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( )

" "
110600

, 2000
621.771.073.08
: . . ., . .


( ):
" "
110600 - /
.. , .. . : , 2000. .

.
,
,
.

110600 ,
, -
.
. 13 . . 3. . 21.


, 2000

1.
2.
2.1.

2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
3.
4.
5.

5.1
5.2.
6.
6.1.
6.2.
7.

7.1.
7.2.
7.2.1.
7.2.2.

8.
8.1.
8.1.1.
8.1.2.
8.2.
8.3.
8.3.1. .
8.3.2. .
8.3.3. .
8.4.

8.5.
8.5.1.
8.5.1.
8.6.

8.7.


1.
,

.

.
,
[1-5],

,
.


.

:
- ;
- ,
;
-
( ) , ;
- , ,
:
1.

(1.1)

-
; -
;


; n - .
2.
n
n

n n

n . .

(1.2)


, , 5, ,
, n 10.
2.

,
,
.
2.1.

,

(q = /B)
(. 2.1).


R = /2.

.


.
,
D

d,


. 2.1.

-
, - [1-3].

,
..
3
W 0.1D
- , ;

(2.1)

W 0,1D

, 3.

(2.2)
.
4
2

( ) :
P

P
0.4 d3


(. . 2.1) :

,
3
W . 0.2 d

W . 0.2 d3 - .

(2.3)

(2.4)


:
- 4-
2

(2.5)

. 3 .,
-
2

0.375 . 0.625 . 4 ..

(2.6)


. (. . 2.1),

.
(2.7)
3
0.0706 d1

(. 2.2,),


0.2 d32

bh 2 d2 h

(2.8)

16 d2

(. .
2.2,) . I-I
:

1

W

1 l ,

(2.9)

bc
b c S2
, W
. , W 2 S 2 ,
1
2f
2
6
- ,
0.25-0.30 1.
(2.5) (2.6)
.

II-II

,

.
2
W b S

(2.10)


(1.1) (1.2).



. 2.2.
: -
;
-


. 2.1 1-3,10.
2.1




1.
50-60
2.
55, 55, 60

9, 92, 9, 9,
92

,
600-650
620-680

3.

800-1000



1.

50-70
2.

50, 55, 55, 60,
15
3.

-, -
-, -

,
500-600
580-650
680-700
400-500
400-500


: =(0,6 0,7) .
2.1.
1400. (. .2.1), : D=0.85; L=1.4; A=2.15;
d=0.6; l=0.75; d1=0.42. P=8000 .
=450 *. =1.0 . 15.
(2.2)
8000
1.0

2.15 3300 3.3 .
4
2


(2.1)

3.3
0.1 0.85 3

53.73.

(2.3)

. 80000.75 69444 69.44 .


0.40.63
(2.4)

450
0.2 0.6

10417 10.42.

,
(2.5)

69.44 2 3 10.42 2 71.75.


,
(2.7)

450
0.0706 0.42 3

86032 86.03.


(1.2), . 2.1

700

0.7 0.7 700 490.

700
13.03,
57.73
700
n
9.76,
71.75
490
n
5.70.
86.03

[n]=5, ..
.

.
(2.4).
,
2.2.

[1-3].

(2.3-2.6).
(,
).
1
1

[1,2]

17 40

.

L (.
2.3).
(2.2), L,
(2.1).
(2.3).

. 2.3.

,
( ).

0.22 q

P
L

P
B

E
,
R

(2.11)

) - (

), /;

( ), ;
(

R1

R 2 = ), .

1 2 ,

1 2

(2.12)

10

R1R 2 ,
R1 R 2

(2.13)

1 2 , R1 R2 -
( -
).
= (2,0 2,15)105 ,
- = (1,1 1,5)105 .

[ ],

02 HRC: [ ]3 02 [ ]80HRC.

2.2.
1300 .
(. . 2.3), : :
D=1.32; D=0.37; L=1,3; d=0.8; d=0.22; l=0.8; =2.1.
=20000 , ,
=200 . =1,1 . - 92.
(2.2)

20000
1.3
2.1 7250 7.25 .

4
2

(2.1)

7.25
0.1 1.32 3

31.52.


(2.3)

20000 0.8
0.4 0.8 3

7812.5 78.12.


(2.4)

200
94340 94.34.
0.2 0.22


(1.2), . 2.1

.

800 0.7 0.7800 = 560

:
800
25.4,
31.52
800 10.2,
n
78.12
560
5.90.
n

94.34

11

[n]=5, ..
,
.

(2.11), 2,15 10 5 :

P 20000

q
16200 16.2 ,
L 1.3

0.66 0.185
0.144 ,
0.66 0.185
215000
1082 .
0.22 16.2
0.144

92

02 410

[ ] .

=3410=1230

2.3.

( ), ( ,
..). ,

Pi

(i=1,2,3,...,n),

xi

Di (. 2.4).

, , ,

Pi .

,
(. . 2.4):
n

R2

Pi x i

i 1

R 1 Pi R 2 .
i 1

(2.14)

12

. 2.4.

.1 R1 x1

.2 R 1 x 2 P1 x 2 x1

.3 R 1 x 3 P 2 x 3 x 2 P1 x 3 x1
...

.i R 1 x i Pi 1 x i x i 1 Pi 2 x i x i 2 ... i n 1 x i x i n 1

(2.15)
...

.n R1 xn Pn 1 xn xn 1 Pn 2 xn xn 2 ... 1 xn x1 .

