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Guided Wave 08-06 (Issue 2.

Date: May 2007

Examination Format and Syllabus for the

Certification of Personnel Engaged in Guided Wave
Ultrasonic Inspection for the Detection of Corrosion
in Pipe as Outlined in CSWIP-ES-12-04 1st Edition
February 2004 (Requirements for Employer Specific
Certification of Personnel Engaged in NDT)


The Scheme provides for independently issued employer based certification
for personnel using Guided Wave Ultrasonic systems. Employer specific
examinations are considered to be appropriate when an employer requires
certification covering his particular products. Certification issued in
accordance with this document will bear the name and address of the
employer and outline the specific product form covered. Employers are
required to produce and maintain a company written practice for the control
and administration of NDT personnel training, examination and certification.
This document prescribes procedures by which personnel may be examined
and, if successful, certificated. The requirements for examination eligibility,
examination format and the rules governing certificate validity and renewal
are, as a minimum in compliance with ISO 9712(1) and EN 473(2).
The employer and CSWIP will jointly develop the training and examination
syllabi and the question banks utilised.
General and sector specific examinations are conducted by, or under the
control of, an Examining Body authorised by TWI Certification Ltd. The
present requirements are intended to meet the majority of users needs for the
practical non-destructive testing to provide industry with an assured minimum
standard of proficiency.
The examination is designed to test the candidates grasp of the subject and
his/her understanding of the operations he performs. The examination
procedure involves written and practical examinations.
The practical section of the examination will involve the candidate testing
products typical of those produced/inspected by their employer. Practical
examination specimens will be segregated and held in secure storage
approved by CSWIP with master records retained by CSWIP. Such
specimens will not be used for training purposes.
Level 1,2 and 3 personnel are covered by these requirements.


Non-Destructive Testing methods

Qualification and certification of NDT personnel in Non-destructive inspection
in accordance with this document is applicable to each of the following
product groups

Structural Tubulars


Levels of Qualification
The three basic levels of qualification are as follows:


NDT Level 1
An individual certified to Level 1 is qualified to carry out NDT operations in
accordance with written instructions and under the supervision of Level 2 or 3
Specifically when working under the supervision of a level 2 operator they are
approved to:

Set up test equipment,

Set up test conditions in accordance with written procedures and
Carry out tests in accordance with written procedures and instructions,
Record results,
Perform basic fault finding and maintenance on equipment.

He/She shall not be responsible for the choice of the test parameters or
technique to be used, nor for the assessment of test results except in
accordance with laid down guidelines.

NDT Level 2
An individual certified to Level 2 is able to work without supervision and is
qualified to perform inspections / interpretations in accordance with
established or recognised techniques.
The individual shall be competent to choose the test techniques to be used; to
set up and calibrate equipment; to interpret and evaluate results in
accordance with applicable codes, standards and specifications; to carry out
all duties for which a Level 1 individual is qualified and to check that they are
properly executed; to develop NDT instructions adapted to problems which
are the subject of an NDT specification; and organise and report the results of
inspections. The individual shall also be familiar with the scope and limitations
of the method for which he/she is qualified, and be able to exercise assigned
responsibility for on-the-job training and guidance of trainees and NDT Level 1
In addition to those duties laid down for Level 1 technicians a Level 2
Operator is specifically approved to:

Determine optimum test parameters,

Modify techniques to suit specific applications,


Identify the capabilities and limitations of the test in relation to the

specific application,
Evaluate, interpret and report results,
Supervise Level 1 and trainee operators,
Perform advanced fault finding and maintenance on equipment,
Check and audit of data prepared by Level 1 Operators,
Develop and modify test procedures.

NDT Level 3 Personnel

An individual certified to NDT Level 3 shall be capable of assuming full
responsibility for a test facility and staff; establishing techniques and
procedures; interpreting codes, standards, specifications and procedures; and
designating the particular test methods, techniques and procedures to be
used. The individual shall have the competence to interpret and evaluate
results in accordance with existing codes, standards and specifications and
have sufficient practical background in applicable materials, fabrication and
product technology to select methods and establish techniques and to assist
in establishing acceptance criteria where none are otherwise available. The
individual shall also have general familiarity with other NDT methods and have
the ability to train level 1 and level 2 personnel.
It is considered that personnel holding a Level 3 certificate in accordance with
the requirements of ISO 9712, EN 473 or issued by ASNT, in Ultrasonic
Inspection, will meet the requirements of this document. Therefore there are
no specific Examination Requirements for Level 3 certification detailed in this
Candidates holding Level 3 certification in UT from a recognised body are
deemed to be competent to carry out work within the scope of this document
provided that they are qualified to Level 2 in LRUT


Examination Requirements
Candidates for certification in accordance with this document should already
possess a minimum of level 1 qualification conducted in accordance with the
requirements of ISO 9712, EN 473, SNT-TC-1A or other recognised scheme
in ultrasonic inspection or hold at least a Bachelors degree in an appropriate
science or engineering discipline. The training and experience criteria outlined
in this section are in addition to those required for Level 1 ultrasonic
inspection in accordance with ISO 9712 or EN 473.


