A
rA

C A, 0 x A
kC A2 ,0

(1 - x A )

xA

kC A,0 (1 - x A )

0.8
1

= 1.65
2
0.048 0.07 0.2 3600

0. 2
3
=
= 0.12
2. : =
t 1.65

Vp

3. - :
3

56 3 = 6.8
= uC R = 0.12

: = 6.8

:
-, ,
, ,
- (. 1 2).
3.
: +
2R
, , .
:


k1 = 2.3102 k2 = 0.41102 3/,
0.008 3/,
CA,0() = 0.12 /3,
0.006 3/, CB,0() = 0.15
/3,
xB = 0.30.
.
.

30% .
:
(-).
:
C
u
0.12 0.008
C A,0 = A,0 ( ) A =
= 0.0686 / 3 ;
uA + uB
0.008 + 0.006
C
u
0.15 0.006
= 0.0643 / 3 .
B,0 = B,0 ( ) B =
0.008 + 0.006
uA + uB
, -
:
CB = CB,0 CB,0xB = 0.0643(1 0.3) = 0.0450 /3;
CA = CA,0 CB,0xB = 0.0686 0.06430.3 = 0.0493 /3;
CR = 2CB,0B = 20.06430.3 = 0.0386 /3.
:
15

rB = r r = k1CACB k2C 2R
rB = 2.31020.04930.045 0.421020.03862 = 5.1105 0.626105 =
= 4.474105 /3.
-
:
=

C B,0 x B
rB

0.0643 0.3
= 431 ;
4.474 10 -5

V = (A + B) = 0.014431 = 6.1 3 (

).
.
1.
;
:
C A, 0

- x B - k 2 C B2 , 0 xB2
rB = k1 C AC B - k 2 C R2 = k1CB2 ,0 (1 - x B )
C

B,0

C B = C B , 0 (1 - x B )

C A, 0
C A = C A,0 - C B , 0 x B = C B ,0
- xB

B,0

C R = C B ,0 x B
2.
xB
_
Vp
dx B
dx
1 xB
t=
= C B,0 B =

u
k 1C B , 0 0

C
0 rB
(1 - x B ) A,0 - x B - k 2 x B2
k1
C B ,0
3. Vp =
3.94 3.
: V(-) = 6.1 3; V() = 3.94 3.
:

( )
, -.
3 , -.
1.2.
-
, .
, ,
,
.
16

, (
) ( ),
, . .
, () ()
() , (. 7).
:
(, ) + b() ( )

(I)

(, ) + b() ( )

(II)

(, ) + b() ( )

(III)

. 7.
:
1 ;
2 ;
3 , , ;
4
.

,
,

( II III). ,

, I.

, ,
.
.

17



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() ,
.

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(. 8)

. 8.


:
1
;
2
;
C
;
R .

. 9.

:
1 ; 2 ;
3 ;
4 ; 5
; C
; R .

(
) ,

.
.
18

,
. .
,
"". ,
,
(. 9).

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.
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.

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:
1.
.
2.
() .
3. .
4.
.
5.
( ) .
.
, ,
,
.


, u ,
:
19

u = KFDC =

1
FDC
1
1 1
+
+
b b' k

(13)

K ;
(1/
); '

(1/' ); k
; F ,
; ,

( ,
).

(. 13) , K
, ', k. , ,
, ,
. . K < min(, ', k).
()
.
,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
Ro ,
R, , R = 0.


.
. 10
, .
,


, ,
,
,
.
, ,
:
20

. 10. : ;
; . 1 , ,
; 2 (); 3 ;
; R .