.i

.i .
0.1 Di3

(2.16)

.max max .i .

R1l ,
0.2 d3

0.2 d3

.i

(2.17)

13


(2.5) (2.6).

(2.7) - (2.10).

(1.1) (1.2).
2.3.
4 (n=4). (. .
2.4), : D0 = 450, D1 = D2 = D3 = D4 = 400, 1=210, 2=460, 3=710, 4=960, d=230, l =
250, A = 1300.
(. . 2.2, ) , : d2=200; b=60; h =20.
1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 1100.
=80 *. -65.
(2.14)

R2

1100 0.21 1100 0.46 1100 0.71 1100 0.96


1980,
1.3

R1 1100 1100 1100 1100 1980 2420.

(2.15) :

.1 2420 0.21 508.2 ,


.2 2420 0.46 1100 0.46 0.21 838.2 ,

.3 2420 0.71 1100 0.71 0.46 1100 0.71 0.21 893.2 ,


.4 2420 0.96 1100 0.96 0.71 1100 0.96 0.46
1100 0.96 0.21 673.2 .

(2.16)

.1
.2
.3
.4

508.2 10 3
0.1 0.4

838.2 10 3
0.1 0.4 3

893.1 10 3
0.1 0.4

0.1 0.4

673.2 10 3

79.4,

130.96,
139.56,
105.18.


(2.17)

14

2420 0.25 10 3
0.2 0.23

80 10 3
0.2 0.23

248.6,

32.9.

,
(2.6)

2
2
0.375 248.6 0.625 248.6 4 32.9 253.95.


, (2.8)
80 3

10

0.06 0.02 2 0.2 0.02


0.2 0.2 3
16 0.2

51.6.


(1.2), . 2.1.

500 0.7 0.7500=350 .

n1

500
500
500
500
6.3, n2
3.5, n4
4.75,
3.8, n3
79.4
130.96
139.56
105.18

n min n1 ,n2 ,n3 ,n4 3.5;

500
1.97;
253.95

350
6.8.
51.6

, ,
[n] =5.
.

2.4.

.

, , .

, ,

: , ,
, , +,
-.

15

. 2.5.

2.4.

650.



.

(. . 2.5)
, : D=700;
D1=670;
D2=676;
D3=680;
1=490;
2=860;
3=1230;
d=385;
l=385;
=2280.

, : 1=4000, 2=-3500, 3=3000. ,


, =200 .

600.

(2.14)
R2

4000 0.49 3500 086 3000 1.23


1157 .9 1.16 ,
2.28

R 1 4000 3500 3000 1157.9 2342.1 2.34.

(2.15)

. ,
.1 2.34 0.49 1147

.2 2.34 0.86 4 0.86 0.49 0.532 ,

.3 2.34 1.23 4 1.23 0.49 3.5 1.23 0.86 1.215 ,


(2.16)

.1

.2
.1

1.147

38.23,

0.1 0.67 3
0.532

0.1 0.676 3
1.213
0.1 0.68 3

17.22,
38.63,


(2.17)

2.34 0.385
0.2 0.385
0.2

0.2 0.3853

78.93 ,

17.52 .

16

,
(2.5)

2
2
78.93 3 17.52 84.6 .

(1.2)

n1

600
600
600
15.7, n2
34.8, n3
15.5;
38.23
17.22
38.63

600
7 .09.
84.6

,
[n] =5.

2.5.




,
,
,
. 2.6.


l
(. .
2.6).

. 2.6.

0.2 d3

d - (. . 2.6).

l

.
3
0.1 d

(2.18)

(2.19)

17

2 3 2 .

(2.20)

(1.2)
2.5.
250. d=0.120
,

=0.15

20

(. . 2.6).

800 .

=160 , =3.6 .
(2.18)

3.6
0.2 0.12

10416.7 = 10.4 .

(2.19)

160 0.15

0.1 0.12

138888.9 = 138.9 .

(2.20)

138.9 2 3 10.4 2 . 139.3 .


(1.2)
n

800
5.74.
139.3


- 5, .

3.

. ,
, ,

, , ,
, .
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
n=5.

,
max max (.
. 2).

18

( )

n n ,

n
2
2
n n

n -

(3.1)

n n

1:

,
n

k max

,
n

k max

(3.2)

(3.3)

- ,


(.. ).
:

0.4; 1.6;

0.6; 1.4;
0.8; 1.2.

(3.1)
r =0.851.0:

n n ,
(3.4)
2 2
n n
1.
n r

, .

[n], 23, .. n 2 3 .

n,

3.1.
. 2.3.

19

max = 248.6 max = 32.9 .


, 1

0.6. :
- (3.2)

500 0.6
1.4,
1 248.6

- (3.3)

350 0.6
6.38,
1 32.9

- (3.4)

n 1

1.2 6.38

1.2

6.38

1.18.

,
,

=23.

n n


10 12.
4.
25, 35

500550 .

,
(
R max ) ,
(. 4.1) .
Q,

fd
R
max
Q
,
2

( 4.1 )

d - ; a - ; f -
, . 4.1.

Q
(. . 4.1).

Rmax
( 4.2 )

20

6 Q y ,
W b h12

( 4.3 )

y - ( Q)
; b - ; h1 -
.

. 4.1.
() () ()

R max ,
S

( 4.4 )

.
(1.1)
(1.2), [n] 5.
4.1


0.004 - 0.008
0.01 - 0.08
0.001 - 0.005
0.002 - 0.005

21

4.1.