Levels 1 and 2 - Training

To be eligible for certification within the terms of this document the candidate
shall, in addition, provide evidence of successful completion of a training

programme in Guided Wave Testing approved by TWI Certification. The

minimum, training hours required are:
NDT Method

Training Hours
Level 1
Level 2

Guided Wave Ultrasonic

Inspection (LRUT)

1. On the job training can account for one-third of the total training hours.
2. Direct access to Level 2 implies the total hours for Level 1 and Level 2.
Candidates must provide evidence of training. A certificate of successful
attendance and a copy of the training syllabus, both authenticated by a senior
responsible person in the candidates employing organisation or by a major
client, will normally suffice.
In addition to the above requirements, candidates not possessing a level 1
qualification conducted in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9712, EN
473, SNT-TC-1A1 or other equivalent certification1 in ultrasonic inspection but
holding a Bachelors degree in an appropriate science or engineering discipline
will be required to have undergone a minimum of 40 hours training in basic
ultrasonic inspection.

Candidates holding a UT qualification in accordance with SNT-TC-1A or other

recognised scheme will be required to demonstrate to the satisfaction of CSWIP that
they have undertaken training and examination equivalent to the requirements of ISO
9712 or EN 473.


To be eligible for examination, the candidate shall have the minimum
experience indicated below:
NDT Method

Months of Experience
Level 1
Level 2

1. None, beyond that required to attain Level 1 in ultrasonic testing.
2. Minimum of 6 months field experience using guided waves gained before or
after passing the certificate exam as a Level 2 LRUT Operator
3. Work experience in months is based on a nominal 40h/week (175 h/month).
When an individual is working more than 40h/week, he/she may be

credited with experience based on the total hours, but he/she shall be
required to produce evidence of this experience.
Candidates must provide evidence of experience by providing relevant
information authenticated by a senior responsible person in the candidates
employing organisation or by a major client.


Vision Requirements
The candidate shall provide documented evidence of satisfactory vision in
accordance with the following requirements of ISO 9712:

near vision shall permit reading a minimum of Jaeger number 2 or

equivalent type and size letters (e.g. Times Roman N4), at not less than
30 cm on a standard Jaeger test chart for near vision, in at least one
eye, corrected or uncorrected


colour vision shall be sufficient that the candidate can distinguish and
differentiate contrast between the colours used in the NDT methods

The evidence must be in the form of a certificate issued by a medically

recognised person within the previous 12 months, covering all the above
With all the above eligibility requirements the onus is on the candidate to
provide the necessary evidence prior to examination. An examination
appointment will not be confirmed until the evidence has been received.
Subsequent to certification, tests of visual acuity shall be carried out annually.

Classes of Certification


Product Sector
Pipelines and Structural tubulars
Pipelines and Structural tubulars

Examination Format

Theoretical Examinations - Level 1 and Level 2

All theoretical examinations consist of:

General Theory (multiple choice)

Specific Theory (multiple choice)

The Examination syllabus will be as specified in Appendix A and the number of

questions will be according to the table below.

Number of Questions
NDT Method


General UT *
Level 1 Level 2

Specific LRUT
Level 1

Level 2

Candidates will be allowed 1.5 minutes per question

* Candidates already holding certification in UT conducted in accordance with

the requirements of ISO 9712 and/or EN 473 at the appropriate level will be
exempt the General theory section of the examination.

Practical Examinations - Level 1 and Level 2

All practical examinations comprise:

General Practical
Specific Practical

6.2.1 General Practical

The candidate is required to verify required settings and operate the test
equipment properly in order to obtain satisfactory results and correctly
interpret these results. The candidate is required therefore to demonstrate to
the satisfaction of the invigilator this ability, with comments, using the means
available for each test method.
Time allowed 1.0 hour
Pass mark 70%

6.2.2 Specific Practical

Candidates for Level 1 and Level 2 certification are required to test and report on
samples relevant to the certification sought containing real defects. Written
instructions are provided for level 1 candidates.


Product Sector

Specific Practical Content

Pipelines and
Structural Tubulars

Pipelines and
Structural Tubulars

Inspection of two pipe or tubular

samples according to the details of the
instructions provided (60 minutes per
Inspection of two pipe or tubular
samples (60 minutes per specimen).

Interpretation of previously collected

data from 3 pipe or tubular sections (3
Drafting a written instruction. (1 hour)


Examination Records
TWI Certification Services or their designated examination body will retain the
following records


Copies of theoretical examination and validated marking schemes

Validated master reports of all practical samples utilised in practical
Marking schemes
Names of appointed examiners
Name of certified individual.


Results Notices

All candidates will be sent a results notice. This notice will also be sent to the
organisation paying the examination fee, if not paid by the candidate.
a) The examination is evaluated by multiplying the mark achieved by the
weighting factor for each component and then adding the components
together to get an overall mark.
b) Results notices will indicate whether the candidate has achieved success
or otherwise in the examination, the marks gained in each part of the
examination, whether retests are allowable and brief reasons for failurue
of any part of the examination. The personal details recorded shall be
those provided by the candidate.