21

u=-

1 dn A
1 dn B
== bC A
F dt
F bdt

n n ; b
, 1 .
F
, F = 4R 02
u=-

1 dn B
= bC A
4pR02 bdt

n = BV; B ; V .
:
bdnA = dnB= BdV = Bd(4/3R3) = 4BR2dR
(15) (14), :
dt = -

(14)

(15)

rB
R 2 dR
2
bb C A R0

0 R R0 R,
t=

r B R0
3bb C A

R3
1 - 3
R0

R3/R03
(

VB , R
VB , R0

R3
= 3 ) , , :
R0
VB ,R r B
n
R 3 VB ,R
=
=
= B = 1 - xB
3
R 0 V B , R 0 V B , R 0 r B n B0

(16)

B .
(16)
t=

r B R0
xB
3bb C A

(17)

B = 1 ( ) (17)
n:
tn =

r B R0
3bb C A

(18)

B :
= nxB
(19)


.
n.

22

( R0
(18) n)
,
.
(

).

.
(. 10).


u=-

dC A
1 dn A
1 dn B
==D
2
2
dR
4pR dt
4pR bdt

(20)

D
.
(20) :
2
3
R
R
r B R02
+ 2

1 - 3
t=
R
R
6bDC A
0
0

(21)

(21) ,
R0 R,
.
(16)
t=

r B R02
2
1 - 3(1 - x B ) 3 + 2(1 - x B )
6bDC A

(22)

xB = 1 (22)
n:
r B R02
.
tn =
6bDC A

(23)

t = t n 1 - 3(1 - xB ) 3 + 2(1 - xB )
2

(24)

(21) (23) , ,
, ,
.
,
( ,
)
(A).

23


( ).
,


, A. ( )
(. 10).
.


1 dn A
1 dn B
== kC A
2
4pR dt
4pR 2 bdt
1
r R
R
t = B 0 1 - = t n 1 - (1 - x B ) 3
bkC A R0
r R
tn = B 0
bkC A
u=-

(25)
(26)
(27)

n
.
R0 , (18) (23)

,
k. k
, . k
,
, , .

(17), (22) (26),


,
.
. ,
:
R
x B = 1 -
R0

, ,

t=

r B R0
1
1 - (1 - x B ) 2
bkC A

).


xB = 1 -

1
,
l

l , :
t=

r Bl
xB .
bkC A

24


t = f (x ) .


,
, .
, , .
:
1.
.
2. .
3.
.
,
.
, ,

.
, (2627) ,
.
,
, . .
, ,

.
4.
, 8% . 3 , 2.2 /3,
900, 20 /.
:
,
.
,
.
(27):
tn =
rB =

2.2 / 3
= 0.183 / 3
12 /

r B R0
bkC A

25

A =

0.08 273

= 8.31 10 -7 / 3
3
1173
22400

,
b = 1 C + O2 CO2.
:
tn =

0.183 / 3 0.003
= 3300 = 55
1 0.2 /c 8.31 10 -7 / 3

: 55 .
(17), (22) (26)
,
.

. ,
,

,

(.. ), (
) .

, , (14), (20), (25)
,
, ,

( .. , .. ,
. ):
= .. + .. + .
:
= .. + .. + . .
, ,
, :
t=

] [

r B R0 x B R0
2
1
1
1 - 3(1 - x B ) 3 + 2(1 - x B ) + 1 - (1 - x B ) 3
+

bC A 3b 6 D
k

(28)


,
xB ( u) , .
t

x B= f ,
t n
, . 5
(19), (24) (26),
.

26

. 11.
/ n : 1 ;
2 ; 3 .


, (18), (23) (27). ,

, (R1 R2),
(1 2).
2/1
:

t 2 t n2 R 2
=

t 1 t n1 R1

1.2 2

(29)

t 2 t n2 R 2

=

t 1 t n1 R1
t 2 t n2 R2

=

.
t 1 t n1 R1
2

(30)
(31)

,
. ,
, , :
"" .

27

. 12. u :
; II ; III .

. 12
. .
,
. ,
( ).

( ).
5.
:



A() + B() = P() + S().

= 0.01 /3,
= 20 /3,
1 ,
2 30%,
5 75%.