2.645, b =0.8, y 1.955, h1 0.69.


25 550 .
S =0.337 . d=620 .
3200 (. . 4.1,), :

. Rmax=15,5 .
(4.1),
. 4.1 f=0.0035:
Q

15.5 0.0035 0.62


0.0064.
2 2.645

(4.3) :

6 0.0064 1.955
0.8 0.69 2

0.2 .

(4.4)

15.5
46.0 .
0.337

(4.2)

0.2 + 46.0 = 46.2 .

(1.2)
n

550
11.9.
46.2


[n] = 5. , .

5.


.5.1. ,
.

22

. 5.1.

5.1


, . 5.1.
5.1


50
40 - 40
50 - 50

,
600 - 650
750 - 1000
850 - 1100


R max , ,

, (. .

5.1). , ,
.
,
:
d2 d

tg ,
(5.1)
R max f
3
2

23

d - ;
;

d2

- ;

- ,

0.150.30 ; -
; - . d
( )
.
:
(5.2)
d d 0.75 S,
S - .
S
arctg

(5.3)

= arctg f ,

(5.4)

- , 0.050.15

d1

,
0.2 d13

(5.5)

- . ,

,
.

4 R max

.

2
d1

(5.6)


4-

2 3 2 .

(1.2).

(5.7)

5.1.
2500 , 40
1000 . 10177-82 (. . 5.1),

24

: d=0.56,

d1 =0.5392, d2 =0.535, S=0.012, d =0.549.

R max =17.5 .

f =0.2

( ),

f =0.1 ( ).

(5.3) (5.4) arctg

0.012

0.56

=0.007 . = arctg 0.1 =0.0997 .


, ,
(5.1)
0.535 0.549

tg 0.007 0.0997 1.14 .


17.5 0.2
3
2

(5.5)
1.14

=36.4 .
0.2 0.5392 3
(5.6)

4 17.5

0.5392 2

76.6 .

(5.7)

76.6 2 3 36.4 2 99.2 .

1000
10.1.
99.2

,
.

5.2.
, ,
9-4 10-3-1.5 ,
. 5.2.
5.2

9-4
10-3-1.5

(, )
()

400-500
500-600

270-300
300-360

25

R max ,


, , .

D -

4 R max

2
2
D d

d -

(5.8)

(. . 5.1).
,

R max ,

m - ,

S:

m H .
S

R max

,
(5.9)
2
2
d d1
d - (
); d1 - ,
m

d1 d 1.7 S (. . 5.1).

R max 1.5 d d1

,

2
m
d B

(5.10)

- (. . 5.1).

R max 1 .
m

d B

(5.11)

n , i , . , ,
i

n .

26

. 5.2.
(1.2).
5.2.
() 1700.

D =0.29, =0.30, d =0.24, d1 =0.20,

10177-82 (. .5.1), :

d =0.23, S=0.020, =0.0125. - . 9-4.


R max =1.5 .


(5.8)

4 1.5

0.29 2 0.24 2

72.1.

,
,

R max 1.5

15

0.3
0.02

15

0.1 .

(5.9)

0.1

0.23 2 0.2 2

=9.9 .

(5.10)

0.1

1.5 0.23 0.2

0.23 0.0125 2

=39.8 .

(5.11)
1
11.1 .
0.1
0.23 0.0125

=400

(. .5.2):
-
n

400
5.5;
72.1

400
9.9

=40.4;

400
39.8

=10.1;

-
n

270
24.3.
11.1

=270

27

,
,
.

6.

.
: (.6.1,),
, (.6.1,).
, ,
.

. 6.1.

6.1.

(. . 6.1,)
( )
. R max

, 2:
R ln d0 ,
0.43 max
2
d
S

S - ;
;

do

Rmax ,
d0 S

( 6.1 )

( 6.2 )

d - .

(1.1)
:
.

28

,
n 2.0-2.5 ,
.
6.2.


(. . 6.1,).
N Q,

( 6.3 )
Q 0,5 Rmax tg 2 f k ,

- ; f - ,
0.10-0.15; - ,
, 1.25. Nf

R max f
2

.
,

4 Q
,

( 6.4 )
2
d k

d0 - ; - .
(1.1) ,

n =2.53.0.
6.1.
800 .

450

. (. . 6.1,), :

d 0.170, d0

0.252, S 0.085.

Rmax =7.0.

(6.1)

0.43

0.252
ln
164.0 .
2

0
.
170
0.085
7.0

(6.2)

7.0
154.2 .
0.170 0.085

(1.1),

0.7 0.7450=315 , [n]=2:

29

450
225
2

315
157.5
2

, (1.1)
. ,
,
2.
6.2.
, 6
800.
()

Rmax =7.0

d0 =0.03 , =25

(. . 6.1,). - 2.
f=0.15.
(6.3)
Q 0.5 7.0 tg 0 2 0.15 0.40 .

25

(6.4)

4 0.40

0.03

22

282.9 .

(1.1)

560 [n]=2

560
280 .
2

, n=2
, , ,
n n 5.

7.

25, 35 ..
= 500600 ;

= 400450 .
R max

, ,
. ,

30

, [1,2].
.
7.1.

, ,
,
(. 7.1).
:
(. . 7.1, I-I,),
( II-II),
( III - III,)
( IY-IY . 7.1, ).
. 7.2.

. 7.1.

31


,
(. . 7.2),

.
I-I

(. .
7.2,)
(. .
7.2,).

