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2016

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373.167.1:54
2472
444
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2- . / : , 2016. 223 . (
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ISBN 978-5-222-26173-6


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ISBN 978-5-222-26173-6

373.167.1:54
2472

.., , 2014
, , 2014

- www.phoenixbooks.ru



1. , .
2. : +7N, +33As, +35Br, +26Fe .
118 .
3. () () (Z)
(N):
() = Z + N.

.
, () : -12, 12C; -17, 17O;
-35 35Cl.
4. , ,
1/12
12, 12.
Ar(Ca) = 40,078, Ar(Cl) = 35,453.
5. , , .
6. ,

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7. ,
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8. () ,
1/12 12.
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H, Cl, P, Fe


H2, Cl2, P4 , Fe

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() ,
.
14. () (NA): 6,021023 ( ) . N = 6,021023 1.
N = N(1) n ().
15. (M) 1 (6,021023
) , ( , )
():
() = m() / n().

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m(X )
, m(X) =n() M(X).
M (X )

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(, )
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1. : Vm = 22,4 3/.
2.
(
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3.
(D)

:
DA/B = mA/mB; DA/B = MA/MB

, , ( ). :
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
1V 3V
2V
6

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:
T = const, pV = const

:
V = const, p/T = const

:
p = const, V/T = const

1V1/T1 = p2V2/T2
. . p = 101,3, T0 = 273 K

n = m/M; n = V/Vm; n = N/NA


m1/m2 = V/Vm; m/M = N/NA; V/Vm = N/Nm
DA/B = mA/mB; DA/B = MA/MB

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1. , -.
2. , , .
3. 1 ?
4. 1,2 1024?
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18. , , , 15. , 25%.


19.
3:1. , ,
1,4 . .
20. 2,45 1,49
672 3 (..). .

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1. , ,
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2. (..) 30 3,
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(3, ..) .
3. , , , 202,5
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0,348, ,
: 3 : 1 : 2.
4.
178,50 , Cr O,
33,6 3 (..) 30%. () .
5. Y4 2Y4 , , 40,51% 32,49%. X Y.
9

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1. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
2. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
3. :
1) , , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
4. :
1) 6,9 3 ;
2) 16,8 3 ;
3) 117,1 3 ;
4) 15,8 3 .
5. 196 :
1) 6,021023;
2) 9,631024;
3) 7,541024;
4) 4,781023.
6. (%) (IV) :
1) 25;
2) 50;
3) 33;
4) 35.
7. 85 56 3
(..). :
1) HCl;
2) N2;
10

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3) H2S;
4) CO2.
8. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
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9. , :
1) NaCl, SO3, Ba(OH)2;
2) BaCO3, SO2, SO3;
3) NaOH, CO2, CuCl2;
4) MgO, LiOH, CuSO4.
10.
:

1) CaO

2) Al2O3

3) CO

4) SO2

11. ,
:
1) N, Ca;
2) S, Cl;
3) Na, B;
4) Fe, Mg.
12. :
1) 64 ..;
2) 64 ;
3) 1,06 1022 ;
4) 64.
13. , , 7,971023. :
1) ;
2) 2;
3) 8;
4) 3.
11

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14. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
15. , ( %) 1,20; 1 42; 56,8:
1) lO;
2) lO3;
3) ClO2;
4) lO4.

12

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1,6731027 1,0073 ... 1,60210 19

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N.
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: s; s-, 2;
: s p;
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.

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N()

1s

2s

2p

3s
3p
3d

1
3
5

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4p
4d
4f

1
3
5
7

1
4

2
6

2
6
10

16

2
6
10
14

15

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18
32


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( ) .....................................................................................45
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VII .................................................................................67
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VI ...................................................................................77
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V ....................................................................................89
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IV .................................................................................102
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222

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223

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