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Artistieke taaltransformatie

en auteursconceptualisatie van de wereld


bij A. P. Platonov
Proeve van literair-lingustisch onderzoek van de taal
van de romans evengur en Sastlivaja Moskva
en van de novelle Kotlovan

Proefschrift voorgelegd aan de Faculteit Letteren en Wijsbegeerte voor het behalen


van de graad van doctor in de Oost-Europese Talen en Culturen

Ben Dhooge

Promotor:

Prof. dr. Thomas Langerak

Co-promotor:

Prof. dr. Oleksiy Yudin



. .


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I
....................................................................................... - 1 1.
......................................................................... - 3 1.1. Literary linguistics, ................................................. - 3 1.1.1. .... - 5 1.1.2. strong-theory weak-theory .. - 12 1.1.2.1. Strong-theory ............................... - 14 1.1.2.2. Weak-theory ................................. - 26 1.1.2.3. Status quaestionis:
.............................................................................................................. - 38 1.2. - 44
1.2.1. ................................................ - 44 1.2.1.1 . . .................................................. - 44 1.2.1.2 .............................................. - 45 1.2.2. ............................................ - 50 1.2.3.
................................................................................. - 56 1.2.3.1. () mind style...................... - 56 1.2.3.2. ................................................................... - 64 II
.................................................. - 69 1. ........................................................................................................................ - 71 1.1. ............................................................................. - 71 -

1.2. ,
? ........................................................................................- 85 1.2.1. , ................................................- 86 1.2.2. ...................- 89 1.2.3. ............................................................................- 95 1.2.4. ..............................................- 97 1.2.5. ..........................................................- 100 1.2.6. ......................................................................- 111 1.3. / vs. .- 117 2. .........................................................- 125 2.1. .................................................................................................................- 125 2.2. - ...................................- 136 2.2.1. ...............................................................- 136 2.2.2. ..................................................................................................- 140 2.2.3. ............................................................................................- 143 2.2.4. ..............................................................................................- 147 2.2.5. vs. ......- 150 2.2.6. -
.................................................................................................- 155 2.2.6.1. , ........................................................................- 161 2.3. - ................................................- 183 2.3.1. .....................................- 187 2.3.1.1. ................................................................- 187 2.3.1.2. ....................................- 188 2.3.1.3. ...............................................- 197 2.3.1.4. ( ) ..........................- 202 2.3.1.5. ( ) ..........- 211 2.3.2. ...............................................- 215 2.3.2.1. ...............- 217 2.3.2.2. .............................................- 222 2.3.2.3. - ..............- 223 2.3.2.4. ......................................- 252 2.3.3. ....................................................................- 254 2.3.3.1. ...............................................................- 254 2.3.3.2. ..............................................................- 265 2.3.4. : .....................................................- 266 2.4. ..............................................................................- 269 2.5. ...............................................................................- 277 2.5.1. .....- 278 2.5.2. ....................- 281 -

2.5.3. ........................................... - 283 2.6. .............................................................................. - 285 2.6.1. ........................................................................................................ - 285 2.6.2. () ...... - 287 2.7. ................................................................................................. - 294 3. .................................................. - 297 3.1. .................................................................... - 297 3.1.1. .................................................. - 299 3.1.2. ................. - 303 3.1.3. , ...312 3.1.3.1. ................................................................................................. - 312 3.1.3.2. ...................................................................... - 313 3.1.3.3. .......................................................................................... - 330 3.1.3.4. ................................................................................................... - 338 3.2. . . ............................... - 345 III
() ..................................................................................... - 363 1. ......................................................... - 365 1.1. ....................................................... - 368 1.1.1. .................................................................................... - 368 1.1.2. / ........................................................................... - 377 1.2. :
.......................................................................... - 383 1.2.1. . ................................................. - 383 1.2.2. . . .................................................. - 390 1.2.3. . ()
........................................................................................................ - 395 1.2.4. . .
................................................................................ - 398 1.2.5. : .- 401
1.3. , ,
......................................................................................................................... - 404 1.3.1. . /
............................................................................................................................... - 404 1.3.2. . , . . .......................................... - 410 -

1.3.3. . . ......................................- 414 1.3.4. . . ....................................- 416 1.3.5. . . vs. .........................................................................................- 420 1.3.6. . . & . . .................................................................................................................- 428 1.3.7. - :
...................................- 431 1.4.
() ...............- 435 1.4.1. . ,
..................................................................................................................- 438 1.4.2. . . ........................................................- 446 2.
.................................................- 453 2.1. .................................................................................................................- 453 2.2. .......................................- 465 2.2.1. .........................................................................- 465 2.2.2. () ......- 468 2.2.2.1.
..................................................................................................- 468 ..............................- 468 ............- 470 ........................................................................................................- 472 .......................................................................................................- 478 .....................................................................................- 481 .............................................................................................................- 484 2.2.2.2. .....................- 485 ........................................................................................................- 486 .......................................................................................................- 497 .....................................................................................- 503 .............................................................................................................- 506 2.2.3. ........................................................- 507 2.2.3.1. .........- 508 ........................................................................................................- 508 .......................................................................................................- 526 .....................................................................................- 533 .............................................................................................................- 548 2.2.3.2. ......................................................- 550 ........................................................................................................- 551 .......................................................................................................- 558 .....................................................................................- 560 .............................................................................................................- 565 -

2.3. - ............................................................ - 568 2.3.1. ...................................................................................... - 569 2.3.1.1. ............................................................................................ - 570 2.3.1.2. ............................................................................................ - 573 2.3.1.3. .......................................................................... - 575 2.3.1.4. .................................................................................................. - 579 2.3.2. - ..................................................................................... - 582 2.3.2.1. ................................................................................................. - 582 2.3.2.2. .................................................................................... - 588 ......................... - 603 2.4. .................................................................................................................. - 607 .............................................................................................................................. - 611 ................................................................................................................. - 617 .............................................................................................................. - 637 -

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iii

, , ,
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SEELANGS (The Slavic and East European Languages and Literature List,
18.05.2007-23.05.2007). SEELANGS . ,
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iv

, :
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, .
I work by feeling (. ),
I live through my sensitivities (. : Alexandra Smith); I have got a real feel for it
(. : Michael Berry); I feel things (. Alexandra Smith:
Francoise Rosset; . : Thimothy D. Sergay); I feel what I do (. ,
Alexandra Smith: Deborah Hoffman); you here merely live to serve, but I
live through my senses (. : Paul Richardson); you're just putting in time here, but
I'm emotionally involved in this job (. : colkitto, Robert); ..
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, , (Lily
Alexander) (Alexandra Smith),
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However, having done a considerable amount of research on Platonov and his language at some stage of my life, I came to the conclusion that to a large extent Platonov's language has some strong links with the language of various Soviet newspapers of the 1920s and some colloquial and non-standard language used in Southern
parts of Russia (Voronezh region, etc.). It is not always a product of clever tricks and
linguistic games. Naturally, Platonov had a very good ear for picking up lots of
things that deviated from the norm, so to speak. (. , Lily Alexander: Alexandra Smith)

:
I <> doubt that Platonov thought of so many clever tricks himself, I think that he
had a brilliant ear for language: perhaps, he wrote down various abnormalities when
listened to people he encountered on the streets of Moscow or in provincial towns? It
well might be that in some areas (might be Voronezh, Briansk, etc.) people's talk reflects on the fact that some words were not completely fixed in terms of connotations,

vi

grammatical links etc. One needs to consult linguists who are specialising in dialects
and history of grammar in order to see what was available to Platonov in the 20s-30s
in terms of language material... ( , Olga Meerson et alii: Alexandra Smith)

. , , .
<> but I think that you are reading too much into this text. In the end of the day,
readers of the story should be aware of some eccentric qualities of the narrator's
speech who is not as sophisticated as Platonov. But one shouldn't forget about the
stylistic mask of a simpleton that Platonov uses here. (. ,
Lily Alexander: Alexandra Smith)

, ,

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. , , , (. : Lily
Alexander) , .
<> I cannot help thinking that people are giving you good advice of good English that sounds right.
This is exactly the point: this sentence about feelings is designed NOT to sound
right. The word chuvstvuyu in the context is out of place and must stick out. (.
: Lily Alexander)

. . (
<> he uses words incorrectly grammatically
or in other unpredictable ways <> (. : Lily Alexander)) , , , :
In Platonov, almost in every sentence there is a word unconventionally used, so his
language and the language of his characters sound childish, as if they do not know
how to use language properly, or wizardly as if they know something about the secret life of words that nobody else knows. He often uses words pod uglom k rechi.
They are in strange relationships with his text, and they are disobediently used. (.
: Lily Alexander)

. / (Josh Wilson), I
bleed rail ties: First off, thanks to Lily for this insightful comment on the ART of translation. I do not
wish to offend anyone on this list, but it really seems to me that most of these suggestions I've read so
far seem out-of-the-blue and a little stale. The type of sentences I read time and time again that always
leave me wondering "I wonder the original said (and meant)." Of course, I could look that up, but
translations should not leave one with that feeling. (. : Josh Wilson)
3

viii

:
While reading, and running into this strangely used words, one must stop for a second and subconsciously reflect on language itself why the word is used this way
and what this means. Platonov has an amazing flow of course, but he also punctuates
his language with unusual usage, creating some strange rhythm of delays and
stops. Well, defamiliarization of course - but also something else, putrefy Platonov's, hard to define. (. : Lily Alexander)

. , , , , , .
, , . .
, :
<> Platonov's words are metaphors which are little myths.
For example, with this chuvstvuiu. Imagine a person, a railroad worker, who is
connected to his rails, and other mechanical things, and his road as if by means of
thousands nerves connected to his body or coming from his body he feels them
all. He is connected with them a man of the universe, or universe's central station.
And of course he points out to others that they are who they are, and he understands
himself as this special being, take it or leave it. They are flabbergasted, offended and
bewildered at once. So the hero imagines himself (and Platonov does not dispute) as
almost some kind of fantastic being fantastic human tree with the roots going everywhere. The image of the man connected with his nerves (and hence feelings) with
the entire world is repeated by Platonov in so many ways and in so many works. This
image is one of Platonov's foundational metaphors, or root metaphors of his fictional world. (. : Lily Alexander) 4

, . ,
,
:

4 .
. .: <> while the speaker, as Lily acutely observed, has some kind of profound (and
profoundly surprising) connection to the technology a variation of the 1920s Soviet cultural theme of
the man-machine fusion. (. : David Powelstock)

ix

<> loosing Platonov's stick out words means loosing Platonov. It is not a good
idea to straighten him out and clean his clumsy language because this clumsiness is
meaning-making. His stick out words that are almost metaphors are important
often because they are part of his imagery and of the system of root-metaphors of his
world. They are part of his recurrent vocabulary of word-images. (. : Lily
Alexander)

,
. ,
. . . : , , . . -
, .. , .
Platonov has the dimensions of kosnoyazychie of the holy fool, of the Soviet press,
and of the Soviet muzhik, and of street language merging with literature, and many
many more things. That's why I believe that it is difficult to read too much into Platonov's texts, because they have so many hidden channels and semantic niches opening into all kinds of possible interesting readings. I have seen students interpreting
his texts very differently, but all of them made sense to me I enjoyed seeing them
trying. This is his richness. ( , Alexandra
Smith: Lily Alexander)

. , . , . -
, . , ,
, . ,
, . , , . .:
Platonov is anti-Shklovskian in one particular respect: he reverses the device of defamiliarization. But I have written a whole book on that. Like Pilate but on a happier
occasion, I may say that what I have written is what I have written. That is, I still

stand by my conclusions in that book. ( , Alexandra Smith, Lily Alexander: Olga Meerson)

,

, . . . ,
1983- . ,
.
, , ?
If you are interested in some corroboration of my conclusions in my life-long project
on Platonov, check out Alexei Tsvetkov's Dissertation at U. Michigan on the topic,
written and defended back in the '70s: it is mostly linguistic). ( , Josh Wilson et alii: Olga Meerson)

: it is
mostly linguistic. , , :
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xii

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xiv

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xv

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(Idem: 119-125).
8

xvi

I:


<> a linguist deaf to the poetic function
of language and a literary scholar indifferent
to linguistic problems and unconversant
with linguistic methods are equally flagrant
anachronisms.
(Jakobson 1964: 377)
<> linguistics is quite as oriented and
evaluative as literary criticism. <> It is
only a longstanding separation of professional domains that leads us to imagine that
linguistics and criticism are essentially distinct, rather than interconnected aspects of a
single activity.
(Toolan 1990: 27 )

1.

, ,
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,
.
, .
( 1959: 6)

1.1. Literary linguistics,

, , , , , ,
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. . . 10 , , . , :
literary linguistics, , , , . . . . , . . , . , . . , . . , . -, . . . . . (Seifrid 1984: 6-39). . . , .
, . . . ( 1994) . , . . , .
. . . ( 1997: 17-19) . . . ,
Criteria for style analysis, Word 15: 154-174, 1959.

10

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-4-

Literary linguistics,

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1.1.1.
,
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( 1959: 87)

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11

-5-

. , . ,
, . literary linguistics
.
,
(.. (
1983: 4) ( 1998: 3, 33)) (.. (Ibidem)). (. Epstein 1978: 21 .)
: . , : ,
. . . , . . (, 1996: 385-393) . . 12 .
( : ), , , , . (Uitti 1969;
Carter & Simpson 1989: 1; 1979: 4-59).
, , ,
, . , , XVIIIXIX , .
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.. 13 XVIII , 14 , -

. . , . : . . ,
, . 2: : 651-694. ,
, 1995.
13 , , , , ..
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14 , , . . . .
(Uitti 1969: 77-92, 106).
12

-6-

Literary linguistics,

. (Uitti 1969: 105-6; . Fowler


1971: 2; 1979: 4) , , ,
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(Idem: 22)
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( 1966: 492), . 15 , , .
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science can go beyond mathematics, no criticism can go beyond its linguistics
(Whitehall 1951: 713) 16 , .
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, . .
: ()
(, ). . (. . 1979: 22)
16 . .
( 1996: 198):
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15

-7-

, , 1960
1980- . 17 (Fowler 1971: 3; Idem 1975b: 1-2; 1979: 5, 23-24) 18
.
:
() ( ) .
, <> a certain type of rearrangement and modification of the
elements of everyday spoken language. (Stankiewicz 1964a: 70)
, . (
1959: 87; 1975: 74; 1979: 39; 1996: 198; 1998:
19; Freeman 1970b: 3; Stankiewicz 1964a: 69-70; Toolan 1990: 25) ,

: <>
, <>. ( 1998: 19)
: , .. , ( ).

( , ?). , . . , ,
(verbal work of art). , <> the dominant structureorganizing factor [are] not of linguistic character <> , ,
. (Petfi 1968: 327) : ,
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. . . ,
(stylistics). ,
.
(Fowler 1971: 43-79).
18 () , , . . . . ,
. ( 1979: 5, 22-24).
17

-8-

Literary linguistics,

, , , .
, . , [] -. (
1998: 19) . . .
:
Linguistics is not and will never be the whole of literary analysis, and only the literary analyst not the linguist can determine the place of linguistics in literary studies. But if a text is to be described at all, then it should be described properly; and this
means by the theories and methods developed in linguistics, the subject whose task is
precisely to show how language works. (Halliday 1970: 70)

. , : If the collaboration
of the linguist with the student of poetry (.. ) is to be fruitful, the linguist must be aware of the problems pertaining to poetic form and tradition, and the literary scholar must attend to the methods and achievements of modern linguistics. (Stankiewicz 1964a: 71)
, ,
: . ,
, , , . (. Fish 1981: 53,
69; Malmkjr & Carter 2004: 512; Spitzer 1948: 11; 1996: 198) , , XIX-
XX- , / . , , . ,
( , ) . , , , : . , , , , , . (. -

-9-

Malmkjr & Carter 2004: 512) , . :


<> an extension of practical criticism <>. (Cluysenaar 1976: 10)
, . stylistics 19 , .. <> the study of style in
spoken and written text. (Malmkjr & Carter 2004: 510) , 20 , . (Idem:
511) ,
, , , . , (.,
), (., , )
(., , , ). (Idem: 510)
, . , : In stylistic analysis,
items and structures are isolated and described using terminology and descriptive
frameworks drawn from whatever school of descriptive linguistics the stylistician
subscribes to or finds most useful for a given purpose. (Ibidem; . 1979: 16; Epstein 1978: 20) .
, , ,
. , , (),
, , , (discourse
analysis), (conversation analysis) (text linguistics).

: (Enkvist 1973); N. E.
Enkvist, On defining style: an essay in applied linguistics. In: Enkvist, N. E., M. J. Gregory & J.
Spencer. Linguistics and Style: 1-56. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978; S. Chatman, The semantics
of Style. : J. Kristeva (ed.), Essays in semiotics. Essais de Smiotique: 399-422. The Hague, Paris: Mouton;
Th. A. Sebeok, Style in Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1964.
20 <> a consistent occurrence in the text of certain items
and structures, or types of items and structures, among those offered by the language as a whole.
(Malmkjr & Carter 2004: 510)
, .
. (Enkvist 1973). . ( 1963) ( 1997: 13-25).
(Sebeok 1964).
19

- 10 -

Literary linguistics,

: . ,
( stylolinguistics linguistic stylistics
(Enkvist 1973)). , (. . ) stylistics ( ), (. . ), (. . ),
(. . 1963), (. . ), linguistic stylistics (M. A. K. Halliday), literary stylistics (Enkvist 1973), linguistic criticism
(Epstein 1978; Fowler 1971; Toolan 1990), literary linguistics (. J. Toolan) ..
.
21
: , -, (,
, ..), -,
<> in spoken and written text (Malmkjr & Carter 2004: 510) , -, , .. . ,
( 1979: 42).
, . , , . literary linguistics: : .
, , : . , ,
. . . (1979).
, ,
(Idem: 75-76). ,
, .. ,
, .

. .
( 1979: 40-43).

21

- 11 -

, XVIII- , . , , literary linguistics. , . 22

1.1.2. strong-theory weak-theory


(Literary linguistics is ) a way of reading (not a
method), whose shaping orientation (not an exclusionary obsession) is a systematic and analytic attention to the language of the text.
(Toolan 1990: 28)

, .
( 1996: 198)

, . - , -
, , . , , 23 . , , , ( 24 ), . ( 1979: 40-43).
, , ,
,
(, 1915-1924), - (, 1916-1930)
( 1979: 31). , . (Grzybek 1998c); V.
Erlich, Russian Formalism: History Doctrine. The Hague: Mouton, 1955; K. Pomorska, Russian Formalist
Theory and its Poetic Ambiance. The Hague: Mouton, 1968; P. Steiner, Russian Formalism: A Metapoetics.
Ithaca, New York, London: Cornell University Press, 1984.
24 , . . , . . . . .
22
23

- 12 -

Literary linguistics,

Stilforschung 25 . , . . , New Criticism, - . , . . , , , . . . , ( )


, . 1950-
, 1960-

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1970-
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Stilforschung , . ,
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Stilforschung . , , , . (Uitti 1969: 126-127) Stilforschung .
25

- 13 -

1980- .
, . ,
(.. strong-theory stylistics (Toolan 1990: 23))
.
.
, ?

1.1.2.1. Strong-theory
(, ,
, , , , . .)
. . , ,
. ( 1965: 406;
Grzybek 1998c: 550) . . : , ,
:
- , , , , . ( 1925: 167)

, . , , .
.
, ()
, , (,
, . .) , ,
, . ( 1959: 1314; 1963: 175; . Enkvist 1973: 30) ,
, , .. , , ,

- 14 -

Literary linguistics,

, .
, , , ,
, , / , , , . . 26 , , (, .
. 27 ), , .

. , () ,
, , ,
.
(,
)
( 28 )
. , . ,
,
, . (Grzybek 1998b: 518; 1967: 6-7) , . , . . , . .
. (Uitti 1969: 141; 1967: 6-7)
() , . (Malmkjr & Carter 2004: 513;
Grzybek 1998b: 518; Uitti 1969: 141; 1967: 5)
, ( 1967: 17),

. . . , . Letchworth: Bradda Books Ltd., 1971 [1925], , . 40-54. . ( 2003: 68).


27 . . , , : . . , : 58-72. :
, 1990 [1917]. . . 62-63.
28 ., , (Grzybek 1998b); (Uitti 1969: 141147); ( 1967; 1967); P. L. Garvin (ed.), A Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure, and Style. Washington, D.C.; Georgetown University Press, 1964; P. A. Luelsdorff (ed.), The Prague
School of Structural and Functional Linguistics: A Short Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1994;
Y. Tobin, The Prague School and Its Legacy in Linguistics, Literature, Semiotics, Folklore, and the Arts. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1988; J. Vachek (ed.), A Prague School Reader in Linguistics.
Bloomington; Indiana University press, 1964.
26

- 15 -

: 29 1929- , (Idem: 28). . ( Jazyk spisovn a jazyk bsnick, Spisovn etina a jazykov kultura 1932- ) , , . (Mukaovsk 1970: 41) .
,
. , signifie,
, signifiant, ,
. (Idem: 25, 31-32) , 1964- . .
foregrounding 30 . ,
. , ,
. .

: . (Idem: 29)
, : <> for poetry, the standard language is the background against which is reflected the esthetically intentional distortion of the linguistic components of the work, in other words, the intentional violation of the norm of
the standard. (Mukaovsk 1970: 42) , [t]he violation of the norm
of the standard, its systematic violation, is what makes possible the poetic utilization
of language; without this possibility there would be no poetry. (Ibidem; .
1967: 30) , , , .
, . ,
[t]he more the norm of the standard is stabilized in a given language, the more varied can be its violation, and therefore the more possibilities for poetry in that lanThses, In: Travaux de Cercle linguistique de Prague 1, Prague, 1929.
P. L. Garvin, op. cit. foregrounding W. Van Peer, Stylistics and Psychology: Investigations of Foregrounding,
London: Croom Helm, 1986.
29
30

- 16 -

Literary linguistics,

guage. And on the other hand, the weaker the awareness of this norm, the fewer possibilities of violation, and hence the fewer possibilities for poetry. (Mukaovsk
1970: 42)

,
. , <> the more an act is automized (,
, ), the less it is
consciously executed; the more it is foregrounded, the more completely conscious
does it become. (Idem: 43)
, . ,
, :
, ( ), . (Idem: 43, 44)
, , :
<> the foregrounding of a component implies precisely its being placed in the
foreground; the unit in the foreground, however, occupies this position by comparison with another unit or units that remain in the background. A simultaneous general
foregrounding would thus bring all the components into the same plane and so become a new automatization. (Idem: 44)

, . , . , , , <> the reshaping of the foregrounded component within a given


work occurs in a stable direction <> (Idem: 44). . ,

<> the gradation of the interrelationships of these components, that is, in their
mutual subordination and superordination. The component highest in the hierarchy
becomes the dominant. All other components, foregrounded or not, as well as their
interrelationships, are evaluated from the stand point of the dominant. (Idem: 45)

- 17 -

, , . Thus, there is always present, in communicative speech as well, the potential relationship between intonation
and meaning, syntax, word order, or the relationship of the word as a meaningful
unit to the phonetic structure of the text, to the lexical selection found in the text, to
other words as units of meaning in the context of the same sentence. (Ibidem)
, : ( )
,
. , , , . (Ibidem)
. ,
, : ,
?
, . ( 1967: 28, 29) , ,
, : , ,
, .. (Idem: 28-32) , ,
. . , , ,
:
<> it holds for the novel as well as for the lyrical poem that to deny a work of poetry the right to violate the norm of the standard is equivalent to the negation of poetry. It cannot be said of the novel that here the linguistic elements are the esthetically
indifferent expression of content, nor even if they appear to be completely devoid of
foregrounding: the structure is the total of all the components, and its dynamics arises
precisely from the tension between the foregrounded and unforegrounded components. There are, incidentally, many novels and short stories in which the linguistic
components are clearly foregrounded. Changes effected in the interest of correct language would thus, even in the case of prose, often interfere with the very essence of
the work <> (Idem: 48)

- 18 -

Literary linguistics,

, ,
, , , conditio sine qua
non :
, , . , New Criticisma, ,
, , ( ) .
, , New Criticism , , . (Bradford 1997: 12; Toolan 1990: 3) New Criticism (.. , , ,
..),
, . , . (. Uitti 1969: 152, 158)
, New Criticism
1960- . 31 (Bradford 1997: 13) 32
. , , . , . . :
Stylistics was born of a reaction to the subjectivity and imprecision of literary studies. For the appreciative raptures of the impressionistic critic, stylisticians purport to
substitute precise and rigorous linguistic descriptions, and to proceed from those de-

, 1964- A Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure, and Style, . . .


32 . . 1948- Linguistics and
literary history
.
31

- 19 -

scriptions to interpretations for which they can claim a measure of objectivity. Stylistics, in short, is an attempt to put criticism on a scientific basis. (Fish 1981: 53)

:
stylistics (.. ).
, 1964-,
1970- 1981- . Style in Language (Th. A. Sebeok
(1964)), Linguistics and literary style (D. C. Freeman (1970a)) Essays in modern linguistics (D. C. Freeman (1981)). :
;

. 33
, ,
19601970- , . : , .. , . ; , ..
. , -, ,
New Criticism , ,

, (. ).
, . .
[t]he poetic function projects the principle of equivalence
from the axis of selection into the axis of combination (Jakobson 1964: 358) 34 , , ,
. 1964- ,
, . ,
.

. :
. (Carter & Simpson 1989: 1-4); (Uitti 1969: 201-212).
1975- : . , . :
: : 193-230. : , 1975.
33
34

- 20 -

Literary linguistics,

? 35

:
, , (. . , . 36 ),
, , . 37
, 1960-
. . grammaticalness . : ,
style comme cart. ,
, .
, -
, . . 38 , . 39 . . 40 . , , . . . , ,
, .
: ,
, . C. F. Voegelin, Casual and Noncasual Utterances within Unified Structure, : T. Sebeok (ed.), Style in Language: 57-68. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960. .
. . Style in Language: Vers la dfinition linguistique du style, Word 17: 318-344, 1961, cc. 330-334.
36 . M. Hammond, Poetic Syntax, : Poetics Poetyka : 475-482. Warszawa, S Gravenhage:
Pastwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Mouton & Co, 1961.
37 . (Plett 1979: 128-138); (Wienold 1977:
137-138). . M. A. K. Halliday, Linguistic function
and literary style: an inquiry into the language of William Goldings The Inheritors, : S. Chatman (ed.),
Literary Style: A symposium: 330-365. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1971. . . . B. Bloch, Linguistic structure
and linguistic analysis. : A. A. Hill (ed.), Report of the fourth annual round table meeting on linguistics and
language teaching, 42: 40-44. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press (Monograph Series on
Language and Linguistics, N4, September), 1953.
38 S. Saporta, The Application of Linguistics to the Study of Poetic Language, : (Sebeok 1964: 82-93).
. , , , .
39 M. Bierwisch, Poetics and Linguistics, : (Freeman 1970a: 96-115). : Poetik und
Linguistik, : H. Kreuzer & R. Gunzenhuser, Mathematik und Dichtung: 49-66. Mnchen: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1965.
40 S. R. Levin, Linguistic structures in Poetry, The Hague: Mouton & co, 1962; Idem, Deviation - statistical and determinate - in poetic language, Lingua 12/3: 276-290, 1963; Idem, Internal and external deviation in poetry, Word 21/2: 225-237, 1965; Idem, Two grammatical approaches to Poetic Analysis,
College Composition and Communication 16/5: 256-260, 1965.
35

- 21 -

(). 41 . 42 , ,
.
, [i]f one
considers the distribution of the indicators of poeticalness, however, one finds that
these indicators are also found in many texts that are not considered poetical or literary and that there are texts which are considered literary or poetical and do not display indicators of poeticalness at all or only to a low degree. (Wienold 1977: 138)
, .
:
. ,
- ? (. Epstein 1978: 75-76; Plett 1979: 128-132) , , . , , () , , , ,
.
, . (Plett 1979: 128; . Mukaovsk 1970: 43-44; 1998: 32-33) ,
, , , ,
. , , . (Plett 1979: 130) ,

, ,
(, , -
), ,
(, , - ). (Idem: 131-132)
. . , ,
, ..
, , , .. (Idem: 132-133)
, , , ,
. , ,
L. T. Milic, A quantitative Approach to the Style of Jonathan Swift, The Hague: Mouton and Co, 1967.
M. Riffaterre, Criteria for Style analysis, Word 15: 154-174, 1959; Idem, Stylistic context, Word 16: 207218, 1960.
41
42

- 22 -

Literary linguistics,

,
, .. .
. , 43 .. , , () . 44 , :
Darunter ist ein Zweifaches verstanden. In ihrer ersten Bedeutung besagt sthetische Funktion, da die einzelne Deviation ( , .. ) in einen Kontext interdependenter
Strukturmomente integriert ist, die eine gewisse Regelmigkeit aufweisen. Die so
entstandene Textur knnen wir mit Mukaovsk (1964) als Einheit in der Vielheit
(unity in diversity) oder nach einem alten sthetischen Grundsatz als concordia discors bezeichnen. Die zweite Bedeutung der sthetischen Funktion ist rezeptionsorientiert in dem Sinne, da das sprachliche Strukturmuster auf den Empfnger einen sthetischen Effekt ausbt. (Plett 1979: 137)

, -
: , (, externe Strukturrelation), (eine Binnenstruktur, interne Strukturrelation) . ,
: . 45 (Idem: 137-138)
: -

,
, : Literaritt ist die textspezifische Form des sthetischen; ein
anderer Name dafr ist Poetizitt. Literaritt bezeuchnet jene Textqualitten, die literarische Texte von nicht-literarischen, Poesie van Nicht-Poesie abheben. (Plett 1979: 120)
44 , . (Plett 1979: 128-132).
,
,
. (Idem: 133-134).
45 , .
. A. Pilkinton, Poetic Effects. A Relevance Theory Perspective. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2000.
43

- 23 -

, .
.. . . 46 , . . , . . 47 , , . . 48 . . . . 49 . ,
. , (. . ), (. , ).
1970- 1980- . 50 , , , , , , ,
,
. (Austin 1984: 2) (.
.) : ( ) , ,
. 51 (. Austin
1984: 2-3) , , , . . 52 .
R. Ohmann, Generative grammar and the concept of literary style, Word, XX: 423-439, 1964.
J. P. Thorne, Stylistics and generative grammars, Journal of Linguistics, 1: 49-59, 1965.
48 . (Austin 1984)
49 E. C. Traugott & M. L. Pratt, Linguistics for Students of Literature. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.
50 - , , , . : M.
Gross, On the failure of generative grammar, Language 55: 859-895, 1979; K. Koerner, The Chomskyan
revolution and its historiography: a few critical remarks, Language and communication 3/2: 147-169,
1983. - . (Bradford 1997: 90-94); R. McLain, Literary criticism versus Generative Grammars,
Style 10: 231-253, 1976.
51 . , . . J. Derrida, Signature Event Context, Glyph 1: 172-197, 1977.
52 . , , [i]t is a
logical mistake to confuse the impossibility of certainty in understanding with the impossibility of
understanding. . E. D. Hirsch, Validity in Interpretation. New Haven, London: Yale University
Press, 1967, . 17. : Validation ( ) has the <> goal of showing not only that an interpretation is legitimate but that its likelihood of being correct is greater than or
equal to that of any other known hypothesis about the text, , . 169.
46
47

- 24 -

Literary linguistics,


, stylistician . . . 53
What is Stylistics and why are they saying such terrible things about it?

. (. . , . . . .), (. , . . .).
, pur
sang, , , , . (. )
(Toolan 1990: 19), . (Fish 1981: 54-65) , . ,
. . : <> a serious defect in the procedures of stylistics <> (is ) the absence of any constraint on the way in which one moves from
description to interpretation, with the result that any interpretation one puts forward
is arbitrary. (Idem: 55) , stylisticians
<> interpose a formidable apparatus between his descriptive and interpretive
acts, thus obscuring the absence of any connection between them. (Idem: 56) . ,
, , (.. )
<> to give those distinctions an independent value, that is, to attach a
fixed significance to the devices of the fingerprinting mechanism, any more than I
would be willing to read from a mans actual fingerprint to his character or personality. (Idem: 57) , , ,
() , , , . (Idem: 55, 56) , .

19601970- (Carter & Simpson


1989: 1-8); R. Fowler, Style and Structure in Literature, Oxford: Blackwell, 1975; Idem, Linguistics and,
and versus, poetics, Journal of Literary semantics, 8: 47-60, 1979; E. D. Hirsch, The Aims of Interpretation.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

53

- 25 -

<> are treating the deposit of an activity as if it were the activity itself, as if meanings arose independently of human transactions. As a result, they are left with patterns and statistics that have been cut off from their animating source, banks of data
that are unattached to anything but their own formal categories, and are therefore,
quite literally, meaningless. (Idem: 65)

, ,

(Idem: 19; Carter & Simpson 1989: 2-3) . , .
.. affective stylistics, ,
. 54

1.1.2.2. Weak-theory
.. weak-theory , ,

. Stilforschung, ,
, . , . , . . , , ,
, ,
. , , ergon energeia .
55 , Stilforschung
54 , .. . . . . (Fish 1981: 70-78) , : Is there a text in this class? Cambridge,
London: Harvard University Press, 1980. ., , (Austin 1984: 6-9)
(Toolan 1990: 12-13, 15-22).
55 ber die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues und ihren Einfluss auf die geistige Entwickelung
des Mensengeschlechts (Berlin: Verlag von S. Calvary & Co., 1876) . Ergon Energeia (. 55-56, . 54-63 (8)). , ,
, , (ergon), ,
. , , , , (energeia), .

- 26 -

Literary linguistics,

,
. (Uitti 1969: 124, 128) , , . , ,
, , ,
. (Spitzer 1948: 1)
, (, . ).
Stilforschung 56 . .
.

, , . , : ( , ) <>
, , . ( 1959: 3-4; . 1971: 28)
(.. )
,
, . ( 1963: 3-4; 1971: 28)
, , , , . , , . (1941) 57 ,
(1959), , ,
(1963)
(1971). -

, . ,
, .
56 Stilforschung
. ( 1963: 176) , .
. , , . ( 1965:
408-412).
57 . . , , : , 1941.
- 27 -

58 , . ( 1979: 25) ( 1971:


212). 1969- ,
, .
: . . . , , , , . , , , , . .
,
. ( 1979: 9; . 1998: 19)
,
. , , ,
, . ( 1959; 1963; 1971) , , , []
- . ( 1971: 170)
- , , . ,
,
. , : ,
, (
) , -
, .
( 1959: 34-35) , []
-
. (Idem:
85) <> ,
, , 58 , - <> ( 1998: 19). . ( 1971: 227).

- 28 -

Literary linguistics,

. ( 1963: 204)
, ,
, .. , . 59
( 1963: 5-93)

. ( 1961: 369; 1967: 14; 1979: 22) - , (OToole 1975: 143), , ( 1961: 403) 60 ( ,
, . , ),
,
1960- . . , , 1970- ,
: , .
19601970-
( (. . , . . .) (. . , . . , . .
.)). ( 1979: 23-24, 38) , , . . , ,
(, . .
1958- -

. . . , , : , 1967.
. . , . .
(ed.), , : , . 35: , , .. . ,
( ..) . ( ) , , .
60 . . . , , 4: 22-33, 1977.
59

- 29 -

, Poetics Poetyka 1964- 61 ).


. . ,
.
. , .
, (. . , . . , . . .), ,
(. . , . , . , . , . . .
, . (J. Ihwe) . .). , ,
.

, .
, .. , , . . . :
, , .

, ,
. ( 1998: 17)

, , <>
[] [] [] []
<> ( 1979: 27), . (Ibidem) , <> (1) ( )
(2) .
(Ibidem) ,

Poetics Poetyka . Warszawa, S Gravenhage: Pastwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Mouton


& Co, 1961.
61

- 30 -

Literary linguistics,

<> [] . (Ibidem) : <> ( )


, , , (
)
.
(Idem: 28)
, . . . , ,
,
, , .
. , Thesen zum Thema Sprache und Dichtung 1971- .
, . , , die
dichterische Sprache, , [die] Verwirklichung aller sprachlicher Mglichkeiten (Coseriu 1971a: 184).
<> die dichterische Sprache die volle Funktionalitt der Sprache darstellt, da also die Dichtung der Ort der Entfaltung, der funktionellen Vollkommenheit der Sprache ist. (Idem: 185) , [d]ie Dichtung ist nicht etwa Abweichung gegenber
einer andersgegebenen Sprache, eher ist die alltgliche Sprache eine solche Abweichung gegenber einer totalen Sprache. (Ibidem)
.
, , , . , <>
, ,
, , . ( 1979: 76-78)
, , , , , <> (.. ) (Eadem: 76)

- 31 -

<> (Idem: 78). , <>


, . (Ibidem) , , ,
, , ..
. , , .. , , .
. . . .
. , , , <>
( 1998: 12). 62
, . , [] [] (Ibidem), , , . , , , (
), : . , - , , . (Eadem: 7879) ,
, , , . , , . , , .
. . ,
. , , , , :
. , , , .

. . , .. , . ( 1998).
62

- 32 -

Literary linguistics,

, ,
, , . . , . .
, . 1980-
, . , ,
,
. . . (. ).

, .. literary linguistics.
, . . , .
,
. . . , <> exercising new caution in its (.. )
claims and conceding certain limitations to its methodology. (Austin 1984: 6) , , 1960-
1970- . (.. ) , , .
- , , .
. , The Stylistics of Fiction. A literary-linguistic approach.
, ,
, . . . , . . .
. .
.
, , , . , , ! . , ,

- 33 -

<> the unmaintainable absolutes of the linguistics and literary criticism <>
, - 63 .
(Toolan 1990: 3, 4) . . . .
Linguistics for Students of Literature,
, speech act theory,
( , ). 64
,

(. , . .), . 65 , ( )
. , () () , , , , .. 66 ,
, .

, . ,
, <> as a
way rather than a method a confessedly partial or oriented act of intervention, a
reading which is strategic, as all readings necessarily are. (Toolan 1990: 11)
:
<> any stylistic theory of reading is doomed if it claims to capture, prescribe, or
predict on the basis of what a particular stylistician does and thinks. <> A stylistics model is a way of reading, a particular stylisticians preferred way of reading,
and is as partial or contingent as any written grammar or dictionary. The latter, like
objectivist stylistics, tend to invoke the protection and authority of impartial descrip-

. M. L. Pratt, Linguistic Utopias, : N. Fabb et al. (eds.), The Linguistics of Writing: 48-66.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987.
64 E. C. Traugott & M. L. Pratt, Linguistics for Students of Literature. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.
65 , , . (T. Eagleton). . (Toolan 1990: 29-34).
66 . . (Toolan 1990: 7-10).
63

- 34 -

Literary linguistics,

tion and educated usage; but they are ultimately shaped by particular individuals
and particular interests. (Idem: 10)

:
A stylistic reading is, in part, an artefact shaped by the adopted model and theory;
but there is no alternative to this. There is no absolute or essential reading of (what
literary text ever ), since there are no absolute context-free models or theories. Interpretation and persuasion are always at work. (Idem: 12)

, , , , ,
, ,
<> the contrast between literature and other discourses lies not in essential properties and especially not in essential linguistic properties of the texts themselves,
but in the habitual and conventional differences in the ways in which readers apprehend those texts. Those texts are literary which we take to be literary by talking
about them, our readings, and the authors in certain distinctive ways (playing the
language game of literary appreciation). (Toolan 1990: 25)

, , ( ) , , , , , , New Criticism . 67 (. Idem: 3)


, . , , .
, , . . . . . . . (
1998: 19) ,
. . . . : -

67 , , (Fish 1981) M. L. Pratt, Toward a speech-act theory of literary discourse. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

- 35 -

, . ( 1996: 198) :
<> . , <>, , .. . (Idem: 199)

,
, ,
.
1960- , ,
weak-theory (Toolan 1990: 26) , , . (Idem: 14) ,
, ,
. ,

, , , . . , , . , <> close study
of the language features of a text may often be valuable to the literary critic, but <>
such study can never supplant interpretation and criticism more broadly conceived
(not least because stylistics itself entails various interpretative and critical assumptions, which too often pass unnoted). (Ibidem) :
<> stylistics is a reading of literature that attends to the language in the process of
pursuing interpretative ends and assumptions well beyond the methods of conventional stylistics. (Idem: 28)
,
, , ,
( ) ( ) . (Idem: 26) , , . -

- 36 -

Literary linguistics,

,
. (Idem: 20;
Carter & Simpson 1989: 6-7) , : It would be truer to recognize, as
Saussure did during the crucial formative years of modern language study, that
formal descriptions are always and inescapably permeated by socially ratified
value-systems, and that in linguistics (and, by analogy, also in stylistics and criticism)
it is the perspective of the enquirer that delineates the perceived object of study.
(Toolan 1990: 58) , ,
. , , , , <> in itself does not
constitute an overwhelming argument to stop doing stylistics unless (1) that interpretative act is shown to be incoherent or ill grounded, or (2) more coherent interpretative acts are presented, and preferably both. (Toolan 1990: 20) , <> is also attractive since its moves are relatively inspectable, and the basis of its moves, linguistic description (especially traditional, surface-,
rhetoric-oriented description), is a relatively public and widely accepted characterization of a language as it is understood to operate in many domains besides the literary. (Idem: 25, 42-43)
. , , . ,
, , . 68 . (Idem:
16) , () , . , <> so long as
those norms are not canonized as absolutes, and so long as the linguistic statistician
remains mindful of all the contextual variations and influences affecting the textual
form (Idem: 14) , (, ..), -

, . . , ,
. . . : Unless one adopts the early Chomskyan view that syntax
is independent of meaning, autonomous of semantics, there is nothing to stop the analyst assuming
that variations in syntax, like variations in lexis or pronunciation or clothes, may convey an intended
meaning from an addresser to an addressee. (Toolan 1990: 16) , . (Idem: 16-17)

68

- 37 -

,
, , .
,
.
, , .
, , ,
, , . , . . . .
:
If stylistics can be a useful orientation (not truly a method) from which to approach
texts, this may particularly be the case with regard to extended literary texts, like
novels, which create their own context of situation, which are revised and rewritten
according to various strategies (i.e. are objects of conscious composition), and where
formal differences are much more consistently felt of expected (by readers) to be functional than they would be in ordinary language. To say as much is not, however, to
restore the formalist illusion of a fundamental contrast between ordinary language
and literary language <>. (1990: 25)

, . ,
:
, . ,
, .