. 7.2.


:

(7.1)
F1 A1 B1 ,

3

A1 B1 ,
J1

Y1

(7.2)

12

B1 ,

(7.3)

A 1 B1 .

W1

(7.4)

F1 1 B1 D 1 d ,,

(7.5)

6
(. . 7.2,)

-,

S1 0.5 1 12 D 2 d 12 2 ,

Y1

S1 , ,
F1

(7.6)

(7.7)

32

J1

d H1 H
H1

Y1 H1 B1
12
2

12

H 1 H
Y1

H Y1
2

B
H
1

H1 H d

3
D
H

12

D H ,

(7.8)

J1 .
Y1

W1

(7.9)

II-II (. . 7.2).

F2 A2 B2 ,

(7.10)

B A
J2 2 2 ,
12
2

2 2 .
W2
6
III-III (. . 7.2):

(7.13)

S 3 0.5 3 23 D 2 d 23 2 ,

(7.14)

Y3

S3
,
F3

(7.15)

d H 3 H
H3

Y 3 H 3 B 3
12
2

H 3 H
Y 3

B
H
3

12

(7.12)

F3 3 B 3 D 3 d ,

J3

(7.11)

H 3 H d

3
D
H

12

33


y D
2 3 ,
J3
W3 .
Y3

(7.16)

(7.17)

IY-IY (. . 7.2):

F4 A 4 B4 ,
J4

Y4

A 4 B 34
12

B4 ,

(7.19)
(7.20)

A4 B4 .
W4
6

(7.18)

(7.21)

. 7.3 .

R max
0 ,

34

. 7.3. , ,
-

Rmax .

:
- (. . 7.3,)

R max 1
M0
8

1
1 2 J1

(7.22)

1 J2

- (. . 7.3,)
2

2
1

r
1 1
R max
8 J J 2 2 J3
3 4

M0

1 2 r
J 3 J 2 J4

(7.23)

- (. . 7.3,)

M0

1 -


1
2

R max r

J
2 4
J2 r

(7.24)

2 -

; r -
.

1 2 (. .7.1-7.3):

1 0 2 , 2 0 Y 3 Y 1 ,

(7.25)

1 0 2 2 r, 2 0 Y 3 Y 1 2 r,

(7.26)

1 0, 2 0 Y 3 Y 1 2 r,

(7.27)

0 R max

, -
.

:

35

R max 1
4

W1

M0

(7.28)

R max 0 ,
2 F2 W 2

(7.29)

R max 1
4

M0

W3

(7.30)


(1.2).
10.
7.1.
2000 .
.7.4. 35.

R max 17 .

,
, (7.1)-(7.21)

1 0.8 , 1 1.2 (. . 7.2 7.4):


3
F1 0.8 1.2 0.96 , J1 0.8 1.2 0.115 ,

I-I

12

1.2
0.6 ,
Y1
2

W1

0.8 1.2 2
0.192 3.
6

36

II-II
,

2 0.85

2 0.8 (. . 7.2 7.4):


F 2 0.85 0.8 0.68 ,
2

J2

0.8 0.853
12

Y2

4
0.041 ,

0.85
0.425 ,
2

0.8 0.852
0.096 3.
6

W2

3 1.3 ,
3 1.8 , 0.9 , D 0.9 ,
d 0.6 (. . 7.2 7.4):
F 3 1.3 1.8 0.9 0.9
III-III

1.3 0.9 0.6 1.29

. 7.4.

2,

S 3 0.5 1.8 1.3 2 0.9 0.9 2

1.8 1.33 1.3

0.692
J3
12
2

1.3 1.8

0.6 1.3 0.9


12

0.9 0.9 3
1.3 0.9

0.692 1.3 0.9 0.6


12

0.9

0.692 0.9 0.9 0.19

2
W3

IY-IY

0.19
0.275 3.
0.692

4 0.8 , 4 1.0 (. . 7.2 7.4):

F 4 0.8 1.0 0.8 ,


2

Y4

4,

1.0
0.5 ,
2

0.8 1.0 3
12
0.8 1.0 2

J4

W4

4
0.067 ,

0.133 3.

(7.26) (. . 7.2 7.4):


-

1 1.8 0.85 2 0.4 1.85 .

37

2 6.5 0.692 0.6 2 0.4 6.992 ,

(7.23)
2
2

1.85 0.4

17 1.85 0.4 1

2 0.19
8 0.19 0.067 2
0.464 .
0
1.85 6.992 0.4

0.19 0.041 0.067

(7.29-7.30):
17 1.85
0.464

,
4

38.5
1
0.192

17
0.464

17.3 ,
2 0.68 0.096

17 1.85
0.464
.
4

30.1
3
0.246
(1.2),

600 :

600
15.6,
38.5
600
34.7,

n2
17.3
600
19.9.
n 3
30.1

n1

,
n 10.
.

7.2.

, (. 7.5,) (. 7.5,).
:
R max , ,
( ),

.

R max
2

38

. 7.5.

,
( ),
.
7.2.1.
7.2.1.1. .

R max

,
,
.
(. . 7.5, . 7.6).
R max .
. 7.6.

R max 1 E J1
8
c
2 J1

c 1 c
3 J2

(7.31)

39

- ; J1 J2 -
; -
.

:

(7.1)-(7.4) (7.5)-(7.9),
- (7.10)-(7.12)
- (7.13)-(7.17),
1 -
(7.25).

