Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 148
lntroduction—Concept of Stress ‘This chapter is devoted to the study of the stresses occurring in many of the elements contained in this excavator, ‘such as two-orce members, axles, bolts; and pins. 2 Inyodustn—Cancop of SHo56 1.4, INTRODUCTION ‘The main objective ofthe study ofthe mechanics of materials is to pro= vide the future engineer with the means of analyzing and designing var- fous machines and load-bearing structures, Both the analysis and the design of a given structure involve the de- termination of stresses and deformations. This frat chapter is devoted to the concept of sires. Section 1.2 is devoted to a short review ofthe basic methods of statics 1nd to theit application to the determination of the forces in the members ofa simple siacture consisting of pin-connected members, Section 1.3 will introduce you to the concept of stress ia a member of a structure, and you ‘ll be shovva how that stress can be determined from the fore in the mem- ber. After a short discussion of engineering analysis and design (Sec. 14), you will consider suecessively the normal stresses in a member under 2x= ial loading (See. 1.5), the shearing stresses caused by the application of ‘equal and opposite transverse forces (See. 1.6), andthe beaving stresses cre~ ated by bolts and pins in the remabers they connect (Sec. 1.7). These varie ‘ous concepts willbe applied in Sec. 1.8 tothe determination ofthe suesses in the members of the simple structure considered earlier in Sec. 1.2 ‘The frst part of the chapter ends with a description ofthe method you should us inthe solution of an assigned problem (Sec. 1.9) and with a dis- cussion of the mumerical accuracy appropriate in engineering calculations (Sec. 1.10) Tn Sec. 1.11, where a two-force member under axial loading is con= sidered again, i willbe observed that the steesses on an oblique plane in- clude both normal and shearing stresses, while in Sec, 1.12 you will note that siz components ace required ta describe the state of stress at point in & body under the most general loading conditions. Finally, Sec. 1.13 will be devoted tothe determination froma test spec- itmens of the ultimate strength of a given material and to the use of s fac tor of safey in te computation of the allowable load fora structural com- ‘ponent mae of that material 1.2. A SHORT REVIEW OF THE METHODS OF STATICS In this section you will review the basic methods of statics while de- termining the forces in the members of a simple structure. Consider the structure shown in Fig. 1.1, which was designed t0 support a 30-KN load. It consists of a boom AB with a 30 X 50-mm rectangular cross section and of a rod BC with a 20-mma-diameter cir- colar cross section. The boom and the rod are connected by a pin at B and are supported by pins and brackets at A and C, respeotively. Our first step should be to draw a free-body diagram of the structure by de- ‘aching it from its supports at A and C, and showing the reactions thst these supports exert on the structure (Fig. 1.2). Note that the sketch of the structure has been simplified by omitting all unnecessary detzils, Many of you may have recognized at this point that AB and BC are nwo. Jorce members. For those of you who have net, we will pursue our analysis, ignoring that fact and assuming that the directions of the re- actions at A and C are unknown. Each of these reactions, therefore, will be represented by two components, A, and A, at A, snd C, and C, st CC. We write the following three equilibrium equations: +5EMe=0: 406m) ~ GOKNYOS m) = 0 KN ay SER =O: C.= ~40KN a2) Ay + G,~30KN=0 A, +6, = $30kN rr) ‘We have found two of the four unknowns, but cannot determine the ‘other two from these equations, and no additional independent equation can be obtained from the free-body diagram ofthe structure. We must now dismember the structure. Considering the fre-body diagram ofthe ‘boom AB (Fig 13), we wait the following equilibrium equation: HEM, -Af08m)=0 4,=0 i) Sabsttuing for 4, from (1.4) ino (1.3), we obtain C, = +30 KN. Ex pressing the results obtained forthe eactons at A and Cin vector form, wwe have Am 4OKN> —C, = AORN, C, = 30KNT We note that the reaction a 4 is directed along the axis of the boom AB and causes compression in that member. Observing thatthe com- ponents C, and C, ofthe reaction at Car, respectively, proportional to the horizntal and vertical components ofthe distance from B 6 C, we conclude that the reaction at Cis equal to 50 KN, is directed along the axis of the od BC, and causes tension in thet member. +E, Fig. 12 Fig. 1.3 sow 3 4 voducton—Concapt of Stress ‘These results could have been anticipated by recognizing that AB and BC are two-force members, ie., members that are subjected to forces at only two points, these points being A and # for member AB, ‘and # and C for member BC. Indeed, for a two-force member the lines of