1.1.2.3. Status quaestionis:


1970- , weak-theory ,
, . . , : -

- 38 -

Literary linguistics,

. 69 (Bradford 1997: 13-14) , , ..


(, , , ..).
, , () , . : 80- ,
.
. (. Idem: 73-79) , , . .
: . , , . ,
, ,
, .
. (,
, ), ,
. (Bradford 1997; Toolan 1990: 301-314).

. , .. , , . , , . . 70 ,

. , : These involve (1)


the competence and disposition of the reader; (2) the prevailing sociocultural forces that dominate all
linguistic discourses, including literature; and (3) the systems of signification through which we process and interpret all phenomena, linguistic and non-linguistic, literary and non-literary. (Bradford
1997: 73)
70 . . , , : . . & . .
(eds.), . . . : 367381. : , 2001.
69

- 39 -

. . 71 . , . . , . . , . . . 72
, . . :
. . . (. . , . . , . . , . . , . . ) 73 ; . (. . , . . ,
. . ) 74 ; (. . ) 75 . ., , . . , . . , . . , . .
. 76
.
. . , . . .
. . 77
. . . , Language, Discourse and Literature (Carter
& Simpson 1989).
. . . . . 78 -

. . , . , : . . &
. . (eds.), op. cit.: 204-212.
72 . . , . : , 1986; . . , . , : . . & . . (eds.), op.
cit.: 259-267; . . , , : . . & . . (eds.), op. cit.: 51-56.
73 . . , . . , . . , . . & . . ,
, . 1-2, : , 2001, 2003.
74 . . , . . & . . , , 4- ., : - , 1996-2000.
75 . . , , Wien-Moskau: Wiener Slawistischer
Almanach, Sonderband 40, 1995.
76 . . , : . : , 1989; Eadem,
. -: , 1999; Eadem,
. : , 2000; . . ,
. : , 2003; ( 2003); ( 1998).
77 M. J. Toolan, Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction. London: Routledge, 1988; . . , XIX-XX ., :
, 1994 ; ( 1996); Eadem,
, : . VII-
: 279-295. : , 1999.
78 . . , , : . . &
. . (eds.), op. cit.: 9-24; . . ,
71

- 40 -

Literary linguistics,

.. -
, . . , . . . . 79 .
, . ,
. (. ) . . , . , . , . . . .
. 80 . , , .
, . , . , . 81 ,

, . . . .
. . 82
, , , ,
. . 83

, , . . .
. . . 84

. . , : . . (ed.), : 562-572. : , 2000.


79 . . . , . . & . . ,
. : , 1998. .
80 L. Ceci, The case for syntactic imagery, College English 45: 431-449, 1983; G. Dillon, Language processing and the reading of literature, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978; W. van Peer, Stylistics and
Psychology: Investigations of Foregrounding. London: Croom Helm, 1986; . . , vs. ., : . . & . . (eds.),
. . . : 416-430. : , 2001; . . ,
, : . . & . . (eds.), op. cit.: 466-474.
81 P. Werth, Text Worlds: Representing Conceptual Space in Discourse. London: Longman, 1999; R. Gibbs,
The poetics of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994; P. Stockwell, Cognitive Poetics: An
Introduction. London: Routledge, 2002.
82 E. Semino & J. V. Culpeper (eds.), Cognitive stylistics: Language and cognition in text analysis. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2002; J. Gavins & G. Steen (eds.), Cognitive Poetics in Practice. London: Routledge, 2003.
83 A. Pilkington, Poetic Effects. A Relevance Theory Perspective. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2000.
84 . . , , , , . XIX
XX , : . . & . . (eds.), op. cit.: 447-465; . . , - 41 -

(verbal art) ,
(. . . ). . . 85
. affective stylistics .
. . , ,
.
Literature as Social Discourse . . 86 Gender studies :
feminist stylistics, , , , . . , . , .
, . . , . . , . . . . . 87
, -
. . , . , . , . , . . . . 88
, : . . & . .
(eds.), op. cit.: 475-481.
85 N. Fabb, Linguistics and Literature. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.
86 R. Fowler, Literature as Social Discourse, London: Batsford, 1981.
87 D. Cameron, Feminism and linguistic theory. London: Macmillan, 1985; S. Gilbert, Patriarchal poetry
and women readers. Reflections on Miltons Bogey, PMLA 93: 368-382, 1978; S. Gilbert & S. Gubar, The
Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth Century Imagination, New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 1979; S. Mills, Feminist stylistics. London: Routledge, 1995; . . , , : . . & . .
(eds.), op. cit.: 466-474.; . . , , :
: : 448-449. . . 06.05.2005:
http://www.philol.msu.ru/~rlc2001/abstract/abst.htm; . . ,
Passion, , : . . & . . (eds.), op.
cit.: 431-446; . . , . , : . . (ed.), : 573-587. : , 2000. . (Bradford 1997: 86-90, 171-187).
88 R. Burton, Through glass darkly: through dark glasses, : R. Carter (ed.), Language and literature: 195214, London: Allen & Unwin, 1982; R. Fowler, Literature as Social Discourse, London: Batsford, 1981;
Idem, Linguistic criticism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; G. Kress & R. Hodge, Language as Ideology, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979; G. Kress, Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice,
Deakin: Deakin University Press, 1985; C. MacCabe, Language, linguistics and the study of literature,
Oxford Literary Review 4:3: 68-82, 1981; . . , 192030-
, : op. cit.: 441.
- 42 -

Literary linguistics,

, .
. , , . . , . . . . . 89
, ,
. . , .. - . . . . . 90

. . , . ( ) : op. cit.: 445; ( 2003);


( 1998).
90( 1998); . . , : op. cit.:
464.
89

- 43 -

1.2.
, , : , , , ? , ,
, , . ,
. , , ,
. . . . . ,
, .

1.2.1.
1.2.1.1 . .
, ( 1971: 105-211) , (, . , . ). , , , .
, ,
, () , . (Idem: 32, 83, 85; . 1959: 155)
:
<> ,

-
- , . ( 1971: 118)

:
,
( ).
.
(Idem: 113) 91

, ,
, . , , . ,
, : <> , ,

. ( 1959: 90) ,
. , ..
, ..,
, .. ,
, , , , ..
, , ; . ( 1971: 151-152; . 1959: 34) , , , , . ( 1971: 151-203)

1.2.1.2

. , ..
91

- 45 -

. Stilforschung
; , . , 1948- Linguistics and Literary History,
.
,
. (Uitti 1969: 134; 1959: 90; . Wellek 1960: 312)
, ,
, . (Uitti 1969: 134-135) 92 ( philological
stylistics) (Freeman 1970a: 21) ( psychological stylistics) (Wellek 1960).
, ,
(mind, spirit
) . , , ..
, . (Spitzer 1948: 14). ,
(inner coherent spirit, .. ( 1998: 20)) (spiritual etymon) (Spitzer 1948: 11) . 93 , ,
(click)
. (Idem:
27-28, 39) , ,
, -

. -. . . , , , . , . . . . ( 1991:
63)
93 . , the psychological root (Spitzer 1948: 11), the radix of the soul (Idem: 13) psychogram (Idem: 15).
92

- 46 -

(stylistic, linguistic deviation).


, , ,

. (Idem: 11, 15) ,
(philological circle). (Idem: 20) :
<> to work from the surface to the inward life-center of the work of art: first observing details about the superficial appearance of the particular work <>; then
grouping these details and seeking to integrate them into a creative principle which
may have been present in the soul of the artist; and, finally, making the return trip to
all the other groups of observations in order to find whether the inward form one
has tentatively constructed gives an account of the whole. (Idem: 19)

, ,
<> bridge the gap between
linguistics and literary history <> (Idem: 11)
.
, , . ,
. (Idem: 14)
Bubu de Montparnasse (1905) - .
, ,
cause de, parce que car. , ,
, . (Idem: 11-13) , : -
, . (Idem: 13)
,
:
The pseudo-objective motivation, manifest in his style, is the clue to Philippes Weltanschauung; he sees, as has also been observed by literary critics, without revolt but

- 47 -

with deep grief and a Christian spirit of contemplativity, the world functioning
wrongly with an appearance of rightness, of objective logic. The different wordusages, grouped together <> lead toward a psychological etymon, which is at the
bottom of the linguistic as well as of the literary inspiration of Philippe. (Idem: 1314)

,
:
(mens Philippina),
, (mens Franco-gallica). (Idem: 14) ,
,
.
,
, , . ,
. , <> which should replace the casual, impressionistic remarks of literary critics (Idem: 11). , ,
. () ,
, . (Uitti
1969: 138; . Stankiewicz 1964b: 96) ,
, , ,
, , , , <> when imitated by lesser
minds it has led to complacency and even to downright incompetence. (Ibidem)
, , , , . ,
. :
<> the first step, on which all may hinge, can never be planned: it must already
have taken place. This first step is the awareness of having been struck by a detail, followed by a conviction that this detail is connected basically with the work of art; it
means that one has made an observation, which is the starting point of a theory,

- 48 -

that one has been prompted to raise a question which must find an answer.
(Spitzer 1948: 26-27)

. . ()
, <>
, , , , . ( 1959: 91) ,
. . ,
:
, ( ) , .
, ,
, <> [] [] []
<> ( 1963: 168;
. 169). ,

.
, , ; , , .. .
, : .
. ,
, <>
without revolt but with deep grief and a Christian spirit of contemplativity <>
(Idem: 13) . (Uitti 1969: 138)
(Wellek 1960: 318)
.
,
, . -

- 49 -

, .

1.2.2.
. ,
, , ,
() ;
, - ( 1998: 13), ( 1983: 4) ( 1998: 3, 33)
? . ,
,

.
, , . , , ,
, . 94 . . ,
. , , .
,
. . . , , , .
, . . 95 . ( 1995b: 349; 1995d: 629) . .
- ,
, ,
. . ( 2003: 4-21); ( 1988: 12-18).
95 . . . , , (.. ) , . , . . , : () . , , . ,
, , (
, ). : , : . . ,
: 265304. : , 1974, . 280.
94

- 50 -

1960- . ( 1988: 16-17, 18)


, .
() , . . , . . , . , . . , . . , . , . . , . . , . , . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , .
. , . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . , . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . . . 96
? . ,

. ( 1988: 19-20; . 1995b: 350; 1995d:
629; 1976: 57; 1994: 9 .) 97 . , <> , . ( 1988: 29; . 1988: 71)

<>
. ( 1976: 57).
, <> [] [] <>
( 1995d: 350), .
, , ,
. , -

/ : ( 1995a); (
2003); . . , ,
6: 140-160, 2002; . . , /
, : For East is East. Liber Amicorum Wojciech Skalmowski: 267-275. Leuven, Paris,
Dudley: Peeters, 2004; ( 1994); . , : . : , 2005; .
97
. ( 1995a;
1995b). : , , .. , . ( 2000: 9, 228); ( 1999); . . , op. cit.
96

- 51 -

, : - . ( 1988: 29-30, 32) ,


, , .
, [] , ,
, . ( 1988: 32; .
2003: 4) ,
, : , , , , , , , . , .
( 1988: 32-33)
, , . . , , ,
, , .. , .
, ( ) , ( ). () , ,
,
( ). , ,
, , , , , , .
, , : , , . (. 1995b: 350-351) ,
<> , , ( 1988: 6) :
,
, . , , , , . ( 1988: 29)

- 52 -

( 1988: 6): ( 1988: 19)


. ,
, , . ( ) , <>
, ,
. (Eadem: 21)
() , , () , , ,
, , , .. (Ibidem; . 1999: 4) ,
( ).

, . ,
: , ,
<> , . ( 1988: 21)

(Eadem: 23)
, ( 2000: 11).
. , , ( ), ( ) .
,
, , . . . , , , , <>
. 98 ( 2003: 4, ; . Dirven & Radden 1999: 1-2) , , , . (

. . . : ,
. ( 1988: 6)
98

- 53 -

1995b: 350; 1995d: 629; 1976: 57; 2003: 4;


1999: 4, & 2000: 5; 2003: 31; 1988: 11;
2000: 11; 1988: 6; 1998: 3; 1994: 9)
.. : ,
. (
( 1999: 4)) , . <> ( 1995b: 350, . 1998: 3). 99
, , , ( 2003: 4). ( - ( 1999: 4)) , , ..,
.

, .. , , .
( 1995b: 350; 2003: 4; 2000: 11; 1988:
6).
, , .
,
, ,
. , -, .. , , , ,
, .. 100 , , , 101 .
, , -

, . . , , , :
, <> [], [] <> ( 1995b: 350-351): , , ,
. (. 1998: 3)
100 . . & . . , ( ). : , 1997; . , . . & . . , , : , 2005;
( 2003); .
101 ( 1995a); ( 1995b); ( 2000); .
99

- 54 -

, , 102 .
-,
.
, , , .
,
, . , ,
, , ,
, . , ,
, ,
. 103 ( 1995b: 350-351;
1995d: 629; 2000: 22-23; . 1988: 21).
, , , , . 104 . . , ,
, :

( 1999); ( & 2000); .


( ) , ,
, , , , ,
. ,
,
, .
, .
(, , , ..) ,
,
. , . . . . ,
, : , .
<> ,
<>. : . . & . . , (
). : , . 525. . : . . ,
, : . . , : 265304.
: , 1974, . 280.
104 , . , , :
. , , , ,
, . , , ,
, , . , : .
102
103

- 55 -

, , , . ( 1995b: 351; 1995d: 630) . . :


(.. ) , , , . , , . ( 2003: 32)

1.2.3.
1.2.3.1. () mind style
, ()
. , , . . , () - , ()
.
( 1999)
( & 2000), (Idem) ( 1999). , , ,
,
. (Eadem: 26, 43-50) ,
, , , , , , . (Eadem:
4-5)
, , , , , () . () ( 2003: 34). ,

- 56 -

(Eadem: 35) , , .
,
, , , , , , , , . 105 ,
, , . , () , , . : , ,
- . 106 . . :
, (
) , , :
, .
,
, ,
. (Ibidem)

. . ,
(.. -). (
2003: 35, ) ,
(), .
106 . . . .:
, ( , ), , . ( 1998: 30) . (Eadem: 2932).
105

- 57 -

, . ,
<>
, , ,
, , . , , ,
, ,
. ( 2000: 230-231)

, .
, , . (2000), . . (2003) . . (1998
. 107 ), , , . . , . .
. . .
() . , ,
avant la lettre , . . , , ,
. . . () .
, , mind style, . , , . ,
.

. . . , , : : : 305-362. : , 1995.

107

- 58 -

The Inheritors . . . . .
Linguistic function and literary style: an inquiry into the language of William Goldings The Inheritors, ,
, .
,
, , ,
, , , , , . 108 (Halliday 1971)
109 , , () .
mind style . (Fowler 1977), (Fowler 1986) . . . . (Leech & Short
1981). mind style
, . (1993, 1994), . (2002) . (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996). mind
style <> to refer to the way in which linguistics patterns in (part
of) a text can project a particular world-view, a characteristic way of perceiving and
making sense of the textual world <>. (Semino 2002: 95) mind style <> how language reflects the particular conceptual structures and cognitive habits that characterise an individuals world view <>. (Ibidem) :
Mind style is concerned with the construction and expression in language of the
conceptualisation of reality in a particular mind. (Bockting 1994: 159)
. .
. , mind style
:
The first is that what we call reality is the result of perceptual and cognitive processes that may vary in part from person to person; thus individuals may differ in
their conceptualizations of the same experience: for example, in how they identify
people and entities, in how they attribute agency, responsibility, and goals, in how
108 : E. Black, Metaphor, Simile and Cognition in Goldings
The Inheritors, Language and literature 2: 37-48, 1993.
109 . . . , ., , (Fish 1981) (Toolan
1990).

- 59 -

they establish temporal and causal relationships, and so on. The second assumption is
that language is a central part of the process by which we make sense of the world
around us; thus the texts we produce reflect our particular way of conceptualizing reality. (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996: 143)

. . . : mind style, , , , . , . (Bockting 1993: 41-92;


Bockting 1994: 162-172; Fowler 1977: 76; Fowler 1986: 150; Semino 2002: 99) ,
, . , The sound and the fury .
(Bockting 1993; Bockting 1994; Fowler 1986: 133-134, 152-135; Leech & Short 1981:
187-189), Captain Corellis Mandolin . (Semino 2002: 100-106),
The Collector . (Semino 2002: 106-119),
One flew over the cuckoos nest . (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996) ..
, <> the notion of mind style is not restricted to
highly opaque texts or to narratives reflecting pathological disorders. (Semino &
Swindlehurst 1996: 143) . , , mind style . (Fowler 1977: 106-109) . . . .
(Leech & Short 1981: 187-191) 110 . . , mind style, , /, /. (Leech & Short 1981: 187-189) . . , <> although in theory mind style applies to all texts, in practice
its relevance is limited to cases where a texts view of reality is perceived by the
reader to suggest a particularly striking, idiosyncratic, or deviant understanding of
the world. (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996: 144; . Semino 2002: 99)
, -

110 . . . . mind style , ,


<> natural and uncontrived <> those which clearly impose an unorthodox conception of the fictional world. (Leech & Short 1981: 187)

- 60 -

, .
() ,
mind style , , . . , mind style, , world view point of view on the ideological plane , , . :
Discussing this phenomenon in literary fictions, I have called it mind style: the worldview of an author, or a narrator, or a character, constituted by the ideational structure
of the text. From now on I shall prefer this term to cumbersome point of view on the
ideological plane <>: the notions are equivalent. (Fowler 1986: 150)

. , , , , .. . , , mind style
( ) , .. . , . (Semino 2002: 96)
, , , : mind style point of view on the ideological plane . ideological point of view, , , mind style. 111 (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996: 144; .
Semino 2002: 97-98)
,
. , , [i]deological point of
view refers specifically to the attitudes, beliefs, values, and judgments shared by
people with similar social, cultural, and political backgrounds (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996: 144), [m]ind style <> refers to the way in which a particular reality is
perceived and conceptualized in cognitive terms. (Ibidem) ,
mind style <> relates to the mental abilities and tendencies of an individual;
111 . .
. : Language, Ideology and Point of view, London: Routledge, 1993.
(Leech & Short 1988); (Bockting 1993); (Bockting 1994).

- 61 -

such traits may be completely personal and idiosyncratic or they may be shared, for
example by people with similar cognitive habits or disorders. (Ibidem) 112
. , ,
, , world view. , world
view , , .
(Semino 2002: 97) Mind style ideological point of view <> capture different aspects of the world views projected by texts. (Ibidem) : mind style
<> is most apt to capture those aspects of world views that are social, cultural, religious or political in origin, and which an individual is likely to share with others belonging to similar social, cultural, religious or political groups. These include, for example, beliefs concerning the place of humans in the Universe or the nature of justice,
as well as moral judgements, attitudes towards different social or ethnic groups, and
so on. (Ibidem)

ideological point of view


<> is most apt to capture those aspects of world views that are primarily personal
and cognitive in origin, and which are either peculiar to a particular individual, or
common to people who have the same cognitive characteristics (for example as a result of a similar mental illness or of a shared stage of cognitive development, as in the
case of young children). These aspects include an individuals characteristic cognitive
habets, abilities and limitations, and any beliefs and values that may arise from
them. (Ibidem)

, , / / world view , ,

..

/ / ,
, ,
world view mind style - () -

, mind style point of view. . (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996: 144)


112

- 62 -

. , .
. , ,
ideological point of view mind
style. 113 : ,
mind style , .
, .
, , . ,
. ,
, , , ..
. ,
. mind style
. . . 114
mind style () , ,
.
,
mind style , cognitive
metaphor theory (. . ) 115 , schema theory 116 , blending
theory 117 . . . , , mind style. .: This individual
structuring of reality is unique in all its details, even though it is built up of elements that are also
found in the realities of others. (Bockting 1994: 159)
114 . B. Dhooge, (
. . ), Slavica Gandensia 29: 31-54, 2002.
115 . E. Black, op cit.; (Semino & Swindlehurst 1996).
116 . E. Semino, Schema theory and the analysis of text worlds in poetry, Language and Literature 4/2:
79-108, 1995; (Semino 2002: 100-104); E. Semino, Language and World Creation in Poems and other Texts,
London, New York: Longman, 1997.
117 . (Semino 2002: 112-119).
113

- 63 -

mind style
- , .

1.2.3.2.
, ,
. , , ,

. , , .
(. 2003: 4) .. , , ..
. (. 2000; Fowler
1977; Fowler 1986; Leech & Short 1981) ,
.
, . , .. ,
, ,
. .

, ?
( 1994) ( 1994). . . () .
.. , , () . , , <>
( 1994:
73), , . ,
, , , ,

- 64 -

. , .. , ,
. (Ibidem) , , ,
. 118 ,
20- , .
, .. .
Linguistics and Literary History. Essays in Stylistics
Bubu de Montparnasse - .. cause de, parce que
car.
,
. . . ,
<> ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ... ( 1988: 240)

,
, . . : Cumulatively,
consistent structural options, agreeing in cutting the presented world to one pattern
or another, give rise to an impression of a world-view, what I shall call a mind
style. (Fowler 1977: 76)
, , : ? . , , ,
. . , ( 1998: 13)
( 2003: 30) .
. : .
. . , , , -,
,
. . (1994: 73).

118

- 65 -

. . , <>
<>, <> , [] . (Eadem:
34) ,
.
, , ,
..,
.
,
. -, :
. -,
. , ,

. ,
, ,
, . ,
, . -,

, , , , , , ..
,

. ,
, . (
) , , ,
.
: , ? ? ? , ,
. . . ,

- 66 -


. (
, ..) 119 , .
, : , ()
. ( 1998: 36; . 2003: 16) 120
, ,
. . . , , , ,
, ,
[] ( )
;

. ( 2003: 16) , -
:
, ,
,
? ,

. , , , ! (Eadem: 14)

, ,
, <>
<> (Ibidem) , , <>
<>, . (Ibidem)
., , . . , : . : . . (.), 1984
( ): 125-136. : , 1988. . . , <> , <>, .
125.
120 . . , , ,
. , . . .
& . . , , , 7: 143-167, 1975, . 161.
119

- 67 -

(. . .), , ,
. , , , , . , ,
, . ,
, .
-, ,
. -, , <>
, , ,
<>. ( 1998: 36) , , . . , <> , ( ),
( ). (2003: 17) ,
, , , <>
, <>. (Ibidem)

- 68 -

II:



( 1982: 272)

1.

, , , .
. . . . 121
<> <>
( 1997: 25)
<>
, , , .
( 1995: 189)

1.1.
,
, ,
. , ,
,
, , . . . . : <>
(..
) (1983: iii). : <> ,

121 . : ( ): 313-315.
: - , , 1963, . 313 (. . . . ).

<> . ( 1995: 165) 122


, ,
. ,
. , .
(, ). , ,
,
, , ,
, .
,
: . , . . . , , <> [an] imitation of skaz and peasant
speech, of ornamental prose and revolutionary and bureaucratic language, by violations of syntax and grammar, by neologisms, tautology, contamination and a number
of other devices, including the use of metaphoric expressions (Weststeijn 1994: 331).
,
, , , . , , - , ,
- (. ). , ,
.
, , ,
,
. ,
, , ,
.

. . . , , ( 2003: 305).
122

- 72 -

-,
. . (1983: iii, 13-29),
, 1980- , ( -) .
, . ,
, ,
,
, , 123 (1983: 18, 19). . . , ,
( ) ,
, , , .. , , . ( 1967: 38) , , , , , (
, , ). . . ,
. (1983: 17) , ,
1966- . . .
. . . . . . . ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
()
, , ,
, (. ). . , . .
123 . . ( 1983- ) . ( 1983: 20)

- 73 -

. . . . , ..
, . -, . . ( 1985), . ( 1978; Yakushev 1979), . .
- , , ,
( ) ( 1985; 1978; Yakushev 1979; 1997; .), (
1995). , ,
. ,
- ( ). , . , , .
. , , ,
(
) . : , (!) ; ,
. , ,
, : , . . . : Yet
in the steadily increasing body of critical writing devoted to Platonov one finds surprisingly little attention to the nature and function of Platonovs style, despite consistent appeals to its uniqueness. (Seifrid 1984: 4)
, .
() . , , ,
. , . .

- 74 -

, <>

<>. ( 1983: 91; . & 1990: 125) 124 .
, , (. ) (1995: 166-167) , . (Van Gorp,
Ghesquiere & Delabastita 1998: 28)
,
:
, . ,
,
, . , - . . . , , , .
-, ,
,
.. , ,
, - . , , , ,
, . ,
().
.
(1970; 1977; 1997) , . . ( , 1983), , ,
,
124 . . , : . ( 1999: 154)

- 75 -

. :
, ,
(, , . (Hodel 2001)), , , . , . .
, ,
. , 1970 ( , ,
), ( ) Slavica Lublinensia et Olomucensia (1977),
(1997). ,
(University of Michigan),
. , ,
UMI. ,
, , ,
.
. . , <>
, , , , ,
( 2004: 281), ..
status quaestionis , , ( . . ) <> , <>,
, ,
(Eadem: 282) . 125
, : . . , . -, . . . . ,
. . . ,
, , . . 1968- ,
, 1970- (, ,
, ). , ,
, . -, :
, Slavica Hierosolymitana.
, 1997- , , 1980- . 125

- 76 -

-, , , , ,
() -, .. . ,
, , , , , . ( 1991;
& 1990: 137; 1977: 169; 1983: 99),
( 1995: 185-186), (Ibidem).
, , , , ,
. , , , . . .
, , , . . , . , . . . ( , ) ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , ( 1980), (- 1981), ( 1989), ( 1990) ( 1991). () , , , <> , . ( 1997: 29) , 1997- . , . . ,
. . , . . & . . , . . . .
- 77 -

, , -, , . , . . , . . , . .
. -, ,
( , , )
. ,
, , : , , , , ,
, ;
( ) ( : , )
; ,
, , , ;
( 2004: 288-289). , ,
, , .. , ? , ,
. , , , . , , , , ,

.
, , (. .
(1983), . (1970; 1977: 162; 1997: 10), . . . .
(1990), . . (1989: 136), . (1995), . .
(1993), . . (1983: 70) .)
, , , . . . , ,
. ,
,

- 78 -

( )
( ). ( 1989: 136) 126 . . :
<> , ,
, . (1983: 70) , , , ,
. (. 1993: 92)
, ( ) , . , , . , ,
,
.
, -, . ,
, (. ) (Teskey 1985; 2000: 4-11;
Hodel 2001: 10). 127 . , . . . (1966: 202)
. . (1967: 38). , , , , . .
(1982), . . . . ,
. . . : <> , , ,
. (1993: 92)
127 . . , : . ( 1990), , <> . ( 2000: 9) . ( 2000: 4-11).
126

- 79 -

. , ,
, , .
, , . . ,
,
,
.. ,
. ( 1983: 110, 117) ,
, () :
1930- ,
..
. (Idem: 111) 128
,
, ,
, . -, .
, , . : . .
. .
(1990: 125); . (1995: 165) - (Eadem: 189); .

(1997:

32),

(Ibidem),
(Eadem: 9) (Eadem: 88); .
. - (1993: 124); . .
(1988: 39); . . ,
, <>
(1989: 136) ..
. . , -
, [t]he extraordinary semantic load
which the particular language of his (.. ) work carries ,
128

( 1983: 112-117).
- 80 -

<> abounds in non-canonical, non-standard literary


forms, syntactic and semantic anomalies. ( 1978: 777) . . . ,
:
. , ,
- , , ,
. . ( 1998: 133 129 )
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
. . .
: , <> ,
. ( 1985: 250)
. ( 1963: 228),
<> [] [] [],
-. (Idem: 227) . . : . ,
, .
(1983: 70) . . ,
,
, ,
. ( ):
, , - . . , , <>. (-

. . (1990),
, ..
, ( )
, .. . . (1998: 133134; 1998: 12-13; 1999: 137)
, : . , . , ,
.
, .
. ( 1998: 140)
129

- 81 -

1978: 81-82) : ( ) , , . (
1978: 114)
( 2000: 226; 1999: 137)
( 1990: 175; 1993: 146; 1994:
303); ( 1993: 146; 1994: 303); ( 1993: 159; 2000); weird deformations of the Russian language (Seifrid 1992: 1); ( 2004: 70; 1998: 3;
1999: 137); ( 1989: 25); , ,
(Ibidem); , (Ibidem); , , (Idem: 28); ( 1994: 40); 130
( 1987: 415; 1994: 20; 2004: 59; Hodel 2001: 2;
1998: 3 131 ); ( 2000: 385, 388); ( 1983: iii; Hodel 2001: 148 132 ); ( 2004: 70);
( 1994: 20; . 1993: 146); Un-stil (Markstein 1978: 115) .. 133 , ,
.
. . . .
: , . (2000: 16) ,
-

130 . . . . ,
. . :
( 1983: 41 ). . . .
. O. M. Cooke, Kosnojazyie in the final decade of Andrej Belyj's artistic life, Russian literature,
58:1: 47-59, 2005.
131 . . , <> [] .
(1998: 3)
132 . ein unorthodoxe Sprachverhalten. (Hodel 2001: 148)
133 . . ,
[] , . ( 1993: 92)
, (Markstein 1978: 115).

- 82 -

, , (
, ). , , , ,
; . a priori - (.. , ), , , . ()
, , ,
, ( ) 134 , ( ) . , , , , , , . , , .
(),
, ,
, .
, , , . ,
status quaestionis ,
conditio sine qua non .
,
, ,
, , .
, , . ,
134

. . . ( 1997: 88).
- 83 -

, . , status
quaestionis .
: , . ? , ? () . , / , .

- 84 -

1.2. , ?
<> il est clair que sa spcificit (du discours platonovien BD) ne peut pas tre vue comme le vice
de parole (kosnojazyie) ou comme le populisme
de sa langue (prostoreie).
(Heller 1984: 355)

, ,
, . , . , <>
, - <> <> . ( 1997: 8) : ,
, <>
,
. (Eadem: 7)
,
, ,
,
. 135 , .
, <> ,
,
. (Hodel 1998: 149-150; . Hodel 2001: 345-357)
, , <> , , . ( 1997: 95-96)
, [] ,
. (Eadem: 9)
,
, , , , . , . , . . , . . . , , -

135

. ( 1997: 9); ( 2000: 71-72).


. ?! . (Ibidem) , , , , . ? , ? ? , ? .

1.2.1. ,
, , , 136 , . 137 (. 2000: 226) ,

, 1- 1932-
. , , , , . (. 1994)
: , , , . 138 , . . , , :

. , . . , . . (Seifrid 1992: 219).


137 . . : How <> did this in many ways untutored, provincial writer
of working-class origins, and adherent of a rather eccentric set of utopian beliefs, come to produce
some of the most sophisticated literary prose his country has known in a style, moreover, which is
interpretable in either a modernist or a populist vein, and which perhaps shares features of both?
(Seifrid 1992: 81)
138 . ( 1994: 6-136).
136

- 86 -

, ?

, , , .
, , .
, .
,
. ( 1994: 34)

. . :
. , , . , , . , . :
, , ? ( 1994: 116)

,
, , , , .
( 1988), , . 139 , 140 , . . ( 1999), ..
: . 141 , 142 : , .

( 2000), . , , , . ,
, , , , , ()
, , , , .. , . ( . ), 9: 174-182,
1988; . . . , : ,
9: 3-21, 1989..
140 ., , ( 1994).
141 . , , .1, .2. : , 2004.
142 ., , ( 1994).
139

- 87 -

, . , , , [] . (
1997: 30) , , ,
, . . , ..
, ..,
. ,
.
,
, ,
. . . . , 143 .. , ( 1985: 293-294)
<> <>. (Idem: 293) . . , ,
( . ). (Yakushev 1979: 176) 144 . . (1995: 189)
, , .
. .
. , <> . ( 2003: 301)
,
: []
[] . , ( ) , ,
- ()
, (. ).

, . . , . .
. . : Typically these works blend intentionally simple, childish phrasing with village lexicon and rhythmic
patters reminiscent of Russian folk songs, often interweaving a kind of philosophical diction deriving
from Platonovs immersion in the writings of Bogdanov and Fedorov. (Seifrid 1992: 82)

143
144

- 88 -

, ?

. :
, , , . ( ) , . , , , , . , ,
. 145 . .
(, ) , ( ), <> ,
. (1989:
70) : , , , : , , , , - .

1.2.2.
, - .
, ,
. (),
,
, , , , , .
, , ,
: , (, 10). 8-
(1931-1932 .) , ( ):
[ .
[] . [] ,
. , , .] (
2000: 155)
: , - - - , . , , . ( ), , , , , . , , . .
, ( . 2000:
360). , , , .
145

- 89 -

.. , , . : ( ), .
, () , . , .
. , ,
, .
(-) (-) , . (Hodel 2001:
198) 146
, , . , . . , <>
20-
, <>. ( 1989: 27) , - <>
, . (Ibidem) ,
, .. ,
, , -
.
<>
<>, .. ,
<> ,
. (Ibidem)
() , . . 1926- ,

. . . . ( 2003:
57-58).
146

- 90 -

, ?

<> ,
, .
- , . ( 2003: 58-59) 147


. . . , ,
:
<>
, ( ) .

. ( 1985: 270) 148

, - ,
.
, , :
. , ,
, , , ..
, , . , ,
,
.. 149
, .
,
. ,

. . . . . : ( 1923); . , , , 1: 43-48, 1991.
148 . (Yakushev 1979: 175-176).
149 . .
, <> <>. (
1985: 251)
147

- 91 -

: (
) /
. ., , 6 (1931- ):
[<>] <>
: .. , , , ,
. ( 2000: 79, )

/
, . . . .
( , ):

, -. , ,
.
, 20- .
, , , .
. <>. ( 1990: 170)

. .
/ . 150 : . . , , , .
<> ,
, . ( 1989: 27) .
: - , , . , , , <>. ( 1991: 64; . 1991: 67; 2004)
, , ..: <>
, .150 ( 2004; . 1999: 68) ., ,
:
, , , , . (, 385)
150

- 92 -

, ?

,
.
, , <> . ( 1989: 28) .

, ! ?
, , ,
, .
... (, 441)

:
, , , ;
, ,
. (, 340)

, ,
- .

, . . (Seifrid 1984: 221-223, 269-272; Seifrid 1992: 94-95, 162175; 1994: 312-315) . . (2003: 323-341). .:
, ,
<> (, 70), - ( ).
, (, 151 ), ( ) . 152
. ( 1992: 92-93).
. , (, . . ) .
: , , ,
, , . : (),

151
152

- 93 -

, , (, 306),
(, 372) ( + ; ) .. 153 . :
: ?
, .
! . , ,
! , , ,
. (, 377, )


, .
, () , , . 154 , ,
()
. (.
1997: 96 155 ; 2000: 226 156 ) : ,
.
-, , . . , , .
, .. . ( 2000: 209; . 2000: 261) 157 (), (), - ( ), , , ( )
.. . (Hodel 2001: 202-203). . . , . . . 55, :
. . . , 1947.
153 . :
, <> ,
(, 522).
154 . . . : , , , , , . ,
, . (1989: 32-33)
155 . ,
, . ( 1997: 96)
156 . , , <> . ( 2000: 226)
157 . . ,
, . . (
2000: 261-264).
- 94 -

, ?

, , , , .
, . . , : , ,
, <> , , ,
, ,
, , <>. (
2004: 281)
-, ,
,
. , () , .
, , , ., ,
- () . (. 1990:
169; 1991: 64) ,
, . ,

, ( ) . () , , . () ( ) , .

1.2.3.

. (Hodel 2001: 192-198) .
,
, , . , -

- 95 -

, , , , (-) ..
(Hodel 2001: 325) , ,

. ,
. , , , (), (),
() (, ), ( , ) (Idem:
196), .
() .
,
.
, .
( 1995: 189) 158 ,
,
, ( ), . ( 1978: 747, 777-778; Yakushev 1979: 179;
1967: 38; 1966: 202 159 ; Seifrid 1984, 1992 (. ))
, ,
( 1978: 777-778; Yakushev 1979: 179; 1967: 38)
(Yakushev 1979: 176; Seifrid 1984, 1992)
(Yakushev 1979: 179).
(, . . ),
. . , ,
( 1978: 748), , , , , . ,
, .. ! , -, . ,
, , .
158 . .
(1995: 189)
159 . . ( . ), ,
, , . (1966: 202)

- 96 -

, ?

, , . . . , . , ,
, 1983- ( ), <>
. ( 1983: 29-30)
.
() , , , , . ,
, ,
. ,
(. );
, .
, . ,
.
, .

1.2.4.
,
, ,
. ,
. ( 2003; 1998: 134; 1998: 3 160 ) ,
( ) , ,
. , -

. ( 1998: 3)
160

- 97 -

, . . . :
( ) , ():
( ) .
; , (
) .
,
. (1988: 39)

, , . (Ibidem; 1997: 38)


, , ,
, , ,
.
. ,
1930- ( 1972: 17),
avant la lettre 161 ,
, <> <>
<> ( ) . ( 1994: 374) , <> , , -, , .
( 2000: 40). . . . : , ,
, -

161 1930- . <>


. ( 1994: 412) 1937- , . . ( 1994)

- 98 -

, ?

, , . ( 2000: 6 162 ) , , , . (. 1994: 374, 380, 385-386, 389,


401). . (
1997: 30) :
, , , . , , .
( ) . (Ibidem)

. -
( 1997: 127), , . . , . . , , . , . . , <>
( ) <> , <>. (Ibidem) , <>
,
<>. (Ibidem)

162 . . <>
(.. )
<>. (2000: 6)

- 99 -

1.2.5.
.
,
, , .
.
( 1990: 168-169)
<> [ ]

,
, .
( 2000: 227)

, , , : . , , . ( ) . (1963),
. . (1985), . (2001: 15 ff.), . (1993), .
(1995), . (1984, 1988, 1992, 1993), . . (1983: 89), . (1997: 88), . . (1990: 168-169, 175) . . (2000: 713) , , , , ,
( ), , , , , 1920- 1930- .
. . , . , . . , . . ,
( , . . , . . ,
. , . .), , ,
: 163 , , , , . , , 1920- ,
<> ( 1963: 229) -

. . <> . (
1983: 89)
163

- 100 -

, ?