,
.
:

,
. , ,
(18, 23, 27)
, .
1. = 0.3 0.75 (27), ,
:
t n (x = 0.3) =

2
1 - (1 - 0.3)

28

= 17.9
3

t n (x = 0.75) =

5
1 - (1 - 0.75)

= 13.5
3

2. = 0.3 0.75 (23), ,


:
( = 0.3) = 56.9
( = 0.75) = 16.1
3.
= 0.3 0.75 (18), ,
:
( = 0.3) = 6.7
( = 0.75) = 6.7
4. ,
.
: .

( )



1.

:
,
;
;
.
,
. . 13
( )
. ,
.

:
( , ),
( ),
( ),
( ).

29

1.

-
.

,



.


30

.
,

,
;
,

,
.

(
)
100%

,
,
.
,

-
; .

,

.
;

31

. 13.
( ) : () ,
; () ,
; () ,
; () (
,
); () ( ,
).
32

. ,
.

,
,
(19, 24, 26), ,
, ,
.
,

, . .

.
:
F ,
F(Ri)
, Ri,
Rm , .
, ,

,
:
(32)
Ri = Rm

F = F (Ri )

. 14.

Ri = 0

. 14. . F(Ri)
Ri, R
.
33

.
x(Ri) Ri
.
x ,
, n
:

=
,

n R R
i
i

F (Ri )
, 0 1.
(33)
F
Ri =0
,
. ,
, .
,
,
. > 1.
(33) (34),
, , R( = )
_

1- x =

Ri = Rm

(1 - x(R ))
i

( 1 - x ).
_

1- x =

Rm

(1 - x(R ))
(t t )

R =

F ( Ri )
F

(34)

R( = ) ,
.
_

( 1- x(Ri ) )

.
6.
:

:
:
30% 50 ,
40% 100 ,
30% 200 ,
300,
600 1200 ,
34


480 c.
.
:
1. ,
.
2. 50
= 480 ,
. , (34), :
_

1 - x = (1 - x(100 ))

F (100 )
F (200)
+ (1 - x(200 ))
,
F
F

F (100)
F (200)
= 0.4
= 0.3 .
F
F
3. .
, .
R1 : R2 : R3 = 50 : 100 : 200 = 1: 2: 4
()1 : ()2 : ()3 = 300 : 600 : 1200 = 1 : 2 : 4
(. (31)) ,
.
4. ,
:

(1 - x(Ri )) = 1 - t
t n (Ri )

5. (34), :
3

480
_ 480

1 - x = 1 (0.4) + 1 (0.3) = 0.068

600
1200

93.2%.
_

: x = 93 .2% .


.
. ,

.

.
, :
,
35

,
.

.


(19, 24 26).
, ,
,
,
_

x .
.
F() f()
.
()

, i
i + i, f(i)i. i
.
, :
1 - x (t i ) =

C A (t i )
,
C A, 0

, ,

:

t i t i + t

t
t
t
+
i
i

,
N .
, :
_

t i

CA
1- x =
= lim (1 - x (t i )) f (t i )Dt = (1 - x(t )) f (t )dt
0
C A, 0 Dt 0 t i 0
_

(35)

,
_

, , x ,
36

, .
, , ,
i > 100%.
, (35)
:
tn

1 - x = (1 - x ) f (t )dt

(36)

.
: ,
()
().
:
() f()
-

t :
-t

t e t
1
f (t ) = _ exp - _ = _

t
t
t

(37)

,
, :
-t

tn

1 - x = (1 - x )
0

e
_

dt

(38)

()
(19, 24, 26).
,
(19) (38) :
-t

tn

t e
1 - x = 1 - _ dt
0
tn t
_

(39)

:
_

t
x=
tn
_

-t
_

- 1- e

(40)

:
2

1 t n 1 t n
1 t n
+
- ....
1- x = _ 2
3! _
4! _
t
t
t
_

37

(41)

,
(26) (38) :
-t

tn

t e
1 - x = 1 - _ dt .
0
tn t
_

(42)