I-I, II-II III-III (.
. 7.5)
:

1
. 7.6.

R max Tc
1
4

(7.32)

W1

R max T c ,

2
2 F2 W 2

(7.33)

Rmax 3
(7.34)
,
3
4 W3
3 (. . 7.6)
3 0 2, , ( 2 .- ).

(1.2) 10.
. ,
,
.

=0. , ,

, = 0.

:

40

2 R max

,
(7.35)
2
d
d - , =1.25 - ,
.
- 10.
7.2.
650.
. 7.7. 25.

R max 4.0 .


, ,

(7.21)-(7.21).
I-I

1 0.38 , 1 0.55

(. . 7.2 7.7):

F1 0.38 0.55 0.209 ,


2

0.38 0.55 3
J1
12
Y1

W1

4
0.00527 ,

0.55
0.275 ,
2

0.38 0.55 2
0.0192 3.
6

II-II

2 0.40 , 2 0.38

(. . 7.2 7.7):

. 7.7.

F2 0.40 0.38 0.152 ,


2

J2

0.38 0.403
12
Y2

III-III
(. . 7.2 7.7):

4
0.00203 ,

0.40
0.20 ,
2

3 0.6 , 3 0.7 , 0.4 , D 0.29 , d 0.22

F 3 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.29 0.6 0.4 0.22 0.260 2,

S 3 0.5 0.7 0.6 2 0.29 0.4 2 0.22 0.6 2 0.4 2

Y3

0.0808
0.311 ,
0.260

0.0808 ,
3

41

0.7 0.6 3 0.6

0.311
J3
12
2

3
0.6 0.4 0.22

0.6 0.7

12

0.29 0.4 3
0.6 0.4

0.311 0.6 0.4 0.22


12

2
2

0.4

0.311 0.29 0.4 0.00796 ,


2

0.00796
0.0256 3.
0.311
(7.25)

W3

r=0 (. . 7.2 7.7):

1 1.02 0.40 1.42 .

3 0 2 1.02 0.40 1.42 ,

,
() .
(. . 7.7)
2.6 0.525 0. 275 2.35 .
(7.31), =0.002 :

4.0 1.42 2 0.002 2.15 105 0.00527

8
2.35

0.0055 .
2
0
.
00527

2.35 1.44 2.35



3 0.00203

(7.32-7.34):

4.0
1.42 0.0055 2.35
,
4

74.3
1
0.0192

4.0
0.0055 2.35

14.4 ,
2
2 0.152
0.0101

4.0 1.42
55.5 .
3
4 0.0256
(1.2),

550 :

550
7.4,
74.3
550
38.2,
n2
14.4

n 1

42

550
9.9.
55.5
, .

n 3

n3

n =10. ,

.
(7.35) ,

30

1100 :

d 0.16

2 4.0
1.25 124.3 .
0.16 2

1100
8.8 ,
124.3

. 7.8.
: -
; -
7.2.1.2.
.
,
(. . 7.8).
.
4 ,

R max

(. . 7.8,),

(.

43

. 7.8,).

R max ,
2

,
, ..

R max e , - R max

R max
2

(
) .

R max R max e

,
2
2 F 2 2 W2

F2

W2

(7.36)

.
( I-I, . . 7.8, )

1
,
W1

- ;

(7.37)

W1 -
1

M1

R max 1 R max e

Q 2 ,
4
2

(7.38)

; Q - ,

R max , (.
2

. 7.8,).
Q . ,
,
Q=0. , =0,
Q

Qmax

R max e
2 2

(7.39)

44


Q . .

R max J1 c e c 12 2 e 1 2 E

2
8
2
J1 J 2

Q
,
3 2

2 3

(7.40)

2 2 1
3 J 2 J1 F 3

- ;

J1

J2
F3

. Q
( ), 0.
(
) .
(7.36),
- (7.34).
.
(7.35).

(7.1) (7.25).
, ,

(. 7.9).

.

R max ,
2 2

(7.41)


. 7.9.

3 R max
2 2 2

(7.42)

2 - , -

(1.2)

(. . 7.9).
.
7.3.
, 25.

45

. . 7.10,

7.2. - 25.

R max 4.0 .

.
, ,
7.2.
I-I:

F1 0.209 , Y1 0.275 , J1 0.00527 , W1 0.0192

II-II:

F 2 0.152 , Y 2 0.20 , J2 0.00203 , W 2 0.0101

3 .
3 .

1 1.42 ,

= 0.3 .
(7.36)

4. 0

4.0 0.3
72.6 .
2 0.152 2 0.0101
(7.40) Q,
2

=0.003 ,

=1.925 2 2.875

1.42 2.875
1.925
0.00527

Q
1.925 0.3 2.875

0.00527 0.00203
2
8

4.0

0.3 1.42 2.875


1
5 0.003

2
.
15

10

3
2
2
1.42 1.6 0.143.
2 2.875

2.875

3 0.00203
0.00527
0.26

46


(7.38)

M1

4.0 1.44

4.0 0.30

4
2
0.143 2.875 1.251 .


(7.37)

1.251
0.0192

65.2 .

550

72.6

550

65.2

7.6,

8.4.


n 10.

. 7.10.


(7.41)

4.0
2 0.2 0.38

26.3 ,

(7.42)

3 0.2 4.0

2 0.38 0.22

78.9

:
550
7.0,
n
78.9

0.7 0.7 550 385

385
14.6
26.3

n <10, .

7.2.2.