action ofthe resultants of the forces acting at each of the two points are equal and opposite and pass through both points. Using this prop- erty, we could have obtained a simpler solution by considering the free- body diagram of pin B. The forces on pin B are the forces Rag and Rye exerted, respectively, by members AB and BC, and the 30-KN load (Fig. 1:4a). We can express thet pin B is in equilibrium by drawing the corresponding force triangle (Fig. 1.49) Since:the force Fyo is directed along member BC, its slope is o w the same as that of BC, namely, 3/4. We can, therefore, write the Fig. 14 proportion aw Pua Fac _ 30KN PORTS trom which we obtain Fig = 40KN Fe = S0KN ‘The forces Rip and Pe exerted by pin B, respectively, on boom AB and rod BC ate equal and opposite 10 Kye and Fc (Fig. 1:5), Fig. 15 Fig. 15 Knowing the forces at the ends of each of the members, we can ‘now determine the intemal forces in these members. Passing a section at some arbitrary point D of rod BC, we obtain two portions BD and CD (Fig. 1.6). Since 50-KN forces must be applied at D to both por tions of the rod to keep them in equilibrium, we conclude that an in- temal force of 50 KN is produced in roel BC when a 30-KN load is ap- plied at B. We further check from the directions of the forces Fyo and Pic in Fig. 1.6 that the rod is in tension, similar procedure would enable us to determine thatthe internal force in boom AB is 40 kN and that the boom is in compression 1.3, STRESSES IN THE MEMBERS OF A STRUCTURE ‘While the results obtained in the preceding section represent a frst and necessary step in the analysis of the given structut, they do not tell us whether the given load can be safely supported. Whether rod BC, for example, will break or not under this loading depends not only upon the value found fr the internal force Fyo, but also upon the crass sectional area of the rod and the material of which the rod is made. Indeed, the internal force Fc actually represents the resultant of efe~ ‘mentary forces distributed Ovet the entire area A of the cross section (Fig. 1.7) and the average intensity ofthese distributed fores is equal to the force per unit atea,\Fyc/A, in the section. Whether or not the rod will break under the given loading clearly depends upon the abil- ity of the material to withstand the corresponding value(Fyc/4 of the 1A.sienesnteNenbe ota Smee § Fc intensity of the distributed internal forces. It thus depends upon the"! "7 force Fa the coss-sectional area A, and the materia of the rod ‘The force por unit area, oF intensity ofthe forces dstibuted over 2 given section, is called the stress on that section and is dencted by the Greek lter¢ (Sigma), The stress in a member of cross sectional axce A subjected to an axial lad P ig. 18) i therefore obsinel by ‘viding tie magaitude P of the Toad by the arca A: as) A positive sign will be used to indicate tensile stress (member in ten sion) and a negative sign to indicate a compressive stress (member in compression} With P expressed in newtons (N) and A in square meters (m), the stress will be expressed in Nin’. This unit is called a pascal (Pa). ‘However, one finds that the pascal is an exceedingly smell quantity and that, in practice, multiples of this unit must be used, namely, the ilopascal (kPa), the megapascal (MPa), andthe gigapascal (GPa). We Fi have “1 kPa = 10 Pa = 10° N/m? 1 MPa 10 Pa = 10° Nim? 1.GPa = 10° Pa = 10° Nima? 18 6 Irduton—Consyp of Stress 1.4, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Considering again the structure of Fig. 1-1, let us assume that rod BC is made of a steel with 2 maximum allowable stress ory = 165 MPa, Can rod BC safely support the load to which it will be Subjected? The magnitude of the force Fe in the rod was found easier to be 50 KN. Recalling that the diameter of the rod is 20 ram, we use Eg. (1.5) to determine the stress created in the rod by the given loading. We have Since the value obtained for o is smaller than the value oy of the sl lowable stress in the steel used, we conclude that rod BC can safely suppor the load to which it will be subjected, To be complete, our analy- sis of the given structure should also include the determination of the compressive stress in boom AB, as well as an investigation of the stresses produced in the pins and their bearings. This will be discussed later in this chapter. We should also determine whether the deformations pro- duced by the given loading are acceptable. The study of deformations lunder axial loads will be the subject of Chap. 2. An additional con- sideration, required for members in compression involves the suabiliry of the member, ie. its ability to suppor a given load without expe- riencing a sudden change in configuration. This will be discussed in Chap. 10. ‘The engineer’s role is not limited to the analysis of existing struc- tures and machines subjected to given loading conditions. Of even greater importance