, :
2

_
_ _
t
t t
x = 3 - 6 + 6
tn
t n t n


_

tn

1 - e t_

(43)

_
t
,
tn

:
2

1 t n 1 t n
1 t n
+
- ....
1- x = _ (44)
4 t 20 t_ 120 t_


, ,
(24) (38), ,
:
_

t
1t
19 t n
41 t n
n + ...
+
1 - x = _n 0
.
00149
_
_

_
5 t 420 t
4620 t


t
_

(45)


,
, .
7.
:

:
,
20
,
60
,

~ R1.5.
, FeS2
.
38

:

,
. , ~ R,
, ~ R2. , ,
, .
,
.
.
, :
2

2
3
1 t n 1 t n
1 t n
1 20 1 20
1 20
+
- ... = - +
1- x = _ - ... = 0.078
4 t 20 t_ 120 t_
4 60 20 60 120 60


, :
_

1 20 19 20
41 20
1- x = +
- ... = 0.062
5 60 420 60 4620 60
,
_

7.8% 6.2% , x = 0.07, . . 7%.


: 7%.
,

,
(33, 34) (38).
. 15.

,
, :

F (Ri ) W (Ri )
=
F
W

(46)

W ;
W(Ri) ,
Ri.
Ri

:
_

t = t (R i ) =

W
=

F

(47)

Ri

x(Ri ) . (36) :
39

. 15. .
.
.
_

-t

t n ( Ri )

1 - x(Ri ) = (1 - x(Ri ))
0

e
_

dt

(48)

,
:

n R

R
i

n .
:

F ( Ri )
1 - x = 1 - x (Ri )

F
R = 0

Rm

(49)

(48) (49) (39), (44) (45)


, :
:
40

F ( Ri )
(
)
R
t
1 n i
1- x =
...
+

_
_
2
3
!
F

t
t

=
Rm 1 t
F ( Ri )
1 t n ( Ri )
n ( Ri )
1- x =
...
+

_
_
4
20
F


t
t

Rm 1

t n(Ri )

=
Rm 1 t
F (Ri )
(
)
t
R
19
n ( Ri )
n
i

+
1- x =
...

_
420 _
F

5 t
t

(Ri) Ri.
8.
:

(50)

(51)

(52)


,
.

:

( 6):
30% 50 ,
40% 100 ,
30% 200 ,
(
6) 300, 600 1200 ,
1 /,

,

10 ,
,
,
,
,
,

.
.
:
1. .
2. (. 6) ,
.

41

3.
:
_

t=

W
10
=
= 10 = 600
F 1

4.
F(R = 50 ) = 0.3F = 0.3 / = 0.005 /
F(R = 100 ) = 0.4F = 0.4 / = 0.0067 /
F(R = 200 ) = 0.3F = 0.3 / = 0.005 /
5. (39):
2

1 300 1 300 2

0.3 1 600 1 600


0.4

1- x =

+
+ ...

+
+ ...
R =50 1 4 600 20 600
R =100 1
4 600 20 600
=

1 1200 1 1200 2
0. 3
+

= 0.222
+ ...
R = 200 1
4 600 20 600

, 77.8%.
: 77.8%.
9.
:


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69


1.
. ., . ., . .
. . : , 2005. 528 .
2.
.., .. / .
.. .: , 1977. 400 .
3.
. . .:
, 1969. 624 .
4.
. . .:
, 1967. 416 .
5.
.. . .: , 1968. 191 .
6.
., . . .
.: , 1967. 264 .
7.
. . .: , 1963.
238 .
8.
. ., . .
. . : , 1971. 198 .
9.
. . . . : , 1983. 340 .
10. ., . / .;
. .., ... .:, 1971. 447 .
11. . . . .: ,
2007. 656 .
12. Levenspiel O. Chemical reaction engineering. 3 rd edition. New York: John
Wiley & Sons. 1998. 684 p.

70



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71