() 164 . (Ibidem; . 1967: 37;


1985: 284 165 , 288; 1983: 89; Seifrid 1984: 58-148; Seifrid 1988; Seifrid 1992: 47,
82-85 166 ; 1993: 146; 2000: 227; Hodel 2001: 14 . 167 )
.
() (, , , ). ,
, ,
, , , . ( 1993: 158)
. (Hodel 2001: 16) . . ,

/ <> -,

<>. ( 1993: 149) , , []
<>

. <> , , . ( 1963: 229)


<> . (Idem: 230)
165 20- , , , , . ( 1985: 288).
166 . , . . (Seifrid 1992: 82) . : Typically these works blend intentionally simple, childish phrasing with village lexicon and rhythmic patters reminiscent of Russian folk songs, often interweaving a kind of philosophical diction deriving from Platonovs immersion in the writings of Bogdanov and Fedorov. (Seifrid 1992: 82)
167 2000- . , ,
, ,
, .. , , , .., . : <> (.. ) . <> (), (, ,
, ). ,
. ( ) , , , , , . ( 2000: 73-74)
, ,
. , ,
. .
164

- 101 -

( ) , <>. (Ibidem)
, ( 1963: 229 168 ; Seifrid 1992: 83-84; 1993: 153). , , , - .
.
, .
. .
1923 , ,
.
,
. :
( ) , 23
, 8-10 . , , 1315-
, . . , : .
; .
, , . ,
. . , ,
, . , , , . (
1923: 69-70)


: ,
, . (Idem: 70) ,

. : , . ( 1963: 229)
168

- 102 -

, ?

, , .
, , . , .
,
, : , , ,
, . , , . ,
,
.
,
, . . 169 . 1976 :
<>
,
- , . : , . ( 1976:
84)

. . ,
(., , (- 2004: 118; 2004: 287)). , , .
, , ,
<> (, , ) , ( 1998: 7; . 1984: 122).
, <> ,
( !), ( !) (
) . ( 1998: 8) ,
,
. , , .., . ,
,
. . ( 1984: 122) (
1998: 7-8)
169

- 103 -

, , 1993 .:
<> <>
. 20-
, ( ) , ,
, , . ( 1993: 133) 170

. . :
For all the awkwardness, derivativeness, and conventionality that these stories (..
, 1926- ) reveal in comparison with Platonovs later masterpieces, their verbal manner nonetheless anticipates some of the
fundamental stylistic principles of the mature prose. Though it clearly arises out of a
desire to participate, via imitation, in the 1920s vogue for ornamental prose, Platonovs willingness to experiment with a variety of literary styles signals an important preoccupation with the verbal surface of the text and the urge to assign it a poetic
weight rivalling that of themes, imagery and plot. Over time, that urge was to place
linguistic phenomena at the center of his works structure of meaning. (Seifrid 1992:
83-84)

, ,
, , . ,
. .:
Be it through skaz imitation of peasant speech, the incorporation of bureaucratic
documents, or the affectation of Petrine Russian, Platonovs works demonstrate from
the outset a tendency to identify a specific set of verbal traits with an underlying and
motivating world view, and it was the eventual use of this principle to designate certain forms of discourse as a language of utopia that prepared the ground for the
complex ironization of Soviet rhetoric in Chevengur and Kotlovan. (Seifrid 1992: 84)
170

. ( 1978: 216, 228); ( 1998: 9).


- 104 -

, ?

. . ,
,

, . (Hodel 2001: 89
.)
, , 1926-1927. (Seifrid 1992:
81, 84, 86: Hodel 2001: 90)
( , ,
(1927) ( , ), . . ,
linguistically more complex .
, , ,
. (Seifrid 1992: 87; Hodel 2001: 90)
, , .
, . (Seifrid 1992: 87) .
: ,
, , , , , . (Hodel 2001: 89 171 ) 172 ,
:
, , .. (Seifrid 1992: 87; .
1993: 146) , 1927- ,
. , : What is retained from a skaz imitation of substandard speech is its
principle of linguistic deformation alone (be it syntactic, semantic, or lexical), and
what Platonov accomplishes in the course of legitimizing such speech as authorial is
the redeployment of this deformation, not as an emblem of social origin, but as
. Literatursprachliche Norm und auktoriale Rede sind identisch. Und hierin besteht ein wesentlicher Unterschied zur kommenden Poetik Platonovs. Auch in evengur kann keine Aussage unmittelbar auf den Autor bezogen werden. Anders aber als in diesem Romanwerk erscheinen die Textinterferenzen in Tjuten, Vitjuten i Protegalen als bewusstes und souvernes Verfahren und nicht als Folge einer inneren und ungeklrten Verwandtschaft von Autor, Erzhler und Held. (Hodel 2001: 89)
172 , . , , , Verdoppelung der Sprachnorm: , (),
. . (Hodel 2001: 90).
171

- 105 -

trope. (Seifrid 1992: 87) , .


,
, , . , ,
( ),
: ,
, . ,
: ,
, .
, (..
) 1920- 1930- ,
. . ,
1920- 1930- <> , .
( 1993: 159)
, , . , . . . . (1990: 125), . (1995: 165), . .
(1990: 168),. . . , , -,

, <> . ( 1993: 158) 173 .
: <>
(.., <>
, ,
) <>. ( 1993: 146) (Idem: 154), , , , <>
, (.. )
. (Idem: 146) ,
: - 173 . . -, , <> . (- 2004: 118)

- 106 -

, ?

, ,
, ,
, []
. (Idem: 147)
1930- :
, , , . , 1930- ,
, ( !) . (. 2003: 100) 174
, ,
. ( 1983: 89; Seifrid 1992: 12, 176-178, 200-201). .
, <> virtually everything Platonov completed from 1934-1951 was either published in or clearly intended for standard Soviet publication, for which the
principles of socialist realism <> were obligatory. (Seifrid 1992: 176) , , .
, , . ,
external pressure the literary politics of the time
(Ibidem), , ( ) . , , , 175 . (Ibidem) ,
, , , :
<> the essence of Platonovs writing in the thirties and forties lies in an art of adaptation to socialist realism, which is neither an inward transcendence of his former
artistic self nor alienated capitulation (nor <> Aesopian camouflaging). Instead the
later works are produced out of a process of mediation between, on the one hand,
Platonovs world view and the poetics of its earlier expression, and on the other the

. . ,
, . (2003: 100-101) . .
175 . . , . , : ( 1994a: 414-416).
174

- 107 -

socialist-realist aesthetic to which he now had to conform. The Platonov of this view
determinedly maneuvers to preserve elements of the old (hence the continued uneasiness of his relation to officialdom and its canon) but at the same time works to
transform himself into a not-entirely-cynical practitioner of the new. (Idem: 177) 176

. ,
, , , , :
<> it is works like Chevengur and Kotlovan which establish Platonovs reputation
as a major Soviet writer and to that extent culminate his genuine evolution. In considering the later works, however, it is important not just to identify the elements
surviving from the wreckage of a former poetic, but to assess the meaningful ways in
which that poetic itself evolved. It is the subtle infusion into a socialist-realist framework of his abiding themes, and the resulting dialogue with the Stalinist world view,
which makes Platonovs post-1934 works such a peculiarly valuable contribution to
Soviet culture. (Idem: 177-178)

. ( ) . ,
, 1930-
. , . , (. ), , . ,
.. ( )
.
, : Yet semantically productive violations of
standard literary Russian persist into Platonovs later prose <> (Idem: 199) 177 .
, ,
, . . : <> testimony to
this idiosyncratic posture can be found in the irate response his works continued to provoke in the orthodox critical establishment to the very end. (Seifrid 1992: 177)
177 . , , <> support a familiar (.. ) orientation toward existential themes.
176

- 108 -

, ?

, () :
, ,
- . , (. ),
(, , ). ( Seifrid 1992: 200)
: This creation of unexpected meanings through
subtle manipulations of syntax rather than through egregious deformation is in fact
typical of the later works. (Seifrid 1992: 200)
. , , .
<> , <> ( 1993: 158),
(Idem: 160). <> , , . (Idem: 159) , , <> , : , . (Idem: 159160) ,
: . (Ibidem)
. - , .
,
, ..
<> . . . (- 1978: 109)

. . . . . (1937):
? ,
,
, . ( 2004: 71) (Seifrid 1992: 199) , , . (Ibidem 1992: 199)
.
- 109 -

, :

, . , , ,
. ( 2004: 72)
, , ,
1931- 1932- . (19311932 )
:
, , . .
!
!!!
( 2000: 100)

:
:

.
( )
(Idem: 97)

: ,
. (Ibidem) 178 ,
,
. .
, , .
, , ,
,

, . , ,
(. ),
. ,
178 (1931 ):
, , ( 2000: 81) ,
(Idem: 83).

- 110 -

, ?

, : , , .
, . ,
, , : (, ,
), , , , ,
( ),
.). , :
( )
. :
, ( , , ). , , , . , , 5- 10- ,
.

1.2.6.
<>
,
.
, , , .
( 1983: 34, )

, () : ,
() /
, .
, ,

- 111 -

,
. (. 2000: 226) , , .. , ,
(.. , )
.
.
(Hodel 2001: 15), . . . . . . . ,
,
: . (1992: 41) ,
, 1919- ,
.
, ,
: <> , ,
<>. ( 1995: 141) , , , . (Ibidem)

.
(Idem: 142-143) ,
, 179
, : , : , :
, . , <>
<> ? , . - . , ,
<- >.
? <> .
, . , ,
, , , , , ,
, , < > ,
[ ]
. <> 1919 <> ,
, <> <> <>
<> . (: 1995a: 144)
179

- 112 -

, ?

, . (Idem: 143-144) , <> <>


, . (Ibidem) 180
, , , , . (Idem: 145)
. . ,
(1929), ( ) (
). 181

( + . ) ( -
.
). ( 2005: 392-399) ,
()
, .. ,
. :
, . (.
Idem: 395-396)

2000- , .
, , .
, ,
, .
. . : <> , , , . <> . , - <>. ,
. , , <>. , -
. ( 1995a: 145) : <>
, . (Ibidem)
181
. . ( 2005)
180

- 113 -

. . , ,
<>, , , , , <> . (
2000: 165) , , .
(
, ),
. . ,
. . (2000), , , .
(. 2000: 188) ( , .
).
,
(. Idem: 194), .
(. Idem: 248). ()
: (. Idem: 256).
(. Idem: 287)
( , ).
(
) (. Idem: 295).
3 ( (
, . 780, . . 8)), ( . .
. (2000; 2000)), (
(2) . . (1))
. . (2000), ,

() , -

- 114 -

, ?

. , . 1 2
, , 3
(. 2000: 121), . 1 ,
2 , 3 (. Idem: 122), ( ). / : , (.
Idem: 123)
( 1999), , 182 ( ( 1-3, 6!) , , , . .
, , , (. 1999: 7)). , .
. , ,
, , .
. ,
, :

, , , <>. ( 1997: 25) (. 1991: 69,
73; 2004: 338 183 ; 1997: 7, 33 184 ; 1977: 160, 161;
1983: 34, 42; 2000: 385, 391) 185 , -

, , . . , <> <> .
(. 1999: 7).
183 ,
(. ), . :
, , ,
. ( 2004: 338)
184 . . : (1997: 7) (Eadem: 33).
185 . ( )
, ( ) 182

- 115 -

, ,
.
,
() 186 . . . :
<> <>, , , . - , , ,
. ( 1983: 42)

: ,
. ( Seifrid 1992: 83)
186 . .
- 116 -

1.3. / vs.
<> there is no difference between the characters
and the narrators speech. Platonov does not distinguish himself from his characters, in both cases using
the same language.
(Yakushev 1979: 174)
<>
, , , - - .
( 1997: 31)

.
( 1995: 165)

,
, :
() ? ,
,
(.. ), , , ?
, ,
? ,
, , .
, , . ,
, . ( 1967: 38; 1966: 209 187 ; 1983: 2; 1999: 161; 1997: 31, 96; 1995: 165; 1989: 25; 2004: 59; 1990: 169;
1979: 115-118; Seifrid 1992: 162; - 1978: 106; 1994: 311, Hodel 2001: 191-242; 2003: 301, 310; 1997: 27; 1998: 10-11;
2000: 16; .). , . . ,
, : , ,
,
. . , 1920- 1930- .

187

. (1995: 189) . .
(1992: 43) ( ): -
, , .
- . (Ibidem)
: ,
, - . : <> ( 1983: 2). .
, . , , . ,
: - (
, , (, )

(,

));

( - 188 ); Sprachbewusstsein . (Hodel 2001: 191-242) 189


, , , . ( 1999: 251) , , , . : , , , -
.
, (
) .. 190 , 188 . . (), - . . , : , , , .. ( 1983: 2). . .
. . (2003: 330-331). , ,
, . ,
, . ,
, .. ,
.
189 (Hodel 2001: 192-242).
190 . , , ,
. (Hodel 2001: 241)

- 118 -

/ vs.

, , ,
- . (Hodel 2001:
239-242) 191 .:
<> bei Platonov implizieren die regional-soziale Differenzierung und inbesondere
die unterschiedliche Sprachkompetenz eine Hierarchie der Romanfiguren. Diese Unterschiede werden aber durch die breit geteilte Grundlage der Platonovismen weitgehend nivelliert.
Die Konstellation der Personenreden lsst bereits erkennen, auf welcher
sprachlichen Grundlage das Projekt evengur entwickelt wird: Dialektal und soziolektal wie auch in Bezug auf das Sprachbewusstsein differenzierte Figuren wachsen
durch einen gemeinsamen Fundus verfremdender Formulierungen hchster Poetizitt zu einer einheitlichen Gruppe zusammen. (Hodel 2001: 242)

( 1999: 248).
,
: , , . , ,
:
, -, ( )
(, 84-88) ( ), ,
..
.
, .
, . . . , <> . <> - . (1992: 43) , (Hodel 2001: 240),
, , . , , ,
. , .
191

- 119 -

, . 192 (
) , - , , , . . , ,
:
Mais contrairement la thse, devenue presque un lieu commun dans la littrature
critique, chez Platonov labolition de lcart entre lauteur et son personnage nest jamais complte. Et en tous les cas, la parole, comme la pense de lauteur, est plus
vaste, plus souple, plus pntrante que celle de ses personnages sots; elle nest pas
menace par une impasse. (Heller 1984: 353, )

. . , , , :
<> ,
. ,
, , . <> ,
, , - . ( 1991: 65, ))

: <> - (, ) . (Idem: 66)


, , , ,
( ) ,
, . . . . : <>

. . . :
- , ( , , , ).
, . . . , , , . 2: 262-290, 1996, . 288. . ( 1997: 18 .).
192

- 120 -

/ vs.

, <>. (2000: 16-17; . 1970: 21)


.
. :
. 193
. . , , .
, ,
. . . . :
, . -, , ,
- - , , . ,
, . -
- . ( 1966: 208)

. . : <> , ( ) .
. (1987: 8) , ,
, .
. 194
,
. ,
-
. . . , , , . , . (
1970: 221). 1974- (Slavistick
sbornk Olomoucko-Lublinsk: 105-122. Praha: Sttn pedagogick nakladatelstv, 1974) .
194 . . . , ,
. , . .
( 1983: 44-53).
193

- 121 -

, , .
( 1985: 284) <>
, <>. (Ibidem) . , .
- :
,
, /
. (Seifrid 1992: 84-85)
1920- ,
, . :
20- ,
, , ,
. (Ibidem) ( 1985: 288)
: ,
, , , .
, . (Seifrid 1992: 87; . 1993: 146) ,
, . ,
, .
, , ,
, . . Erlebte Rede bei
Andrej Platonov: von V zvezdnoj pustyne bis evengur (2001),
(, 1999). . , . , , .
, , , (Hodel 2001: 113) ( 1999: 249-251)
(erlebte Rede - ),

- 122 -

/ vs.

,
. ( 1999: 248; Hodel 2001: 1-2 195 , 89-90, 191 196 , 242-300) ,
( ) ( , ) ,
. (Idem: 329),
- 197 (Hodel 2001: 190, 242) (Hodel 2001: 242, 300-328)
, , <> . (
1999: 251) . (Hodel 2001: 148-436), . ( 1999: 249-251).

.: Platonovs reife Prosa zeichnet sich dadurch aus, das sein auktorialer Standpunkt bereits auf
der Ebene der narrativen Klassifizierung der Erzhlerrede nicht sichergestellt werden kann. Es gibt
kaum eine Aussage, Vorstellung oder Regung, die unmissverstndlich auf eine narrative Instanz allein bezogen werden kann. Der hauptschliche Grund dieser ungewohnt intensiven Interferenz zwischen Erzhler- und Personenrede, die mit dem Begriff der Erlebten Rede (E.R.) belegt wird, liegt in einer Sprache, die stndig an die Grenze der Grammatizitt stsst. (Hodel 2001: 1-2)
196 .: Evident ist lediglich, dass die Verunsicherung in der Bestimmung der Redeinstanzen entscheidend von der Wirkungsweise der konstatierten Verstsse gegen sprachliche Normen abhngt.
Indem die Normen der traditionellen Literatursprache erschttert werden, scheinen sich auch die narrativen Instanzen Autor, Erzhler und Held einer Bestimmung zu entziehen. (Hodel 2001: 191)
197 .: Die konstatierten sprachlichen und narrativen Subjektivierungen lassen sich deshalb sowohl
als rigoros erweiterte personale Erzhlsituationen begreifen, wie auch als eine radikalisierte Form der skazStilisierung: Die letztere zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass der im skaz blicherweise stndig durchschimmernde Autor konsequent im Hintergrund bleibt und sich die Erzhlerposition als absolute,
monolithische, nicht vom impliziten Autor distanzierte herausschlt. (Hodel 2001: 190)
, , : In evengur kann folglich lediglich von skaz-Tendenzen gesprochen werden. Die narrative Form des skaz erweist sich im Romanwerk nur insofern als adquates
Instrument der Beschreibung, als sie eine Grenze der Platonovschen Erzhltechnik aufzeigt. (Idem:
328)
195

- 123 -

2.

, .
. , ,
<>. , , , .
. . ( 1994: 330)

,
( ) .
( 1977: 159)

2.1.
<>
, .
( 1983: 2)

, ,
,
, . , , , :


.
, , , .
,
pur sang, , .. ,
, , .
; ( ); ( ); ; ; ; ; ; ..
, , , (, ) . , (, ), (, ) ( 1966: 181; . 1977: 161;
1990: 164) 198 ( 1966: 181;
1990: 164; 1998: 133). , ,
, . , , . , : , , , , , , .. (. 1966: 184, 190) ,
.
, ,
( ), ( . . , , , ) ( 1966: 194; 1990: 164). ,
, : , , -

198

. . ( 1966: 181).
- 126 -

, , , - ,
.. ( 1966: 194-201)
, , , , , . (, (, 56) (. ) (, 12) 199
(. & 1990: 133)), .
, , .
( 1977: 161),
(.. ,
), , , . , ,
, ? ( ) ,
. . . , <>
<> <> , , ,
. ( 1966: 182) , ,
, , .
,
.
, , : , .
. :
, ,
. ,
, ..
,
199 ,
, (, 12): , ,
.

- 127 -

, . ( 1977: 159-160; . 1970: 162, 169-170)

, . :
Nous y observons une manipulation constante qui introduit, dans un langage littraire teint de potismes, un dcalage stylistico-smantique. Il sagirait en somme de
ce que les futuristes nommaient sdvig. (Heller 1984: 355)

, , , .. , ,
, ,
200 . . . , . (1993:
125; . 1996: 58) . . . (1993: 92; . 1989: 69 .)
, ( ) .
,
, ..
. ( 1997: 32; . 1977: 161-162, 175;
1991: 96; 1992: 43-47; Hodel 2001: 46; . . 2000, 2003)
, 201 ,
- ( 1997: 32, 35, 88). 202
, , , , . (1995), . , , (), (), ,
(, ). , , , .
201 - . . , (
, ) .. . (1988: 38, 39)
202 . . - . ( 1996: 58) . . ( ), - . . ( 1993: 125).
, . . ,
-
( 1994-1995: 10). , ,
200

- 128 -

, , , , .
, (-)
, .
, ? , , <> ,
, , .
( 1997: 34) ,
- .
: , , , , , . , -
,
, , .
, , . 1969-
. . , , violations of surface
structure violations of deep structure. , , .
,
<> can be treated as cases of mistaken selection <>. (Leech 1969: 45)
, - ( , ),
. , <> [] ,
,
. ( 1995: 166) , ,
(Ibidem),
, . (Ibidem)
, , (1997: 88):
-

, (Ibidem), ,
.
- 129 -

, , . . , <>
(.. ) . ( 1988: 34). -
, ..
, , , . , () . ( 1997: 37)
,

. , . . ,
( 2004: 385, 386).
,
-, . , .
2.2., 2.3., 2.4. 2.5.
. . . .
, , :
. (1989: 71-74) ,
.
, , , , , .

. ,
. , , . , .. a priori , , () .
( deviation). , . . . :

- 130 -

- . ( 1990: 50) 203


, , , .. , <> <> , . (Idem: 51) 204
. (Ibidem 1990: 51)
( ), -
.
, .. , , . : -
. - , <>
<>, <>
[] , . (Idem: 57)
*

, , .

, ratio, , , : , , . (Ibidem) , ,
, . (Ibidem) , <> []
, (, , , ) ( ) . (Ibidem)
.
*

(, ). (Ibidem) *
, , <>

. ,
: ,
. ( 1998: 134).
204 . ( 1990: 63-68).
203

- 131 -

, . (Idem: 59), , .
. 205 (Ibidem: 59) , , . , ,
; , , , . 206
, ,
,
, , ,
.. , , : , , ..
, .
. , , , . . ,
[], . , ,
, . ( 1983: 38)
,
, :
. . , . ,

, . ( 1995), . 603 ).
206 , (.. ) ( ) - . ,
, , , , , . , -, .
205

- 132 -

(, ). ,
: (. . , . . , . . .), (. . , . . -,
. . .), (. , . . ,
. . & . . , . , . . , . .
.). , , , .
,

, , . , . ,
<> 20- (1920-
), . (
1997: 90, . Eadem: 47; 2004: 281) . .
, ,
, - , , 207 .

. ( 1990: 162)
, , (
(, 248)), , ( (, 360), (, 79)), (
(, 227)), (
(, 482)) .. ( 1990: 162163).
( ) . (Eadem: 164). , , ( ) , ,
, , . -

207

. ( 1990: 163-164).
- 133 -

, , . (Eadem: 169)
. , . , <> <>,
. ( 1995: 189) ,
, , ,
,
, :
(. .), (.
, . . , . . .). 208 (. 1995:
189; 1997: 89; 1983: 139-147; 2004: 281;
1998: 13; 2000: 67) . .
,
(. ). (2004: 281)
/ , ,
, , , . . ( 1989: 30-31), . . (
1985: 271; 1997: 89), . . ( )
( 1997: 89; 1992-1993: 298-299; 1990: 163) .
. ( 1983: 147-153). . . ,
, , . . , . . ( 1983: 154-157).
, , . , . (1977: 159, 162; 1997: 90), .
. (1983) . . (1990),
- , , ,
, . , , , ,
.
208 . , [] , , , ; <>, , . ( 1995: 189)

- 134 -

: - (2.2., 2.3.).
,
, , , , , .

, () - , . - (, 2.5. 2.6.),
(2.7.) (2.8.)

- 135 -

2.2. -

.
( 1995: 166)
<> bei Platonov [scheint] <> die Falschheit
ein geradezu dominantes Stilmerkmal zu sein.
(Markstein 1978: 115)

2.2.1.
, , ,
, . ,
, , ,
( ).
,
, ,
.
- , , ,
- . . ,
. , ,
()
, , , , - , , , , .
, . , . .
. - ,
. , :
, .. ,
, , , -

.
.
, , , ,
.. , . , , . .
. . (1990), . .
, . , .. , ,
() .
,
,
(. . . ), ..
, . . . (1999):
, ,
, ,
, . . . (1994-1995) :
- (. . , . . , . . . 209 ), , (Idem:
11-16). , ,
, , . ,
, .
.
: , , .
(, , 209

. .
- 137 -

..) . ,
, : 1980- ,
(. . ), , . , ,
. 1997-
(. ) .
, 1977-
, 1997- , . ,
, , , :
,
.
, ( ) ,
, .. , ( , )
, , , . , : , , , / (- ). ,
(cf. infra),
.
(1997), ,

, ,
, - . ,
, : - (.. ) ( ). -

- 138 -

, , :
, ,
, . . , ,
(, , ), .
, ,
,
,
(), . ,
,
( , ).

( ), . , .
( , ), : ,
.
. ,
, .
, , , .
, ()
, , , .
, / .
, , : ,
. , (
/ ). ,
, . , ,

- 139 -

(.. ),
, .. ,
: .
( ) .
, , , . , , ,
.
, , ,
,
, .

2.2.2.
,
, , ..
. , ,
, .
,
. () ,
, . . (, , )
. . ( 1955: 400). (,
, )
<> , , :
. 210 ( 1999: 607) .

. ( 1999: 607): ; ;
. , <>
, , , , . (Ibidem) . (Eadem: 607-608).
210

- 140 -

- , :
<> . (Eadem: 609-610) 211 ,
( ) . : , ,
, , ..,
. ( ) : , , , ,
, . (. 1999: 611)
, , , , . ,
. ,
. ,
. . . ,
[] (.. )
(
), . ( 1999: 608)
, , ,
.
, (. . !). , . ( 1999: 671)
, , ,
.
, .. , -

211 : , , . ( 1999: 609)

- 141 -

( ), , . 212 1960- ,
, , (.. ), (.. ).
(.. ),
. . .
, , .. , ( ) 213 . . ,
,
, . -, /

,
,
, .
, ,
, .

- , , , , , , Colorless
green ideas sleep furiously . . Le silence vertbral indispose la voile licite .
The molten postage feather scored a weather . .
213 <> ( 2003: 29), [] , , , - . (Ibidem)
212

- 142 -

2.2.3.
range range of collocability . , , ,
. . 214 . , <> there are lexical factors, factors of
collocational eligibility, which <> tend to rule out of actual use a large number of
sentences (and smaller units) even though these seem to conform all the rules of
grammatical pattern. (McIntosh 1966b: 183-184)
, (),
.., , .
, , , , : <> words have only a certain tolerance
of compatibility, only a certain potential of collocability, quite apart from any considerations of pattern in the grammatical sense <> the edges of this range of tolerance are vague and unstable <>. (McIntosh 1966b: 186-187)
range range of collocability (McIntosh
1966b: 192), collocation (, ) (McIntosh 1966a: 19).
, , ( )
(, ), , ..
. .:
Collocation is outside grammar: it has no connection with the classes of the word. It
is the lexical item, without reference to grammar, that enters into collocations. We can
say open the window, or an open window, or the opening of the window; it is in
each case the same collocation of the item window with the item open. (Idem: 20)

, . ,
,
, , . , ,

. ,
<>
214 . J. R. Firth, Personality and language in society. In: Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951. London: Oxford University Press, 1957; Idem, Selected Papers of J. R. Firth (ed. F. R. Palmer). London: Longman,
1968.

- 143 -

Y1, Y2,, Yn . ( 2003: 45) : [] ( Y-), -. (Ibidem)



, ..
<> Y1, Y2, ..., Yn, ( 2003: 45), : - ( ), . - :

(, ) .
( , )

, -
. ( 1995: 60-61)

, -
. -,
-. , . -
- -, -
-. ,
, . ( 1995: 61)
: / , -
.
( /, /),

( , ). ( 2003: 15)
: ,
1, 2, 3, ... n, ()
, ,
. ( 1995: 61) -

- 144 -

, . , , , , , , , .. ,
, <> (.. ) <>, <>
,

<>. ( 1995: 61) , , : ,
, , , , , .., , , , , , . ( 1995: 61) , , () : , ,
,
, , , . 215
, , ,
, , , ,
, , .., . ( 1995: 61)
.
, . , , , : , , ( 1995: 61)
( 2003: 45): , , -; , , , .. , , :
<> , , , , . ,

( )
( ).
215

- 145 -

, , ,
. ( 1995: 61) 216

, :
( , , ) () ( , , ).
, , ( , ,
), (* ). ( 1995: 61)
, , (, , , ), . ,
* * . ( 1995: 61-62)
.
, ,
: ,
. ( 1995: 62) ( 2003): (,
), . (
2003: 15)
, ,
. ( 2003: 15; . 1995: 62) 217
- .
, . . , .
. . (
).
, <> []
( ) ( ) <>. ( 1998) , ,
, - ( ,
, )
( -) (Ibidem), .

. ( 2003: 15): ,
Y1, Y2, ..., Yn y, Yi.
217 . ( 1995: 62-67).
216

- 146 -

2.2.4.
.
. . . , .
<> -
<>. ( 2003: 21)
- , , () . ( 2003:
19) , ,
<> (.. ) . (
2003: 19; . 1995: 120) <> .
( 2003: 19) :
, : ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) ( ).
( 2003: 19)
, , , , , , , , , , , , , . ( 1995: 126-130; 2003: 19) , , (, ..)
(), , , ,
. ( 2003: 19)
, . :
<>
(.. ), ,
. ,
<> . ( 1995: 120)

- 147 -


, . 218 . ( )
<> ( ) . ( 2003: 21) ,
<> . ( 2003: 21; .
1995: 124-125) ( ), (* ; * ; *
5000 ; ..). ( 2003: 21) , (.. )
, (.. ) .
,
. ,
: .
. . (, ), <> (.. )
( 1995: 120) , , <> , .. , , ( ) (Idem: 120-121). , , ,
, , , ..
<> <> (Idem: 120),
<> <> (
) (Ibidem) . (Ibidem)

<> , ,

,
() ,
, . . .
( 2003: 19).
218

- 148 -

, .. ,
. (Ibidem) , , <> , , .. , . (Idem: 121) ,
. , <> , , , . (Ibidem) , ,
. ,
: - + ; - , ; ; , ; . ,
, ,
. . , .. (Ibidem) .
( ), , ,
, .., , , . (Idem: 120).
,
,
. ,
, .
, , - ,

. , , , . , , , , () . , , ,

- 149 -

. 219 <> ( )
, <>. ( 1999: 672)
, , ( - 220 )
: +
. (Eadem: 672, 673-674) . ,
+ . , , .
(Eadem: 674-675) / ,
4000000
. ,

( ), .

2.2.5. vs.
,
. .
,
,
( - ), . , ,
(, , ..),
, , . -

.: <> ( ) <> ( 1999: 672).


220 : (
), ( )
( ). ( 1999: 673-674)
219

- 150 -

. ( 1995:
120-121; . 2003: 2001) ,
(, ) /
- . 221
, , . ( 1991; 1991; 1989
. 222 ), 223 , : . , , (: , , ), .
, ( )
, , ,
, (. - , ). ,
. . (1998), . , . . , . . 224 . , , .
. 1970- 1977- (), .
1970- :

. , : , , - +
, - +
- + . ,
, : 5000 .
( 2003: 21)
222 . . (1983: 70), , , , ,
(, ).
223 . . , , ,
. . ( 1990: 170)
224 . . ,
(1996: 58, 59). - (Idem: 60), .
221

- 151 -


. , .
, , , , .
, :
, ( , ),
. ( 1970: 222)

, , ,
,
,
.
: <>
, , , .. - . ( 1977: 161-162, . . 164-169)
, ,
, . (
1977: 164-167) 1997- . ( ) , . , ,
, .
. :
, <>. , , - ,
<>. , , - , , , , . ( 1997: 35,
)

- 152 -

,
.
, , .. : , , , , , . , , .
- ,
,
( ), ,
(. - ). . , <>
<> ( 1997: 34), , , .
, , . , .
, . , , ,
, , , ,
, . . , , :
, .
- ,
. (..
), -

- 153 -

,
. ( 1997: 46)

. . , ( 1983: 97, . 79-80, 82)), .


( ), , , , ,
(. 1983: 97-98).
, ,
(, , . 91-109)
( . . ),
. ,
(, , , . 160-163) ,
,
, , , . ,
, , (.. ). , ( , , ) ( 1983: 171-174), , () ( 1983: 170, 174-175),
() ( ) ( 1983: 175-178).
,
, , .
.
, . -

- 154 -

, , , , , . .

2.2.6. -
,

, . , , , , . ,
.
, ( ) ( ) . : ,
. ,
;
. ,
/ foregrounding
. , (. () ()
): ()
() ( ), . , , ,
( 1983: 70)
. (. 1985: 292-294; 1977: 162; 1988:

- 155 -

39-40; 1991: 65-66; 1983: 70; 1992: 92;


1992-1993: 300-301 225 ; 1990: 167; 1970; Seifrid 1984: 197223 226 ; Seifrid 1992: 91-93, 162-163). 227

() 228 . : . . (1990: 165), . . . . (1990:
138), . . (2000: 385-387 229 ), . .
(1989: 70) 230 , . . , ..
231 () . ( 1992: 92) 232 . 233
, . . (. 1998: 385; 2003) , . (1997: 64), ,
. ,
,
,
. . ( 1992-1993: 300-301)
226 .
. : , .
,
, , , .
, ,
. . .
227 . ( 1991: 64-65).
228 . . , , , . (1993: 93, 95)
229 . . . (2000: 386)
230 . . <> []
, <>,
<> . (1989: 70)
231 . . (Markstein 1978: 118)
232 . Verdichtung. (Hodel 2001: 176)
233 . . ,
. . ( 1998: 13).
225

- 156 -

. , .
( ),
, (. ). (Van Gorp, Ghesquiere & Delabastita 1998: 338). (
), ,
( ). (Van Gorp, Ghesquiere & Delabastita 1998: 429). 234 ,
, (. 1983; 1993: 127-128;
1983: 70; 1990: 165). , ,

, - . ,
,
.
, , .
, . ,
, .. ? , , , . , , . ,
, 235 ,
, , .
. . : , , .

. , , , . <> ,
, <> . ( 1997:
64)
235 . . , <> [] [], [] [] - . (1999: 64) , ,
. (Idem: 65) , ,
,
.
234

- 157 -

, <>
<> ( 2000: 388).
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , , 236 . . , , , , , .
(Markstein 1978: 121) , ,
, . . . . , , ,

, , ,
. , ,
, , , , ,
( 1966: 202). (Idem: 209),
, . 237
(
, ), ( - ),
( ), ( ,
), , .. (Idem: 204-209) , ( 1966-
) , ..
1920- 1930- , ,
. ,
( 1920-

. . : <> eine Zerstrung des Klischees zugleich mit einer Veranschaulichung, einer fast sinnlich erfabaren Konkretisation, die der Semantische Funktion
der ersten Wendung entgegenwirkt <>. (Markstein 1978: 121)
237 .: , ,
. ( 1966: 202)
236

- 158 -

1930- ), ( 1930-
) , .. . 238
(. . (1970: 36), .
(1977:170-172), . . (1983: 15-17), . . (2000: 386-387) .)
, , ( ) (.
1977: 170-172 239 ) ( 1983: 17) . , ),
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241 . , . , . . . ,
, . ( 1977: 170-171)
, . , , ,
. ( 1977: 171)
, .
, (. ),

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. ( 1985: 293-294) , <> , (Idem: 293), , ()
( ). (Idem: 291, 293) ,
, , , , , , , .. (Idem: 293-294)
239 . ,
1920- 1930- .
240 , . .
( 1966: 211)
, . ( ) , : <>. (Idem: 211-212)
241 . ( 1977: 170-171).
238

- 159 -

: ,
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<> ,
:
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, . ( 2004:
289)

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: , , ,
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- 160 -

2.2.6.1. ,
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- 161 -

, , .
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- 162 -

. ( )
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,
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1977 ), ,
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97) , ( 1983: iv), ( 1983: 42, . 186-187).
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- 163 -



, .. , . ( 1983: 126) <>

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1983: 126-127) 19- , . . , . . , . . , . . , , , . , .
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39-42),
(Idem: 125-157). .

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- 164 -

, : (,
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.
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- 165 -

, , (
).
(1983: 102-103)
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- 166 -

( , , , ) . , ( ):
, .
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[] , , <>. ( 1983: 105)
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), , , , -

- 167 -

, ( , , ). .: ; ;
242 ; .. (. 1983: 105-106). (.. )
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243 , , : / , . , .
,
! ,
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242 , ( 2000). , .
243 . . ,
( ). (1991: 63)

- 168 -

+ , ). 244 ( 1983: 103-104) ,


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-
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.

244

. ( 1989: 70-71).
- 169 -

,

, <> , .
(1983: 168) ,
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). (1983: 177) , -
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- 170 -

, , ) ( 1983: 178-180), (Idem: 180-183) , ,


(Idem: 183-186).
,
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);
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() (1983: 100), (. , ) (1983: 183);
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.

- 171 -

, ,
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( ), .

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- 172 -

, .
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246 , 247 , 248

<>
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246

- 173 -

- 249 , ,
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249 - <> , <>. ( &
1990: 134)
247

- 174 -

. , .
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:
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136);
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); .. ( &
1990: 137). , , , , (.
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- 175 -

,
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), <>. ( & 1990: 137) :
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+ , ());
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( ) ,
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, .

- 176 -

,
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, );
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.
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, , /
/ .
: () (, 381)
( + ), (, 467)
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(, 466) ( + ) ., ( . ) ( 1998: 19-27).
. .:
, , , <>. ( 1998: 22)

- 177 -

,
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- ,
(, (, 312)) (Ibidem),
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467)), . (
(, 97), , (, 66)). . . , , , .
, (. ), (. ) (. ). ( 1989: 70) , , , .
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) . .
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, : . ,

- 178 -

, , , , (1995: 173-174).

.
. . 250 ,
, ,
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, . ( 1991: 69)
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,
. (Ibidem)

, (, ) ,
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. . (1999). .
, , , .. . (1999: 155,
161; . & 1990) , <> ,
,
. (Van Gorp, Delabastita & Ghesquiere 1998: 328)
251 . (paronomasia),
(
( , ), ). . (Seifrid 1984: 260, 264, 273, 282;
Seifrid 1992: 166-170 .; 1994: 312 .).
250

- 179 -

<>, , (1999:
154) ( (Idem: 156)). , ( , ) , ..
, , , <>
<>.
(Idem: 155)
( ) . (Ibidem) ,
() : 252 , , 253 . ( 1999: 160, 159-161)
, . (
1999: 160) ,
(Idem: 160) <> [] , (Idem:
161). 254
, .
,
, .
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252 . . ,
<> ,

<>. (1999: 159-160) : <>
(),
. (Idem: 160)
253 . . . : ,
. (1999: 160161)
254 . . : , , , , . (1993: 93)

- 180 -

.
:
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,
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255

- 181 -

, , ,
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:
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- 182 -

2.3. -
(
), - . ,
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. ,
(- )
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, ()
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Delabastita & Ghesquiere 1998: 77) ,
-
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1991: 70) , , ..
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()

- 184 -

- ( )
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(2.3.2.)
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- 185 -

- -
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- 186 -

2.3.1.
( ) , () ( ), .
.
2.3.1.1.
, , , . 256 . ( -),
.
: (, 250),
. : (..
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( ), , ( ). (Seifrid 1984: 205-206) , . .
, <> , ,
<>, <>
. ( 1995: 174)
(, 32), . ,
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(, 288), .
256

- 187 -

( ) . (Ibidem) , , , .
, ,
, , .
( ) , ,
(, 328). 257
. (Seifrid 1984: 198)
: [] <> (, 393).
- :
. : <> a
minor event is elevated to the level of a defining image of life as a process or torment,
a notion central to Platonovs themes. (Seifrid 1984: 200) , / . (Seifrid 1984: 198-199)

2.3.1.2.
,
,
:
,
.
(. ). -

. ,
(archaic literary, even quasi-bureaucratic, speech) (colloquial) (Seifrid 1984: 198). , , .. . , .
257

- 188 -

( )
, () , . ( 1997: 57). , , : , .
(1977: 163-164; 1997: 57), .
. (1983: 107) . (2004).
,
. , , , - - 258 , ,
. , , / , .
1977- :
, , - . , ,
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, - , <>. ( 1977: 164)


( 1977-
, 1997- ):
, . , , , , -

258

. . ( 1997:

57)
- 189 -

, , , . (. 1997: 58)
. (1997: 58-59)
,
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(
(, )): , /
, - .
, . (2004). , , , .. , ( ) , . ,
, 259 . . , , , , ,
.

. , (. 1997: 59):
- (, 288);
- ! (, 45).
( ) (. 1997:
59), :

. . , , .
. ( 2004: 378-381). , ,
, , . , , , .

