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Give at least 10 Advantages and 10 Disadvantages of steel as a

structural material.
1. High Strength This means that the weight of structure that made of steel
will be small.
2. Uniformity Properties of steel do not change as appose to concrete
3. Elasticity Steel follows Hookes law very accurately
4. Ductility- can withstand extensive deformation without failure under high
tensile stresses
5. Toughness- steel has both strength and ductility
6. Maintain is strength indefinitely does not deteriorate with age like timber
and concrete
7. Can be recycled
8. Very strong and flexible - steel framed houses are ideal in cyclone/hurricane
prone regions.
9. Steel has also high strength to weight ratio as compared to concrete.
10.Structures can be prefabricated in large sections,
1. Maintenance Cost steel structures are susceptible to corrosion when
exposed to air, water, and humidity. They must be painted periodically.
2. Steel has very small resistance against fire as compared to concrete.
3. Fireproofing Cost- Steel is incombustible material, however, its strength is
reduced tremendously at high temperatures due to common fires.
4. Susceptibility to buckling- as the length and slenderness of a compressive
column is increase, its danger of buckling increases.
5. Fatigue- The strength of structural steel member if this member is subjected
to cyclic loading.
6. Brittle- Under certain conditions steel may lose its ductility, and brittle
fracture may occur at places of stress concentration.
7. Steel cannot be mold in any direction you want. It can only be used in forms
in which sections originally exists.
8. Has a high expansion rate in changing temperatures
9. Heavy and thus expensive to transport
10.Energy intensive to produce

2. Aside from our lecture, enumerate the different types and properties
of structural steel. Discuss each.

Lamellar tearing is a form of brittle fracture that may occur in certain

welded joints
Hardness is a measure of the resistance of the material to indentations and

3. ASD (allowable strength design) is one of the oldest system that is being used
for the design of steel, beams, columns, roof slab, trusses etc In this
method design remains within the allowable stress. Hence, in ASD a factor of
safety applies to the strength of the material. So that structure will remain
within the allowable stress level.

5. Look for at least 15 reference books on steel design found in our library. Copy
there complete title, author and copyright year.
1. Steel Structures Design and Behavior Fourth Edition
a. Charles G. Salmon, John E. Johnson, 1996
2. Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames
a. Guo Qiang Li, Jin-Jun LI, 2007
3. Steel Structures Design using FEM
a. Rolf Kindmann, Matthias Kraus,2011
4. Design of Steel Structures
a. P. Dayaratnam, 1996
5. Structural Steel Design Second Edition
a. Lambert Tall, 1974
6. Steel Structures
a. V.N. Vazirani, M.M. Ratwani,1981
7. Steel Design for Structural Engineers
a. Bogdan Kuzmanovic, Nicholas Willems,1977
8. Cold-formed Steel Structures
a. Wei Wen Yu, 1973
9. The behavior and design of steel structures
a. N.S. Trahair, 1977
10.Design in structural steel
a. Carl Shermer, 1972
11.Load and Resistance Factor Design of Steel Structures
a. Robert Disque, 1994
12.LRFD Steel Design Second edition
a. William Segui, 1999
13.Structural Steel Design
a. Jack McCormac, 1981
14.Design of Steel Structures second edition
a. Edwin Gaylord, Charles Gaylord, 1957
15.Basic Steel Design second edition
a. Fung Jen Lin, T.V. Galambos, 1980