Successful candidates

Two copies of a certificate of proficiency will be issued to the sponsoring

organisation. Duplicate certificates to replace those lost or destroyed will be
issued only after extensive enquiries.

Unsuccessful candidates

Candidates who fail to obtain a certificate may attempt one retest on those parts
of the examination in which success was not achieved. The retest must be
completed within one year of the initial test; otherwise candidates will have to
repeat the complete examination.

8.4 Period of validity

The certificate is valid for five years from the date of completion of the initial test
and may be renewed for a further five years on application, provided evidence is
produced in accordance with Clause 9.5.1. Certificates are only valid provided:
a) they are within date.
b) they are on standard cream CSWIP paper bearing the CSWIP logo in black
on gold signed by an officer of CSWIP and embossed with the CSWIP
c) they have been signed by the individual to whom the certificate is awarded.
d) they are accompanied by a valid official CSWIP identity card.
e) the holder is still employed by the sponsoring organisation.
for internal administrative purposes.

Five year renewal procedure

Individuals whose certificates expire at the end of the maximum five year
period may renew their certificates for a further five years by taking a renewal
examination consisting of the specific theory and practical part of the initial
A candidate unsuccessful in any section of the examination will be allowed
one further attempt in the section or sections failed. If the candidate is
unsuccessful in this second examination no certificate will be awarded and, to
obtain a certificate, the procedure for an initial candidate will have to be

8.5.1 General requirements

In all cases, the individual applying for renewal must meet the following
a) provide evidence at least every second year of satisfactory vision
examination (see Clause 4.3)
It is recommended that renewal examinations (see below) are carried out
between six and one month prior to the five year expiry of the original
certificate as failure to do so may affect the continuity of their certification.
Candidates failing to take the renewal examination before the expiry date of
their certificate will be treated as initial candidates.
Any previous certificate is invalidated upon issue of the result of the five year
renewal examination.
The pass mark for all renewal examinations is 70%.

Appendix A
Examination Syllabi

Level 1 - General Theory


Brief history of development of ultrasonic testing theory.


Ultrasonic capabilities in relation to other NDT methods.


Physical principles of sound

Nature of sound, relationship between wavelength, frequency and
velocity. Wave motions, particle vibrations, velocities in common


Behaviour of ultrasonic waves

Reflection, refraction, diffraction. Snell's laws, attenuation, acoustic
impedance, mode conversion, resonance, scattering from defects.


Production of ultrasonic waves

Piezo-electric effect. Types and properties of transducers, pulse width,
near and far fields, effect of frequency and sound velocity on near field,
far field and beam divergence. Dead zone, production of compression,
shear and surface waves, critical angles, construction of single and twin
crystal probes. Couplants.


Ultrasonic equipment
Block diagrams of flaw detector, controls, amplifier and equipment
performance characteristics. A-scan, B-scan and C-scan displays.


Calibration and equipment checks

Calibration and reference blocks, check for dead zone, penetrative
power, resolution, sensitivity, probe index, angle of refraction, linearity of
time base and amplifier. Plotting beam spread diagrams. Calibration of
time base ranges. Comparison of probe sensitivities. Setting sensitivity
levels for scanning.


Practical applications - parent material and weld examination

Information required prior to examination. Parent material examination,
attenuation measurements, methods of flaw sizing 20dB, 6dB, DGS,

maximum amplitude, use of flaw location slide, reporting methods. Brief

knowledge of component surface finish and its measurement.

Level 1 - Specific Theory


NDT and Corrosion

Corrosion in pipes
NDT methods for monitoring pipe corrosion (Visual, Radiographic,
Ultrasonic, Electromagnetic)


Introduction to Ultrasonic Guided Waves

Plate and Lamb waves, Guided waves in pipes. Comparison of guided
wave with conventional ultrasonics


Principles of Operation of the Guided Wave Test System

Structure of the guided wave test system. Tool, Pulser-receiver unit,
Instrument, Power


A-Scan Screen and Test Data

Types of A-scan, Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC) Curves, Ascans from multiple wave modes


Selection of Optimum Test Frequency for Guided Waves

Longitudinal Waves, Torsional Waves, lower and upper frequency
limits, Effect of the transducer tool


Gathering and Analysing test data.


Multi-Mode Operation
Equipment Required, Operation, Software


Excitation Conditions


Guided Waves Using Focusing

Purpose and Benefits


Principles of Hardware Operation

Means of Access to Focus Functions, Segment Normalisation
Data Collection Options



Presentation and Reporting of Results

Level 2 - General Theory

As for level 1 but the examination questions will be more complex.

Level 2 - Specific Theory

As for level 1, with in addition:

Properties of guided waves in pipes and other components


Factors influencing selection of test conditions


Instruction Writing


Principles of Interpretation
Identification of relevant and non-relevant signals, Assessment of
signal classification based on amplitude and focused response,
Identification of pipe features, Combination of results from different test




Management of LRUT Operations