259

- 190 -

- (, 360);
- (, 360);
- (, 40).
, ( 1997: 58)
( 2004: 386). .:
- (, 413);
- (, 353);
- (, 323);
- (,
331);
- , (, 376);
- (, 188);
- (, 25);
- () (, 34);
- <> (, 57);
- (, 45) 260 ;
- , (, 46);
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(, 31);
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- (, 53);
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(, 38).

( ),

. :
, , , . , , 1920 1930- ,
(2004: 383). , , ,
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, .
260

- 191 -

(, ; , ). ( 1997: 58) . . :
- , , (, 469): , ( )
;
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2004: 393) , : ( , ),
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,
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(2004: 391-394). ,
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.
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. ( 1997: 58)

- 192 -

,
. , , / .
, , , .
. ( ) . . ( ) :
() ,
(). ( 2004: 387, 391; 1990: 167) , , ( , ). . :
- (, 104);
- - (, 105);
-
(, 43);
- (, 104);
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2004: 392);
- (, 97);
- ()
(, 109);
- () , (,
36). 262
. . , , .. . (1990:
167) . , : , (, 246). (.. ). (Ibidem) . : , , , , ,
(, 92); ,
, (, 4849).
262

- 193 -

,
( 2004: 394). . , , . .
/ ,
,
. , . ( 1997: 59) .
-
(, 23):
(2004: 394), , , ,
;
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(, 97): ( (Ibidem));
-
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( (Ibidem));
- ,
- (, 113):
;
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34): ( (): ).
- (, 303):
.
, . .:
- , ... (, 41):
( , )
;

- 194 -

- ,
(, 25): ;
- () (.. ) ,
(, 25): .
. (1997: 58-59),
, ,
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(1997: 58,
59). ( 1997: 59):
- () , (, 350): , ;
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- , , (, 361):
.
,
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- () ,
(, 25): ;
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(, 32): ;
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(, 39): ;
- , (, 48): ;
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(, ), : (
) ( );

- 195 -

- , , , , , (, 52): ;
- , (, 80): .

: ,
. . (1997: 59). . :
- (, 38): , ;
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( , .
: , (-2: 315)) ( ); :
/
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440): ,
;
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, ;
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- (, 32): -
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, , :

- 196 -

, (, 34). , , .

2.3.1.3.
,
, , , . . . -. (1983: 101-102) , ,
(, , ), (. ).
. (
(1995: 187)) .
. (Eaem: 187-188)
, , , . . . . .
, ,
, . (. & 1990: 132-133; Seifrid
1984: 203-204 263 ) .: (, 24) (, ;
, (. ) ); (, 27) (;
-
(. ) ) 264 , (, 402) (, ),
(, 49) (), (, 76) ( ), (, 50) ( , ), (, 274) (), (, 231), (,
86) (), (, 98) (, ), (, 48) (, ),
(, 13) ( , . ); (, 15) (
. : <> substitution of a phrase ostensibly synonymous to the understood meaning but different in its syntactic qualities which achieves the shift to the
abstract. (Seifrid 1984: 203)
264 . ( 2003: 313).
263

- 197 -

, ); (,
16) (), (, 49) (),
(, 97) (, ). . , : , , ..
,
. : (, 32), . , .

, (, 68). ( , (
2001: 237)), , ., , . 265 ,
, :
, . ,

.

. (, 484), , ( )
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.
, , (
), + ,
(, 358)
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. . : , , . ( 1995: 183)
266 . , . .
( 1997: 55-56).
265

- 198 -

267 ,
, <> , , , , . ( 2001: 281) . ( Ibidem): , - ..
, ,
, ,
, , . . (-2: 647).
/ , /
, :
,
, ( (),
()) ( 2001: 282) , ( , , ,
) (Ibidem). ,
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, ( . , -, -. (-4: 541))
, (, 13). .
,
. :
- (, 45):
( -), (, (-4: 184-185)); (,
, , ..), , ;

, ,
, , . ( 2001: 431)

267

- 199 -

, ;
- (, 66): , () ; , ; .
, , : (, 64); ;
- , <>
(, 52): , , , , ,
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/ , /
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( * , )
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; , ; : (, 99),
; , ,
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- 200 -

, , : , , , <>.
, ( ) . , ,
! ( 2003: 154)

,
, , , , , ,
.. .
,
(<>
, . -
( 2001: 307)), . , :
+ 6,
. , . . : ; ;
; ; .. . + 6 ( 2001: 307):
; ; ; - , ; ; ..
+ 6. . :
- () (, 17): . ; ,
: , ;
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(, 88); , (,
104); (, 105):
;
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- 201 -

, , ,
. , , , . . (1998) . . (2003: 315-316). . .
(1983: 109). ,
(, 95) (). , , ,
. .

2.3.1.4. ( )
, , ,
, ,
. : , , , . ,
, . ,
( 2000 268 ;
2003: 89-91) 269 (, , , ), . . , (2003: 100-102),
, .
. . (2003: 89-102; . 2000: 65-68). , , ,
, .
. . , , . ( 2000: 65-66).
269 . . , (
) . (
2003: 91) (
), ,
<> . (Idem: 89)
268

- 202 -

, ,
( ),
, . 270
. . (1983: 106),
, ( , ). . .
. (1993: 127) , - . - ,
, . (1993: 127) 271 , ,
( )
(, , ): .
. . ( & 2006). 272 :
- () , (, 211): ( ), (), ; . (, 268);
- (, 38): () , ( ).
, ( ),
( )
( ) () (, 3839): , ( ) ( ), ( + ) , . . ,
( ). .: ( 2000: 67)
, (. ).
271 . . (1996).
,
( ) . , .
272 . ( 2000: 48-51).
270

- 203 -

, .. , ( ).
( ) .
- , :
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- .
:
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(1993: 127, )
: . ,
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,
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(, 190),
(, 25). , ( ),
(
, ) (

. . (1995:
176)
273

- 204 -

),
, (
)
. . . , . : , , ( -, - ..). ( 1990: 162) 274
. (1995: 179-181, -),
. . (2003: 97-99,
(
) , . 97). , , .
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() , ,

(, )
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, ,
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: ( ),
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. 275
. :
274 , . . , . (1990: 162)
275 . ( 2003: 89-102), ( 2000: 64-68).

- 205 -

- (, 197): , ,
;
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(. 2003: 97)
- (, 229):
, () (.
& 2006 276 );
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9): , ;
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. :
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276 . . . . (
): <> < ( ) +
> <>. (2006)
277 ,
. . : (, 36). ()
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. ( 1995: 177)

- 206 -

,
.
.
. :
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;
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); (. 1995: 180);
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.
, . . (1983: 108)
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279 . , <>
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( 2003: 91-92).
278

- 207 -

- (, 50): ? , , ; 280
. ()
(, 93), , , ,
;
;
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22): , ;
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;
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(, 252): ;
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1990: 162) .:
- (, 248);
- (, 279);
- , (, 60).

280

. ( 2003: 93-93).
- 208 -

: , ( )
( () ). , - ,

( 1995: 180) 281
. (), , ,
282 . . 2003: 96. . :
-
(, 42): , ;
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. , );
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);
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(1995: 181)
282 . . ( , , ,
) ,
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283 . . ( )
: . (1995: 180) .
(Idem: 179-181).
281

- 209 -

- ( ) (,
414); , ( );
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;
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181; . ) , , . . . . () -

. . ,
. (1990: 164)

284

- 210 -

( & 1990: 130). 285


, [] ,
. (Idem: 131) ,
:
- (, 363): .
;
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(, 78):
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);
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, :
.

2.3.1.5. ( )
: , .. , (, ,
). , , , , -
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. . ,
<> -
<> (1988: 42), . () ( ,
, , ),
(1988: 42).
(1991: 69),
: . ( ) ( , ).
285

- 211 -

. (. 1997: 64-66) (.. figura etymologica),


. (. 1995: 184, 2003: 302-303)

. , (
)
(. ), , ,
. 286 , (. ), . . (1993: 127), . (1997: 64-66), . (1995: 169-170 ( ), 184), . . (1999: 158 287 ), . . (1983), .
. (2003: 300-322) 288 . :
- (, 34): ; . (, 337), (, 280);
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(, 60); ,
;
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);
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;
, , . . ,
. (1999: 65)
, : - , ,
, . . , , . (Ibidem) . (Idem: 65-66).
287 . . . .
( 1999: 158).
288 . .
. (2003: 302)
286

- 212 -

- (, 248): ,
;
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- (, 482): , ,
; , , , , ; : , .. (-2: 528);
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); .
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, ; . : (, 25, 42), (, 55) (, ), (, 289), (, 386), (, 38), (, 21) 291 ..; 292
. . : : , , , (..
) . , . (1993: 127-128)
290 . . : <> , . . (1990: 163). , , ,
, ,
. ,
( + ). , ( , (, 211))
, : : (, , .., (-1: 345346). , . ,

.
291 . . , (1988: 42; 1991: 69).
292 , , : , : (, 100).
. .
. (.. ). (1995: 170)
289

- 213 -

- () (, 415): , ;
, (. );
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(, 302), (, 292);
- (, 483): ;
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; figura etymologica; .
(, 48);
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: , ,
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,
);
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;
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(-2: 364), , (-3: 288-289);
- (, 46);

- 214 -

- (, 92):
; . (, 53), .
, , : (, 33), (, 43),
(, 90), (, 62), (, 31)
(, 89).

, . . :
, . ,
. . .
: (, 352), () (, 204), (, 223), (, 279), (, 338),
(, 100), ()
(, 114), (, 38),
(, 12), (,) (, 96),
(, 98), , (, 29),
(, 43),
(, 101), () - (,
102) . . . , , . (1995: 171) (, 100)
. ,
. 293

2.3.2.

293 , .
, <> . ( 1995: 171)

- 215 -

. 1963- , , . . , ,
, :
<>
: ,
. ,
,
. ( 1963: 98)

(-)
, , ()
() (, , , , , ..), . .
. . . ( 1989: 64-66, 69).
( ), , . , ,
, , . , , , .
. , , , <> <> ( 1997: 42).
, .
:
(1926-1929) -
. <>.
(1929-1930) - . ,
, , . ( 1997: 42)

- 216 -

, , :
, (, ).
( 1997: 48) , .
, , . , :
,

. , ( + () ) , ,
.
,
. , (.. ). (. 1991: 69-70; 1998) ,
. (1997:
42) , <> . (Eadem: 42) .
, ( ) , ( ) . . , , ( ) . , : , , - , .

2.3.2.1.
. - ,

- 217 -

, .. (. 1977: 166-167; 1997: 40; & 1990: 136; 1983: 105).


(., , 1990: 166). , ,
. . :
- :
- () , ,
(, 515): () -, , , , ..
(-3: 131); +
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;
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;
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; , , ;
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;
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, ;
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31).

- 218 -

- , . ,
( ,
), . . ( 1997: 40) .
( 1995: 179; 1993: 95). . :
- (, 392): ,
, ;
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( ?)), (, - (-4: 132);
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(*
). (1995: 179);
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.

, .. , , , .
. . (. ). . (1997: 40; 1977: 168-169),
. ,
, .
(, 363), , -

- 219 -

(1997: 41) , .
+ . 294 , .
,
( -) ( 1995: 167-168)
(1995: 173-174)).
: (, 377):
(. ).
, (), ,

:
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);
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(. );
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; 295
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) (-4: 506); , ;

, , , ,
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. ( 1997: 41), ( (, 75)), .
295 . , , :
( ) . (1995: 168)
294

- 220 -

. (, 24),
, + (, );
,
; , , ; . (, 11): , + (. -2: 644); ; ;
- (, 48):
- / - - / - (-1: 202);
; - , ( - -); ;
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;
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; 296
- (, 204):
(-3:
240), , , .
:
- (, 40):
, ;

296 .
( ):
, . (1995: 178)

- 221 -

- <> (, 65):
, -., , (-2: 524) , (- , , , ), + ;
,
( ) , ; , ,
, .
, , .. ,
. , (), . (1995:
166-167). :
- (, 37): , , ( , ), (
) ; ( ),
.

2.3.2.2.
( ) ( . . & .
(1990: 135)). ,
, ,
. , , . ,

- 222 -

, . : - (, 278),
, (: - ), ,
, . - , (. -3: 291),
( ). , - : ,
.. , , , . , - , . ;
.
. . & . (1990: 135), . (1995: 173-174),
. . (1983: 102-103). :
- (, 93): , , ;
- (, 323): - (, , ..),
( ,
) (-4: 184); - ; : , ;
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+ 3, ( (, , ), );
( ), ;
- , (, 229): ( ), , .

2.3.2.3. -

- 223 -

. , ,
. . , , .
. (1977: 165-166; 1997: 40) . . ( ), . (
) (1977: 167; 1997: 40, 55 297 ),
. . ( ) (1989: 136137), . ( , .. ) (1995), .
. ( 298 ) (1989: 69 .; 1993: 93 .), . . ( ) (1998, 19-27).
. :
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( );
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(-1: 239); , , , (
) , ;
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; -

. : ,
, . ( 1997: 55)
298 . . () . ( , 1970), ( 1993: 93).
, : ( . . (1983: 70)) (
) (Ibidem).
297

- 224 -

, , 299 ;
- (, 71): (-3: 453)
(.
; ; );
- (,
317): , , , ,
. (-3: 371), ;
, ;
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, ;
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(. -3: 872);
:
( ); : , (.. ) , / .
,
-
.

.
299 . . . : (.. ) . , , ,
. ( 1989: 136)

- 225 -

. . 300
, ; - ,
; , (1997: 61), , ,
.
, - . . . . / ,
-
(.. ) . ( 1991: 65-66) - :
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, -. (-2: 650)) 301 ;
- -
(, 344): , , ,
(-3: 631); , (
, .. ), , ; , , , : - , ;

. : ,
. ( 1997: 61) , . . (Ibidem)
301 . , ,
. (Seifrid 1984: 203)
300

- 226 -

- (, 386): , , ;
- (, 359):
, , .
., , , ,
.. (-4-544); ,
, 302 ;
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(.
1991: 66).
,
-
: , , ,
. . ( 1983: 178-186; 1977: 168-169; & 1990: 136-137; 1995: 168 ( )).
- : (, 36); (, 547); (, 308). (. )
- , (), ,

. . ( & 1990: 137),
( 1983: 180-186), ( 1990: 166-167, 170-172), (Seifrid 1992: 93,
163) 303 . :
- , (, 319): , , . (
, ), ; ( . ) (-1: 185);
. . ( 1997: 60-61).
. . . , , .
302
303

- 227 -

- (, 322):
-, ( );
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( )
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( , ) - : ,
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:
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)
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,
),
() ; . (, 474);
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( , . .)
, ( ) (-2: 338);
, , , ( ) , , ;
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, , ,

- 228 -

-;
(
) , (.
( ) ); (.
1977: 168);
- (, 30): (
)
(, -. (-3: 490));
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( , , ; , , -. (-2:
431)), , , ;
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/ , ,
(-3: 317);
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, ,
(. -1: 578); ;
(. & 1990: 136-137);
- . : (, 22); (, 319); (, 330); (, 409) ( , ));
(, 22); (, 27); (, 21);

- 229 -

- - (, 35): ;
;
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(-2: 587) , ..) (
, , (Ibidem)
, (), -, , ..), ;
,
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;
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, / ; ;
;
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,
.
; ,
;
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, (. -1: 483, -2: 407-408)
- (, 21):
. , -

- 230 -

, :
, .


(. ), ; ,
, ( ,
, - ), , .. , , . ,
. , , .
, ,
.
, . .
, (, 212);
,
(, 212). ( 1990: 166-167).
,
[] . (1990: 170) , , , :
, (, 428)
(, 429); , (, 411) !
// (, 465); , - ,
(, 234). ( 1990: 170-171)
[] ,
. ( 1990: 171) , -

- 231 -

, . .: ,

(, 224); , , , (,
225). ( 1990: 172)

( )
, -. ( 1997: 5354) : <> ( , )

, .. ,
. ( 1997: 54) ,
, ,
. , , :

. . ( 1997: 54):
- (, 317): ;
- (, 342): , , , ;
(-2: 721);
- (, 401): . ;
- (, 375-376):
, ;
- (, 37):
, (-3:
295), ; );

.

- 232 -

- , , . .:
- (, 50):
, , .
, ; ( ) ;
- (, 91): , , , ,
: ; ,
.
. (1997: 55) . . . . (1990), ,
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- (, 27):
(
, );
- , (, 76);
,
;
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: , ,
, ;
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, ;
- () (, 22): , -

- 233 -

, ,
. 304
-
. (1977: 167-169), . . & . . (1990:
137), . . ( . ) (1983: 99-101), . . (1991), . . (1990: 166):
- () 305 :
, (-1: 75),
;
()
( (-1: 82);
; (.
, (-4: 10);
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; ; .
(, 109);
- (, 307): : , ( , ,
, -. (-1: 414));
;
, ;
- (, 312): ; , .
( (); (-1:
394)), (
; (Ibidem));
, ;
, . .
(1990: 162). , <>
, <>. .: , (, 412); <> , , (,
91). , , ,
, .
305 : .
304

- 234 -

- , (, 426): , ,

, (, , ;
(-1: 188) , ;
- (, 41);
( )
, ; (.
-2: 123); , ( ,
( ) , (Ibidem)),
, ; ,
, ; .: , (.
1991: 70);
- (,
76): : , ; , ,
, -. (-3: 43);
,
()
, , ,
(-3: 31); (. 1995: 185-186);
- <> <> (, 33):
;
- ,
(, 82): , (
, , ) (-1: 475); ,

- 235 -

,
; ( -), :
() ();
- (, 15): ,
, , ,
( , , ,
) (-1: 146);
, / : , .
;
- (, 81):
,
; ;
- . : (, 332); (, 23); (, 31); (, 30).
, - (. & 1990: 136): (, 262)
(, 259).
.
,
( 1997: 51; . 1977: 169; & 1990:
137 306 ; 1995: 175-176 307 ). , , . , - , ( 1997: 51). . . , ,
, , <> 306 . . . . , .
307 . .

- 236 -

<> (.. ) , -. (1995: 175)


, ( )
, . (Ibidem)
:
- (, 107): , ,
(-2: 427) , ; (Ibidem);
- (, 95): (, , (-4: 279) ; ,
( 1997: 51);
- (, 109): ( )
:
(, , (-2:172)) ; . <> (, 110) (
, ,
);
- (, 94): ).
: - ,
. .: () (, 50), . 308

. . : , . ( 1998: 2728) . ,
, , , . , .
308

- 237 -

. . , , ,
. 309 ( 1991: 71; . 1997:
33) ( ) : , (, 84) ( , (, 84)) ( , ( ) ). . (. ) (, 306),
(. ) (, 372), ( . ) (, 377) ..
( ),

( ) ( 1991: 71-72): ,
- (, 70).
( , (-1:
651), : * ) , ,
, () ( , , ,
. Ibidem).
: ( 1991: 72). ,
: ,
. .
, - , (
) (,
).
, . ( )
- ( )
- ( ) .

. . ,
. . ( 1991: 71, 72; 1997: 33)

309

- 238 -

(. 1997: 51 310 ; 1991: 64) ,


(, ) () . . . :
, , , : . , . ( 1997: 52)

:
- (, 476): ,
( ,
, , , .. (-1: 161));
, ,
,
()
;
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, ; . , (, 40);
(, 84).
, .
(1997: 51 311 ), ,
: ,
( ) .

. : <> ,
, . ( 1997: 51)
311 . . (1997: 51) ,
, .
310

- 239 -

( ),
, . :
- (, 133);
; ; . , , (, 21), (, 73), (,
84), (, 81) ..; . ;
. ( 1989: 70);
- (, 104):
, ;
- (, 369): ; , ( ).
,
,
. (. 1988: 40-41; 1993: 95):
- (, 21): (. );
- (, 34): ()
, , ;
.

(, , ..).
, .. . , , ,
, , . .
, . . . (1993: 126), .
(1995: 172 312 ) (
) . (Hodel 2001: 154-156). . :
- (, 26)
. , ,
, <> . (1995: 173)
312

- 240 -

- (, 188) 313 .
,
: , . , . . . , , () XVIII-XIX ., XX . () . ( 1995: 172-173; 1993:
126) , , :
, .
, , ( ): , , (, 50).
. . , , ,
. (1993: 126) .:
- (, 57): . ;
- (, 208):
, ;
- (, ):
; , ; ,
( ), ;
- (, 27): ,
; . (, 30).
. , (
), . ,
(). . . (
313

. . . (Hodel 2001: 154-155).


- 241 -

) (1988: 39-40), . . (1997: 32) . . (1989: 138). .:


- (, 34);
- (, 65);
- <> (, 89);
- , , (, 217);
- (, 216).
, .. ,
/ ( , , ). (. 1997: 32; 1990: 167-168; 1998: 135-136). . :
- , , (, 105);
- ? (, 111);
- (, 76): : (- -) ( - -)
,
() ( ) (.
1995: 183);
- , , , (, 97)
- (, 99);
- (, 94).
, :
, , . (1989: 38). .:
- , (, 231): , ; (-1: 684)
, ( ), ; , , , (Ibidem),

- 242 -

, ,
, .
, . ( . 1997: 32-33;
2003: 307) , (, 485): ,
, (, ,
), ( ) .
.
. . (1983: 108): (, 24) ,
( , . , ( ) . (1983: 108) , , : . ,
, .
, , , ( (,
) ; ( )
( )). , ( ) . , , .
. , .
.

. (1997: 46-47). , . -,
(1997: 47-48), () (1997: 46 .; . 1997: 62-64) , (pars pro toto totum pro parte,
, ..) (Van Gorp, Ghesquiere & Delabastita 1998: 278).
, , ,
. -,

- 243 -

( = )
(, , (
1997: 48)) ( ), .
.

, ( 1997: 51-52), ,
(. ) (. ) (
), () - . , , ( (1997: 50-51)). ,
(. 1990: 133). , .
,
). , (1989: 136), :
, .
.
- . . (1997: 48). :
- (, 26): (. )
(-1: 333), ; - , ;
( ) , ;
- (, 47): ( ,
, ,
, , (-2: 294))
( , -

- 244 -

; (Ibidem)), , ,
; (,
), , , ;
- (, 105):
, (
), (
(-1: 412-413)): ( ); ( )
();
- , (, 287): , , , ,
; ( ) ();
- (, 387): , , ;
( ) ; . , (, 22): ,
, .
( , , !);
- (, 497): , : ? , ..? , , :
, , ; , , (,
, ) ();
- (, 313): (, ,
, . . (-4: 680)) , (, (Ibidem)), ,
; ,
; , ; (, 80);

- 245 -

, () ()
,
(Ibidem); ,
, ,
, .

- . . (1997: 48-49), . . (1989: 136). :
- (, 188): ; ; , .
(Hodel 2001: 166-167),
, 314 ;
- - (, 290): ,
,

(-3: 660); , , , ( ) ( ); ;
- , (, 248): ; ( ,
) ;
- (, 74): , ()
; (. 1989: 70)
- (, 23): ( -2: 464-465)
, , , ., :
;

. , . (Hodel 2001: 166)


314

- 246 -

- (, 23);
(
), , ( , )
() (. 1989: 70); ,
.
.
.:
- , (, 298); ; ;
-
(, 37): (, ), /
, .
/ (
) , . (. 1997: 49) :
- (, 24) . ;
- (, 50): (, , ),
, ( , ; ) .. (-2: 301); ;
(, ) ( )
( );
(. ); (
: );
- (, 115): , ,
; ;
- (, 300): , ; -

- 247 -

( ),
, , ();
- (, 271): ,
; (),
, (); . -
(, 278);
- (, 24): , ,
; (, )
();
- , (, 352):
, ; () (), (); . (, 247),
, ,
,
;
- (, 299): , ; ()
();
- (, 379): , ( , , (-4:
457)); (
) (, );
-
(, 317): ; ( ) ( ) ( ,
, ); ,
;
-
(, 68): , ( );
,
( ) -

- 248 -

, ; ,
; , 19201930- ,
( . ).
/ ( , , ), - . (.
1997: 49-50) (. 1997: 49-50):
- , (, 324):
, , ,
( , ( , . .) (2: 59); ( , ( ) )
();
- (, 114):
, ,
, (-4: 431); () , , () , ;
- (, 313):
( - / -, - / - (-3: 622)
- / -), , ,
(-1: 85);
( , ) ( ) ();
- (, 346): (. -4: 576);
(, ) ,
();

- 249 -

- () (, 400): ;
,
; ( , )
, ( );
- (, 343): , ,
, , ., , , , , , .; ( ) ();
;
- (, 52):
, , , ;
, ();
- (, 376):
, , ;
, ();
: ;
- (, 102): , ;
, (.. ) (. 1988: 42).
. . (1989: 136), (. ).
, , ,
,

. ,
, - ,
/ . (
1989: 136):

- 250 -

- (, 219):
, ; ;
- (, 212): (), ,
, ;
( ) , ; .
(, 212).
( 1997: 50) - ,
, .
( 1997: 50):
- (, 317): ;
(), ;
- , (,
363): () , ;
- (, 357):
( ) (), ;
- , ,
(, 485-486): ,
, ;
- () (, 202):
() , , ;
.

( 1997: 51), - . ,
,
. ,
: , . ,
.
( 1997: 51):

- 251 -

- (, 353);
- (, 319);
- (, 401).

2.3.2.4.
,
(, ) (. 1993). . . : ,
, , ,
<> ( 1992: 92), , , . , <> - , , <>, , ,
[] , , . ( 1992: 93) ,
. 1993; . . (1985: 257 .), .
(1992-1993: 300), . . (1990: 170 315 ), . (1984: 211; 1992: 9495, 162-175).
(
) , .
, . .
-
(, 304),
. : , . , : (, 306); . (, 259), ,
, ;
(, 341); -

. . , (.. )
, <> . (1990: 170)

315

- 252 -

, ?! (, 487). .
, . , (, 487)
, () , , - ,
. (Seifrid 1984: 213-214)

semantic rhyme (Seifrid 1984: 214). , ( ),
.
, ,
(, , ..).
, (
1992: 92; 1983: 71 316 ; . 1990: 170).
,
,
. , . . , , <> - , ( ). ( 1992:
92) , ,
( ) . .
literalization (Seifrid 1984, 1992), ,
, .
1992- ( ).

, . : 316 . . : -,
; , , , ,
. (1983: 71) . (Ibidem).

- 253 -

, . (, 256); ? <> , (, 526); , , , , ,


, (, 408); , ,
(, 438). , ( ): , () ,
, . ( 1992: 92) ,
. <> ( ) <>.
( 1992: 92) . :
; ! (, 260); () (, 28);

(, 84); [] (, 84); .

2.3.3.
2.3.3.1.
.. ,
317 , .
, () .
(. 1997: 43) , , ..
. , ,
, , . (. 1997: 44-46) , ,
. . , (1990: 166), ,
.
317

- 254 -

( ), ,
, ( )
.
, .
,
.
() , (. 1997: 43):
- (, 79):
() , ( );
, ,
-., -. (-4: -415)
, ,
;
- (, 334):
;
(), ..
, ; . (, 264) [] (, 274), (, )
, ; .
(, 249);
- (, 299):
( ) ;
- (, 29); ,
;
- - (, 42): ,
;

- 255 -

,
.. ( . & 1990: 133);
- (, 361): , ; ; , , (. ); . () , + , ,
: ,
(, 36):
- ( ) (, 13):
;
, -: , ;
- - ,
(, 17): , ,
: ;
, , ; ( )
, ; . ( -), .
, , . ,

(), , ,
.
. ( )
(1995: 168-169). :

- 256 -

- (, 79): , ,
(-, -, -) (-1: 470),
( -); , , ,
-/ - (
- / -) (-2: 528) ; . <> ,
(, 62): , (
) , ; . ()
(, 195), , ;
(. );
- , (, 30):
; ,
- / - ; (. 1983:
105); , : , (
, );
- (, 27): ( + ) (-4: 677);
,
;
- (, 52): , : ;
- (, 76): (-4: 471-472),
, .; , ; ,
. ,

- 257 -

, ( 1995: 175-176);
- ? (, 55):
, (-4: 116); , , ; 318
- <> (, 37): (. -2: 464);
.
:
- () (,
398): - (), - ( ) ; , , , - (-1: 113);
/
.

:
- (, 362): , (
) (-4: 689); , ,
;

, .
. . . . , (.. ) . : , , , . (..
) , , . 318

. . (1995: 186)
- 258 -

,
(, ). ( & 1990: 128-129) ,
, , ( ). ()
(, 358) ()
(). ( & 1990: 129) . (Ibidem) , :
, , . ()
, , . ( ), ,
, , ( + () ). . . , ,
(2003: 318).
, , . (Idem: 129-130)
:
- (, 253):
, , (-2: 533), (, , ),
, ;
,
( / ), (, );
- (, 25): / ( , ..

- 259 -

(-1: 694)); ,
( ),
(); ,
;
- (, 280):
; -
- ,
319 ; , , ( -) (
);
:
- (, 398):
(. -3: 298), ( );
: + (. -3: 280); ( )
;
- (, 509):
,
(-4: 98)
, ;
; (), ;
- (, 333):

, , ,
(-2: 690); -

. (-3: 737-738): 1) -.; 2)


-. <>; 3) , -, -. <>.
319

- 260 -

, , , (-2: 585), ;

(-2: 606) (-2: 585); ,
, (, ) , , /
, (, ), ;
- ( ) , (, 54): (): - (),
; , ( -); ,
(
-) , ( -);
, , , ,
; 320 ;
- , (,
514): ( ( ) + ()
( ));
- , (, 95):
( ), ; :
/ (
) ( );

. / . , , : (1995: 168). , ,
, .
320

- 261 -

- () (, 264): ; (
-1: 542), , , ;
, ; - (.
& 1990: 137);
- (, 27): (. -4: 350);
, (-.
, , , (Ibidem));
: () (); . ;
- (, 72):

, ;
.
: ;
- ( ) (, 23): ;
, ..
.
. ( 2003: 318-319)
,
. (. 1983: 103-104;
1977: 167-168; 1997: 45-46) ( , ), . , ,

- 262 -

, , ,
, , , ( ). ,
, /
/ .
. ,
, ( , -)
. (. 1991: 63)
,
: , ( ), , ( ) . , : , , , . ,
. (. (1983: 103104)):
- (, 50):
+ - ;
- (,
40):
(.. ): - ()
- (. -4: 453); : ( ) (, 26); . , ,
/ / : ,
(, 43) ( )
(, 49);

- 263 -

- ( ) ,
(, 296):
- (-1: 437),
, , , .
- (, 53): , ; ,

( + ), , ,
: ( ) +
;
- (, 39):
( );

, - /
- (. 1995: 170-171) 321 ;
- . : (, 22); - (, 27); , (, 30).
, (. (1983: 104)). .:
- , (, 28): + ; . . ,
(1983: 104); (.
);
- (, 60): ;
- () - (, 413): + - 322 ;

. () . (1995: 170) ,
. , . . , , : <>
. (Idem: 171)
322 . ( 2003: 93).
321

- 264 -

- (,
16): + ;
- (, 65): +
;
- ,
(, 50): , + + , ;
- ,
(, 27): () + , , (-1: 379), .. , ;
- , (, 218): (. ).
2.3.3.2.
, , (., ), ,
, . ,
. , () . :
- (, 77): ( ), ; , , : ; , , ()
1. <> <>, . <> 2.
-., . <>
3. , , . <> (-4: 155);
- (, 28): ( ); .

- 265 -

,
(, , ). ,
. . (
() ). (1995: 171)
, :
- , - (, 25): .

2.3.4. :
, , ,
. ( / , ) . ,
. , . , , a posteriori, . ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
.
,
, . ,
.
/ ,
, ..

- 266 -

. . . . .
() .
.
, ( ):

. ,
, , ,

,
(, ). , ,
,

. , , ,
, , . , ( ; (. ), ,
), , .
.
.
.
,
. , , . ,
, . , ,
, , , , -

- 267 -

- 268 -

2.4.
- ,

, .. , , , , , ,
. 323 ,
, (.. ), .
, , ,
- , . ? . (1997: 78-83), . . (1997: 33), . (1994: 311) . . (2003: 323-325), , , .
, ,
, ,
. (. 1997: 36) , - . (. 1997: 37)
, , , , ,
, , ( ,
(. 1997: 79)). , . :
, , , , , . ( 1997: 36)
, , ,
. , , -
, (. ).

323

, . , , ,
, .
.
, , ( )
, , , , .
. . (1993: 127), . (1997: 79-81), . (1992-1993:
302-303), . . ( ) (1990: 164165, 168), . (Seifrid: 200-201) ( stylistic shift), . (Hodel 2001: 198-200), . .
(2003: 324, 329) . , ,
, , , , , ,
.. ( 1992-1993: 302; Hodel 2001: 199)
,
. ( (, 232), (, 340)).
(. Hodel 2001: 199) , . . ,
( )
, , ( ) . .: (, 308); (, 82);
(, 99); , (, 2724); .. ( 1990: 168). ,
, , , . , , (
, (, 83)), ( (, 82)). (Ibidem)
(, ?) . (. 2003: 326-327). -

- 270 -

+ 5
, ( + 5
) .
,
, ,
, .
, , .
,
- , , ,
, , , , , () ( 1997: 83;
1995: 173 324 ; 1993: 127; 1990: 165; Seifrid 1984: 213214, 218; Seifrid 1992: 92-93; Hodel 2001: 176)), 325 . .:
(, 77) ( , ); <>
(, 332) ( , ); [] (, 330) ( , ); (, 285) ( ,
; . , , , ( ));
(, 249) ( ,
); (, 495); (, 287); (, 90);
(, 517-518); ( )
(, 17);
(, 22); ();
(, 10) ( , ,
); (, 72);
, (, 33); ..
,
. 324 . , . (1995: 173)
325 . Krzung / , ,
, . (Hodel 2001: 176)

- 271 -

, , ,

(. 2001: 82-84). , , , ,
. ,
, .
: (, 190); (
) (, 252); (, 292);
(, 364); (, 478);
(, 508); ,
, (, 28);
(, 32); ()
(, 49); ( ) (, 88);
(, 16); (,
25); (,
26); (, 54) ( ( ));
(, 31); () (, 104);
, (, 37); ..
. .:
(, 80) (, 87).
,
( ) .
( 1993: 127 326 ; 1992-1993: 302) .: ,
(, 192);
(, 84); (, 12). . : (, 191); (, 253); (, 326); (, 389); (, , !) (, 430);
(, 491); (, 23); (, 25); (,

. . (1993: 127).
326

- 272 -

27); (, 32); (, 34);


(, 40); (.. ) (, 17);
(, 38); .. :
. + / . .:
(, 11); (, 30);
, (,
31); ..
, ,
. .: (, 9);
(, 23) ( );
(, 61); (, 91) ( ); (, 249) (
).
, . , () ( ). , ( -, -, -).
( 1997: 79-81; . 1990: 165) .

, , ( + ) ( ), .
(1997: 81-83) , , ; -, ;
(
), . ,
- (
( , -

- 273 -

)) , , .
(. 1997: 79; Hodel 2001: 199) .
:
(, 73); (,
399); (, 449);
, (, 336);
(, 307); (, 452); (, 298);
(, 74).
(.
Hodel 2001: 199): , (, 496); (, 389); (, 304); (, 12);
(, 16); ,
, (, 73). : (, 232),
(, 232) .. (Hodel 2001: 199) , ,
. . (1990: 164), , ,
.
, . -
, , : .
, . . ( -) . , -
, .
(1998: 398) .. ,
( 2003: 324, 326-329).
, , , . ,
,

- 274 -

, , . (. 2003: 330 327 ), , . . , ,


. (1997: 79-80) : ( 328 ), (
),
( ,
) , , ( ) . ( 1997:
83)
: / , , , . ( 1999: 65); ,
,
(, 48) ( 1997: 33); , , ( ) ( 2003: 335). 329 . ( 1966: 203). . . , /
, () , , , :
, ,
; , ,
. (, 388)

327 . . (2003: 330),


, .
328 , . . (Hodel 2001: 199).
329 ( ) . ( 2003: 334-341).

- 275 -

. ( 1989: 28; . 1991: 67; 2003: 334341).

- 276 -

2.5.
- . . , . . . . .
, , . , , .
, .
. ( 1997:
37) , .
. . . .. , , ( )
, , ,

. (Grice 1975: 45) , .. : , ,
. (Grice 1975: 45-48) . . / 330 , (. . )
.
, , . ,
(
)
(, ). ,
,
, .
(. 1997: 67-68) 330

J. L. Austin, How to do things with words. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962.

2.5.1.
. ,
. ( 1997: 38, 66) ,
<>
, (Eadem: 72), , .. . (Eadem: 69, 72)
(Eadem: 66)
?
, , , . () .
: ,
. , , - . (Eadem: 71) . (Eadem: 71-72) :
, . , ( ) ( )
. , , . .
.
, .
. ( ,
), , ( ), -

- 278 -

. :
, , , . <>
. (Eadem: 69-70)

[] ,
, ,
. (Eadem: 70) , ,

( incipit) (Eadem: 72) -, ..
<> ,
, . (Ibidem) , () <> , . (Ibidem)
,
.
, - (Eadem: 70) (.. , ) <> <>. (Ibidem) , - , . (Eadem: 72) ,

(.. ) (.. ).
, ,
. 331 , , -

331 . . : (.. ), , ,
. , ,

- 279 -

. , , , . (Eadem: 38) ,
, . 332
, - , ,
. <>
<>. ,
:
(.. ). , <> , . (Eadem: 71) ,
, [] , , , . (Ibidem) , .. ,
. , ( , ), -,
, : ( ) , , , .. - .

, ..
. ( 1977: 160)
332 ,
, , . , , .. , <> ,
, . ( 1997: 69, 70) .
(Eadem: 68).
- 280 -

2.5.2.
, :
, , , , .
. . ,
. 333
, , . , <> ,
<>, , <>
, , . (
1997: 70-71) (, , ..) (, , ,
..), , . (Eadem: 71) , , , <>

. (Ibidem) , (Ibidem), , ,
. , -,
-. (Ibidem) : , .
, , (!) () ,

. T. A. van Dijk & W. Kintsch, Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press,
1983.
333

- 281 -

. , , , , , <> <>. (Eadem: 70)


. ( 1997: 70)
, <> , , ,
. (Eadem: 71) , [] , ( ) <> . (Ibidem) , - , . , : , ,
( , ), , , , , . , , . , , .
, , :
,
,
, .
. (Eadem: 72)

, ,
<> . , ,
. ( 1997:
72)

- 282 -

:
. ,
,
.
, . (Eadem: 72-73)

, , , . ,
( ), , ,
, , ( ), .

2.5.3.
. .
. . . . :
, .. ( ) ,
(. !).
, , , []
<>. ( & 1990: 127) , ,
, . (Ibidem) , , - , , ,
, ,
, . -

- 283 -

,
, : . (Idem: 128)
, , , , ,
, , (.. ) .. (.
Idem: 132, 1983: 101-102; 2003: 300-322 334 ).
. . : , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , .
(. 1992-1993: 303; 1990: 166; 1985: 294 335 )
. , ,
, , : <> ,
. (1992-1993: 303) , . : , , (, 398-399). , , ,
, . . : ,
<>. (1990: 165) .
, , / ,
(, , , , ) .