to the engineet isthe design of new structures and machines, that is, the selection of appropriste components to perform a given talc As an example of design, let us return to the structure of Fig. 1.1, and ‘assume that aluminum with an allowable stress ry, = 100 MPa is to be used. Since the force in rod BC will still be P 10 KN under the ‘given loading, we must have, from Eq. (1.5), 2 B_ 0xI0N ron A 4 au Too x 10 Pa 500% 10% a and, since A= a, a ag «fh REE «nex 0% m= 12020 d= 2r= 252mm ‘We conclude that an aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter will be adequate 4.5. AXIAL LOADING; NORMAL STRESS ‘As we have already indicated, rod BC of the example considered in the preceding section is a two-force member and, therefore, the forces Fye and Fig: acting on its ends B and C)(Fig. 1.5) are directed along the axis of the rod. We say that the Tod is under axial loading. An actual ‘example of structural members under axial loading is provided by the ‘members ofthe bridge truss shown in Fig. 1.9. Fig. 1.9 Tis bridge tue consis of to-orea member that maybe bn tenon oth comprastion, Returning to rod BC of Fig, 1.5, we recall thatthe section we passed tuough the rod to determine the internal force inthe rod and the cor- responding stress was perpendicular tothe axis of the rod; the internal force was therefore normal tothe plane of the section (Fig. 1.7) and the ‘corresponding stress is described as 2 normal stress. Tous, formals (1.5) ‘ives us the normal siress in a member under axial loading: P ont as) ‘We should also note that, in formula (1.5), o is obtained by divid- ing the magnitude P of the resultant of the internal forces distibuted ‘over the cross section by the atea A of the cross section; it represents, therefore, the average value of the stress over the eros section, rathor than the stress at a specific point ofthe cross section, To define the stress at a given point Q of the cross seetion, we should consider a stall arca AA (Fig. 1.10). Dividing the magnitude of AF by AA, we obtain the average value of the stress over AA. Let- ting 4A approach zero, we obtain the-srest at point Q: AF © dim ag) a6) Fig. 1.10 1.8 As Leno: Normal Suess 7 w Fig tat o {In general, the value obtained forthe stress o ata given point Q of the section is different from the value of the average stress given by formula (1.5), and o is found to vary across the section. In a slender rod subjected to equal and opposite concentrated loads P and P’ (Fig, 4.114), this variation is small in a section away from the points of ap- plication of the concentrated loads (Fig, 1.11), but it is quite notice- able in the neighborhood of these points (Fig. 1.11b and d It follows from Eq, (1.6) that the magnitude of the resultant of the listibuted internal forces is But the conditions of equilibrium of each of the portions of rod shown in Fig. 1.1] require that this magnitude be equal to the magnitude P of ‘the concentrated loads. We have, therefore, Which meens that the volume under each of the stress surfaces in Fig, 1.11 must be equal to the magnitude P of the Toads. This, however, is the only information that we can derive from our knowledge of statics, regarding the distribution of normal stresses in the various sections of| the rod. The actual distribution of stresses in any given section is seat- leaily indeterminate. To learn more about this disteibution, itis neces- sary to consider the deformations resulting from the particular mode of application of the Joadls at the ends of the rod. This will be discussed further in Chap. 2. ‘In practice, it willbe assumed thatthe distribution of normal stresses in an axially loaded member is uniform, except in the immediate vicin- ity of the points of application of the loads. The value o ofthe stress is then equal f0 oi and can be obtained from formula (1.5). However, we should realize that, when we assume a uniform distribution of stresses in the section, ie., when we assume thatthe intemal forces are ‘uniformly distributed across the section, i follows from elementary stat- jest that the resultant P of the internal forces must be applied at the ‘centroid C of the section Fig. 1.12). Tk itr bution of stress is possible only ifthe line of action of the concentrated loads P and P passes tireugh the centroid af the section considered “Gig. 1.13). This type of loailg Ws Called centric" Toading aad Will Be assumed to take place in all straight two-force members found in trusses ‘and pin-connected structures, such as the one considered in Fig. 1.1 See Fesinand P. Bes and E, Ruse Jebasto, Je, Mechanic for Expire, the, [MGeaw Hill New Yor, 1987, or Vector Mecho for Engineer, Sh , Meee i, Now Yok, 1996, ses, $2 and 83, e Fig 1.13 However, if two-force member is loaded axially, but eccenrically as stown in ig. 1.149) ve find from the conditions of equim ofthe portion of meniber shown in Fig. 1.145 that the internal forces in @ given section