47

. 7.11.
: - ; -
-
(.7.11)

R max
2

R max , -
2

R max : 2 cos
2

, - (.
. 7.5).

48

R max

R max tg .
2

R max
2

,
=0 (. . 7.6, .7.2.1.1).
,
:

R max 12

R
max tg
2

8 2

2 J1

1 2
3 J 2

- ;

(7.43)

; J1 J2 .

2 Y 1 H0 c S cos ,

(7.44)

Y1 - , 0 -
, -
, S - (. . 7.11).
,
(. . 7.11,),
,

R max ,

R max

.
,

R max
2

e1


. 7.11 ,
II-II .

:

49

1 T
,
W1 F1

R max M 2
,
2 F2 W2

3
,
W3

(7.45)

(7.46)

(7.47)

1 , 2 , 3

- ,

W1 , W2 , W 3 -
, F1 , F 2 -
;

.
(. . 7.11,),
:

R R e
1 max 1 max T 2 ,
4

(7.48)

R max e
T 2 ,
2

R max 1

3 Y 3 c sin
e S sin ,

2
2 2
- .

(7.49)
(7.50)

(. . 7.11,)
, 1 =0.

R max e T R max ,

2
2
e1
2
2

(7.51)

(7.50).

1 0.5 2 , - (. . 7.9).

1 .

(7.43),
'2 (. . 7.11,), 1 -
(7.50).

50

,
,
(7.48) -(7.50).
, ,
(7.41) (7.42).

(.
7.1, 7.1-7.25).

7.4.
800
.

. 7.12.
35.

R max 4.5.


:
- (7.10)(7.12)

F 2 0.52 0.40 0.208 ,


2

0.4 0.52 3
0.00469 4,
12
0.4 0.52 2
0.0180 3;
W2
6
J2

. 7.12.

- (7.13)-(7.17)

F1 F 3 0.68 0.7 0.45 0.4 0.68 0.45 0.28 0.232 ,


2

S1 S 3 0.5 0.7 0.68 2 0.4 0.45 2 0.28 0.68 2 0.45 2 0.0849


3 ,
0.0849
0.366 ,
Y1 Y 3
0.232

0.7 0.68 3 0.68

0
.
366

J1 3
12
2

3
0.68 0.45 0.28

0.68 0.7

12

51

0.68 0.45
0.4 0.45 3

0.366 0.68 0.45 0.28


12

2
2

0.45

0.366 0.4 0.45 0.00771 .


2

W 1 W 3

0.00771
0.021 3.
0.366

1 0.9 0.52 1.42 ,

(7.25) (7.44)

0
2 0.366 2.9 0.2 0.2 s 18 3.66 .

(. . 7.11 7.12)

/2 2.9 1.1 0.2 0.2 cos 180 2.19


(. . 7.11)

R max
2

0.52 0.058

cos 18 0.232
2
2

1 0.5 0.52 0.2 0.36

(
)
(7.43),

2 2.19 1 1 0.36 .
4.5
4.5 0.36 2

tg 18
0.743
.
2 0.00771
2

8 2.19 0.36 2.19

3 0.00469

:
- (7.51)

4.5 0.232
4.5
0.743 3.66
0.36 2.43 ;
2
2

- (7.50)
0.058

sin 18
3 0.743 0.366 0.2

4.5 1.42

0.232 0.2 sin 18 1.05 .

2 2

(7.46)
(7.47):
-

4.5
2.43

145.8 ;
2 0.208 0.018

52

1.05
50.0 .
0.021

600

600
4.11, ,
145.8
600
12.0. .
-
n3
50.0
,
(1.2) ,
n 10.
.
(7.41)

n2

4.5
2 0.2 0.40

28.1 ,

(7.42)

3 0.2 4.5

2 0.40 0.22

84.4

:
600
7.1,
n
84.4

0.7 0.7 600 420

420
15.0.
28.1

.

( ).
, ,
(7.43)
4.5
4.5 1.422

tg 18
0.788
.
2 0.00771
2

8 3.66 1.42 3.66

3 0.00469


(7.48) (7.49): :

4.5 1.42 4.5

0.232 0.788 3.66 1.808 ;


2
2
4.5 0.232
0.788 3.66 3.406 ;
2
2

(7.45)
(7.46):

1.808 0.788

82.7 ;
2 0.021 0.232

53

4.5
3.406

200.0 ;
2 0.208 0.018


600
7.25,
-
n1
82.7
600
3.0.
-
n2
200.0
,
n 10.
. .

.

8.
- ,
.
() ,

- ;

(8.1)

.
,
1 .

, / [1-4]:

400 - 700,

600 - 1000,

700 - 1300,

800 - 1600,

4000-7000,

4500-8000,

5500-10000.


, :
(8.2)
f f f f f . f f i ,

f , f , f , f . , f , f i

, , , ,
(, , ..).
[14,7,8]
8.1.

54

8.1.1. .

.
,
,
. ,

, .
, ,

f 2 f 1 f 2 ,

f1

(8.3)

- ;

f2

; -
.

. f 1 f 2
(8.3) (. . 2.1):

P
f1
4 8 A3 4A B2 B3 64 C3
6E D

f2

G D 2

B
A 2C
2

D4
1
4
d

D 1 ,
2
d

(8.4)

(8.5)

-
; - ; D d -
; G -
.

3
E.
8

1.3

16.75 R L 0

lg

L 0

(8.6)

L0 - ,
L,
- ; R

2 R R
R R

55

, () ();

.
R R
,
.