. ( 2003: 314-315).
335 . . , <>
<> , , . (1985: 294)
334

- 284 -

2.6.
It would be false as well as unnecessary to try to divorce Platonov from his epoch <>.
(Brodsky 1985: 288)

2.6.1.
, ,
,
. ,
,
() ,
, , , .. . , ,
, , -
, .
, ( ) () , .. , ,
.
- , , , .
() , .. ( , ) , , ..
, ()
,

.
,
(. . (2001), . .
(1995, 1999), . . - (2004), . . (2000), . .
(1997) . (1998, 1998),

()
Lexique de la Guerre et de la Revolution en Russie (19151918) (1920) . , ([1921] 2000) ,
([1923] - 2000) . . . (1917-1926) ([1926] - 2003) . . , . , , 1926-. 336
, () , . -,
() , , .
, , .. , () ,
, ,
- .
, , ( . . ),
, (
), - , (), () . (. 1989: 30) -, () ,
, . , . . , <> . (
. . & . ,
. New York: Rausen Bros, 1955; B. Comrie & G. Stone, The Russian Language since the
Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
. . & . . -, . : . . (ed.), . . . 3: 277-286. :
. . . , 2004.
336

- 286 -

1976: 85) , , . (Ibidem)

2.6.2. ()
- XX- .
, , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
.. 337 ( 2003: 68-84, 121-155; . 2000: 217) . ,
, (
, ) , , , ,
, .. (. 1997: 33)
() , -,
, . , , , 338 .
: (), (.
), , , , , , ,
. (. 2003: 47-50; . Hodel 2001: 201), , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .. (. 2003: 28-35; . Hodel 2001: 201)
() , 339 . , ,
, , () . . ( 2003: 68-69, 81).
338 . ( 2000: 209).
339 . . , [] , , ,
337

- 287 -

, (, ), , (, );
;
.; . (. 2003: 59-62; .
Hodel 2001: 201; 1997: 33)
, , , ,
, .. (. 2003: 63-64)
( ) ()
, , (5 ), , , , . ,
. ( . . 2000: 246-252)
: (.. , , ..); (,
340 , 341 , 342 , 343 ); (, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
344 (), , ..); (, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ..). (.
2003: 158-164; Hodel 2001: 201)

, . (-, -, , -, --, -, - ..) , , , , . (. 2003: 52-53, 184186) (, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, , -, -, -, -, -, -, - .) -

( ). ,
. .
1917 . , , , . ( 2003: 62-63)
340 .
341 , .
342 - - .
343 1.
344 .
- 288 -

, , , , , , .. (. 2003: 171-188)
,
, <> ,
, , 2030- .
(- 2004: 130) ,
, , , , . . , , . . .
. , , . ( 1983: 10) . . , . .
- . . .
- () ,
, (, 67), (, 46), (, 106), (, 106), (, 106), (, 94; ), (, 79) .. ( 1997: 34; 1999: 171; - 2004: 130) 345
. . . , , <>
, <>. ( 1989: 32, . 27)
, , .
(Ibidem) , - , , ..
. (Idem: 30) , , ,
: , , , ( ),
.. - , , . - ,
- -, , , -, - .. ( 1997: 34; 1999: 171; - 2004: 130).

345

- 289 -

, <>
, <>. (Idem: 29)

, , , , . (Ibidem) , ()

() ,

(. ).
,
- , () . (.
1992-1993: 300). . : (, 436), (, 65), (, 49),
(, 80) . . , <> [] <> (1992-1993: 302). .:
(, 82), (, 84), (, 84),
(, 84) ..
,
, () ,
,
() , , , . () , : , , ,
.. , , . , () : () , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , (, , ) , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, . (. 2003: 97-102; 1992-1993:
302)

- 290 -

, , . , , ( ) : , , ,
.. : (), , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .. (. 2003: 8590; . 1997: 33; 1992-1993: 302)
, ()
.
, .
. . - . . . 346
,
, - : , , .
,
. (- 2004: 120) , : , , , , , , , ,
, , , , .... , / , , , . (- 2004: 120)
, ( ), , , , , , , , , ( ) 347 . (Eadem: 121)
, ( & - 2000), - (- 2004).
( ) .
, , .. 2004- .
347 . . - , , ,
, <> <>
(- 2004: 121), . , , , , -, <> <>. (Ibidem)
346

- 291 -

, , , , . (Ibidem)

.
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 348 ..
(Eadem: 122-123) , : , , , , , . (- 2004: 123) ,
, , , . (Ibidem)
, , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
.. , , , , , , , , , .. (Eadem:
124)
- ,
. , : , () .. . (Eadem: 120) , [] <> , , . (Eadem: 124) -,
: ,
(), . (Ibidem) , -,

. (Idem: 121-122).
348 . . - , <> , , , ,
, , . , , , . , ,
, , : ) , ) , , ) . (- 2004: 123)
- 292 -

<>, -, , -, - .

, (Eadem: 125)

:
.
,
, ,
, , . (Ibidem)

, , . , , , , , , , , ,

() ), , , . 349
, , , , ,
. (Eadem: 124) ,
, : - ,
, , .; ,
,
, , . , , / . (Eadem: 125)

. . ,
, .
, , -, - ( ),
. , ,
. ( 2003: 8385) , , , .
349

- 293 -

2.7.
Presque toute la stylistique de Platonov se reflte,
comme dans une goutte deau, dans une seule
phrase.
(Heller 1984: 355)

, ,
, . , , .. , , .
, . , . . 350 . / , , , (
) (1988: 34) , (Eadem: 35). . . ,
. (1989: 29-30) .
(1995: 187); . , /, ,
(1967: 42, ,
); . (Ingdahl 2000: 22); . .
, , , , , , (1983: 70); . . , , , , , , , ,
(1990: 173); . . (1985: 256).
. . (2003)
. (.. , )
- , 350 . . , : , ,
<>
. ( 1988: 34)

, , . (. 2003: 51-62),

.
; ( , ,
, , , , , , , , ); / ; (, , ;
, ( );
( , , , ..); / ; / ;
( , ); / ( ) ( ); ,
; / /
/ ; / (, / ); , ,
; ( ). (2003: 53-58)
.. :
, <>
(1990: 173), .. - , - . . .

(
) - , , :
, , . ( 2003: 59)

- 295 -

3.

3.1.

, .
, .
.
( 1990: 165)

, .
, (.. ) ( ). , . . (2004: 286)
. , (. . , . . , . . , . . , . ). , , . (. . 351 . 352 )
. . . , , ..
. (1993: 125)
352 :
, (1995: 165),
(.. , )
, . () 351

18- 19- , <> [], [] [] ,


[] , . ( 2004: 281) 353
, ,
, . . . , ,
: : <>
,
. (2004: 281)
,

. , , . , . .

(
) -, ( 1995: 175), ( ), ..,
. , (. ) (1995: 186), .
(. ) (1995: 186), , .
353 . . ,
, . , <>
, <> . ( 1991: 96) ,
[] - , ;
, , . (Ibidem) <> 2030-
, [] ,
. (Ibidem) , , []
<> (Ibidem), ,
, , . , , : <> ,
. (Ibidem)
- 298 -

3.1.1.
, , . , , , . , <>
<> ( ..)
<>. ( 1990: 64) ,
<> , <> ( ) , , <> , . ( 2003: 47). , <> [],
, ( 2003:
47), .. .
: ,
langue parole . ,
(, ) , ,
? , ,
,
.
: . . , , , , , , ..
. 354 ( 1990: 64) , ,
. , ,
. . ,

. - - ( , , . .), , ?? ??. 355

. . , . . (Coseriu 1971b: 61
) N. S. Trubetzkoy, Grundzge der Phonologie. Prague: Akciov moravsk knihtiskrna Polygrafie v Brn, 1939 (Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague, 7), . 5-17. . Wir bezeichnen die
Sprechaktlautlehre mit dem Namen P h o n e t i k , die Sprachgebildelautlehre mit dem Namen P h o n o l o g i e , . 7.
355 . ( 1990: 64).
354

- 299 -

( 1990: 66) , : / / .
, , , . .
:
, , , : ??

??

. ,

() : , . , ,
, , .
,
. ,
, . . : , - , , , <> .
( 1990: 70) ,
( ) ,
. . Sistema, norma, y habla 356 . ,
/ langue parole
357 , (sistema), (norma)
(habla).
, (..
) . ,
, ,

. , ,
, / . 358
(Coseriu 1971b: 67) ,
, Begleitwerk ,
. . (Coseriu 1971b: 67-68)

Studi linguistici in onore di Vittore Pisani, Bd. 1: 235-253. Brescia: Paideia,


1969.
357 langage langue parole langue parole, , . (Coseriu 1971b: 53-61).
358 , . .
356

- 300 -

, (
, ) .
:
, , . , , , . (Coseriu 1971b: 67, 69)
: , , , , ,
, . (Coseriu 1971b: 69)
, . ,
(. ). (Coseriu 1971b: 69) , , ..
(soziale Norm) . 359 (Coseriu 1971b: 68)
, ,
.. (individuelle Norm): <> bei deren Abstraktion nur die noch nie geusserten und
ganz okkasionellen Elemente des Sprechens eliminiert werden, aber all das bewahrt
wird, was Wiederholung, konstantes Modell in den Redeakten des betreffenden Individuums ist. (Coseriu 1971b: 68-69)
, ,
, . <> beziehen sich auf das Sein und nicht auf das Werden. (Coseriu 1971b: 71)
(, Sprachwandel) . , (. ),
,
: [Der Mechanismus des Sprachwandels ist] <> in erster Linie
Auflehnung gegen die Norm <>, jedoch eine <> Auflehnung, die vom System
erlaubt ist, eine Besttigung der Freiheit des Ausdrucks des Individuums gegen die
359 , . , . .
, .

- 301 -

Auflagen der gesellschaftlichen und der kulturellen Norm, jedoch in vlliger bereinstimmung mit den vom System gebotenen Mglichkeiten. (Coseriu 1971b: 7172) 360 ,
. . ?

??

??,

, ,
. 361
, , : ? ,
362 : <> die dichterische Sprache [erscheint] nicht
als ein Sprachgebrauch unter anderen, sondern als Sprache schlechthin, als Verwirklichung aller sprachlichen Mglichkeiten. 363 (Coseriu 1971a: 184) ,
<> da die dichterische Sprache die volle Funktionalitt der Sprache darstellt, da
also die Dichtung der Ort der Entfaltung, der funktionellen Vollkommenheit der
. . , , . , -
(langue - parole), . ( ) (. ). , : ,
, (..
) () , () , , . ,
, ,
, , , , .
361 . . , . ,
(, ) .
(Bartsch 1987: 154) (Gloy 1975: 70 , 119 ).
362 dichterische Sprache . ,
.
, . . : Ich habe das Wort Dichtung mit der Deutschen Bedeutung verwendet, die nicht nur Gedichte, sondern auch Romane, Erzhlungen usw. einschliet. Es liee sich brigens anhand von Texten zeigen, da die verschiedenen literarischen Formen nach denselben Kriterien analysiert werden knnen, ohne da dabei ein wesentlicher Unterschied zwischen poetischer und literarischer Sprache erkennbar wird. (Vierte Diskussion
1971: 284)
363 , : Die dichterische Sprache kann folglich nicht als Reduzierung der Sprache auf eine sog. dichterische Funktion interpretiert werden und auch nicht als Sprache + einer sog. dichterischen Funktion. Einerseits stellt die
dichterische Sprache keine Reduzierung der Sprache dar, anderseits wird eigentlich keine Funktion
hinzugefgt, da die verschiedenen Mglichkeiten, die in ihr aktualisiert werden, auch schon bei der
Sprache schlechthin festgestellt werden. (Coseriu 1971a: 184-185)
360

- 302 -

Sprache ist. (Idem: 185) , ; ,


: Die Dichtung ist nicht etwa Abweichung gegenber einer andersgegebenen Sprache, eher ist die alltgliche Sprache eine solche Abweichung gegenber einer totalen Sprache. (Ibidem)
, , , .

1960-1970- ( ),
364 . , , ,
. , , . , , ,
, ,
. ,
, , , .

3.1.2.

?
, :

.

. ( )
, -

. . . . (Coseriu 1971a: 184-187).


364

- 303 -

:
, , . ,
. , ( , ):
(
).
, , , , Sturmkreiss . . ( (Coseriu) Coserick (
!)). (White 1990: 240 .) , .. ( ), , () Sturmkreiss
: ,
. ,
,
.
, : . (
,
(1963))
, - ( 2000: 176 365 , 179), ,
, . 366

.: ,
,
. ( 2000:
176)
366 , . . . : , , , , ( 2000: 176)).
, 365

- 304 -

()
, , ,
. . . , ,
, () . . . ( 1989: 69) . 1977- . : <> ,

:
. ( 1977: 160)
, : <>

, ;
, , , -. (
1977: 170)
. . , [] ,
, <> (, , ) , . ( 1992: 47) . . 1990 :
, . , , . ( 1990: 167)

. , ,
, , (. , . .
.). , , -

, :
, , . (Ibidem)
- 305 -

, . (Hodel 2001: 330-333) ( , ) ,


(das System der Rede), . (Hodel 2001: 280, 284)
, , . , ,
(, , . 280),
ein Verstoss gegen das System der Rede. (Hodel 2001: 148, 174, 284) das System
der Rede (.. ), ,
.
, das System der Rede () . / /
. .:
Platonovs Sprache und Narration erscheinen in wesentlichen Aspekten als Verstoss
gegen die Literatursprache, deren feste Verankerung in der langen Tradition des
zentralistischen Staates grndet. Die Radikalitt seines Sprachverhaltens spiegelt dabei den ungetrbten Status der literatursprachlichen Norm wider. (Hodel 2001: 357)

.
( ) , . ,
.
, , ..
, .
, ()
, , . / ()
( 1999: 65), - (
1995: 175), (.. -

- 306 -

) ( 1995: 179-181 367 ), (


) ( 1995: 182), XVIIIXIX .,
XX .
( 1995: 172-173; 1993: 126). .

( ) (
). 368 (Seifrid 1984: 198-199)
.
,
, , ,
,
, : <> die sprachliche Kreativitt des 18. Jahrhunderts, die Abwendung von bereits systematisierten, etablierten Kirchenslawisch, die Hinwendung
zum prostoj slog prostonareija <> (Markstein 1978: 133). , . (Markstein 1978: 131)
, ()
. . ( ) : , (, 21);
(, 21); (, 22). . . : ( ); <>
( ); ( ). . . :
(); , ( . . ).
. . : ; . . . : 21- (. ). ( Markstein 1978: 131)
. (Markstein

, . ,
, ; . ( 1995: 179)
368 . .
367

- 307 -

1978: 132 369 ). . . . :


(), . . ( ). ( Markstein 1978: 132-133) . (Markstein 1978: 132)
,
- ( )
. .
: (, 26); (, 47); (, 298); (, 105); ,
(, 287); (, 387).
. . . ; ;
; . . . ,
(), (Argenida), (). . . : ; ( ).
(Markstein 1978: 132-133)

(.. ), , , .. . .
, (); ( );
<> (). . . : (), . . (
) ; . (
Markstein 1978: 131-132). . . ,
(1866): .
. . , , , ., . . ( 2000: 385) ( figurae etimologicae) , , , / , ,
, Die kanzleisprachlichen Einschbe, im Zusammenhang damit dienach Lomonosovs Klassifizierung schwebende Periode (zybljuiesja periody), die Verworrenheit der syntaktischen Konstruktionen bei Deravin, Fonvizin, Lomonosov. (Markstein 1978: 132)

369

- 308 -

( ). (Ibidem;
2003: 302) , , , . , ( )
( ),
.
, . ,
370 ,
,
.
. : (,
(, 201)), (, (,
454)) , (, , ) (, (, 37)).
, , . ,
, , , ,
, , /
, , / (. ; , ;
) (-1: 500).
, , ,
, , .
, ,

.: . . , . , : : 69-71. : . , 1979; .
. , ,
. , : . : 83-89. :
. 40- , 980; . .
& . . , rtio . , : : : 140-146. : , 1993.
370

- 309 -

, , , , , , . , -
.
. , ,
- ., ., .

.
, , , .
,
,
, , (, 364),
, ,
(, 33), (, 43) (, 62).
, ,
(). ,
,
, (
). , , : / , ,
.
, (1932) .
. :
, .
. ( 1994: 306)
(Idem: 307),
. , ,
:
- (cf. infra) ..
,

- 310 -

. ,
. . .
, , , .
:
,
, .
, . , , , , ,
. ( 2004: 55-56)371

() , , ,
, . , () , ( ). ,
.
,
(, ,
, . (1997)). , , , ( ) .
(
), -, (
, , ) (, ).
, , ( ),
. ,
(, ). .
.
,
, .
371 . . . : <> , . ( 1993:
187)

- 311 -

, .
()
, , ..
, .

3.1.3. ,
3.1.3.1.
, , , .
, , / : ( ) ,
.
(. , . . , . . , .
. .) ,
. . . ,
(
1920- 1930- )
, ,
1920- , , ,
(.. ),
, , . ,
- .
-
: ( ),
(.. ( )) , , ,
, , , . , :
,

- 312 -

, 372 , ,
, (?) .
() , .
, , , ,
, ,
.
, .
,
( ) (. . ), 373 . ,
. , ,
, .

3.1.3.2.
The question of Platonovs relation to any specific
modernist aesthetic is an intriguing one for which
there exists no easily documented answer.
(Seifrid 1992: 220)

374 : , , .. , . ,
,
. , ,
. (White 1990: 215 ).
373 , , , , , . . . , , : : : 436. : , 2001; . . ,
, : , . 2: 376387. : , . . . , 2003.
374 . ( 2005:
34).
372

- 313 -

? , , . , , , . , ,

( ) ,
.
,
, , 19201930- ,
. :
, ,
,
? ( 1996: 56-57) , , , . , ,
,
, . (. 1996: 56) , , ..
, . (Heller 1984: 346 375 ; 2005: 34)
,
(
/ ) . , ,
, <> ,
, <> , , ,
. ( 2005: 34) . , , . (Seifrid 1996: 239) : -

<> na jamais fait montre dun got particulier pour lart moderne. (Heller 1984:
346)

375

- 314 -

.
, , , . 1924- ( )

(, , 376 , 377 )
. 378 ( 2004: 259-269) 379 , . , <>
, <>
, : . ( 1995: 39; .
2005: 42-43; Seifrid 1992: 220)
, ( ), 1923- ,
- ,
, , , ,
. ( 1923: 3-11) 380 , . . , . ,
. . . , 381 (1923-1925). (Waegemans 1999: 243; 2000: 311; 2005: 33) , . (. 382 ), ,
, . :
: -,
- , , ,
-. ( 1995: 39)
. (Idem: 39-41).
377 . , , , , ,
. . ( 2004: 438). . , , . . (
& 2004: 461-462), . (Idem: 429-466).
378 , 1924, 1, . 93-96; 2, . 74.
379 . : , . ,
... ( ).
, ,
, . ( 1995: 40)
380 . ( 2000).
381 . , . (Seifrid 1992: 30)
382 . , 1923, 1, . 12-39.
376

- 315 -

, . ( 1995: 39; 2005:


33; Seifrid 1996: 243; Waegemans 1999: 243) . . ,
:
. ( 2005: 43)
, . :
- . , , , , , , .
, ,
1924-1926 . ( 1995: 41, . 35,
112) 383

. ( )
384 . ,
<> [], , , <>
- , . ( 1995: 96, . 37)
,
1925-1927- ( , ,
, ) 385
, . . ( 1995: 40-41, 96-134, 140-141).
. ( 1993: 147)
. . , < >, : ( 1994a: 169-171)
385 . . ,
, , , ,
, . ( 2005: 43) . , , ,
. ( 1993: 147-148)
383
384

- 316 -

,
, .. , (
) . . .
, (. 1990: 81). . . , . . (
), , , ,
: , , <> ntaient lis ni par des relations personnelles ni par des activits communes; la limite, ils pouvaient ne rien savoir lun de lautre, , <> ils se ressemblent au plus profond de leurs crations. (Heller 1984: 346) (
), , , . ,
, (),
. (Heller 1984: 360-361, 363, 370) , , :
,
( ). . , . . , , , , , , ,
.. (Heller 1984: 362) , : <> une vision du monde que lon pourrait
nommer le no-fiodorovisma <>, .. <> base directement ou non sur les
ides de Fedorov et enrichie par dautres lments et dautres influences <>. (Heller 1984: 370) ( . ) ( ), ( , , ) ( , , 386 , , ,

.: Hlebnikov, Filonov, Platonov veulent changer le monde et, pour le faire, ils font appel
lartisan. Arm dune science qui prolongera ses bras et ses sens (le rve de Florenskij), lartisan pourra

386

- 317 -

). (Heller 1984: 362-365, 370) .


- () 387 . (Seifrid 1992: 30; Seifrid
1996: 242) 388

( , ). .
389 . ( 1982: 217) . . , , ,
, . ( 1993: 197) .
-

, 390 , 1919-,
1928- . ( 1996: 57, 59-64) 391
, , . . <> [] [] [], [] ptrir le temps, lespace, la ralit, en les palpant, en les vrifiant tout moment, sans se laisser dtourner de sa tche par une dmagogie de formules toutes faites.
En fait, je pense quautant que combattants, Filonov, Hlebnikov, Platonov, sont eux-mmes
ces artisans: les artisans du temps. (Heller 1984: 370)
387 , , . , . . , , . (Heller 1984:
363)
388 . , / ,
. . (Seifrid 1992: 94-95).
389 , , .
. . ( 1996: 56-57)
390 -. . . , . : , / (, , / , ,- , / - , / - !). ( 1993) . , , , , .
, . ,
, , . . ( 1996: 59-64)
391 , (
), <> , , , , . ( 1996: 64)
- 318 -

[] , [] , , , . ( 2005: 34-35) ,
. ( 2005:
35-37) , ,
, : -, ,
; -, : , ; -, ; -, ; -, ; .. ( 2005: 37-42) . .
()
--, . ( 1990: 80)
. . (, , ). ( 1990: 78-80)

, ,
. . . . , , ,
, ,
. (1925-1926). ( 1995: 96, 124134; 2004: 72-78 392 ) . . (Seifrid 1992: 83) 393 . , . facelessness (-

. . .

: A. . , : . . . . . , 1992. , .
. . ,
. . : ,
: , . 3: 82-94, 1994.
393 . , ( ) 1920- 1930- , <> a series of often bizarre events within a loose, anti-novelistic form <>. (Seifrid 1992: 18)
392

- 319 -

) (Wachtel 2000: 252) , , .


. facelessness
,
(Wachtel 2000: 250) <> an avoidance of the devices
of traditional psychological prose (Wachtel 2000: 259). ,
, , <> attempted to
find an adequate expression for Soviet reality, a reality they accepted and in which
they probably believed. (Wachtel 2000: 250)
, <> drove both the
prose of Platonov and the figurative painting of Malevich from 1928 to 1932 and led
them to produce the faceless portraits <>. (Wachtel 2000: 269) 394
. . . . . , <> , , []
. ( 2005:
40) . ,
(, ),
, .. .
, , , ,
: ,
, .. ,
. (Heller 1984: 358-359)
, , ( ) .
, , (, , ,
). , , .. , .
, , , ( )
.. (Heller 1984: 359-360) :

. . . , . . ( 2005: 40)
394

- 320 -

Je crois que cela vient du fait que le temps platonovien navance pas en ligne droite :
les temps se confondent, le temps rel et le temps mental, le prsent et le pass. La
narration qui ne peut pas slancer librement spaissit, devient trs dense. Chaque
fragment du texte, chaque phrase, se trouve charg lextrme. (Heller 1984: 360)

-
,
( ; ) ,

(une

mthode

no-primitiviste,

mais

non

primitive):
Une srie de techniques est employe en consquence: une vision enfantine, primitive, mythologique, analphabte, populiste, etc. Leurs fonctions sont la distanciation (ostranenie) et le sdvig. Le motif de lopration serait, selon le cas, renouveler
les procds; rendre une spontanit et une sincrit la dmarche artistique;
sopposer lacadmisme oppressant; sapprocher de la vraie ralit, obscurcie par
des conventions admises. (Heller 1984: 366)

() , , . , ,
, , ,
:
? , , ,
: ( ) - -
( 1993: 185). , : , , . , . , <> there is
little is his (.. ) works to suggest that their verbal peculiarities arise
out of a self-conscious, avant-gardiste assault on linguistic and artistic convention.
(Seifrid 1992: 18) : Against such a connection argue his (..
) provincialism and his failure, uncharacteristic for the avant-garde, to associate

- 321 -

himself with any of the movements devoted to the destruction of conventional literary language <>. (Idem: 220) . : Despite their fostering of new meanings in unexpected contexts, the solecisms is his work remain alien to mondernisms
cult of aestheticism, its exuberant setting free of the word as such and revealing in
the freedom of language and its inexhaustible resources. (Seifrid 1992: 88)
, ,
( , , rendering
the verbal surface of the text palpable and revitalizing poetic speech), . (Seifrid 1992: 88) 395 ,
: (, ),
(, . )
. ,
: , , ,
, . , ,
, . - :
, , ; ,
, ,
, . ( 1990: 43)
,
-
(. 1995: 141). ,
: , ;
(-) , , ;
, , ()
? ,
. , , ,

. (Seifrid 1992:
18; Seifrid 1996: 239).
395

- 322 -

- , .
. . (2004: 66) (,
), , () . ,
, , , ,

, . sui
generis. ,
. , -
, , . , .
- , , (), , , ( 396 ), ,
397 . . ( 2004: 55-57) 398 .
1920-
?: , . ( 2001: 11)
. , , 396 . ( 1997: 47) ( 1990: 164).
397 . . , ,
, ,
( )
. . . . ,
. 20- , : . , . 1: 99110. : . 1976.
398 . . . :
. ,
: , , - . ( 2004: 55)

- 323 -

, ,

. ,
, . , / ( ..)
, . (Markov 1967: 52) (1913), (), , ,
. 399 () , , . .
, , .
, , , . , , , .
, , , .

, , : ; ;
(Markov 1967: 52);
( ); ,
; ; ;
; .. (Ibidem)
, . Manifesto tecnico della Letteratura futurista (1912) L'immaginazione senza fili e le Parole in libert
(1913), , .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . . . ,
<> revolutionizing language at
the level of syntax-reduction and thus creating a new hyper-economical sentence structure <>.
(White 1990: 215) . Marjorie Perloff, The Futurist Moment. Avant-Garde, Avant Guerre, and the
Language of Rupture. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1986, . 56-64.
, , . ,
, .
399

- 324 -

, , , . . , , . (Markstein 1978: 127). . -


,
, , , ,
,
, , . (- 1981: 251) , , , :
;
; ? ( ),
,
. . , , , . - , <> gnraliser partir daspects
isols de potiques diffrentes <>. (Heller 1984: 351)
. ,
<> the striking deformations to which he (.. ) subjects the Russian language <>) (Seifrid
1992: 18) . (. Seifrid 1992: 18, 88) (Seifrid 1996) ,

. ,
. , () , , ,
. (Seifrid 1996: 239) , , , , . . :

- 325 -

Like the primitivists, Platonov saw the precultural as fertile ground for new meanings, and both he and they canonized crudity as a source of aesthetic deformation.
When Platonovs works of the late 1920s and early 1930s subsequently begin to use
these deformations as the basis for a parody of Soviet political clichs, the analogy
with the avant-garde poetic appears still more compelling. (Seifrid 1996: 240; .
Seifrid 1992: 18) 400

, <> (deriving) from the dichotomy between conventional, cliched language and experimental linguistic forms that
dislodge those clichs <>. (Seifrid 1996: 240) , ,
,
,
. , (<> (deriving) from the dichotomy between conventional, clichd language and experimental linguistic forms
that dislodge those clichs <>), . Clichd language ( , ), , ,
, .. , . 401 ,
,
() ,
, . , . . : His (.. ) is rather a kind of de
facto modernism developed, at a remove from the centers of Russian modernist culture, out of the satirical-grotesque tradition of Gogol, Leskov, and Saltykov-Shchedrin and emphatically preserving the
crude perspective of the semi-literate provincial masses <>. If they resemble anything in the modernist canon, Platonovs works are closer to the distortions and formal violence of Picassos Les Demoiselles dAvignon or, to draw the parallel with Platonovs own culture, the primitivism of Larionovs
imitations of peasant woodcuts <>. But even here, the divergent aims of Platonovs deformations
and those of modernism as we generally understand it must be taken into account. (Seifrid 1992: 18)
401 , . . , ,
. . , : Such a
catalogue of specific devices ( . . ), however, is less important than the attention Platonovs texts draw to themselves, once free from the social etiology of skaz, as occasions for using the word outside the boundaries of its standard set of possibilities and in such a way as to expand [its] combinatory valence (Tsvetkov, Iazyk A. P. Platonova, p. 97), practices essentially related to literary modernisms infatuation with difficult form (zatrudnennaia forma) and indirect usage (nepriamoe slovoupotreblenie) as a means for rendering the verbal surface of the text palpable and
revitalizing poetic speech. The analogy with an avant-garde poetic appears all the more compelling in
light of the works of the late 1920s and early 1930s, in which deformations supply the basis for a parody of Soviet political clichs. (Seifrid 1992: 88)
400

- 326 -

, , , , .
,
( 1993), , <>
, <>,
, .. ( ). ( 1993: 145-146) 402 1920- . : ,

(deformation of syntag (sic) Marinetti) . ( 1993: 146) 403 ,
() , ,
. , . 404 ,
, (Seifrid 1996):
, , ,
. . . , : <> Platonov represents the
paradoxical conjunction of certain features that separate skaz and ornamental modernism in their otherwise shared emphasis on the aesthetically self-valuable word: the orientation in skaz toward forms
of speech outside the literary norm (particularly oral and dialectical) and the effort in ornamental prose
to elevate the language of prose to the level of poetic speech. (Seifrid 1992: 89)
403 . : <> the destruction of syntax (Marinetti) in his
(.. ) prose ultimately proceeds under different poetic auspices than that in the
works of such writers as Belyi, Kriuchenykh, and Klebnikov. Despite their fostering of new meanings
in unexpected contexts, the solecisms is his work remain alien to mondernisms cult of aestheticism,
its exuberant setting free of the word as such and revealing in the freedom of language and its inexhaustible resources. (Seifrid 1992: 88) : <> at the same time that it
achieves many of the same effects as the literature of the avant-garde, Platonovs prose retains from its
skaz origins an air of inadvertency that makes it appear nave, innocent of its deformations, anything
but the premeditated product of artistic virtuosity. (Ibidem)
404 . , : <>
while the kind of prose Platonov was beginning to write in the mid twenties distinctly represents a
form of distorted speech (kosnoiazychie), it is not that lofty form of it (vysokoe kosnoiazychie) prescribed by Gumilev and aspired to in one form or another by the exemplars of Russian and European
modernism. It is instead a form of speech making claims for itself similar to that of a iurodivyj. (Seifrid 1992: 88-89)
402

- 327 -

, . , , , -
. ( 1993: 146)

,
, , (1996), , -
, , ( 1993: 147), . ()

. ( 1993: 147) . , ,
,
. , , , ( ),
( ), .
. , .
, .
(Heller 1984: 355, 357) , , : <> ne poussons pas trop loin lanalogie, les diffrences sont videntes. (Heller 1984: 357) ( )
, , ( ), , ( ..),
( ) .. (Heller 1984: 355-356) , , .

- 328 -

, . (, , ) , . , ,
.
. ,
; , , . ,
. ,
, .,
, , . . . , , ,
,
, : (.. ) ,
. ( 2004: 72-73) 405 , , .. , , . ,
, , ,
(cf. infra),
.
. ,
, - ( , / ). , , : Ein Gutteil von Platonovs Frhwerk erweist sich als Prosa, die unter die sthetischen Konzeption der Avantgarde
fllt, deren Gedankegut jedoch weitgehend den Anfngen des neuen (spter sozialistisch genannten) Realismus verpflichtet ist. (Hodel 2001: 44) , , , Wortkunst (Idem: 44). (, , ,
..) (Idem: 47-49, 51-54), - (Idem: 49-51), (, ,
, , , . . . : <> ,
, ; .
( 2004: 73)

405

- 329 -

, , , -
..) (Idem: 54-55), (
) (Idem: 63). , 1920- , ( ,
() ): (..
) . , ,
(
) : (Wortkunst) ,
. (Hodel 2001: 45-46)

3.1.3.3.
, , , , . . 406 , .. ,
. , :
; , , , 407 . ,
. , . - ,
, , - .
,
, , .
407 . R. Jakobson, Selected Writings, Phonological studies (I). The Hague, Paris: Mouton, 1973, .
632; W. G.Weststeijn, Het Russisch futurisme en de vernieuwing van de potische taal. : Forum der
Letteren, 21/2: 79-101, 1980. . 82-83.
406

- 330 -

,
, -, , , (. Waegemans 1999: 229; White 1990: 216)
(),
.
. , ,
. , .. , , , , .
.
() 408 , , . , <>
, , . ( 1983: 193194) , ,
, , 409 . (
) (, ),
, - (
1983: 193), . ,
. . ,
, [] -

. . . : <> ,
, , . . ,
. . . , , : . , . 2: 57-67. : , 1992, . 57.
409 , ,
, . . , <> . ( 1983: 70)
. ( 1983: 70-71).
408

- 331 -

<>. ( 1983: 43) ,


: -,
<>
, <>; -, ,
<> <> <>
<>. ( 1983: 43)
. , []
. ( 1983: 62) , , ,
. , , , , . . . ( 1983: 62)
, , , , , , ..? 410 , , , ,
. -,
<> , , , . , (!),
, <> , ,
, , . ( 1983: 63)

-,
() , <> . ( 1983: 63) :
( . ) , , , ,
:
. . , 53 .
( 1983: 84-119).

410

- 332 -

, / / .. . , ,
. (
1983: 63)
, , ,
, . 411 ,
,
, , . 412 (. 1983: 63, 64; &
1992: 128) , , , , (, , ).
, (),
(), (), ( ) ( 1983: 65) , - (-,
-, -), 413 , :
( & 1992: 128),
.. ,

.
, ,
( 411). : ( as ), ,
(.. ), , (, , , ..) .. ( 1983: 67-68)
, , .. (
1983: 68-69)
412 . . (, , ) . . (White 1990: 228 248). . . , (Markov
1967: 181-182): Invent par des Russes, il (le zaoum ) a fatalement lapparence russe. Mais il
pourrait y avoir un zaoum franais, un zaoum allemand ou anglais, ou mme international, ce qui,
dailleurs, en diminuerait laccessibilit. Le russe est peut-tre la langue la plus souple, la plus riche en
interfrences, en possibilit de jeu sonore et verbal, en sons qui, en dehors dus sens catalogu, semblent absorber des significations ou des germes de signification mans du monde extrieur. C'est-dire que la figure des sons est infiniment plus expressive dans la reprsentation dus sens du mot et de
lobjet verbal, dans la langue russe que dans la franaise ou langlaise, par exemple. (Idem: 181)
413 , . : , . 1: 115-116. : , 2001.
411

- 333 -

, (,
) 414 ( 1983: 65, 74).
, ( ), , : , , , . , : , <>
<> ( 1983: 43), , , , ,
. , , , , . , , . ,
(, ) :
, , : , .
. 415 , . .
[] ( 1983: 64)
, ( ) , . , ( ) :
, 416 . ( 1983: 64) , -

. . : ,
,
, . ( 1983: 65)
415 . . . : <> , <>. ( 1983: 69-70)
416 , ,
, <>
, , <> .
( 1983: 74) , . . :
414

- 334 -

, ,
( 1983: 201)
, ,
.
. . -, , () (). 1991-
, ,
.
(Hansen-Lve 1991: 15) <> verkrpert in erster Linie die Verfremdungs-sthetik der (kubo)-futuristischen Avantgarde <>, also ein Modell der Avantgarde, in dem das Prinzip der Neuheit (novizna), Disharmonie, negativen Verfremdung, des Normbruches, der dadaistischen Performanz, des Skandals etc. dominierte. (Hansen-Lve 1991: 15) ,
, , . , <> die agressive, auf Shock- und berraschungseffekte zielende Ausrichtung der futuristischen Manifeste <> (Hansen-Lve 1991:
15), . , , , ,
eine Art mythopoetischen Archaismus
(Hansen-Lve 1991: 15), .

/ , , .
, ,
. , , , .. , . . (Hansen-Lve 1991: 15-16) 417
. <>, . (Ibidem)
417 . (Hansen-Lve 1991: 15-18).
- 335 -

, , . - ,
, , , . , . - , ,
. (, , , ). (HansenLve 1991: 19, 20) , [f]r Kruenych beschrnkt sich die zaumDichtung zunchst auf die nackter Prsentation sprachlicher (grammatischer) Irregularitten, d.h. auf die Deformation einer Gegebener Norm. (Hansen-Lve 1991: 35,
. 26-28) , -,
- (Hansen-Lve 1991: 35),
( ), , .. , : . (Hansen-Lve 1991: 34) , -,
, () ( ) , .
() , (Hansen-Lve 1991: 19) ,
(Hansen-Lve 1991: 34). , -, - . (Hansen-Lve 1991:
26)
, , . , . , -. .. (, -
-)
. (..
, ), ,
, .
-

- 336 -

. .
, , . , , ,
( )
( , , -, ).
, (), . , , , , . , , , : ( , ), :
,
, , . , (.. )
, ,
,
. , ,
, .. . . 418 ,
( ).
-
, . : Chlebnikovs Sprachrealismus <> erstrebt
die Erzeugung neuer Sprach-Dinge <> und eines neuen Kode unabhngig von
den vorgegebenen Sprachnormen, wogegen sich Kruenych mit dem Durcheinanderschtteln der Grammatik, Syntax und Wortbildung begngt <> (HansenLve 1991: 35) , , , ,
, ,
( ) . , ,
418 , , , , ,
- - - (. ).

- 337 -

(). (Durcheinanderschtteln) , (, )
: (Durcheinanderschtteln), ( ( ), , , ) , , , . , ,

(eine

Deformation) .
, .

3.1.3.4.
. ,
, . . , . . .
, , . . . ,
. . ( 1994: 155). .
: <> en quoi Platonov peut tre compar avec Oberiu: prcisment par les
mmes aspects de son uvre qui le rapprochent de Hlebnikov. Ce nest pas un hasard si parmi tous les Oberiu, selon lobservation perspicace de Brodskij, le plus proche de Platonov est Zabolockij, le plus fidle continuatuer de Hlebnikov. (Heller
1984: 357) 419 ,
, , (
).
, .

. , ( ) ,
a paradoxical terrain between skaz and modernism (Seifrid 1992: 89). ,
[n]ot, despite many points of resemblance, does his (.. ) poetic coincide with that
of someone like Zabolotskij in whom a certain intentional childishness of speech is also linked with a
posture of empathy for lower forms of being), since Platonovs prose avoids an aestheticizing turn toward transsense (zaum) and absurdity by sincerely insisting on the existential themes yielded up
(as it were, prophetically) by its deformations of the language of Soviet officialdom. (Seifrid 1992:
173)
419

- 338 -

, ,
420 . ( & 1992: 157)
, ,
. ( & 1992: 129) 421
, . . , , , , , . (. & 1992: 137-138) ,
, , . () , , ,
.
. . . , - .
, , ( ), . 422
( & 1992: 130-133) ( & 1992: 131) , :

, , .

. . ,
. . ( & 1992:
128-129).
421 . , . ( & 1992).
422 . : The way in which
one line of a poem, or phrase in an often anaphoric sequence, enters into a paradigmatic relationship
with those around it, to the extent that one gains the impression that the various utterances have been
generated by the use of a literary version of the slot-and-filler procedure. (White 1990: 263 )
420

- 339 -


, , . <> 423

, ,
,
: . ( & 1992: 130, . 133-138; 1991: 90-91).
- .
,
( ), ..
() ,
. ( & 1992: 131, 139-147)
, , ,
.
<>
,
,
,

,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,

. . , , .
. , , 2: 158-163. Bremen: K-Presse, 1978, . 159.
423

- 340 -

,
.
<> ( 1991: 143-144)


, , , ( ). (, , ) ,
. ( & 1992: 147)

[
,

]


. 424

, , , . ( & 1992: 138-139) :








. 425 ( )

, : . , , . . , . 2: 87-108.
Bremen: K-Presse, 1978, . 200-201
425 .
, . ( & 1992: 138).
( 1991: 121-124).
424

- 341 -


/ . , -, , (, ) ( & 1992: 140) /, -, , (, ) ( & 1992:
142). , , . ,
, .
, , , , ,
. : () ,
. ( & 1992: 130, 147)
(, )
, ()
. ,
(
), ,
. ( & 1992: 148-149) . (
1991: 51-52):
<>

:
.
<>

, ( ). (), -

- 342 -

, , . ,
, ( - -),
. (. & 1992: 148-149)
, ..

, .
(Idem: 149-151) . :
( 1991: 54-55).

,
. , 426 , , . (
& 1992: 151-152) , , , (Idem: 151-152).
, (,
) . , :
() , , .
, .
( ) ,
( ), , ,
/ , . , ,
, .
. . . , ,
.. ( 1983: 144-145) 427
, , , ,
: ( 1991: 68-72).
,
. . ( 1983: 156),
, (Idem: 125-156)
426
427

- 343 -

, . , , ,
. ,
, (
) .

. ,
( ),
( . ),
( . ) .. ( 1983: 143-144),
.
( 1983: 145-146), , , ,
19- () . 428

, . . : <>
, ,
. ( 1983: 139-140) . (Idem: 140-142).