must be equivalent toa force applied a! the centroid of the section and a couple M of moment Of = Pa) The distbution of forces—and, thus, the corresponding distribuliGn Of stresses—cannot be norm. Nor can the distibation of stresses be syrmetic ae shown in ig LLL This point wil be dicused in deta in Chap. 4 1.6. SHEARING STRESS ‘The internal forces and the corresponding stresses discussed in Secs. 1.2.and 1.3 were normal to the section considered. A very different type Of stress is obtained when transverse forces P and P’ are applied to a member AB (Fig. 1.15). Passing a section at C between the points of application of the two forces (Fig. 1.16a), we obtain the diagram of por- tion AC shown in Fig. 1.166, We conclude that internal forces must ex- istin the plane ofthe section, and that their resultant is equal to B. These ‘elementary intemal forces are called shearing forces, and the magni= tude P of their resultant isthe shear in the section, Dividing the shear Fig. 14 1.8 Sear Stes o Fig. 16 8 40 Invodtan Concept of Srace P by the area A of the cross section, we obtain the average shearing st7ess in the section. Denoting the shearing sttess by the Greek leter 7 (ai), we vite eee. imag ay It should be emphasized that the value obtained is an average value of the shearing stress over the entire section. Contrary to what we said earlier for normal stresses, the distribution of shearing stresses across. the section cannot be assumed uniform. As you will see in Chap. 6, the actual value 7 of the shearing stress varies from zero at the surface of the member to a maximum value Tay that may be much larger than the average Value Tang Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins, and rivets used to connect various structural members and machine components (Fig. 1.17), Consider the two plates A and B, which are connected by a bolt CD (Fig. 1.18), Ifthe plates are subjected to tension forces of mag- nitade F, stresses will develop in the section of bolt,corresponding (0 the plane EZ". Drasving the diagrams of the bolt and of the portion lo- cated above the plane EE" (Fig, 1.19), we conclude that the shear P in the section is equal to F. The average shearing stress in the section is obtained, according to formula (1.8), by dividing the shear P = F by the area A of the cross section: as) ta ® Fig. 119 Fig, 1.20 ‘The bolt we have just considered is said to be in single shear. Dif- ferent loading situations may arise, however. For example, if splice plates C and D ate used to connect plates A and B (Fig. 1.20), shear will tke place in bolt HJ in each of the two planes RK" and ZL’ (and similarly in bolt EG). The bolts are said to be in double shear. To de- termine the average shearing stress in each plane, we draw free-bodly diagrams of bolt H and ofthe portion of bolt located between the two planes (Fig. 1.21). Observing that the shear P in each of the sections is P = F/2, we conclude that the average shearing stess is P_ Fp Fr i (1.10) 1.7. BEARING STRESS IN CONNECTIONS Bolts, pins, and rivets create stresses in the members they connect, long the bearing surface, or surface of contact. For example, consider again the two plates A and B connected by a bolt CD that we have discussed in the preceding section (Fig. 1.18), The bolt exerts on plate A a force P equal and opposite to the force F exerted by the plate on the bolt Fig. 1.22). The force P represents the resultant of elementary forces Gistibuted on the inside surface of a hal-cylinder of diameter d and of length ¢ equal to the thickness of the plate. Since the distribution of these forces—and of the corresponding stresses—is quite complicated, one uses in practice an average nominal value a7 of the sires, called the Dearing stress, obtained by dividing the load P by the area ofthe rectan- ale representing the projection ofthe bolt on the plate section (Fig. 1.23). Since this area is equal to td, where 1 i the plate thickness and d the di- ameter ofthe bolt, we have P wa aay 17, Ber Shessm Comestine 44 4 et — kK ¥ Se an ae @ , o Fig 121 : Fig, 1.22 12 Inroduction—Concep of Sea Lay Fig. 124 1.8, APPLICATION TO THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SIMPLE STRUCTURES. ‘We are now in a position to determine the stresses in the members and connections of various simple two-dimensional structures and, thus, 10 design such structures. ‘As an example, let us return to the structure of Fig. 1-1 that we have already considered in Sec, 1.2 and let us specify the supports and ‘connections at A, B, and C. As shown in Fig, 1.24, the 20-mm-diameter rod BC has flat ends of 29. 