R , ,

- .

.
f

PB

B
1
12A 7B .

2 G D 2
8 D2

, ,

.

8.1.2. .

(
), .

f 2 f 1 f 2 .

(8.7)


, , .. (.
. 2.4). ,
,
[7]:
2
2

C
x
64 P 1
3 3 2 A C

f1
x
C x
4
3

A
A
E

3
2
A C

3A2

x
3A2

56

x
D

1
4 A
d

AC 2 AC 3

C 2 2A C
x
2 3
3
A
3
A

2 3

(8.8)

2
x
4P
x
1 C 2 A C x
f2
2
G D A
A

2 2

D
x

C 1
2 2 A
d A

(8.9)

D - .
,

, (8.4)
2

(8.5), =0.

,
[13].
(. . 2.6)

P l2
A l ,
f1 f 2
3 E J

(8.10)

4
J d - d.
64
8.2.

57

R max h1 ,
f
l b

R max

(8.11)

- ;

l , b , h1

f 2 f .

(8.12)

. 4.1;

.
( )

8.3.
8.3.1. . f
R max

R max h 2 ,
f

(8.13)

FE

h2 - (. . 4.1,); F -
,
,

F b ;

,
(0.060.10)105 [6].
( )

f 2 f .

(8.14)

8.3.2. .
[4]

300 5R max
3

10

n z d

(8.15)

n - ; z - ;

d - .

f 2 .

(8.16)

8.3.3. .
()
[1]:

58

D d ,

f 0.5D 1 d sin 0 0.5d cos 0


2

(8.17)

; 0
-
,
. (. 8.1,)
0
. 8.1,

2 R max

b D d

. 8.1.
()

0 ()

, .. 0.5 .

D d

[.7.]:

D d =(0.020.07)

d .

(8.18)

f 2 f .

8.4.

(. . 5.1)

f .

R max [1]:
f . 1.1 f f ,

(8.19)

(8.20)

f - ; f -

; 1.1
.

f [4] (. .5.1):

59

f 1.2

- ;

D
-

4R max H ,
E D2 d2

(8.21)

- ; d

(1.01.15)105 .
(.
. 5.1):

4 R max H1

,
f2
2
d 2 E

- ;

(8.22)

d2

- ;

- .
8.5.
8.5.1. (. . 7.1).

(8.24)
f f 1 f 2 f 3 ,

f1

f2

- ;

- ;

f3

f1 , f 2 , f 3

[7].
7.3,)

8.5.1.1. r (. .

2 r 2 r R max 3

f1
M 0 1
E J 4 2 4
2
R 3 2 3r 2

r
1
max
1
1
1

M0 r

E J 3 2
4
8
4


r
R
max
1

,
f2
2G F 2 F 4

(8.25)

(8.26)

60

G - ,
,

R max 2 r .

f3
2E F 2 2 F 4
7.3,),

(8.27)

8.5.1.2. , ( r=0, . .
2
R max 1

1
M 0 ,

f1

4E J
6

R max 1 ,
2G F

(8.29)

R max 2 .

f3
2 F 2

(8.30)

f2

8.5.1.3.
.. 7.3,),

(8.28)

, ( 1

2 r 2 R max r 3

f1
M
0 1 ,

E J4 2
4
2
R max r ,

f2
4G F

0,

(8.31)

(8.32)

f 3 (8.27) F 4 F .

J J3
F F3 ,
(8.25)-(8.32) : J 1
F 1
2

J 4 , F1 , F 2 , F 3 F 4
, 2 1 ,
0

J1 , J 2 , J 3

7.1.
8.5.2. (. . 7.5 7.8).

.
8.5.2.1.
(8.33)
f f 1 f 2 f 3 f f 4 ,

61

f 1

f 2

;
;

- ;

f4

f3

(. . 7.5,) (. .
7.5,).
f 1 f 2

f 1 0.5 f 1 ,

f 2 0.5 f 2 ,

(8.34)

f1 f2 -
(8.25) (8.26), (8.28) (8.29) (8.31) (8.32).
0 , -

, (7.31), -
(.
7.2 . 7.6).

J1

F1 , J 3 F 3 , 1

, 7.1.
f 3 (8.27) (8.30),

(. . 7.5,)
(. . 7.5,).

R
max
,
f
48 J1

(8.35)

- ; J1 (. 7.1); -

R max ,

f4
2 F

(. . 7.5,);

(8.36)

; - ,

S cos
R
max
,
f4
2 B 2

(8.37)

62

S - (. . 7.5,);

2 - ; - .

8.5.2.2.

(. 8.2) ,
.
(. .8.2,)
:
(8.38)
f f 1 f 2 f 3 f 5 ,

f 1

f 2

f3

- ;

.
(8.34),

f3

f 1

f5 f 2

- (8.27) (8.30),

(..

2 =

- . . 7.8,).

() [9]:
3
R
a
max
,
(8.39)
f5
3
1.33 2
- (. . 7.9);
2 - .
,
:
(8.40)
f f 3 f f 4 f 5 ,
f 3 - ,

(8.27) (8.30)

; f

,
(8.35);

f4

63

. 8.2.
: -
; -
-

f 5 - , (8.39).

- (. . 8.2,), ,
(8.40),

(8.41)
f f 1 f 2 f 3 f f 4 .

f 1 + f 2

, (8.34);

(8.27) (8.30);

f3

- ,

- -

R max h
2 F

(8.42)

h F -
, - ; f 4 -

(8.36) (8.37).
8.6.