428

- 344 -

3.2. . .
, , .
()
, . . , (1923, 1) (2) . ,
1923- , , : ,
, . . (3) (4) ,
, , . , 1924- , :
. . ;
. . ( 2004: 260-261)

, , , ,
,
(, , ) . , - . , 1924-
1926 , : ,
, () . 429 , ,
- (, , ) . ,
.
, , (429

. (Seifrid 1992: 56, 81, 84).

) . 1921- 430 ( 2004: 162-167). 431 , ,


, . :
.
: , .
- . :
, , . . . ( 2004: 164-165,
)

. . , <>
1910- ., , . , . , . , . , . , .
, . . (2004: 372) . . , . . .
( 2005: 39-40) 432 . . (2004: 372), , ,

, , 1922- (, 9, . 28-32).
. , : Where
LEF theoretization had emphasized movement outward from art into the world, however, Platonov
returns the life-organizing activities of proletarian poetry to the domain of language: man is as yet
unable to attain his final goal of organizing the matter of the world, he argues in a Bogdanovian
vein, and so must for the time being take up the organization of words in poetry. But he overcomes
the paradox of this apparent retreat from reality into art by insisting that words are not abstract symbols, but extensions of realia, of matter itself <>. It is because the essential relation between words
and their real-world referents makes language contiguous with the realm of matter, Platonov argues,
that the organization of the symbols of things, words will initiate that process by which the proletariat will eventually master the organization of those things-in-themselves. (Seifrid 1992: 92) . (Idem: 91-92).
. . ,
, <> ,
, , . . ( 2004: 369-370)
. (Idem: 370-371). :
. , ,
19181920- .
;
. (Idem: 371)
432 . . . . . . ( 2005: 39-40).
430
431

- 346 -

. .

. 433 .
, , .
,
, . ( )
, , ( !),
,
, ( ) , .. . , . .
,
(), - (). . , , ,
- .
. - , , , .
, . . ,
, <> [] , sui generis , ( 1923:
105). ,
. , , (, )
( 1923). . ,
, .
,
- ,
. , <> []
<>
433

. ( 2004: 372).
- 347 -

<> [] . ( 2004: 260-261)


,
? , , ,
. ,
, ( ) . , , .
,
, , <> . ( 1923: 204)
, ,
, ..
(, , ..), . :
<> , , , . ( 1923: 207) , . , ,
, , , .
, , ,
.
; . , . ( 1923: 207-208)

, ,
, . ,
,
, , , ,
-

- 348 -

. .

. ( 1923: 213; 1923: 117, 118) . (1925) , . ,


-, .. ,
. ,
, . , , ,
() , ,
(. , .
). 434 , ,
(, , , , , ,
..) -, . ( , , , , ,
. 435 ) , ,
, . .
(1921):
. ,
, . ( 2004: 181, )

, , ,
, .
,
? . , , <>
. , <> .
( 1993: 147)
435 . (
), :
, , . <>
, ,
. , , . : < >, , 1920,
. 1, /. ( 2004: 369).
434

- 349 -

[]
( 1923: 206), , :
, , , . ( 1923: 208) [] :
, , .
( 1923: 206) , ,
, . ( 1923: 207)

(<> <> ,
( 1923: 207)) ,
, : <> , , , , , . . ,
. ( 1923: 208) , , , , , , . ( 1923: 208,
209) , :
: . . ,
: ,
?
- , .

- 350 -

. .

,
. , , : , , , .. , ,
-. ( 1923: 208-209)

, . , ,
, , .
, <>
<> ( 1923: 209) . . , , ( 1923: 209), . ,
. ( 1923: 209) , ,
( 1923: 210), 436 . ( 1923: 208, 211, 212)
.
, , <> ,
, , ,
. ( 1923: 211) ,
, -
: . ( 1923: 211)
, , : <> -

: , , , . , . (
1923: 211-212)
,
. .: <> <> ,
,
.
. , - , . , ,
.
, ,
. ( 1923: 212)
436

- 351 -

: ,
,
. ( 1923: 210) ,
(
1923: 212) <> -
, , <> ( 1923: 210, . 13).
: ()
( ), .

, . ,
, , ,
. , - , , . , -

, , , , ,
, ( ) , (. : ).
,
.
,
, .
, ( 1920- ),
(. ). , ,
, <> ( 1923: 208). ,
, -

- 352 -

. .

, , ,

. , ,

? , , , : ,
, .. ( ) .
, () , , .. , , . , , , (, , ). , ,
, - .
, ()
, . .:
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
, .
, . , , .
,
.

- 353 -

. ,
, .
( 2004: 163-164)

, , , ,

.
, , :
, , ,
.
, , , ,

.
: .
,
, ,
, , , . ( 2004: 164)

, ..
, , . , , : , . ,
, , . :
, .. . . -

- 354 -

. .

, ,
, , , ,
.
,
, . ( 2004:
165)

.
() ,
. , :
, , .
, .
, , , .
, , .
, , , .. . ( 2004: 165-166)

, ( ) . ..
:
<> , .
<>
, ,
.
<>

- 355 -

. (
2004: 166-167)

,
, :
, , . (Idem: 167) ,
, ,
:
,
. , ,
. (Ibidem)

, , , . , ,
. - -. ,
, , , , :
, ( , ). , , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, . , ,
.
,
,
.
, :
. () , :

- 356 -

. .

(.. ) : , .
- . : , , .
. . (Idem: 165)

, , , , : <>
, . (Idem: 165) :
,
. (Ibidem) 437 ,
-
: ,
, .
,
, .
. (Idem: 165)

, - , , (
, ) ( () ). ,
, , . , , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
437.:

, , ,
. .
, .
, . : , .
. , ,
. ,
. ( 2004: 165)
- 357 -

, . , . , ( 1923: 104)
( 1923: 105),
, ( 1923: 105), ,
( 1923: 106). 438
, (.. ), , ,
<> , ,
, , . ( 1923: 107, . 108) , , , <>
( 1923: 108-109).
:
, , ,
. ,
, , , (.
, - , ) ( 1923: 109)

,
? ,
,
/ , .
( 1923: 109110), - .
conditio sine qua non
- .
, :

438 : <> , ,
, , . ( 1923: 106)

- 358 -

. .

.
. . ( 1923: 110)

, . ( 1923: 111, 113) :


, ,
, . ( 1923: 111) , , <>
( 1923: 113):
<>
,
, , .
, , , ?
. ,
, ,
, , , . ,
, , , . ,
, , , , . ( 1923:
113-114)

( 1923: 115), , , : , , . ( 1923: 115) :


. . ,
. , - ,
, , , , . ( 1923: 115)

- 359 -

,
,

. , , , ( 1923: 115).
, . . , , ( ) .
. . : <>
, , . ( 1923: 116) , . ,
, , .. , ,
( 1923: 116-117).
:
, , ,
- , .
, , , , .
. (
1923: 117)

, , , :
, -, , . ,
, , , . ( 1923: 118)

,
1920- (. ),
. , ( )

- 360 -

. .

. , , , , , , . , ,
, , , ,
. -, ,
.
, , , ,
-. , . , ,

,
(, 227) (. ). Credo ,
<> []
( 1923: 116), , , : ,
.
.
, .. , . , : , , ,
. , ,
, . ,
. , . , . , . , . . , . .
. . 1920- ,

- 361 -

. 439 . ,
,
1920- . , (
) ,
.

439

. (Hodel 2001: 345-357).


- 362 -

III:

()
, .
,

, , .
, --

1.

<>
( )
.
( 2004: 281)
Linguistic description and critical interpretation are
<> distinct and complementary ways of explaining a literary text.
(Leech 1970: 120)
( ) ,
- ( ,

),
. ,
, , , , -,
- : - .
( 2000: 68,
)

, . . , <>
, ( ) . 440 ( 1998: 393)
, ,
. - (
1997: 91) . ? ,
, ?
,
: (440 . . . ,
.

, ) , .
, . :
<> <> <>.
,
, ,
. , <> . ( 1997: 25)

,
<> ,
, . <>
, , .
( ) . (Eadem: 27)

. . , , <> ,
<>. (1994: 303) 441
?
, ,
(foregrounding) / ? , , () ? ,
() ,
/ ? ,
. , ( ) / . (1994: 303)
441

- 366 -

() ? ,
/ , ? () / () , , ,
.. ,
, , ? , , ? : ? , ? , , ? .
.

- 367 -

1.1.
1.1.1.
<> , , .
( 2003: 304)

. . . : <> the language is used in a way that is not


typical, a way which, in particular, constrains us to pause over the expression and reflect upon its form. (Levin 1965: 225) , ( )
, , .
. ( ):
(, .. ) ,
, ,
.
, , . ( 1994: 330)

, , . , .
442 , . . , . , . . .,
. . . , ,
: <>.
(2004: 59) . : The deformations to which a Platonov text subjects
standard literary Russian are conspicuous even to non-native readers <>. (Seifrid
1992: 87) . , . , , ,
, . : , , , ,
, , , , . - ,
, .. . ( 1997: 97-98)
442

.
, <>
- (1963: 227) . (Ibidem) . . , <> , ,
, ,
. (1989: 74)
(
),

. (1979: 232)
, , , , . , , , , , , , , .
. ,
,
<> . ( 1997: 9-10; .
2003: 303 443 ) , ,
,
.
, () , , , ,

. . . , : <>
- , , , , , .
, -, , ,
(
, ...), ,
-, , . . . , ,
, , . ( 2003: 262)
443

- 369 -

. . , ,
, - .
: , ( ( 1997: 18)). , , , , , . . ( 1997: 18 ff., 35) , , ,
. . . (Eadem: 10) , , , ,
, .. ,
. , , 444 . ,
- , , . , 445
. (Eadem: 10, 35 )
, , /
, .. . , , .
, naturalization (Bradford 1997: 162). . , , .
.
: , . ( 1994: 330)

. , . . ( 1997).
445 . , . . , .
.
444

- 370 -

. . . ,
<>
<>. (1989: 70) . . : , . ( 2004: 59) , <> , ;
, , : ,
,

(Ibidem) 446
, , , / , , () .
. , , : ,
. .:
Auch wenn der beraus bunte, hier nur andeutungsweise skizzierte Wortschatz gegenber der Hoch- und Schriftsprache merklich abweicht und damit die Automatisierung des Benennungsaktes erschwert, wird er textimmanent als mehr oder weniger neutrales Ausdruckmittel rezipiert. Das heisst, dass das unmittelbare und weitere
Umfeld eines Ausdrucks, den man vom Standpunkt der literatursprachlichen Norm
als ungewhnlich oder fremd zu bezeichnen hat, in seiner Vielfalt derart homogen ist,
, , ,
, : , ,
. ( 2004: 79)
. . . , <> <>, <>
, .. <> , ,
. (Idem: 78-79) , []
, , ,
, : ,
.. (Idem: 79) , , , . , . (
2004).
446

- 371 -

dass der betreffende Ausdruck seinen aufflligen Charakter weitgehend verliert. Er


Entspricht einer Erwartungshaltung, die sich zum einem textimmanent bildet <>.
(Hodel 2001: 57) 447

,
, , ,
, . - , .
,
,
. ,
1920- 1930- , . 448 . . . : <> ,
<>. ( 1992: 42) , , . ,
, , , , . (<> <> (1995: 165)) .
(
(1997: 9)).
1977-
, , , -

447 . . (G. Wienold, Probleme der linguistischen Analyse des


Romans. Zugleich eine Studie zu Kriminalromanen Patricia Highsmiths, : J. Ihwe (ed.), Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik: 322-344, Frankfurt am Main: Athenum, 1972, . 323). .: Nach Wienold
<> gehen die Schwankungen, denen die Beurteilung der Grammatizitt (oder Akzeptabilitt) von
Stzen durch Teilnehmer unterliegen, zum guten Teil darauf zurck, ob die Informanten fr die vorgelegten isolierten Stze einen Kontext finden. Satzgrammatizitt muss in Textgrammatizitt lokalisert werden. Fr den Leser literarischer Texte, sekundrer semiotischer Systeme also, ist die Schaffung
des Kontextes massgeblich vom literarischen Umfeld geprgt. Und diese sekundre modellbildende
Struktur baut auf mentalen System auf, die nicht unmittelbar linguistisch erfasst werden knnen.
(Hodel 2001: 402)
448 . . : . , , . ( 1997: 39)

- 372 -

. , , ,
. , , , . ,
, .
, ,
.. ( ) . ( 1977: 172) , , . :
<> , , , .
, ,
, ,
- ,
: , , , . <>
, .. - . ,
, .
( 1977: 172-173, )

. :
( (das System der Rede)), <> fallen auch Formulierungen aus dem
Bereich des neutral empfundenen Sprachverhaltens heraus, die bei einem anderen
Autor nicht hinterfragt wrden (Hodel 2001: 174)
. . .
, , ,
, .. ( ) , , . ( 1983: 97)
,
- . , -

- 373 -

, , ,
, , , . . :
-
, . (
1983: iii)
, ( -,

)
, () (
, ),
, / (.. / )
, .. . 449 , ,
, , , (.. , ). (. 2003: 301)
. . - .
, <> , , , <> (1998: 393)
, [] <>
, / <>
(Idem: 394). ,
: , , <> , , ,
, . (Idem: 393)
/
. . 450 ,
, , , . , , . . . , , <> (..
, ) - , - . ( 2003: 301,
)
450 , . . ,
. . ( 2003: 304-305)
449

- 374 -


/ , ,
, , .
: <> , , ,
, . ( 1998: 21; . 1998: 33) , ,
( 1998) ( 2000) ,
, <> ,
, <> <>. ( 2000: 388, . 2000: 391; 2003: 306, 308-309; 2000: 65, 66 451 ). 452 ,
<> , , ,
, , ..
, ,
, . ( 2003: 313,
)


, .
,
, , , <> -
, ( , )
, , . ( 2003:

. .
:

( , ), , , ,
. (2000: 66, )
452 . . , .
. (2003: 309)
451

- 375 -

304; . 1998: 14) .


( 2003: 304; . 1998: 15)
, (. ),
-, , -
453 . ( 2003: 305-306; 1998: 14) 454 , , (, 491) <> , , (
) / , , ,
. ( 2000: 385)

, , , ,
: , , . ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , ..
. ( 1998: 15). , (
)
:
() , (,
). (Idem: 15-16) , , , / , ,
, .. ,
. . : <> , ,
, , . , ,
, , .. <...>. ( 1998:
15)
454 .: , , , , -, , . ( 2003: 305)
453

- 376 -

.
, ,
, , . , ,

.

1.1.2. /
<>
.
( 1995: 188)

, , ,
. 455 foregrounding: . , , . . . :
,
, , - , . , , ,
, - ,

. .
, <> <> <> <> (
1988: 43), . . . ,
<> ,
<>. ( 1988: 39; . 40, 41) , <> , ,
(Idem: 43), .. .
455

- 377 -

. ( 1997:
10)

, [] ( ) , , , ,
. (Eadem: 25) , , .
. . , [t]he peculiarities of his (.. ) style express his
theme <> (Weststeijn 1994: 331) . (
1985: 250)
. . . - : ,
,
(1981: 233). (Ibidem). . , [] , , , , . (1977: 173) : <> , , , . (Eadem: 175) .
,
: <> it has shown a certain reluctance to treat Platonovs style as
an integral component of his works, to be analyzed in relation to his characters,
themes, or plot constructions. (Seifrid 1984: 3) 456 . .
, :


. (1989: 136)
: . .
<>. ( 1994: 40) , . .
. ( , , . <> scholarly analysis of the cardinal features of the linguistic stratum of Platonovs works which addresses the specific question of
how those features function in relation to other elements of the text. (Seifrid 1984: 5)

456

- 378 -

, ), <> , . , . (1988: 41) , ,


. , . (. 1977: 175-176)
, ? , . . : <>
, , . (1977: 176) , ,
, , . , - , ( 1997: 37), .
,
. ,
( (. 1977: 172-173)), ( - ) . .
, .
(.. ), , . (Hodel 2001: 190) 457
, / ,
. , -

.: Dabei ist die Grenze zwischen Grammatizitt und Normwidrigkeit sowie zwischen poetischer Sprache und umstndlichen Ausdruck (Unstil) fliessend, so dass die markierten Stellen nicht
wie eingeflochtene Verfremdungsverfahren in einem sprachlichen neutralen Umfeld wirken, sondern
den sprachlichen Ausdruck in seiner Totalitt irritieren. Die entautomatisierte Apperzeption frdert
dabei Vorstellungen und Gedanken, die dem dargestellten Personenbewusstsein sehr nahe kommen,
ohne dass diese subjektieve Position gesichert als deren Quelle betrachtet werden kann. (Hodel 2001:
190) . . (Hodel 2001: 148-190)
457

- 379 -

, , :
, ? : , , , . -,
, .. . ( 1978: 170; . 1995: 189; 1997: 30).
. : The intersection of so many concerns in Platonovs writings ideology, philosophy, social commentary, Soviet rhetoric, socialist construction, the historical experience of Russias
unlettered narod is sure to guarantee a plurality of critical approaches to him <>.
(Seifrid 1992: 203) , ,
, , : <> a
series of disparate assessments whose contradictions testify as much to the complexity of the oeuvre as to the inevitable pluralism of readerly reception. (Idem: 14)
: ,
() . (Idem: 103) 458 , ,
-
. (. . . 2000: 6, 10)
. .
ambivalente Rezeptionslage, . (Hodel 2001: 9-15, 359) . . - : , ,
. (- 2004: 118) . . ,
,
(1998: 13-14) (2000: 389). , ,
, ,
, .

. , : It is
this apparent antipathy towards communist utopianism in general that has fuelled the novels dissident / migr reputation as an attack on the Soviet system as a whole and which, indeed, may have
provoked its rejection by Federatsiia (, , ) as counterrevolutionary. (Seifrid 1992: 103)
458

- 380 -

, , -, . : ( ) .
, , .
, .. (. , . . , . , . . , . . .). , , (. . , . . , .
.).
<> the semantics of literary style in Platonovs mature works
come to serve as the iconic embodiment of his ontological theme (Seifrid 1992: 81)
(. , . . ,
. , . . , . , . .). 459 ,

. , , ,
, -, , -, .
, , - -
, . ,
, , ,
. , ( ). ,

. -
, -. , ,

,
. , , , . . (.
).
459

- 381 -

, . , .
, /
. -,
, ,
() , .. . , , .
, . . , . . . -, , , . . , , , ,
,
. -, . , (, , ), ,
(. ), ,

(. ), .
, ,
, . , . ,

(. ). , ,
. ,
.

- 382 -

1.2. :

,
.
. , , , , , , .
: ,
, / . ,
: , () , .

1.2.1. .
<> Platonovs Kampf gegen das Klischee, gegen
die Versteinerung der Sprache und ihre Entfremdung
<>
(Markstein 1978: 128)
Der Bruch der stereotypen Redeweise erfolgt nicht
durch metaphorische Verfremdung (im Sinne von
klovskijs ostranenie), d.h. nicht durch einen neuen
Sichtwinkel, sondern durch den Ernst der Worte
an sich in ihrer vollen Eigentlichkeit, durch die Wiedergewinnung der vollen semantischen Dimension.
(Markstein 1978: 128-129)

Der Stil des Unstils: Andrej Platonov (1978) .


, , die funktionalen
Intentionen des Platonovschen Idiolekts das sprachliche Konzept des Autors
(Markstein 1978: 115). -

, 460 .
, , . (Eadem:
118) , , . (Ibidem)

, (ber-denken), (Neu-bedenken) . (Eadem: 123)
, ,
(Stilentwertung
(Eadem: 120)) (Sprach-Entfremdung (Eadem: 119)),
, , . 461 (Eadem: 120)
,
, <> [ein] Bestreben <> zur vollen Sprachhaltung durchzudringen, wobei dies auf dem Hintergrund der weitgehend automatisierten, gewohnten Sprache bereits als korjavost, als Sprdigkeit empfunden werden kann und es auch
wird. (Ibidem)
, .. , - (
). (Eadem: 119)
( ) ( ) (Eadem: 118); .

, -

. , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , (, , ).
461 .: Man kann diese Sprachentfremdung mit literarischen Bezug auch S t i l e n t w e r t u n g nennen: konomisierung, Verflachung des Wortgehalts, Automatisierung, Abstrahierung der Sprache
<>. Oft gebrauchte Redewendungen werden zu Slogans, ebenso wie unschuldige Wrter; auch
Tropen werden mechanisiert <>. (Markstein 1978: 120)
460

- 384 -

, : 462 .
, , .. (Eadem: 120)
, , .. (Eadem: 122), ( ): - . ,
,
,
. Etymologisierung. (Eadem: 121) ,
,
, .
( ) (, , . ),
( ) (. )
(Ibidem), (, 30)
(. ). , . (Eadem: 135)
/ ,
. <> sprachliche, nichtmetaphorische Verfremdungen konventioneller, automatisierter, entfremdeter Redegewohnheiten, <> Verfremdungen des Signifikanten in seiner allgemeinsprachlichen Einbettung. (Eadem: 124) , ,
.

, , , ,
(, , , )
. : Allein schon der Drang Platonovs zur unbedingten Konkretisation kann letztlich als falsch, zumindest als schlechter Stil gedeutet werden. (Markstein 1978: 120)
462

- 385 -

, , (
463 ). , ,
, , , ( )
, . , , .
, , . , , , . , , . , :
-. , ,
. ,
, .
- ? . .
- , .
.
- !, . , . ( ) 464

: Der Metapher mu aus der Sicht


Platonovs mitraut werden: sie ist ungenau, ungefhr, indirekt. Anders ausgedrckt: Metaphern sind Konventionen. (Markstein 1978: 125) , ( ), ,
(, )? . .
, :

. , , : . , . , , 7: 193-307, 1965; ( 1985).


464 ( ) . (Markstein 1978: 125).
463

- 386 -

<> die Literatur [hat] etwas von einer kodierten Geheimsprache. Die Metapher
(die Trope) ist vorweg eine Konvention, und es mu daher zwingend die Absicht eines so leserbewuten Autors wie Platonov sein, auch dieser Art von Konventionalisierung entgegenzutreten, anders: das Bild zu entmetaphorisieren, zu veranschaulichen und dabei kurz zu schalten. Platonov will das wagen wir ihm zu unterstellen
genau den Leser, der w r t l i c h liest. (Eadem: 126)

. ,
, . . ,
( )
.
, , , (Eadem: 129) 465 , , . , , - . 466
,
: Platonovs Sprache und Volkstmlichkeit (Eadem 1978: 133).

, ,
, .
(Sprach-Krieg),
(.. , ) ,
: <> die Abwendung von bereits systematisierten, etablierten Kirchenslawisch, die Hinwendung zum prostoj slog prostonareija <>. (Eadem: 133)
, :
Wenn Platonov stetig bemht war, die Literarurhaftigkeit und die Konventionalitt der literaturina
zu berwinden, dann liegt es nahe, nach seinen Wurzeln in jener Periode zu forschen, die am Ursprung der russischen Literatursprache und der modernen russischen Literatur steht. (Markstein
1978: 129) . (Eadem 1978: 129-134).
466 . . . , ( , XX ) , . . ( 2000: 67, 69).
465

- 387 -

( , , .)
, (Literarisierung),
, Volkssprache, <> die unbeeinflut durch literarische
Einflsse und Konventionen auch im 20. Jahrhundert noch lebendig geblieben ist.
(Eadem: 134)
,
? . :
, plebs , , ,
, .., , ( !)
. , 1920- ,
/ . (Eadem: 134-135)
, .
, ( ) . , ,
, : () , , , .
,
(Eadem: 135), , ,
, , , , , , , ,
(, (. )). 467 , , ,

. . : Zusammenfassend kann man wohl behaupten, da die ins 18. Jahrhundert zurckgehende Debatte um Volks- und (literarisierte) Hochsprache in den ersten nachrevolutionren Jahren eine brisante Aktualitt gewinnt, wobei es irrelevant ist, ob das Zurckgreifen auf das
18. Jahrhundert bewut vollzogen wurde (wie sicherlich bei den OPOJAZ-Leuten) oder vielleicht
unbewut, wie bei Platonov. (Markstein 1978: 135-136)

467

- 388 -

. , , ,
, . , , : ( ), (-
- ) .. ,
,
. , .
,
(. ). , (, , 468 , ),
. 1979- . . , :
<> <> , , ,
. , , , ,
, . , , . ( 1979: 120)

. . , <> [] , , <> ( 2000: 391). ,


(, ) . ,
. . , <>
- , ( ) , , -
(Idem: 390). ,
, , ( ) , .. <> [] . (Idem: 390) , <> ,
, ( ) , , , ,
- () / . (Ibidem)
468

- 389 -

, ,
/
. ,
, : ,
. , . .

, . , , , .

1.2.2. . .
, ,
469 , ,
. . 470 ,
(Ardis: Ann Arbor, 1973) - Less
than One, - 1984- . , () 471 ,
: ,
. , ,
.

. . . ., , ( 1997:
28-29); ( 2003: 311-312, 320-322); (Heller 1984: 352-354).
470 , , , ..
. , , , ,
, , .
471 . . . . . , . . . . : . . , . , . . : 185-194. : , 2000.
469

- 390 -

, . (), .
. . , , , , . .
. (. ). , , ,
, ( , : / , ,
..). .
, , ,
, .. . ,
,
.
, 472 , <> he attacks the very carrier of millenarian sensibility in Russian
society: the language itself or, to put it in a more graspable fashion, the revolutionary eschatology embedded in the language. (Brodsky 1985: 283)
, XX- , , ,
. , , , , .
, ,
, , , -
.. ,
, .. , , , . (Brodsky
1985: 284-285) , , <> , , , , ,
. ( 1994: 154)

, , .
472

- 391 -

, (Ibidem) :
, ,
, . , <> , , ; -
. (Ibidem; . Brodsky 1985: 285)
[] <> , ,
.
( 1994: 154) , 1984- :
What he ( ) does on the page is approximately as follows: he starts a
sentence in a way familiar enough that you almost anticipate the tenor of the rest.
However, each word that he uses is qualified either by epithet or intonation, or by its
incorrect position within the context, to the extent that the rest of the sentence gives
you not so much a sense of surprise as the sense that you have compromised yourself
by knowing anything about the tenor of speech in general and about how to place
these words in particular. You find yourself locked in, marooned in blinding proximity to the meaninglessness of the phenomenon this or that word denotes, and you
realize that you have got yourself into this predicament through your own verbal
carelessness, through trusting too much on your own ear and the words themselves.
Reading Platonov, one gets a sense of the relentless, implacable absurdity built into
the language ant that with each new anyones utterance, that absurdity deepens.
And that there is no way out of that blind alley but to retreat back into the very language that brought one in. (Brodsky 1985: 286-287)

,
, , , , ,
/ .
: , (
) , . ( - , . ),

- 392 -

, . , .
, , , . .
.
,
, :
His main tool was inversion; and as he wrote in a totally inverted, highly inflected
language, he was able to put an equals sign between language and inversion.
Version the normal word order came more and more to play a service role.
(Brodsky 1985: 289; . 1994: 155)

, . ,
(
) , -, ( ) , , ,
() , (. , ). , - ( ), , ,
. ,
:
.
,
. :
He simply had a tendency to see his words to their logical that is absurd, that is totally paralyzing end. In other words, like no other Russian writer before and after
him, Platonov was able to reveal a self-destructive, eschatological element within the
language itself, and that, in turn, was of extremely revealing consequence to the revolutionary eschatology with which history supplied him as his subject matter.

- 393 -

In casting a sort of myopic, estranged glance at any page of this writer, one
gets a feeling of looking at a cuneiform tablet: so densely it is packed with those semantic blind alleys. Or else his pages look like a great department store with its apparel items turned inside out. (Brodsky 1985: 287-288)

,
, .
, , , , , , ,
. ,
: ,
, .
, ,
: ,
. , , <>
(.. ) , <> (
1994: 155), , , <> ,
,
, , . (Ibidem)
, (.. , ) , , .
. ,
, .
, , : , . :
,
. , , ,
: <> he appears to have deliberately and completely subordinated himself
to the vocabulary of his utopia with all its cumbersome neologisms, abbreviations,
acronyms, bureaucratese, sloganeering, militarized imperatives, and the like.

- 394 -

(Brodsky 1985: 288) , ,



. , , , , ,
, : Apart
from the writers instinct, this willingness, not to say abandon, with which he went
for newspeak, indicates, it would seem, his sharing of some beliefs in the promises
the new society was so generous with. (Brodsky 1985: 288; .
1994: 155)
, ,
, , .
( 1994: 155) , <> , , , . (Idem: 156; . Brodsky 1985: 290)
,
. ,
, :
,
, , ,
.

1.2.3. . ()
,
( , . . ) . .
( ) ( , ). . . , , . :

- 395 -

, - , , -
. , , ,
(.. ). ( 1993: 157)

:
, -,
,
. <> , -
, .
.
(Ibidem)

, , ,
() , ,
, , , . (Idem: 160)
, , , . (Idem: 157) <>
<> ( )
<>. (Idem: 157-158)
, , .. ( ) ?
, ,
, , , , ,
, . , , . , ,
, ,
, ,
, -

- 396 -

, . , ,
.
, , -. . <>
, <>. (Idem: 159)
, .. ,
, , <>
. (Ibidem) ,
[] , , : .
, , , .
, , -, . (Idem:
160) 473

, ,
, , , , .
, , . , , ,
, . ,
, ,
, . , .
,
.
, . ,

, . , . , .
. . . . ( 1993: 160).

473

- 397 -

. .
.

1.2.4. . .
, (, , ), , , ()
, , , ..
, . , ,
. -,
, . - (
), ,
, , . , , .
. . , .
, ( 1983: 59) , . (Idem: 65) ,
, .
Politics and the English language 474 . , .
, ()
, ,
, ,
474

George Orwell, A collection of Essays: 156-171, New York: HBJ.


- 398 -

..
, , , . :
, , . (: 1983: 65-70)
, ,
. ( 1983: 70-71) 475

,
( , 476 ) ( ,
, 477 ) . , , , (
- ). :
478 (Idem: 76). :
(..
) <> ,
+ . ,


, : , , . . ( 1983: 71-75).
476 ( 1983: 75).
477 . & . , . New York: Rausen Bros, 1955,
. 31. ( 1983: 82).
478 ,
, .. <> [] , [] [] []
[], [] . ( 1983: 113)
. (Idem: 113-114).
475

- 399 -

. (Idem: 79, ) 479

,
: ,
, <> [] , ,
<> . (Idem: 81)
1920- , , , (). ( ), , : [] <> ( )
,
. (Idem: 117; . 83-85, 88)
, . (Ibidem) , , : , . (Idem: 117-118) , ,
, . , , ,
, , , , .

, ?
, ,
. -,
( ,
). 479 .
, . . ,
.

- 400 -

( , , ) ,
, (. ).
, ,
, (/ ). -,
()
.
, :
:
( ) . ( ,
.) , .

1.2.5. :
.

, / . , , , . : ,
. / , (, , ), , , , (, ) ( , ), . 480 -

480 . . (, , )
, , .

- 401 -

, , .
, , (. ), , , . , , .
( ), .
, .
, 481 , : , ,
, , (
). , ,
, , , .
, ( , , ..)
, ( ) .
,
( , , ,
, ), , , , ().
. , ( ) , .. , . , ,

, . . , , , . . . .
481

- 402 -

, .
() , ,
, : ? , ?
,
,
. , , , ,
, . , , , , , . , ,
, . , ,
, ( ).

- 403 -

1.3. , ,

, , , , ()
. ,
.
, , :
,
, , . , , , .

1.3.1. . /
. . , , ,
, , . , .
, : , ,
, . , .
, . ( 2000: 71-72; Hodel 2001: 348-355; . Hodel 1998: 149-150 1999:
247-248)
2000- ,
20-

, ,

. ( 2000: 72)
, : , . .
(Idem: 72-73) , , []

, . (Idem: 73)
, ,
, <>
( ,
, , , <>. (Idem: 76-77) 482
, . 483
2001- , ,
. 484 ,
,
, , . (Hodel
2001: 346-357, 404) ,
, . (Idem: 346).
,
..

, , , , . , , <>
, , ,
( parole). ( 2000) ,
, , : <> (
) <> , , <> <>. (Ibidem)
483 . . , <> []
,
, , . (Hodel 1998: 149) , , , .. (Ibidem).
484 . (Hodel 2001: 346).
482

- 405 -

/ :
Platonov <> hebt die Sprache der Letzten empor, als ob er einen neuren mittleren Stil (in Pukins Sinne) schaffen mchte, der das gesamte Spektrum der traditionellen Sprachregister (von der Buchsprache bis zum prostoreie) in selbstverstndlicher Weise umfasst und darin die erstrebten soziopolitischen Vernderungen voraus
nimmt. Platonov setzt als neue, fr alle Brger verbindliche Sprachnorm nicht die
alte, adaptierte Literatursprache, sondern eine Sprache, in der die gewohnten
hierarchischen Verhltnisse aufgehoben sind. (Idem: 401)

, , , ..
(, , , ). 19201930-
,
, :
. , ,
( ) (Idem: 347-348)
1917- 1920-
(Idem: 348). ,
(, , ..). 485

. , , :
. . : Mit dem liberalistischen Aufbruch um die Jahrhundertwende
und vor allem in den frhen zwanziger Jahren weitet sich die Sprache der Literatur rigoros in die
Sphren der Umgangssprache, der Regionalsprachen und der Soziolekte aus. Der Rckgriff der sozialistisch-realistischen Literatur auf eine reine und gereinigte Standardsprache kann zu Beginn
zwar durchaus noch als sthetische Reaktion auf ornamentale Tendenzen der 20er Jahre und der
vorangehenden dekadenten Literatur verstanden werden, sie verwandelt sich aber bald in ein Repressionsinstrument des neuen zentralistischen und totalitren Staates. (Hodel 2001: 357)

485

- 406 -

, ,

.
, ,
. :
( ), . , 1920-
, ..
, . , , , , . , , . 486
,
. ,
, .
( 2000: 73) , . ,
487 ( 2000: 73; Hodel 2001: 356-357), . .
, 488 (Hodel 2001: 356).
, ,
(
, ) , ..
. -, , . ,
, ,

, ,
(, . . ),
,
, -
, , (.. / ).
487 : , 1931, 10 . . . , . . : ( 1994: 269).
488 : , 1931, 5/6. . . , . : (
1994: 268-278), . 273.
486

- 407 -

:
. - (Hodel 2001: 357), , (, , ). , ,
( ), . 489
, a priori
, . . (
1999: 247) , (Hodel 2001: 355). ,
, , , , . (Idem:
356) ,
, ,
, . , ,
- ? , .
,
,
, , .
, , , , .
,
,

, , 30- (
. ) , , --, . , , , , . ,

.
489

- 408 -

, ,

,
.
1999-
, . , <> , []
. (
1999: 247) [] , [] (Idem: 248), ,
, , (Ibidem).
, , , , , ; . (Ibidem) :

, . (Ibidem)
(
, ).
,
. , : , , , , . ,
, , , , , , . .
, . ,
:
.

- 409 -

1.3.2. . , . .
, , , ,
.

.
( 1982: 272)
<>
,
. , ,
,
.
( 1997: 34)

(), ,
. . , . (1982)
. . ( 1997). , ,
, () ,
, .
. 490 , ,
, : , ,
, , ( ) . () :
, , , , . ,
, . () . ( 1982: 91)
490

- 410 -

, ,

, , - .
,
. ,
, . ( 1982: 278)

, , <> , <> (Idem: 273) (Ibidem), .. , .


, ()
, . . ,

, , , ..,
, .
(Ibidem: 273)
, ( ) ,
. . .
( )
, <> ,
. ( 1997: 30) , ,
, (
), ,
() . .:
. : , , ,
. . ( 1997: 30-31)

, (
) .

- 411 -

,
. , -
, ,
. : ( )
,
, , .
( , ).
: , , , ,
,
.. ,
, ..
, . . . , , :

. . . (1985: 250)

, . -, :
,
, . (1979: 232). , , .. ()
. , ,
. . :
<> <> ,

- 412 -

, ,

<> <> [ ]
, , - <>.
( 1997: 96)

, ,
.. 491 , 492 -
493 , 494 ,
495 . ,
, -, . , , , , .
. ,
, , , , (, , ,
) ( 1997: 30-31)
.
,
, , ,
. (Idem: 31) , , ,
( ), .
, (. ).
, ( , ), . - . (1997: 4043, 97)
492 . . (1997: 89, 97)
493 . . (1997: 43-46, 97)
494 . . (1997: 43-46, 97)
495 . . (1997: 97) ,
, .
491

- 413 -

, .
, .

1.3.3. . .
. .
.
, , .
( 1999: 162) ,
. ( 1995) :
. ,
,
. <>
, , ,
,
, , .
.
, ,
, , . ( 1995: 138)

, . , , ( .), ( .) (, , ..),
(, ..) . , ( ),
. ( 1999: 162-164) ,
<> . (Eadem: 163)

- 414 -

, ,

, , , <> , ,
, <> ,
, , , , , , ,
<> . (Ibidem) : ,
, , , , , ..
. 496
<> , . (Eadem: 170,
. 162)
(Eadem: 171), <>
[]
<>. (Ibidem) , <> , <> . (Ibidem) ,
. ,
, . (Eadem: 164165) , , . (Eadem: 171)
, <> , . (Eadem: 165)
,
, , ,
, .
(Eadem: 166-167)
, , (
496 . . , . . ,
. . . . . . . :
. : , 1999.

- 415 -

), . , ,
, . , , ,
, . ,
, , . 497 -, , , . ,
, .
, , ( ). ( ) ( ) , , ,
.

1.3.4. . .

. . . , : ,
, .
, ,
. , ( ) . , . ,

. . . & . . -, . : .
. (ed.), . . . 3: 277-286. :
. . . , 2004.

497

- 416 -

, ,

, , , 498 , , , . (
1976: 85-86; . 1984: 127-128) - ,
, .
20- 30- , <> , ,
, . ( 1993: 136)
, , ,
1920- . <> , ,
, , , , , ,
, (, , -, .. ,
. (Eadem: 137; . 1998: 9)
(, , ) ,
<> [] , , ,
, , , , , , , .. ( 1993:
141) ,
, , , .
(Eadem: 138),
:
<> ( , , ..)
. - - ( 1993: 133): , ,
(, ) , , . .
( 1978: 223-228; 1984: 123, 127-128).

498

- 417 -

, , , ,
, - . (Eadem: 137)

<> [] [] ,
[] , [] <>. (Ibidem)
: <>
. -
.
(Eadem: 138) , - ,
. ( )
, . : , ,
( , ,
) , , ,
. ,
, , (, ). ,
-
. , (.. , ), , , . ,
, , , .
,
, .
, , . , 1930- , ,
<> ,
( !)
. ( 1998: 9) , [] ,

- 418 -

, ,

<>
, , <>.
(Eadem: 10, )
, , 1930- ,
: 1930- <>
. (Eadem: 17)
: (, , , ), (Eadem: 11-12) .. , , ,
, <> [] (
, ,
) , , . (Eadem: 10)
, , . : <> <> <>
(, !) :
,
, ,
. (Ibidem, )
, , . , ,
,
- , . ( ). , ,
: , ,
, ? .
.
,
. , -

- 419 -

, ,
-
. , ,
, , ( ) ,
() .
, , .

1.3.5. . . vs.
. ,
, , () - . : When using these lexicons the people comprehend
them in a new way and subject them to a unique kind of folk etymology, forming at
times extremely bizarre and logically unexpected word combinations. (Yakushev
1979: 174)
, , , .
<> there is always a contrast between this folk
speech and literary language, and in this contrast the latter is considered a language
which is both normative and correct, i.e., as language which is held by a certain general consensus to be more true, more precisely expressive than the folk language,
, , <> conceived of folk speech in quite a different way it is
folk speech, not normative language, which is more true, more precisely expressive.
(Eadem: 176) , , ,
, ,
, , . ,
, [i]n juxtaposing normative to folk language, Platonov saw the folk language as an expression of true feelings about the world, and he considers this language to possess semantics in which the truth resides. (Ibidem)

- 420 -

, ,

.
?
- ? , , , () ?
. , -, -, , , . , , .. , , , .
:
Simple people experience the world directly, like children, discovering it anew for
themselves each day. And like children, they express in their own words their first
impressions of the world. This primal, unedited verbal formulation of observation
by simple people is always truthful. They formulate their thought-feelings with difficulty, but in contrast to intelligent people who use the formulations and words of
others, they find their own definitions which adequately reflect striving of the heart
not inhibited by the reasonings of the mind, to use Platonovs words. (Ibidem)

,
, -? ,
, , , .. . ,
, . a priori , . , ? ( ) , . 499 ,
. ,

, , .
499

- 421 -

,
( le noble sauvage), , . , ,
, ..
. ,
.
, . , , .. , . ., ,
. :

, .
. ,
, ,
, , .
( 1997: 30-31)

,
, ,
.
. . ( .
<> 500 ) :
[] , , . , , ,
, , , , . . , -

. . . , . --: , 1981.
500

- 422 -

, ,

, . ( 1997: 96-97)

:
( ), sui generis. ,
.
501 . . .
, ,
. -
:
.

, : ,
. ( 1991: 64) 502

,
. .
, . , : (
-
), (
, ) .
(.. ) (Yakushev 1979: 179; 1978: 747), (..
) (Yakushev 1979: 176).
, :
, ,

.
502 . . , , , ,
<> <>. ( 1991: 70)
501

- 423 -

, ?
1978- , . ,
, . , ,
.
[t]he extraordinary semantic load, non-canonical, nonstandard literary forms, syntactic and semantic anomalies ( 1978: 777)
Weltanschauung. ,
<> [a] special understanding of the mentality of the mass-man, the
man who is one of the people, the main hero in Platonovs novels. (Ibidem)
, , . , (.. ), <> [] - . (Ibidem) ,
, , .. , , , , - - . (Idem: 748, 777-778) , ,

, , , -
. , , , , .
( . ) . 503 . . , <> why we accept one linguistic medium as truthful while rejecting another as disingenuous in Platonovs works <> <>
why such true feelings find their expression in language which is often non-normative, even linguistically deformed, or why Platonovs peasant themselves seem infatuated at times with revolutionary phraseology. (Seifrid 1984: 9) oversimplification of thematics (Idem: 8). : The point here is not to quibble over interpretations, but
to show how the authors approach to style makes Platonov out to be a writer of the people, and lit-

503

- 424 -

, ,

, , , , ,
, , .
-, .
, ,
, , .. , , . ,
. , extraordinary semantic load syntactic and
semantic anomalies, . . (1983: 27),
(, , ) () , , , . , ,
, , ..
: .
-, . 504 .
:
. , , 505 . , , , , , . , - .
-
. , , tle more. It cannot be denied that various social genres of speech appear in Platonovs works and that
they are related in some way to his vision of the world, but as a summary statement of the aesthetic
effect of those genres the mere signalling of the positive value of the folk fails to capture the complexity of Platonovs works. (Idem: 9-10)
504 , . . , <>
,
. (1983: 27)
505 . . . -: (Seifrid 1984: 31-32)
- 425 -

.
, , , . , . (Yakushev 1979:
177-178) () . :
. , , , , , , . , , , ,
, ,
, , . (Yakushev 1979: 179)
<> concrete words with a single connotation are the one firm foothold of
thought, <> scrupulous use of such concrete language is our only salvation
from the tyranny of the word, as well as political and ideological tyranny, which is
carried out through language. (Ibidem)
C . , , - , ,
() , . ,
( ) . , , , . () ()
, . . . , , , ,
, .
, ,
. , , , ,
, , , . ( 1989: 31; 1991: 64) ,

- 426 -

, ,

. - ,
. , , , ,
. ,
() ,
. , , . , ,
,
, .
: ( )
: .
, (, ,
, , ), , ,
(-,
,
) , , (,
). , : / ,
, . ,
, , .
,
. , . , , , -

- 427 -

,
, (..
/).

1.3.6. . . & . .
- , , ,
, () . . . . -. , , - ,
[c] (
)
, . ( 2004: 118) , ,
. (Eadem: 126) , , . ,
, . - ( !)
. (Eadem: 118) : <> (..
) .
(Eadem: 119) 506
( ). (Ibidem)
, , .
, . (Eadem: 118) , -

(, , ) . . . . - ,
,
. .
.
506

- 428 -

, ,

, <> - ,
, ,
, . (Ibidem) , , ( ).
, - . , , .. ,

<>
, , .
, 20- 30- ,

. (Eadem: 119)

? ?
? , , ,
.
. ,

( ) - .
(, , ), ,
. (- 2004: 126) -

- 429 -

(Ibidem),
.
:
. ()
( ), , , <> , . (Ibidem) ,
, , -
.
, , ..
, ,
: ,
(, 42). (Eadem: 128) ( , , )
.
,

- . .
: , !; , (, 510). (Ibidem)
,
. .
: (,
68) (Ibidem) , . . -
,
(, 63) . (Eadem: 129) ,
. , , : , , ,

(-),

, , .. (Eadem: 130)

- 430 -

-,

, ,

,
.
( ),
,
. , . , , - , , . . ,
, -, , . ,
. (
),
, ,
, (, , ). . , ,
, ,
. ,
( -) ,
.
:
. 507

1.3.7. - :

, / . (. 1.3.1.) . . . ,
:
; ,
... . (1978: 108)
507

- 431 -

.
, () . , , , , , , -, . (. ) . , , , , , , , , , (, ), .. .
/ , , , -,
. , (, ..) :
, . , : ,
( ). ,
, ,
(, , ..)
. , , :
,

() .
- , , . ,
,
(. ). , , ,
, -

- 432 -

, ,

. -, , , ( ):
. -,
, . ,

, .
,
, , .
. , , , . , ,
:
. , , , . :
, , , ,
., , () . . , . -,
, , ,
, , . - . () , , , ..
.
, .
, , ,
,
. . , , -

- 433 -

, , (Seifrid 1984: 196-197, 20-210,


222-223; 1992: 91, 161, 167-168, 173; 1994: 315-316). ( . ) : -, (awkward grammaticality (Seifrid 1984: 196), ungrammatical utterances (Idem: 255));
-,
,
(Idem: 209-210, 218-219; Seifrid 1992: 163; Seifrid 1994: 312); -, , , ( ) (Seifrid 1984: 196-197,
255 .; Seifrid 1992: 2, 160-161); -, , ,
( 1994: 311), , (Seifrid 1984: 254). ,

(, , . , , , . ).

- 434 -

1.4.
()
<> Platonovs reputation as one of the major figures in Soviet literature rests more than anything on
his verbal style, on his creation of a linguistic medium widely held to be both strange and somehow
highly apposite to the world view expressed in his
works.
(Seifrid 1992: 81)
<> ,
,
, , ,
,
- .
( 1977: 159)

-
- . ( / ) . . , , ,
()
,
( ) , .. <> lsst den Leser die sprachlichen verfremdungen nicht als
solche wahrnehmen, sie erscheinen primr als selbstevidente Signale einer neuen
Welt. (Hodel 2001: 415) ,
,
.
.
, ()
, .
. . , , (

() , . ):

Als Ttigkeit des jeweils relativen Subjekts ist die Sprache zwar Erfassung und Gestaltung der Welt, jedoch keine Interpretation der Welt und auch kein Schaffen von
mglichen Welten. Dagegen ist die Dichtung immer absolut, und sie schafft auch gerade a n d e r e mgliche Welten. (Coseriu 1971a: 188)

, ( strong theory ).
,
, , .
/ , ,
. , , (. . . , . ). . :
If no uncomplicated reading of Chevengur is then possible, the novel may nonetheless be seen as cohering around certain key oppositions of attitude and theme. These
are most readily approached through the political themes in whose terms the novel
tends to be read, though as will be argued below the place of political ideas in Platonovs poetic mythology is ultimately a subordinate one. (Seifrid 1992: 101)

-
, , . . , 508 . ,
<> <>. ( 1988: 39) ,
( )
, ( ), . (Idem: 40)
. . , (
) ,
. .: . . , , , 15/3:
48-57, 1972.

508

- 436 -

/ ()

- ,

. , ,
- : ,
.
- , , , / , .. (. 1997: 98101, 108-109; 1991; 1998: 9-112)
, , . , . : ,
. . -, ,
. -, , , .
,
. , , , :
. .
- , . . . ,
- - . , , :
- . . ,
. . ( 1998);

- 437 -

- . . ,
, . 509
- . . ,
, . . (2004)

1.4.1. . ,
<> the semantics of literary style in Platonovs
mature works comes to serve as the iconic embodiment of his ontological theme.
(Seifrid 1992: 81)
Perhaps Platonovs greatest achievement <> is
that in formulating his peculiar linguistic parody he
revealed how much of the Soviet mindset was itself
predicated on linguistic phenomena, and indeed belonged to a broader effort in Russian culture to resolve epistemological dualism in the domain of language.
(Seifrid 1992: 203)

. . , .
,
- , , ( ) - ( (.
). - . -, . (Seifrid 1992: 132-133)
, ,
, . (Idem: 55, 201202) -, , 509

., : . . , : . . : XIX-XX .: 80-89. : , 1994; Eadem, " " . . : C : 77-86. : , 1994; Eadem, . ( 20- -- 30- ). : :
, . 2: 91-100. : .
- 438 -

/ ()

. , .
, , , ( / ) . (Idem: 55; 1994: 304). ,
. , , () ,
, .
,
, . (Seifrid 1984; Seifrid 1992 510 ; 1994: 304) 511
, . , . , , .

[]
( ) ,
, , , , , ,
<> ( 1994: 305)

, , , . (Seifrid 1992: 107-108; 1994: 305) , ,


, , , . (Seifrid 1992: 33-36, 63, 107-108; 1994: 304-306)
. (Seifrid 1984, 1992).
. (Seifrid 1984: 158, 161-179) (Seifrid 1984: 225, 232-254) .
510
511

- 439 -

, (, ). (Seifrid 1992: 109; 1994:


306) , , . (Seifrid 1992:
111) ( ) :
<> the ultimate fear troubling this vision is that, for all beings apparent separateness from matter, nothing but matter truly exists. <> It is as though for him the
soul, which initially appeared to have substance, somehow threatened to evaporate,
leaving behind only its material substratum. (Seifrid 1992: 110)

,
(the ephemerity of spirit) (Seifrid 1992: 110)
. , , (Idem: 143149) ,
, (Idem: 149-159).
, 512 .. , , , . , , ,
. (Seifrid 1984: 197) ,

, .
,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, (Seifrid 1984: 197);
, , , -

. (Seifrid 1992: 91)

512

- 440 -

/ ()

, , , (Seifrid 1984: 208).


, , : , .
. , : , , 513 (.. ),
<> ,
, ,

. ( 1994: 311312) 514 . , ,
,
.
: , <>
repeatedly aggrandizes seemingly inconsequential events in his novel and creates a
narrative which appears continually to refer to universals. (Seifrid 1984: 207) , ,
, () . (Idem: 208)
(
). . -, - , , . (Idem: 219220) ,
, . ( ) ()
- (
)
513 .
, . . A. Zholkovsky, Themes and texts. Towards a poetica of expressiveness. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984.
514 . (Seifrid 1984: 39, 41).

- 441 -

. (Idem: 201)
, , (ambivalent synonymy 515 ),
:
,
, . 516 (Idem: 201-202)
, , , <> to surround abstract notions with an aura of
tangibility (Idem: 217). 517 , , ,
( ) . (Idem: 208)
.
[] , , ( ).
( )
, , , :
,
. (Idem: 210-211) , , : . (Idem: 211)
, . , , , , ,
,
. (. Idem: 219-221) , / / / ( Seifrid 1992: 93),

. : <> in
the context of describing a concrete event an intended term is replaced by a phrase containing the
same word of its close synonym which recalls some political or even biblical clich, as if the narrator
had confused the latter for the former on the basis of semantic similarity. (Seifrid 1984: 201)
516 , . , , . (Seifrid 1984: 203)
517 . .
(Seifrid 1992: 93).
515

- 442 -

/ ()

. , , . , , . . (Idem: 257-262).

, ,
, . , - () , - , :
(
) , , . , , , (, )
. (Seifrid 1984: 221; Seifrid 1992:
94-95, 162-175) 518
,
. . ,
: , ,
.
( ), , . (Idem: 165) ,
: <> to the extent that the simultaneity
of these two meanings ( ) appears apt,
it projects the momentary fiction of a world in which concrete events are contiguous

. , . (Seifrid
1992: 85; 1994: 311) , (. ), . (Seifrid 1992: 162) .
(1978) . . (1983),
. : unexpected concatenation ( ), awkward tautology (), contamination of one set expression with another ( ), abrupt truncation of expressions (, ), substitution of
inappropriate cognates ( ), awkward transposition
of elements within an expression (), retrieval of folk etymologies (
() ). (Seifrid 1992:87-88, 162)
, , .. . (Seifrid 1992: 88)
518

- 443 -

with political ones, so that physical gestures reap immediate political effects. (Ibidem: 165)
:
, : ,
: ,
, , .
- . ( ) , , ,
, . (Idem: 165-166) , ,
( ). (Idem: 166) 519
-, , , , , , ,
.(Idem: 169) , , , () : <>
the language of Kotlovan should be seen as a linguistic icon not of utopian instantiation but of the frustrated instantiation in which the novel displays utopias demise. The linguistic irony amplifies that of its themes and plot. (Seifrid 1992: 169170)
,
, ()
, ,
. (Idem: 170) ,
. , ,
<> suggests that the Stalinist utopian project has been undertaken in the first place
because its promoters naively feel the presupposition on which it rests to cohere in
language. Not only do they assume a particular manner of speaking about the world,
but on the basis of that (ultimately fallacious) speech they believe their plan for re-

(Seifrid
1984: 269-272; 1994: 313-315). (Seifrid 1992).
519

- 444 -

/ ()

making the world to be valid. Nowhere is this logic implied more strongly than when
the text foregrounds the projective (in the sense of the Russian proektivnyj) quality
of the Stalinist lexicon, through which Soviet political phraseology appears not only
to be capable of referring to the concrete world, but also to contain the algorithm for
its remaking <> (Idem: 171)

, , () . ,
. , :
, .. . , , ,
, . 520 (Idem: 172) , , [p]erhaps Platonovs greatest achievement <> is that in formulating his peculiar linguistic parody he revealed how much of the Soviet mindset was
itself predicated on linguistic phenomena, and indeed belonged to a broader effort in
Russian culture to resolve epistemological dualism in the domain of language. (Seifrid 1992: 203) 521 ,
- : , .

, , .
. : My reading or Platonov thus differs somewhat fro the essentially postmodernist one offered by Brodsky <>, for whom Platonovs every sentence drives the Russian language into a semantic dead end or, more precisely, reveals a proclivity for dead ends, a blind-alley mentality in the language itself <>. In my more modernist interpretation Platonov posits disjuncture (or
dead ends) in language only to the extent that such things obtain in the world itself. (Seifrid 1992:
241)
521 . ( 1994: 316319). (Seifrid 1992).
520

- 445 -

1.4.2. . .
. . . , <> <> [] ( 1998: 134; .
1998: 6). 522 ,
,
<> (, , )
,
(.. ). ( 1998: 134; .
1988: 8-9)
(. ),

, .
( 1989), . ( , , , ) (1998) (1998) 523 .
,
,
.
() (, (, 235)), -
(, (, 451),
(, 241)) (,
(, 309)). ,
. . <>
, (, -) . (1998: 134) . .
523 (1998), (1998: 16-104).
522

- 446 -

/ ()

.
, . , : (, 306)
? <> , (,
526). (Idem: 135) (, , ). , - , , , . , , , , (, 54)
, , ! (, 93). (.
) , ,
( ) , , , (, 257) ( ).
( ). (Idem: 135-136)
, ,
: , /
- (
), , ! (, 79); , /
, ,
(, 53), ; ,
, ; ,

(, , ),
(, 44) ( . ). 524

. . , <> , : ,
. ,
. ( 1998: 12)
524

- 447 -

, , - , .
(Idem: 136-137)
, , , . ,
, ,
(
) , ,
, , . ( 1998: 4-5) , , <> , , ,
. (Idem: 5) ,
(, , ) , <>
, ,
( ) , , , . (Ibidem) ,
,
, ( 1998: 140) ( ) , , . ,
,
, .
, , , <> []
. ( 1998: 109) .:
, . , - .

- 448 -

/ ()

, , , , . (Ibidem; . Idem: 106-111; 1998: 140)

,
,
,
, . ( 1998:
6). , ( ). (1998) , , - 1999- . : <> , <> (1999: 137)
, .
,
. . . 525
<> -, , ,
. ( 1999: 138)
, , , , ,
, ,
, , , , , , ..
. (.. ) : , , -

525

Saul Aaron Kripke Jaako Hintikka.


- 449 -

( )
. (Idem: 139-140)

( ), . . .
(, 242) ,
, , (, ,
) (
), . (Idem: 141) :
,
(, 80).
, () , ,
. (Idem: 142) , ,
(, 381). (Ibidem) (.
) ,

.
(. Hodel 2001), . .: , ,
. ( 1999: 142-143) , ,
.
, ( ) . , ,
() , . : - (, 73),
. (Idem: 144) ,
, . .:

- 450 -

/ ()

, ,
-, (, 19). (Idem: 145)

. ()
( )
( . , . ..) . :
, ( ). (Ibidem; .
).
:
( , (, 452)), , (
, , (, 25)) ,
( (, 21)). (Idem: 146-147) () , ( ) ( ) : , -,
(, 197). (Idem: 147-148; . Hodel 2001) ,
() , .
.: , (, 101),
. ( 1999: 148-149)
, - , , .
,
.
,
( & 1990) , , . . . . .
, (.. ) <>
, <>

- 451 -

(1990: 138), , , .
, , , , ( ) , ,
.
,
, ,
, . , ,
,
, ( )
. , , (, - (, 63)). ( 1999:
149-150) - (, (, 88)) (,
( )
( ) (, 59)) ( ) .
(Idem: 150-151)

- 452 -

2.

,
. , , , , , , , , .
( 1988: 554)

2.1.
. (
)

. ( ), , . , ,
.

(., , . . .
,

). , , , , . ,
, ,
, .

, -,
.
, . , ,
, . .
, ,
- .
.
( -
, ):
(
) , , ?
. :
,
, , , , , , , .
( 1997: 91-92)

, , , ,
, , , . (
, , )
, ..). , ()
.
,
( , ). . -,

- 454 -

, , , . (
, ), . ,
( , )
, (
, , ). -, , . , , .
(),
(),
.. , , , . -
(, ),
.
( ) . /
.. , , , / , ,
. , /
, ,
, - (, ,
, ..). , , (, ( ) ()). , , , .
, . ,
. ,

- 455 -

, , .
, , .
.
,
<> , , -, ,

( 2000: 40). , , ,
, , , .
, 526 . , , ,
.
. (Hodel 1998: 150; Hodel 2001 527 )
. , , , , (.. 528 ) .
() (-) .
( , , ..
,
(Hodel
2001: 155-156)), . (
526

.

( ); . , ,
, , . , .
.
527
:
, (Hodel 2001: 57-66, 72-85) (Idem: 148-190, 239,
277, 401).
528
. , - , . (Hodel 2001: 148)
- 456 -

, , , ), , , .

, , , , -. . .
, ,
( 1998: 395), .
, rumliche Verdichtung:
( , , ..) . 529 (Hodel 2001: 183) , , (. ) ,
( ) ,
( ). - .
(. Hodel 2001: 403; 2004: 61)
,
( ) , ( )
, . ,

, ,
. . , , :
,
. , , .. ,
. , ,
529

, : <> Platonovs Prosa <> verdichtet [sich rumlich] und <> [reicht] nahe <> an die Sinnentfaltung von Lyrik [heran]. (Hodel 2001: 183). . ( 2003: 312-313); (
1998).
- 457 -

. ,
,
, , <> ( 1997: 92)

: ( ) ( , ), , . ,
, , , ..
, ,
, . , ,
, , (, ,
..), :
, , , , . , .
, (
)
.
, , . :
, . 530
, , , , , , .
/ , .
, (-) , . ,
, 530

. . : , . (
1997: 92)
- 458 -

-
, , . ,
(. , ), . , . , , . () () ,
. , ,
.
:
. (
. ) . , , ,
( ), , . , , ( ). ,
conditio sine qua non,
. , ,
, (
): , , . , , , . , .
, ,
( ), , -

- 459 -

, , .
.
: ,
, , . ( . ) (, 37), , .
( )
(.. )
. :
(2.2.)
( 2.2.1.;
2.2.2.;
2.2.3.). , , .
- (2.3.1.) (2.3.2.). , -
/ ,
, ( , ),
(.. ), .
,
( ).
, , , .. , . ,
. ,
( , .), . , ,
.

- 460 -


, .
, .
: , , ,
,
(..
) . ,
, , . ,
.

, ,
. -, , ( , , ). (.. ) . , , .
( , ),
. , -
. , /

:
, , , , , , .
,
( ), . (, ) (, , ). -

- 461 -

.
, , ; , (,
). ,


.
.
, , , , , , (,
)
. ( ) , ( , , ) : , . ,
: :
, .
, ,
. , ( ) ,
,
. ( 1995: 309-310) : , , 1928-
1929- ( , ,
); ( 1919- ) (
, 1919); (1925-1926) ( ); ;
, .
( 1995: 309-311; . 1995: 141)
-, (..

- 462 -

, ,

), . ( 1995: 310;
Hodel 2001: 362)
,
. ,
, , , . (. Hodel 2001: 360-367)
, , ,
, ,
(, ) ( , ( ( , )). , ,
.
, , . , , ,
, , , , ( , , ,
, ), . , ,
.

- 463 -

2.2.
2.2.1.
: ,
(, 37) ,
(,
, ..) (.
() (, 188)) (.
), .
-.
- .
.
,
:
, , (, ). ,
, , .
. , , ,
, . , ,
. . (), : ( )
,
/ .
,
, ,
(, (, 201) - )

(, (, 454) 531 ).

. -, .
. ,
. ( 2000: 385) ,
, ,
: , 532 .
(Ibidem) -,
,
.
(. ). , , , , , , .
, , , , . (.
.)
, , , ,
, .
.
:
,

., .,
. , , , . 533 531

, ,
* * . , .
.
532
: , - .
- , , - , , .
533
: , , . - , , , , .
.
. , ( 2003: 302).
- 466 -

, ,

.
, , , .
, , ,
. , ,
, - ,
-. . . ,
, , , , <>
, . (1998: 395)
(Idem: 394) .
(, 52), , . (Idem: 395)
, .
, ,
. , ,
, , , , . . , ,
. , ,
,

, , .
, ,
, /

- 467 -

: .
,
. , , , , . ( ) , . , ,
. , ; , : , .

2.2.2. ()
2.2.2.1.

- ,
(, 37)
. , ( , , )
, . :
- (, 363);
- : (, 373);
- ,
, . ,
(, 434);
- , . (, 444);

- 468 -

- , ,
, , ,
. (, 490);
: .
, ,
: () , , (, 323).
, ,
. (,
, ,
, .)
:
,
, , (
). , . -, (* ). -,
,
(, .) . , .

: (, 444).
, , :
, , - , (,
380).

, (1) ( , ), (2-3):
- ! (, 27);
- ... (, 52);
- , (, 30)
, , ,
, . ,

- 469 -

, .
, ,
.
.: ,
,
, . , (, 30).
. , . ,
.
, . , , . .


, ,

, , , - , , - 1930- .
. ( ) , ; , , . , . , , , /
( ,
).

, , .

- 470 -

.
, , . , ,
, , , , , .
, , , , , .
, .
,
.
, , , - , .
.
( ) ,
() . , ,
.
(. (, 403)), -
(. (, 76)) (. (, 32)).
, , . , , , , : (, 216) (, 54). ,
( ), : ... , -
(, 537); - (, 102); ,
(, 45);
(, 69); .. ,
. , , -

- 471 -

. : , (, 314), (, 9) .
, , .
, , , ,
. , -
, . .

, ,

:
- (, 403);
- (, 292);
- , (, 287);
- - (, 342)
- (, 303);
- (, 432).
, , : ,
. ,
, , (, 432).
, . . , :
, .
, . ,
, . (, 444)

( !) : , .

- 472 -

.
, . , ,
. , , : , , .; . . . . . -; , , , ; , . (-2: 703)
. :
(Ibidem).
, , :
(, 371).
, , -
, - .
: :
(, 438),
, . : . , - ( ) , . .
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- 473 -

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- 474 -

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- 475 -

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- 476 -

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- 477 -

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- 478 -

(, 37). ,
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- 479 -

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- 480 -


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- 481 -

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- 482 -

) : - ,
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534

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- 483 -

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, 4 6 )), ( , , , ) ( 3/1/1) , (1 ),
(2/0/1), (1/0/4), (1/1/0), (1/0/2),
(0/1/1). , .

- 484 -

( ) ,
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(, 30)). , .

2.2.2.2.
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(, 265); (, 216)), ,
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- 485 -

. , ,
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), , , , , . , , (, 461), ,
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535

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. . , , (, 301).

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): , , ,
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- 487 -

(, 524)
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- 488 -

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308).
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- 489 -

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203);
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313);
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- 490 -

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239); ? (, 488).
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536

. . ,
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- 491 -

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211);
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528).
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- 492 -

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537

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- 493 -

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- 494 -

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- 495 -

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- 496 -

(, 412); , (, 424). ( ) (, 329).


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- 497 -

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49). , , , ,
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- 498 -

() : (, 81). ,
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- 499 -

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- 500 -

, , (, 83) (. ,
)
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24). .

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ratio, , , . , . , .
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- 501 -

), ( ,
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.

:
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- 502 -


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52).
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- 503 -

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90); (, 11). . ,
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- 504 -

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- 505 -

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60).
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- 506 -

, , .
, . (, , , ..), (, , ,
..) (, , , ,
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6/5/6; ( ) 4/3/4;
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2.2.3.
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- 507 -

: , .
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2.2.3.1.
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.
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- (, 437);

- 508 -

- (, 334);
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386);
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- 509 -

, : , , (, 331);
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220) /
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363). . :
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(, 537)

, .
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484). (. , (,

- 510 -

..) , (-2: 390). ,


). : , , , (, 391).
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298);
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( -). .:
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- 511 -

(, 497).
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534). . : ( )
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- 512 -

; , (, 279) . ,
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- 513 -


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- 514 -

(, 488). , ,
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), , . .
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452);
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), :
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538

. : , (, 278).
- 515 -

, . : (, 355).
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390); ! . // :
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- 516 -

, , , . ,
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361)):

539

. . , , . ( 1999: 120)
- 517 -

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(. / (-1: 590)) , (. ), .
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- 518 -

(, 253) : :
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, ) ) . 540 : , ... ,
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): , .

540

! . .:
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- 519 -

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- 520 -

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(, 250).
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- 521 -

, .
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:
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(, 286-287)

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- 522 -

- , , ,
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541

. : , ,
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- 523 -

: , ! (, 367)
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.

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( (, 380); (, 348))

- 524 -

( (,
447)).
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- 525 -

, , , (, 374). , , ,
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, . , , ,
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542

. :
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- 526 -

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- 527 -

(, , -. (-2: 572). , ( , ( ). (Ibidem)), : , ,


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- 528 -

(-1: 268). : (-3: 559),


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- 529 -

. .: ,
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- 530 -

- , , , (, 31);
- (, 32);
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- : , ( , , , ., . (-2: 363). .
: , (, 54).
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. .
.: () (, 28);
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29); , , , (, 31); , ! (, 42). :
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).
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- 531 -

, :
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, ... (, ?)).
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211). , ,
.
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. ratio : (. ). .: (, 105); (, 23); (, 23); ,
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(, 107) , ,
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- 532 -

, ,
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.
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- 533 -

. , 2.2.1.,
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. , ,
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71); (, 80); (, 94); (, 60); (, 75).
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- 534 -

, (, 61).
: (, 44). , ,

. , : (, , ) (-3: 591), , ,
(Ibidem).
. , , .
,
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, , (, 56).

. -, : (. 2.2.) . . :
, (, 10). ,
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-
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;

- 535 -

- , ,
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, .
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, (, 75)

: , ,
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. .:
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543

. , (, 23).
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, . . . (-1: 650).

544

- 536 -

( ,
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(, 24) ( ) . . . , , (, 18).
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,
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: , , , . .
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;

- 537 -

(, 31). . .: , , ,
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40). :
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, . .:
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, .
).

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,
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, , (. , ). , , , :
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. .
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,
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- 538 -

(, 20); , , , , ,
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), , .
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!). , / : , , , (, 49).
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: , -... (, 57)

- 539 -

. ! (, 59)

, , . ,
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: , , , , (, 79); (, 82). (. ,
.) : , , , .

- 540 -

, (,
83).
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.

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- 541 -

, , ,
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; , . , , ,
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- 542 -

, , . , () (, 66) ,
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:

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;
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- .
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.

- 543 -

. ., ,
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). . ,

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). , . , . , , :
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- 544 -

: (,
) ( , , ). ()
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:
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, . (, 64).
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- 545 -

,
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. :
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- 546 -

, ,
, . (, 19) 545

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- , :
. (, 19-20)


: (, 20). , .
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: , , ,
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545

. :
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- 547 -

, , ,
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- 548 -

). , (: )
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.). , (: ,
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- 549 -

, , . , ,
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() (), , ,
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.
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2.2.3.2.
: / /
.

- 550 -

, ,
/ . , , .

/ ( ) . , , . , ( , ) ( , (, 376); (, 491)),
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,
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- 551 -

, (, 218).
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.: () ,
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,
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, (, 259)), : , , (, 259).
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.
.
, . :
(, 373), :

- 552 -

- (, 267);
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422).
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).
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.
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, . ,
. (, 403)

,

: ,
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. .: - ,
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- 553 -

(, 254) , , , , . ,
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- 554 -

, : . . :
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! . (, 345)

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, :

- 555 -

. , , , (, 292-293)

, (,
437) , , , ( ,
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, , ( ). ,
, ...
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... (, 454)

, : (, 454)
, :
, (, 323).
: , (, 355). (, , ).
, ( ), :
, ( , (, 265)). : , (, 265). , , :
, (,
265).

- 556 -

,
, :
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, : , ,
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-:
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. .: , ,
,
(, 359).

- 557 -

, . : ratio ,
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.
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(, 88). . , :
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, .
, ( (, ),
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- 558 -

: , (, 105). , , . () :
, , ? (, 104-105) : , . .
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.
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/ ( ,
) ,
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- (, 33). , , . , , :
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. / .
, ,
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. . , ( ) -

- 559 -

: ,
(, 110).


, : ,
, .
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). :
- , (, 35).
,
, . , .
(2.2.2.) . .
-, - . , ,
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, .
:
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. .

- 560 -

, . (, 79)

.
() . ,
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. (, 45)
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(, 56).
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(, 54). :
, , ...
: ,
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- 561 -

,
, (. ). ,
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, ... (, 55) ,
,
.
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, .
.

,
. .: ,
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:
(, 29).
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-
, , , , . , ,
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,
... (, 41 . )

- 562 -

:
, .
,
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. , , , , (, 58)

, , , .

,
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.
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, :
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(, ?)

(, ,
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- 563 -

, , (, , ), .
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. . ,
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, ,
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, , , .
. : , , (, 9). .
: , , , -

- 564 -

(, 88), , ,
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, . ,
-, . ; , ;
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, (, )
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, . , , , , -

- 565 -

, . , .
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.
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,
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- 566 -

. ,
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,
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,
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, , ,
, , , , , , .

- 567 -

2.3. -
, - / , . , , (-),
( ) () ( ). .
, , , , ,
. , . , ,
.
/ , ,
. , , . , , , , .


, . ,
,
. , : , .
.

- 568 -

2.3.1.

, , /
/ , . ,
,
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: , , , ,
. ( -) , (
).
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. , . ,
, . ,
, .
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. .
, (
), , , . , (, ) , , ,
. ; -

- 569 -

- (, , , .), ,
. , .
. , :
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,
.
(, , , , ..) (, ,
..).
, . , .

2.3.1.1.
,
, ,
. , :
, . , ,
.., .
: , .
. (, , , , ,
, ) / (, ),
: , , , ,
..

- 570 -

, ..
. .
:
- (, 282);
- .
, ,
(, 299);
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(, 299);
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. : (, 197); (, 200);
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(, 444); (, 475); (, 506),
(, 510); . .
, .

. .
, , , ,
, . , , , . .:
- :
, (, 192);
- , ,
(, 216);
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- (, 255);
- (, 339);

- 571 -

-
(, 387);
- (, 405);
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, , , , , .
:
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- (, 248) ( , );
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,
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.: . , ,
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, .
.
,
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. .
, ,
. , (, 537). , , :

- 572 -

, ;
- , .

. , (, 285)

2.3.1.2.
, ,
.
( ). : .
, , , . : ,
.
, ,
(, , , , , , ) / (, ),
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). : (, 37);
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30); (, 37); (, 38);
(, 68); (, 49);
(, 81); (, 105); (, 40); .
, .
- , (, 23);
- , (, 36);
- (, 26);
- , , (, 114).

- 573 -

, , ,
, . .:
; (,
76-77). . : ,
? (, 112). : , , (, 113);
, ,
(, 114); (, 114).
, , (, , , , , , .). , , . . :
- , (,
110);
- , (, 55);
- , (, 24);
- (.. ) (, 28);
- , (, 57);
- (, 101);
- ,
(, 34);
- (, 37);
- , (, 48);
- (, 109);
- (, 110).
,
. , :
, (, 24).
,
, ,
. ,
, ( , ),
, , . -

- 574 -

: , . (, 37).

2.3.1.3.
, :
, , (, , ),
, . , , . , , .
. , ,
: - .
: , .. , , ,
, .
,
(, , , , , , ) / (, ), : , , , .. .: (, 9); () (, 9);
() (, 9); () (, 21);
() (, 22); (, 27); () (, 30);
(, 77); (, 85); (, 87);
(, 92); .. ,
, , - .

. -,
.
, , -. -, , ,
.., . -,

- 575 -

, , , , , . , . -,

, -,
. - .
, ( ), ( ).
. :
. , , , . .: ,
(, 19). , ,
, ,
(, 45).
,
. : - , . .:
(, 73); () , (, 82); ,
(, 38); () ( )
, , (, 90); ,
(, 81); ,
. (, 59);
() (, 16-17).
,
- (
) , . . ()

- 576 -

(, 17) (. ); (, 70) (. ); (, 88);


, (, 104);
(, 105); (, 92) ().

( ) + 6
( , ..) ,
.
( ), : - , ,
, .
:
- ,
(, 26);
- (- ) , (, 27)
- , , . (, 32)
- , ;
- ,
(, 53-54);
- , (, 56);
- () ,

(, 68).

: , (, 45);
(, 19).
( )
, .

- 577 -

( , ) ( ,
). . : (, 74). . , : (, 11)
( , ). : ,
(, 31).
,
, , . , , : . , , .
. , .. . , , . , , , .
, : , .
. - (, 87), : , (, 88), .
(, 87) ,
(, 60).
, . : - ,
, (, 60). :
- ,
,
, , . -

- 578 -

, . ,
, . (, 60)

, , , . (, 95) , . .: () , , , ,
(, 32); ,
,
, . , , (, 32)
, , , : ? ... // ? // , , , , ... (, 76). . : , -
, , (, 37).

2.3.1.4.
,
. , (?), .
: (, 264);
(, 22); ?
(, 28) (. ).
(, 287, 537), (, 287),
(, 276), - (, 285),
, , , . ,
. ,
.

- 579 -

, .

/ (, 5556). :
, , , , ,
, , : ,
-. -, , , ,
- , , ...
, . , , , , . (,
55)

( -, ,
, , - , ,
... (, 55)).
(, 56). , , . .,
, ( 1999: 51) . . 546 . .
547 .
, .

. ,
(
), ?
, ,
. : , ,
.. , . . . , 546

. . . , ( ), , 1989 3:
21-26.
547
. . . , . ( 20 30- ), : : , 2:
91-100. : , 1995.
- 580 -

, .
. ,
. ,
,
( / , ..). .
,
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, .
, , -, , ,
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. . . ,
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:
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.
.
() ,
. ,
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- 581 -

, , , . .
, : -. ,
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), ,
.
,
, :
, .

2.3.2. -
2.3.2.1.
. (1978, .
), - . , ,
, ,
. ., ,
, :
, , , , .
, , . ,
, ,
, , . ( 1994: 30)

, ,
.
( )
, -

- 582 -

, , (. , . . .).
tabula rasa, (). ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.. , (, , ) (,
) - (. Hodel
2001: 17, 97) . , , , . (.
Hodel 2001: 275-276) - , , XVII . . , , .
(1709-1751), - ( ), - (Lhomme machine,
1748 Leiden), 1911- (,
, ). -
, , ,
, .
,
(). , , .. . - ,
: ,
. (Lamettrie 1978)
, . , . , XVIII ,
, . , 1911-

- 583 -

, ,
-, , ( ). ,
, ,
.
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. . ,
(
( 1991: 60)).
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, . :
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.
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, . .

(
(-2: 115)), .
.
,
, . ,
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- 584 -


, , ,
, .
(, 485)

, , :
, (, 219).
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,
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, (
): ,
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391). . , , , (-3: 230),
- .
, ,
.
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, .
, , , /
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, , ? , , , .

- 585 -

, , .
, .
. , . . .
, . , . , . ,
.
. , , : . , . . , -,
. , , , .
. ( 548 )
, ,
. ,
. ,
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.
.
( ) ( , ,
). .
. , , : , , , ,
. . 548

.: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B7
- 586 -

. , :
, (. ,
, , (, 31))

.
,
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). . (. ). , . ,
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.
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() , . , .
, , . , , ,
.

- 587 -

- : , , .
(,
), . (.. )
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.
. , , .
.

, . .
, - .

2.3.2.2.
- , , . ,
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(, 450). , :
! (, 389), ? (, 390). ,
, .
, , : ,
, (, 444). ,
,
.

. ( , ,
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. .: () (,
19), . : -

- 588 -

- (, 58); , ,
(, 96); , (, 33).
,
, , , : , , (, 23).
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(
, ..) (-3: 203-204).

, . . , ,
. . . (, 355);
(, 447); (, 204);
(, 281). (, 75). . . : (, 232);
(, 293); (, 307),
(, 307); (, 267). , - (, 80)

. ,
, ,
(, 404), . . : () (, 308).
, . .
:
? . ,
!
, !
! . (, 383)

- 589 -

- :
(, 425). . : , (,
439).
, ,
: , , . .: ,
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, : , (, 355);
(, 422).
,
: , .. (. )
, .. -, , : , (, 307). (.. ): - (,
218) . , (, 259).
,
(-2: 563): , /
, . :
, , (, 259).
, ,
-.
, (, 30); ,
, (, 47); , (, 39); - , (, 35);
/ ,
. , , . , :

- 590 -

(, 265). : , (, ,
/ ) , (
).
, , , . .:
, ,
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, : () .
.
:
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(, 225). ,
.
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. .: , ,
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(, 235).
, .
:
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) ,
:
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. : ! ! (, 373) -
, :
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/ . , ,

- 591 -

(, 206). , - .
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,
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.
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. (, 319)

, - ( ). , (,
) ( ,
), , . - - ,
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-,
: . ( , ) , (.. ) (
) . - ,

- 592 -

, .. .
() , -. , , .

. / / . , , : ! , (, 315).
(. !),
: , ( ), . , ,
, .
, , (, 342). , , - . :
.
, .
(, 384)

/ .
:
, , ( ).
- ,
, () . .: , , (, 64-65).
: ,
, : , (, 65). . , , , : , , , ,

- 593 -

(, 97). . , :
(, 75).
. . :
(,15);
(, 10); (, 35). .
,
, . , : ( )
(, 15).
,

, . . : ,
(, 16).
( . ),
. . : (, 16). .
: , (, 217); () (, 369).
.
.: , (, 324).
. , - , , ( ,
) , , , ( , ..) (-2: 59). . , , , ,
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) (-2: 59). ., ,
. (, 243). . , :

- 594 -

, .
. , (, 510-511)

, , . ,
( ,
( , ..)
(-1: 526)), ,
, : -.
, , , ,
.., ,
, (-1: 526). 549
/
. , (, 55). , , , , ( ): (, 16). .
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, / -
, . ,
().
, . :
, (, 422). 550
549

:
, ,
, (,
32).
550
: , - .
. . ,
. , : <> in Platonovs phrase its odd governance suggests the literal filling of Pukhovs body, as if with some liquid. (Seifrid 1992: 91-93, 106)
- 595 -

, . , , , , .. , -
, , .