( )
, , ,
, :
fi

PH
,
EF

(8.43)

- , ; F -
; -
.
8.7.
1700
.
[2] . III-40 .
20 .

64

1. . ,
. 8.3. 92,
=2.15105 , - G=0.79 105 [9].

. 8.3. 1700
(8.4) (8.5):

1.25 4
3
2
3
3
8 2.75 4 2.75 1.7 1.7 64 0.5
1
f1

6 2.15 10 5 1.25 4
0.66 4
20

0.4710 ,
-3

f2

20

0.79 10 5 1.25 2

1.25 2
1.7
2.74 2 0.5
1
2
2
0.66

0.2310

-3

R 0.5 D 0.5 1.25 0.625

R 0.5 D 0.5 0.5 0.25 :

2 0.25 0. 625
0.357 .
0.25 0. 625

,
2.15 10 5 .

(8.6) L0=1.7 :

16.75 2.15 10 5 0.357 1.7


0.3610-3 .
1.3
lg
20
2.15 10 5 1.7

20

65

(8.3),

f 2 0.47 10 3 0.23 10 3 0.36 10 3 2.12 10-3 .


2. .
, . 8.3,
(8.11) =2.0105 :

10 0.3
1.32 0.74 2.0 10 5

0.0153 10 3 .

f 2 0.0153 10 3 0.0306 10 3

3. .
(. . 8.3).

d =110 ,

- 24. (8.15),

300 3 510

24
10

1 0.04010

0.11

-3

f 2 0.04010 =0.08010
-3

-3

4.

.
. 8.4.

9-4,

=1.1510

[9].


(8.21):

f 1.2

4 10 0.5

1.15 10

0.7

0.45

= 0.23110-3 .

(8.22),

=2.15105 :

4 10 0.25

0.4

2 2.15

10

0.092 10 3

66

. 8.4.

(8.20)

f . 1.1 0.231 10 3 0. 092 10 3 0.35510-3 .


5.
.
. 8.5.
- 35,
=2.0105 .

(. . 7.1)
:
-
(7.1) (7.2)

F1 0.84 0.83 0.697 ,


2

0.84 0.83 3
0.040 4;
J1
12
(7.10) (7.11)

F 2 0.55 0.74 0.407 ,


2

J2

0.74 0. 553
0.0103 4;
12

-
(7.13)-(7.16)

. 8.

F 3 0.9 1.5 0.5 0.7


0.4 0.45 0.82 2,

S 3 0.5 1.5 0.9 2 0.7 0.5 2

67

Y3

0. 461
0. 563 ,
0.820

1.5 0.9 3 0.9

0.563
J3
2

12

3
0.9 0.5 0.45

0.9 1.5

12

0.7 0.5 3
0.9 0.5

0.563 0.9 0.5 0.45


12

0. 5

0. 563
2

0.7 0. 5 0.0407

4;

- (7.18) (7.19)

F 4 0.74 0.71 0.525 ,


2

J4

0.74 0.71 3
12

4
0.022 .

(7.26):

1 1.4 0.55 2 0.46 1.03 , 2 4.65 0.563 0.415 2 0.46 4.710 ,

(7.23)
2
2

1.03 0.46

0.46 1

2 0.0407
8 0.0407 0.0221 2
0.540 .
1.03
4.710 0.46

0.0407 0.0103 0.0221

10

1.03

0.697 0.820
0.758 ,
2

0.0400 0.0407
4
0.0403 .
2


- (8.25):

2 0.46 2 0.46 10 3

0
.
54

1
f1
2 4
5
2
2 10 0.0221

2
2
1.03
10 3 0.46 3 0.46 1.03 1.03

2
4
8
2 10 5 0.0403 3

0.54 0.46 1.03 0.343

10-3 ,
- (8.26)
3
G 2.0 10 5 0.75 10 5
8

f2

1.03 0.46

0.18210-3 .
5

0.758
2

0.525
2 0.75 10
10

68

(8.27):

f3

4.71 0.46

0.259 10 3 .

2 2.0 105 0.407 2 0.525


10


(8.24)

f 0.343 0.182 0.259 10 3 0.784 10 3 .

6.
(. . 8.4 ) (8.43):

f .

10 0.1
0.010 10 3 .
2.0 10 5 0.64 0.73

7. (8.2):

f f f f f . f f i

2.12 10 3 0.0306 10 3 0.080 10 3


0.355 10 3 0.784 10 3 0.060 10 3
3.435 10 3 3.435.

8. (8.1)

20 3

10 5822.4

3.435


1. ..
. . .: , 1985. 376 .
2. .., .. . .: ,
1958. 432 .
3. . 3 . . 3:
. / .., ..,
.. . .: , 1981. 576 .
4. .., .. .
.: , 1968. 236 .
5. .. .
" ". .I. : , 1994. 40 .
6. .. . .: , 1976. 608 .
7. .. . .:
, 1946. 863 .
8. .., ..
// . . , 1998, 12, . 72-75.
9.
.., .., ..
. : . , 1988. 736 .

69

10. / . .
, .., .., . .: , 1973, 288 .
11. .., .., ..
. , .: , 1993. 640 .
12. / ..
, .., .., ... .: , 1970,
352 .
13. .., ..
// . . , 1999,
1, . 55-57.

70


( )

..
..

..

02.02.2003

.-. . 3,33

-
620002, , . , 19

6084 1/16
. . . 3,95

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