. ,
, , , :
-
, .
, .
! .
,
, ; -
, , . (, 381)

,
, ,
. , , , . , , , , .
., , :
, (, 384),
- . , . . :
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!
, , , , . (, 374)

- 596 -

: (), , . , , , . , .
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. .:
, .
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, :
(, 408). . (, ( ) (), , -. , ( ) (-1:
128). , , ,
: , (,
307). : (, 339),
. , , ,
.
, . .: , (, 330).
,
, , : ( ) , (, 356).

- 597 -

, (, , ).
. .: (
) ,
(, 45),
. :
, (, 50), ,
, , , (-1: 584), , .
() , . , . ., , , , , (, 422). -. .: - ,
, (, 225). . : ,
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(, 115).
(, , . )
, ,
., , . .: ,
. ,
(, 265).
, (. (-4: 440)).
,
, :
- ,
; , ,
. ,
, . (,
412)

- 598 -


(. !)
(.. ). .
,
-, .
..
: , . : ,
(
, ). .:
.
,
.
, , ... (,
420)

. ,
. , , ( )
(, 466-467).
.
., , -, ( , ), , : ,
(, 230); - ;
, ,
(, 231).
. , , . , ,
, .
. . , (
): , ( );
( , );
-, . .:

- 599 -

,
.
,
, , , ,
. (, 252)

, , . . : , ,
(, 455), / . :
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,
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. (, 455)

. - , . () ,
, .
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(-4: 292) . , :
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, , :
(, 74). , / ,
.
, ( , . (-1:

- 600 -

685)). . : ,
, (,
389). . , :
, . , . , .
.
, . ,
. , , , , .
, .
, , , .
, , ,
. , ,
. , , ,
. (, 78-79)

, -
-, ,
. ( . ), . , .
: , . (, 546-547).
( , (-1: 228), ,
. : , !
, (, 550) , -

- 601 -

(, 547).
- - . , , . .: ( ) (, 230); , (, 249). . :
(, 75).
.
, , ,
. : ,
, .
. , ,
( ).
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198) . : , , , ,
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(, ), .
. ,
: - , ,
-,
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. , , ? . (, 510)

. , :

- 602 -

, .
. , ,
, . (, 510-511)

. :
() , (, 512). ( () ) ( )
. : ,
... (, 538)



, .
. (
. (, 546-547)). (, 386). : , , , , ! -, -
(, 393). , ,
, . .
: , , ; ,
(, 394). -
( ) -
(, 531). : , , , (, 283).
,
: (, 546).

- 603 -

- , ,
( ) . .:
- , (, 191);
- , . , ,
. ,
, .
,
, (, 243);
- , ,
(, 216);
- , (, 216);
- (, 217);
- , , (, 217);
- , ,
(, 225);
- . , ,
(, 228).
,
, : , , - , (,
395). ,
, . , .
.

. . .
- . 2000- . 551 -

551

. . . , - . , :
: , . 2: 25-40. -: , 2000.
- 604 -

, .
. .: ( , ); : ! (, 35) , . . -, :
, , ,
; , ,
,
. (, 17)

. , : , . ,
() : ,
, (, 32); ()
(, 34);
, ,
(, 59). :
(, 44) ( . ).
,
() -: , , ...
(, 39) ,
. : ! (,
39) , , . (, 68) .
, : , (, 87).

- 605 -

, :
, .
, . .
:
. ,
- , (, 15). , , ,
, .
.

- 606 -

2.4.

, , . (, 37). , , ,
( ) (
),
(
). , .
. , , , , , , , , .
:
( ) . , , , ,
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, , , .

- 607 -

, , . , , ,
() ,
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.
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, . .
( ),

- 608 -

, (
), , - ( ,
).
, : , , . ,
, . ,
, (, ) .

- 609 -


, .
. , , , .
. :
,
.
, , , , ,
. ,
( -)
: (, ),
.. ,
.

. ( )
.
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.

- 611 -

, .
: II, ,
III, .
( I) :
( ,
mind style).
( )
. . ,
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( ) , , . ,
.
, , . .
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, , .

. ,
-,
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. -

- 612 -

(
), - . : ( ), ( ) .

, , ,
, . (, , (), ..)
( -)
. ( , , )
- .
-
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). , . ,
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.
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, :
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- 613 -

, . . . , ..
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, -
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, -
( ), , . , - ( ,
) .
, . . , -
.
,
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. , : -,
.

. -

- 614 -

, , .

(, 37). , ,
.
, .
,
.
, , . . ,
, .

- 615 -


, . 18- 23- 2007-
SEELANGS SEELANGS (The Slavic and East European Languages and Literature List). 552
: Robert Chandler
From: "Robert Chandler" <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>
To: <SEELANGS@BAMA.UA.EDU>
Sent: Friday, May 18, 2007 9:24 PM
Subject: [SEELANGS] Platonov translation question: 'Sredi zhivotnykh I rastenii'
Dear all,
My wife and I and Olga Meerson are at present revising our translation of this wonderful and witty story about a strelochnik on a remote stretch of railway in Soviet Karelia. We are hopelessly stuck on the last underlined line of the following passage.
The strelochnik has just been promoted. And he is now working in the town of Medvezhya Gora, which to him seems somewhere very important and cultured:
Not knowing how to be in command of others, he began by doing all their work for
them; he cleaned and greased the points himself and went out to meet every train,
even though the train was already being met by a junior pointsman. He went on seeing to everything: were the points positioned correctly and did they move freely and
smoothly? The junior pointsmen were bewildered. What is it, Ivan Alekseyevich?
Arent we working-class enough for you? Why are you greasing the points yourself?
Weve got reason to be here, you know.
But can you do everything the way I do? asked Fyodorov.
The way you do? said one elderly junior pointsman. Not likely. Well do things
better.
Well see, Fyodorov said gloomily. To you its a job but what I do is feel. ??
, ,
: ,
, , -

552 SEELANG , .
, , <.>.

- 617 -

. :
. :
- , , , - .
, .
- , ? .
: !... , ,
: .
- , - . , .
Not sure about this, but there may be an echo of a line from KOTLOVAN:
... .
: Robert Chandler
From: "Robert Chandler" <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>
To: <SEELANGS@BAMA.UA.EDU>
Sent: Friday, May 18, 2007 9:32 PM
Subject: [SEELANGS] Same Platonov question again
Dear all,
Just realized that the underlining gets lost. My question is about the word
chuvstvuyu. We cannot think of anything that has the right resonance:
Well see, Fyodorov said gloomily. To you its a job but what I do is feel. ??
, . , .
Ya tam poglyazhu, sumrachno skazal Fyodorov. Vy tut tolko sluzhite, a ya zdes
chuvstvuyu.
By the way, this story is almost unobtainable in its full, uncensored version. If anyone would like an electronic copy, Ill gladly send them one. I recently typed it into
my computer.
Poka,
R.

: Robert Chandler
Date: Sun, 20 May 2007 07:01:59 +0100
From: Robert Chandler <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>
Subject: Platonov question: Vy tut tol'ko sluzhite, khodite, a ya chusvtvuyu
Dear all,
Thanks to everyone who sent in their thoughts about this line of Platonov. And please
forgive various confusions in my previous messages. Sometimes I get fixated on one
difficult word and lose sight of the others. In any case, I think we may now be there,
- 618 -

or at least a lot closer than we were:


But can you do everything the way I do? asked Fyodorov.
The way you do? said one elderly junior pointsman. Not likely. We do things
better.
Thats as maybe, Fyodorov said gloomily. You carry out tasks. I work by feeling.
The last line of the original is
<.>
Best Wishes,
R.

: Alexandra Smith
Date: Sun, 20 May 2007 08:16:28 +0100
From: Alexandra Smith <Alexandra.Smith@ED.AC.UK>
Subject: Re: the Platonov question
Quoting Robert Chandler <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>:
> Thats as maybe, Fyodorov said gloomily. You carry out tasks. I work by feeling.
>
> The last line of the original is
> <.>
Dear Robert,
I think that the your rendering of the above line is not entirely correct and looses the
rhythmical pattern of the phrase. I would have put it as follows:
"I'll see how it goes", Fedorov said gloomily. "You just work here, walk around, but I
live through my sensitivities".
All very best,
Sasha Smith
: Boris Dagaev
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 04:11:22 -0400
From: Boris Dagaev <boris.dagaev@GMAIL.COM>
Subject: Re: the Platonov question
Robert, "trudge" might work for <.> is important as well, because the whole
phrase is somewhat condescending.
: Michael Berry
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 11:39:08 +0100

- 619 -

From: Michael Berry <M.J.BERRY.RUS@BHAM.AC.UK>


Subject: Re: the Platonov question
I don't like "You carry out tasks. I work by feeling" - it doesn't sound natural conversation...
What about something like:
"For you it's just a job, you go through the motions, but I've got a real feel for it."
Mike Berry
Honorary Senior Research Fellow,
Centre for Russian and East European Studies,
University of Birmingham,
Birmingham B15 2TT

, Michael Berry et alii: Robert Chandler


Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 11:59:47 +0100
From: Robert Chandler <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>
Subject: Re: the Platonov question
Thanks very much! But I need to say a few things:
'For you it's (just) a job' is fine, and I may use it - but the original is not simply 'natural
conversation'. Platonov's 'a ya chuvstvuyu' (with no object' is clumsy and touching
(as someone has already said). And it has many possible meanings - touch, emotional feeling, and (perhaps) Platonov talking about his own self.
'I work by feeling' is also ambiguous and has a certain resonance, so I am happy with
that part of my tr. I am MUCH LESS HAPPY about the first part. It is certainly possible that 'you go through the motions' is what 'khodite' means here, but I'm really not
sure. And I would rather be not be so much more explicit than Platonov himself!
Best Wishes to all,
R.
, Alexandra Smith: Francoise Rosset
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 07:23:12 -0400
From: Francoise Rosset <frosset@WHEATONMA.EDU>
Subject: Re: the Platonov question
><.>
>
> "I'll see how it goes", Fedorov said gloomily. "You just work here, walk around, but
I live through my sensitivities".
A variation on other responses, only the last part is new -- and probably someone has
suggested this already: "You just work here, walk around/trudge around, but I feel
things."
-FR
- 620 -

Francoise Rosset
Chair, Russian and Russian Studies
Coordinator, German and Russian
Wheaton College
Norton, Massachusetts 02766
Office: (508) 285-3696
FAX: (508) 286-3640
, Alexandra Smith: Deborah Hoffman
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 04:44:34 -0700
From: Deborah Hoffman <lino59@AMERITECH.NET>
Subject: Platonov question
Could khodite here be the regular motion of just coming to work every day? Also,
how about inserting a word or two after chuvstvuyu to convey meaning rather than
sticking to the original syntax, thus:
"You only work here, you show up every day, but I feel what I do."
Just a thought to convey the speaker's main concern of contrasting the rote performance of his co-workers with his greater emotional participation.
: Deborah Hoffman
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 05:15:56 -0700
From: Deborah Hoffman <lino59@AMERITECH.NET>
Subject: Platonov question
Wait - I have something better. How about "You just work here, going through the
motions, but I feel what I do." It's not literal, but perhaps also renders the colloquial
"Vy tut."
Sorry to be coming late to the party - no matter which encoding I switch my machine
to I can never read the Cyrillic parts of some of the messages.

: Paul Richardson
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 08:49:45 -0400
From: Paul Richardson <paulr@RUSSIANLIFE.NET>
Subject: Re: SEELANGS Digest - 19 May 2007 to 20 May 2007 (#2007-76)
Or, how about:
"You here merely live to serve, but I live through my senses."
: colkitto, Robert
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 09:59:07 -0400
From: colkitto <colkitto@ROGERS.COM>
Subject: Re: Platonov question

- 621 -

or (maybe more idiomatically and freely)


"you're just putting in time here, but I'm emotionally involved in this job"
, Francoise Rosset: Olga Meerson
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 07:07:13 -0700
From: Olga Meerson <meersono@GEORGETOWN.EDU>
Subject: Re: the Platonov question
I like "I feel things" for chuvstvuiu. Robert, what do you think?
Olga Meerson
, Deborah Hoffman, 1 & 2: Olga Meerson
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 07:08:04 -0700
From: Olga Meerson <meersono@GEORGETOWN.EDU>
Subject: Re: Platonov question
No. Tut xodite is not siuda xodite.
o.m.

: Lily Alexander
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 10:14:53 -0400
From: Lily Alexander <lily.alexander@UTORONTO.CA>
Subject: Fwd: Platonov, and his metaphors
Hi Robert,
I read in the morning all messages sent to you regarding this peace, and I cannot help
thinking that people are giving you good advice of "good English" that sounds right.
This is exactly the point: this sentence - about feelings - is designed NOT to sound
right. The word "chuvstvuyu" in the context is out of place and must stick out.
In Platonov, almost in every sentence there is a word unconventionally used, so his
language and the language of his characters sound "childish," as if they do not know
how to use language properly, or "wizardly" as if they know something about the secret life of words that nobody else knows. He often uses words "pod uglom" k rechi.
They are in strange relationships with his text, and they are disobediently used.
Like in Vico (each metaphor is a little myth) Platonov's words are metaphors which
are little myths.
For example, with this "chuvstvuiu." Imagine a person, a railroad worker, who is
connected to his rails, and other mechanical things, and his road as if by means of
thousands nerves connected to his body or coming from his body - he "feels" them all
. He is connected with them - a man of the universe, or universe's "central station."
And of course he points out to others that they are who they are, and he understands
himself as this special being, take it or leave it. They are flabbergasted, offended and

- 622 -

bewildered at once. So the hero imagines himself (and Platonov does not dispute) as
almost some kind of fantastic being - fantastic human tree with the roots going everywhere. The image of the man connected with his nerves (and hence feelings) with
the entire world is repeated by Platonov in so many ways and in so many works. This
image is one of Platonov's "foundational metaphors, " or "root metaphors" of his fictional world.
This is why you stumbled on this word and cannot get through. Maybe the author
does not allow you - until you get it his way. :-)
Regarding the use of the word "pustiak" in another sentence, which we discussed
with you - when people say "eto ne pustiak," this connotes a tiny resentment. I would
not omit "pustiak" or replace it with anything else. Besides, pustiak is a "little" pustota. Emptiness comes through the word "pustiak" in Russian. And it is another of
Platonov's root metaphors, with a negative connotation about what the world has become to - tragically. Again, various images of emptiness come through in abundance
in many works of Platonov.
It seems to me that loosing Platonov's "stick out" words means loosing Platonov. It is
not a good idea to "straighten him out" and clean his clumsy language because this
clumsiness is meaning-making. His "stick out" words that are almost metaphors are
important - often because they are part of his imagery and of the system of rootmetaphors of his world. They are part of his recurrent vocabulary of word-images. I
think you are "feeling it" (like the character) and cannot get through this peace without resolving these issues.
I also think that when he uses words incorrectly grammatically or in other unpredictable ways, he establishes an instant contact with us through the textual frames. He
uses strange words not simply as attention-getters, but as a sudden moments of a dialogue on "feeling" or other "sensitive" things that is directed at us, the readers. So
messing with Platonov's weird usage of words, one can affect Platonov's communication system with his readers, constructed very carefully and elaborately. While reading, and running into this strangely used words, one must stop for a second and subconsciously reflect on language itself - why the word is used this way and what this
means. Platonov has an amazing flow of course, but he also punctuates his language
with unusual usage, creating some strange rhythm of delays and "stops." Well, defamiliarization of course - but also something else, putrefy Platonov's, hard to define.
Good luck.
Lily Alexander
: colkitto, Robert
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 10:25:54 -0400
From: colkitto <colkitto@ROGERS.COM>
Subject: Re: Fwd: Platonov, and his metaphors
too many Roberts on this list ......
"In Platonov, almost in every sentence there is a word unconventionally used, "

- 623 -

in that case, why not borrow from a Hancock dialogue (from memory) for cuvstvuju
... I paint with ... light
Swipe me! .... 'e paints with light!!!!!!
and suggest
"you're just ..... but I do this job with light"
or
"I bring light to this job"
that would be a bit out of context. It was funny enough applied to art, but railway
sleepers?

: Josh Wilson
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 20:10:46 +0400
From: Josh Wilson <jwilson@SRAS.ORG>
Subject: Re: Fwd: Platonov, and his metaphors
First off, thanks to Lily for this insightful comment on the ART of translation. I do not
wish to offend anyone on this list, but it really seems to me that most of these suggestions I've read so far seem out-of-the-blue and a little stale. The type of sentences I
read time and time again that always leave me wondering "I wonder the original said
(and meant)." Of course, I could look that up, but translations should not leave one
with that feeling.
Given Lily's contemplation of the subject - that the phrase should sound odd but also
imply a mystical connection with the railroad as well as the fact that he excels in his
job - I would leave many of the words behind and translate the thought instead.
Something like:
"You only work here, go through the motions, but I bleed rail ties."
It does differ from the original, but achieves the same effect of slightly alienating the
listener, and also makes instant sense as a metaphor by borrowing from a common
image about "having something in one's blood."
I've also assumed that "tut khodite" would imply regular motion in a single place and
convey a slight condescension...
Just a(nother) suggestion.
JW

: David Powelstock
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 12:39:23 -0400
From: David Powelstock <pstock@BRANDEIS.EDU>
- 624 -

Subject: Re: Fwd: Platonov, and his metaphors


I'm also very grateful for Lily's post, which made a number of points I had on my
mind.
Her post and Josh's got me thinking about the "khodite" part. I think the force of it has
to do with the (metaphysically speaking) accidental character of the workers' presence by comparison with the speaker's sense of the organic necessity of his own presence. "You're just walking around here" (like strangers, with no deeper connection),
while the speaker, as Lily acutely observed, has some kind of profound (and profoundly surprising) connection to the technology--a variation of the 1920s Soviet cultural theme of the man-machine fusion. If "vy tut khodite" were the only part of the
sentence I were translating, I'd render it, "you're just here." Including the whole first
part, I might venture: "You're just here, on the job." As for the last part, I agree with
Josh that you need some kind of inspired invention here. I don't see any remotely literal translation that will do the job (so to speak). Here's what just came to my mind,
for better or worse: "You're just here, on the job, but this is my body." This implies the
"feeling" bit pretty strongly, I think, while being pretty startling.
Incidentally, I must admit that I rather enjoy these collective brainstorming sessions
over translatin problems.
All best wishes,
David

David Powelstock
Asst. Prof. of Russian & East European Literatures
Chair, Program in Russian & East European Studies
Brandeis University
GRALL, MS 024
Waltham, MA 02454-9110
781.736.3347 (Office)

, Olga Meerson (Deborah Hoffman 1, 2): Deborah Hoffman


Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 10:01:52 -0700
From: Deborah Hoffman <lino59@AMERITECH.NET>
Subject: Platonov question
Did not mean to suggest it was - probably should have used "activity" instead of motion since I was mainly plugging the idea of contrasting being physically present and
moving aimlessly with what the narrator claims he does. As Lily Alexander and Josh
Wilson point out, some knowledge of Platonov in general is also probably indispensable in struggling with issues like this. Probably applies to all literary endeavors.
: Lily Alexander
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 15:04:47 -0400

- 625 -

From: Lily Alexander <lily.alexander@UTORONTO.CA>


Subject: Platonov Kosnoyazuchie
Dear Robert and All,
Just one more thought. Maybe sacrilegious.
Although people like me and others may take part in the search for a good word, and
native speakers may help in deciphering the hidden meaning and grammatical controversies - it seems to me that the group that could be of help to you in finding correlating English odd words/usage, would be American comedians.
I was looking last week in a bookstore at the complete script of Seinfeld, and was
thinking about buying it. On paper, the power of language in the dialogues is even
more clear. The script centers on a word or a notion that seems known, habitual and
banal, and offensively makes fun of it by displacing it in contexts or repeating it to
death. The word and its core meaning, together with the users, turn absurd. As often
in Larry David (Curb Your Enthusiasm). My family is a "big fan" of stand-up comedy,
and these people twist words in amazing ways.
This is the closest - what I can think of - to your uneasy task. That's why I earlier
mentioned to you the connection between Platonov and Chaplin. What Chaplin does
with the gravity of a body, Platonov does to a stability of a word in language.
Of course Platonov is much more tender, kind, philosophical and mythological than
David. Larry David, the writer of Seinfeld and Curb, especially in the latter - he is too
gloomy and his twisted words drop on your head like stones. Your don't want to live
in his universe. He is way too ruthless and sarcastic to be compared to Platonov. One
loved his heroes and another does not. But David is good, and nobody has such freedom of word-twisting in this intentionally awkward way (not even English-American
modernist poets) as the best of the comedians. And after all - you are translating for
the contemporary readers, and you want them to accept and like Platonov as their
own.
If I were you, I would keep some scripts or the comedians' texts on paper or on
tapes/DVD at home for inspiration. Perhaps of your personal favorite. I am NOT
suggesting that you should turn Platonov into The Simpsons or Seinfeld, but there is
a holyfooldom and clownery in all of them. The big question is how to translate Platonov's creative kosnoyazuchie (twisted tongue) into contemporary English. Some
part or element of what Platonov was doing with language is currently in the most
joyful brunch of American humor. To inject its spirit into your translations just a little
bit, if not their specific vocabulary, may be liberating.In any case, you would enjoy
having those scripts and tapes one way or another.
This of course opens the whole new can of worms about translating for specific generations, but lets leave it to the theorists, and I wish your work on Platonov to be an
enjoyable process.
Best regards,
Lily Alexander
- 626 -

, Lily Alexander: colkitto, Robert


Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 15:42:51 -0400
From: colkitto <colkitto@ROGERS.COM>
Subject: Re: Platonov Kosnoyazuchie
Dear Lily and All (et al)?,
> Although people like me and others may take part in the search for a good word,
and > native speakers may help in deciphering the hidden meaning and grammatical
> controversies - it seems to me that the group that could be of help to you in finding
> correlating English odd words/usage, would be American comedians.
I actually did suggest a (late) British comedian, Tony Hancock ("I paint ... with light"
- sounds much funnier than it reads) as a source of inspiration. Hancock, however,
achieved much of his effect with tone of voice rather than word-choice - maybe Platonov needs to be read aloud to be appreciated properly?
Robert Orr (have to put my name in (not quite) full for this thread)
, Lily Alexander: Alexandra Smith
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 21:00:45 +0100
From: Alexandra Smith <Alexandra.Smith@ED.AC.UK>
Subject: Re: Platonov Kosnoyazychie
Dear Lily,
I think that your reading of Platonov could stretch further, beyond Shklovsky, pointing to some analogies with the issues related to the philosophy of language discussed
in the writings of Diderot and other 18th-c. thinkers. See, for example, Smoliarova's
excellent article: Tatiana Smoliarova, ?Distortion and Theatricality: Estrangement in
Diderot and Shklovsky?, Poetics Today, Spring: 27:1, 2006. The article also sheds
some light on the issue related to Chaplin and Shklovsky's notion of estrangement.
However, having done a considerable amount of research on Platonov and his language at some stage of my life, I came to the conclusion that to a large extent Platonov's language has some strong links with the language of various Soviet newspapers of the 1920s and some colloqual and non-standard language used in Southern
parts of Russia (Voronezh region, etc.). It is not always a product of clever tricks and
lingistic games. Naturally, Platonov had a very good ear for picking up lots of things
that deviated from the norm, so to speak. In the sentence that includes the phrase "Ia
chuvstvuiu" the strangeness comes from the fact that in the Russian language this
phrase is not used by itself, it appears to be incomplete, since native speakers would
usually continue this type of sentences along the lines "I feel that..." (Ia chuvstvuiu,
chto...) or "ia chuvstvuiu, kak"...It seems to me that the phrase discussed earlier
stands close to the idiomatic expression "Ia boleiu vsei dushoi".... but in the end of the
day the translator still needs to preserve the stylistic mask of a simpleton used by Platonov and look for similar cases that exist in non-standard English. I'm not sure
though whether Robert Chandler and Olga Meerson (who already wrote a wonderful
book on Platonov's estrangement) are prearing their new translation for British or US

- 627 -

readers ... I would imagine that the factor of readership should determine to a large
extent the narrative and translation strategies that the translators of this story would
like to develop...
I agree with your description of the narrator though but I think that you are reading
too much into this text. In the end of the day, readers of the story should be aware of
some eccentric qualities of the narrator's speech who is not as sophisticated as Platonov. But one shouldn't forget about the stylistic mask of a simpleton that Platonov
uses here.
All very best,
Sasha Smith
====================================
Alexandra Smith (PhD, University of London)
Lecturer in Russian
School of European Languages and Cultures
The University of Edinburgh
David Hume Tower
George Square
Edinburgh EX8 9JX
UK

: Steven P. Hill
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 15:02:15 -0500
From: Prof Steven P Hill <s-hill4@UIUC.EDU>
Subject: Platonov's compositions
Dear colleagues, especially Platonov experts:
Reading all the fascinating information on SEELANGS about Platonov the writer, and
translators' difficulties rendering him in English, I (not a Platonov expert) cannot resist asking:
Does anyone know whether Platonov as a youngster had taken school/college
courses in Russian composition and/or creative writing? And, if he did, what sort of
marks ("otmetki") did he receive in the classroom?
Best wishes to all,
Steven P Hill,
University of Illinois.

, Alexandra Smith: Lily Alexander


Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 16:35:57 -0400
From: Lily Alexander <lily.alexander@UTORONTO.CA>
Subject: Re: Platonov Kosnoyazychie
Dear Sasha and All,
I agree with you of course, with everything you mentioned.
- 628 -

Re: "Ia boleiu vsei dushoi" is a very good correlation. And yet, he would have used it
if he wanted to. He wanted a new slovoobrazovanie. And it looks like this man does
not want to explain himself completely to his peers, so the sentence, being torn, or self
censored, or for no reason - has some incompleteness.
Platonov has the dimensions of kosnoyasychie of the holy fool, of the Soviet press,
and of the Soviet muzhik, and of street language merging with literature, and many
many more things. That's why I believe that it is difficult to read too much into Platonov's texts, because they have so many hidden channels and semantic niches opening into all kinds of possible interesting readings. I have seen students interpreting
his texts very differently, but all of them made sense to me - I enjoyed seeing them
trying. This is his richness. His texts are provoking in this sense - they are almost
force us into some kind of Talmudic intense interpretation set of mind. Prof. Hill
touched upon the composition issue - and it is the whole new area of inquiry.
Several remarkable books have been written on Platonov, numerous articles, and he
will likely inspire many more publications and open discussions.
Btw, I just found out that Robert has already been very effectively "injecting" Beckett
into Platonov, on stage. So he knows his stuff and appreciates the absurd edge of Platonov, and of course a creative process of finding the words is very difficult and open
ended. Hopefully, Robert, you are enjoying the process and thank you for letting us
in.
There likely will be different translations of Platonov eventually, in different styles,
and why not?
Best regards,
Lily

, Alexandra Smith, Lily Alexander: Olga Meerson


Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 16:02:30 -0700
From: Olga Meerson <meersono@GEORGETOWN.EDU>
Subject: Re: Platonov Kosnoyazychie
Platonov's ia chuvstvuiu--without an object or a clause governed by it--is analogous,
first and foremost, to Platonov's own locution of the same structure elsewhere, in Kotlovan, ia zdes' ne sushchestvuiu, ia tol'ko dumaiu zdes'. In both cases, feeling and
thinking are valuable independently of their objects or objectives. The model for that
latter one, in Kotlovan, in turn, is a tongue-in-cheek polemic with Descarthes, who
claimed that the latter was the sole necessary condition and guarantee of the former.
Platonov is anti-Shklovskian in one particular respect: he reverses the device of defamiliarization. But I have written a whole book on that. Like Pilate but on a happier
occasion, I may say that what I have written is what I have written. That is, I still
stand by my conclusions in that book.
Olga Meerson

- 629 -

, : Robert Chandler
Date: Tue, 22 May 2007 08:07:39 +0100
From: Robert Chandler <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>
Subject: Platonov and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
Dear all,
THANK YOU all for your suggestions, all of which, in their different ways are helpful. And it is gratifying to generate so much interest both in questions about the nature of translation and in a writer I love.
I'd like to mention again that, in spite of the wonderful work being done by textologists and editors in Moscow and Petersburg, there are still a number of Platonov's
finest works which are still hardly known. 'Sredi zhivotnykh I rastenii' is one of them.
The full text is published only in the journal ROSSIYA (Jan. 1998). And I have attempted to type the text into my computer and have sent a WORD file to several of
you who have asked for it.
I'm grateful to Sasha for mentioning Olga Meerson's brilliant book. I'd like to add
that a much-shortened English version of this is available in ESSAYS IN POETICS
(University of Keele: Autumn 2001), p. 21-38. I doubt if there is any single essay that
says so much of importance about Platonov.
And I do passionately agree with almost everything that Lily Alexander has said in
the last couple of days, especially in passages like this:
> Platonov has the dimensions of kosnoyasychie of the holy fool, of the Soviet press,
> and of the Soviet muzhik, and of street language merging with literature, and many
> many more things. That's why I believe that it is difficult to read too much into
> Platonov's texts, because they have so many hidden channels and semantic niches
> opening into all kinds of possible interesting readings. I have seen students
> interpreting his texts very differently, but all of them made sense to me - I enjoyed
> seeing them trying. This is his richness. His texts are provoking in this sense - they
> are almost force us into some kind of Talmudic intense interpretation set of mind.
Sasha raised the question of US and British readership. The differences between US
and British English are subtler and more numerous than is often realized. I would
not dream of trying to write in 'American', even though this current volume is to be
published by NYRB Classics; I'd gladly write American if I could, but I can't. And
this is what I wrote in my preface to my Penguin Classics anthology RUSSIAN
SHORT STORIES FROM PUSHKIN TO BUIDA:
"for all our lip service to cultural pluralism, both British and American readers are often surprisingly intolerant of Americanisms or Britishisms. This volume contains
work by both British and American translators; I enjoy their different styles and have
not attempted to reduce them to a pallid norm. It may even be the case that some stories translate more readily into particular varieties of English. It is hard, for example,to imagine Vasily Shukshins In the Autumn sounding as effective in British
English as in the American version by John Givens and Laura Michael."

- 630 -

In answer to Professor Hill: Platonov went to a parish school on the outskirts of Voronezh in the early 20th century. I doubt if there would have been such a thing as
'creative writing' there. He was publishing a lot of poems and articles by 1920, when
he was 21. The thoughts and images are bold, but the language is not subtle.
As for my original question - in some respects I like the suggested translation 'I bleed
railway ties', but it is only very rarely indeed, esp. in his later work, that Platonov
uses an image as shocking as that. For the main part he uses rather ordinary words
and infringes linguistic and other norms in a way that is not only startling but also
startlingly subtle. Some time ago, on this list, we discussed one of the most remarkable sentences from CHEVENGUR: 'Skoro ya umru k tebe', spoken by a small boy to
his dead father in the grave. The most ordinary of words put together in the most extraordinary way...
Platonov's heroes often have a certain amount in common with one another and with
their author. The pointsman certainly has something in common with the hero of the
story 'V prekrasnom i yarostnom mire', of whom the narrator observes, '
,
, , ,
, , ,
, , , , , .
; , ,
, , . I'll transliterate the last sentence: 'I Mal'tsevu poetomu bylo grustno s nami; on skuchal ot svoego talanta, kak ot
odinochestva, ne znaya, kak nam vyskazat' ego, chtoby my ponyali.'
I'm still not sure how to translate 'khodite' in the sentence I originally asked about,
but I certainly want to leave the meaning of the sentence as a whole as open as possible. 'Vy tut tol'ko sluzhite, khodite, a ya chuvstvuyu' is something that Platonov himself could have said to his fellow writers. For that reason I shall stay with the words I
came up with a few days ago: 'but I work by feeling'. These words can be read with
very different meanings and emphases. It could simply be Fyodorov running his
hand along a rail to check its condition, something he does repeatedly; it could be
Fyodorov putting his heart and soul into his work; it could be Platonov putting his
heart and soul into his work.
I like a number of the suggested translations for the first half of the sentence - 'put in
time' is appealing - but I can't quite settle on anything yet.
Greetings and thanks to all,
Robert
, Olga Meerson et alii: Alexandra Smith
Date: Tue, 22 May 2007 08:32:18 +0100
From: Alexandra Smith <Alexandra.Smith@ED.AC.UK>
Subject: Re: Platonov Kosnoyazychie
Dear Professor Meerson,
- 631 -

Thank you very much for your interesting insight. In principle, your comparision
with one phrase in Kotlovan is up to the point when it comes to understanding Platonov's philosophical tenets. But the two phrases are slightly different from the formal point of view: the phrase "ia zdes' ne suschestvuiu, ia tol'ko dumaiu zdes'" doesn't have a sense of strangeness and readers don't perceive it as very strange, especially because of the fact that both verbs are related to the same subject and the repetition of the word "zdes'" produces some form of cohesion.The verb "dumat'" is used
very often without any references to objects. You could recall Tsvetaeva's usage of it
in "Poema kontsa": "Vy slishkom mnogo dumali?" -- "Zadumchivoe: da".
In the phrase: "vy tut rabotaete, khodite, a ia chuvstvuiu" discussed earlier, the second sentence sounds out of the blue since it doesn't correspond well to the first part
of the compound sentence that describes other people. I still think that the verb
chuvstvovat' in this sentence appears to be as part of an incomplete sentence. If you
ask, for example, someone a question "what to you do here?" (chto Vy zdes' delaete?)
the answer "ia zdes' dumaiu" would sound more or less normal, since it implies that
someone comes to a particular spot to think about life, etc. Any listener would be satisfied with such an answer, but if we are told that someone comes here to feel (chto
vy zdes' delaete" ia chuvstvuiu)then we will be under impression that the sentence
is not complete. There will be a natural expectation to hear some explanation: ia sebia
sdes' khorosho chuvstvuiu, poetomu ia zdes' sizhu; or: ia zdes' chuvstvuiu sebia
chelovekom..., or: ia chuvstvuiu zdes' chastiu mirovogo protcessa, etc.
But I agree with you that it's not just an example of defamiliarisation. However, I still
doubt that Platonov thought of so many clever tricks himself, I think that he had a
brilliant ear for language: perhaps, he wrote down various abnormalities when listened to people he encountered on the streets of Moscow or in provincial towns? It
well might be that in some areas (might be Voronezh, Briansk, etc.) people's talk reflects on the fact that some words were not completely fixed in terms of connotations,
grammatical links etc. One needs to consult linguists who are specialising in dialects
and history of grammar in order to see what was available to Platonov in the 20s-30s
in terms of language material...
I did enjoy reading your book on Platonov a few year ago. I do find it very thooughtprovoking, indeed.
All very best,
Sasha Smith

: Genevra Gerhart
Date: Tue, 22 May 2007 21:31:43 -0700
From: Genevra Gerhart <ggerhart@COMCAST.NET>
Subject: Re: Platonov and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
Dear Robert,
1. Thank you so much for having started such a good thread. The quality of the comments was so good that I was sorry not to have paid more attention to literary classes.
2. Josh's "I bleed rail ties" I thought was very inventive, and accurate;and I think it
also raised his place on the list by more than 20 points.
Genevra Gerhart
- 632 -

ggerhart@comcast.net
www.genevragerhart.com
www.russiancommonknowledge.com

, Genevra Gerhart: Robert Chandler


Date: Wed, 23 May 2007 05:53:31 +0100
From: Robert Chandler <kcf19@DIAL.PIPEX.COM>
Subject: Re: Platonov and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
Thanks very much, Genevra!
And yes, I agree, more or less, about Josh. It isn't perfect for Platonov, but it might be
for many other writers.
R.

: Josh Wilson
Date: Wed, 23 May 2007 10:12:54 +0400
From: Josh Wilson <jwilson@SRAS.ORG>
Subject: Re: Platonov and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
>As for my original question - in some respects I like the suggested translation 'I
bleed
> railway ties', but it is only very rarely indeed, esp. in his later work, that Platonov
> uses an image as shocking as that.
Interesting, when I suggested it, I did not consider it at all shocking.Simply a play on
words. Actually, I still don't see it as shocking - certainly much more mild than the little boy's statement to his dead father.
Maybe this is a difference between "American" and... that other language?
Best,
JW
P.S. Isn't it also interesting that I phrased it "rail ties" and Mr. Chandler turned it into
"railway ties" (which I don't think flows near as well...) Language is fascinating...

: Thimothy D. Sergay
Date: Wed, 23 May 2007 08:19:31 -0400
From: "Timothy D. Sergay" <tsergay@COLUMBUS.RR.COM>
Subject: Bleeding rail ties and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
> Josh's "I bleed rail ties" I thought was very inventive, and accurate; and I think it
> also raised his place on the list by more than 20 points.

- 633 -

Dear Seelangers,
To venture that Platonov's character Fyodorov "bleeds rail ties" may well be an inventive, accurate and idiomatic way of describing his intuitive passion for his profession,
but I can't agree that "I bleed rail ties" is a valid translation of what Fyodorov actually
says of himself in his dialogue: "no ia chuvstvuiu..." And that's not because I'm a literalist ninny, although sometimes I suppose I am. That's because Fyodorov is not uttering an utterly idiomatic, slogan-like, quite finished and readily comprehensible
thought about himself. If you google for "I bleed" you find Cardinals baseball fans
cheerfully confessing "I bleed Cardinals red" and so on. Fyodorov shouldn't say "I eat
this railroads stuff for breakfast," or "My middle name is rolling stock," either. He is
not pronouncing a well-formulated slogan about himself. He is groping toward an articulation. As mentioned many times, what he says is significantly incomplete. I think
the translations proposed here that come closest to that quality are Robert's "I work
by feeling" (which might be even better, less finished, less determinate, as "I go by
feeling), and someone else's very fine suggestion "I feel things" ("WHAT things?").
Best to all,
Tim Sergay

, Josh Wilson et alii: Olga Meerson


Date: Wed, 23 May 2007 05:39:37 -0700
From: Olga Meerson <meersono@GEORGETOWN.EDU>
Subject: Re: Platonov and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
Dear Josh and all,
No, this is not the difference between British and American idioms--I know because I
am an outsider to both :) The difference is between the effect of what Platonov does
with idioms and what happens when people use them automatically, without what
Shklovsky called the resurrection of the word. You see, in Platonov's world, no matter
how accepted the IDIOM of bleeding something as living and breathing it may be, the
actual bleeding creeps in. If he uses it, he always means it, not just what the idiom
would mean. (The technique he uses for this literalization of idioms is slightly distorting them; they sound as if a foreigner attempted to talk in idioms instead of plainly.
Something shifts about the syntactic government or word compatibility--and here
you go: the idiomatic meaning turns into a thin veil over the literal. If you are interested in some corroboration of my conclusions in my life-long project on Platonov,
check out Alexei Tsvetkov's Dissertation at U. Michigan on the topic, written and defended back in the '70s: it is mostly linguistic).
What Robert meant then is that you can't translate Platonov specifically idiom-byidiom, because his own, Platonovian, idioms always imply what they say literally and
not merely idiomatically. Robert has worked on that problem for decades, so naturally, he was shocked by the literal meaning of the idiom, the meaning which he always takes into consideration (that is why I admire his work and try to contribute as
much as he would take). Paying attention to the literal meaning of idioms is what Platonov does to his reader, in the original and in an ideal translation, to which Robert
comes so close that the difference between his work and the ideal is often negligible.

- 634 -

After all, Robert has managed to create a language WITHIN the English language
that does to people what Platonov does to them in Russian.
All this explains why he (R.) considered your translation fit for many other writers
but not for Platonov: many excellent writers can be translated idiom-by-idiom. If you
try to do that with Platonov, you might as well dance and prance on a mine-field.
Recently, a student of mine attempted to read Pl. in Russian. Her spoken Russian is
very good but she still does take idioms in Russian at face-value: if people say so and
it reminds me of something idiomatic then this must be the relevant idiom in their
language. You know what she told me? That Platonov sounded cheesy to her! She
was so careless about that mine-field! The more you know Russian, the weirder Platonov sounds, not the other way around. I admire Robert for his constant awareness
of that, native-speaker's perspective on Russia's greatest 20th c. writer.
Cheers to Josh and all,
o.m.

, Thimothy D. Sergay: Olga Meerson


Date: Wed, 23 May 2007 05:52:10 -0700
From: Olga Meerson <meersono@GEORGETOWN.EDU>
Subject: Re: Bleeding rail ties and 'Ya chuvstvuyu"
Hurray for Tim Sergay!
Olga

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