40.mm rectangular cross section, while Doom AB has a 30 X 50-mia reslangular cross seetion and is fitted With actevis at end B. Both members are connected at B by a pin from which the 30-KN Toad is suspended by means of a U-shaped bracket. Boom AB is supported at A by a pin fitted into a double bracket, while rod BC is comnecied at C to a single bracket, All pins are 25 mmm in diameter, ‘a, Determination of the Normal Stress in Boom AB and Rod BC. As we found in Secs. 1.2 and 14, the fore in rod BC is Foe = S0KN (tension) and the area of its circular cross section is 10-6; the comesponding average normal stress is ea = +157, However, the flat pars of the rod are also under tension and at the narrowest section, where a hole is located, we have A= (20 mm)(40 mm ~25'mm) = 300 x 1076 mé ‘The corresponding average value of the stress, therefore, is P__S0xX10'N (aches = 5 ~ 300 x 10°? 167 MPa [Note tht this is an average value; close tothe ole, the stress will a&- tually reach a much larger value, a6 you will seein Sec. 2.18, Itis clear that, under an increasing load, the rod will fail near one of the holes rather then ints cylindical portion; its design, therefore, could be im- proved by increasing the width or the thickness ofthe flat ends of the ro. ‘Tuming nov our attention to boom AB, we recall from Sec. 1.2 that, the force in the boom is F4p=40KN (compression). Since the area of the boom's rectangular cross section is A = 30 mm X 50mm = 1.5 X 10™ mt, the average value ofthe normal sess in te main pare of the rod, beiieen pins A and B, 8 40 x 10°N 15 x 107 26.7 x 10°Pa = ~26.7 MPa [Note thatthe sections of minimum area at A and B are not under stress, since the boom is in compression, and} therefore, pushes on the pins (instead of pulling on the pins as rod BC does). b. Determination of the Shearing Stress in Various Connec- tions. To determine the shearing stress in a connection such as a bol, Pin, or rivet, we first clearly show the forces exerted by the various members it connects. Thus, in the case of pin C of our example (Fig. 1.25), we draw Fig. 1.256, showing the 50-kNV force exerted by mem- ber BC on the pin, and the equal and opposite force exerted by the bracket. Drawing now the diagram of the portion of the pin located below the plane: DD' where shearing stresses occur (Fig. 1.25c), we conclude that the shear in that plane is P= SOKN, Since the cross- sectional area of the pin is N 7 We find that the average value of the shearing stress in the pin at Cis P_50X10'N ee 4 Bx 10% me OP MPA Considering now the pin at A (Fig, 1.26), we note that it is in dou- bie shear. Drawing the free-body diagrams of the pin and of the por- tion of pin located between the planes DD’ and EE’ where shearing stresses occur, we conclude that P = 20KN and that 20 kN 1 pe = 407 MPa tee = iat 10-e me” 407 14. Avis nd Ordon of Se Shustees 4g @ Ags ly Fig. 1.26 o © ial won ® 14 InvoouctarCencopt of Sess Feya= S010 Fig. 1.27 3] Q- ise e Considering the pin at B (Fig. 1.27a), we note that the pin may be divided into five portions which are acted upon by forces exerted by the boom, rod, and bracket. Considering successively the portions DE (Fig. 1.276) and DG Fig. 1.276), we conclude that the shear in section Eis Pz = ISKN, while the shear in section G is Pg = 25 KN. Since the loading of the pin is symmetric, we conclude that the maximum value of the shear in pin B is Pe = 25 N, and that the largest shear- ing stresses occur in sections G and HY, where ee ee toe SA BX 10 mt = 509 MPa . Determination of the Bearing Stresses. To determine the nominal bearing stress at A in member AB, we use formula (1.11) of Sec. 1.7. From Fig. 1.24, we have = 30mm and d= 25 mm, Re calling that P= Fyy = 40 KN, we have P_ 401 %~ id GOmm\25 mm) = 53.3 MP ‘To obtain the bearing stress in the bracket at A, we use ¢ = 2(25 mm} 50 mum art d= 25 mm: a 40KN “1d” Gommy2smm) ~ 22° MPa ‘The bearing stresses at B in memiber AB, at B and C in member BC, and in the bracket at C are found in a similar way. 1.8. METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLUTION You should approach a problem in mechanics of materials as you would approach an actual engineering situation. By drawing on your own ex- pperience and intuition, you will find it easier to understand and formu- Tate the problem. Once the problem has been clearly stated, however, there is no place in its solution for your particular fancy. Your solution must be based on the fundamental principles of statics and on the prin- ciples you will learn in this course. Every step you take must be justi fied on that basis, leaving no room for your “intuition.” After an an- ‘wer has been obtained, it should be checked, Here again, you may call mn Your common sense and personal experience. If not completely satisfied with the result obtained, you should carefully check your for ‘mulacion of the problem, the validity of the methods used in its solu- tion, and the accuracy of your computations. ‘The statement ofthe problem should be clear and precise. It should contain the given data and indicate what information is required. A sim plified drawing showing all essential quantities involved should be in- cluded. The solution of most of the problems you will eacounter will necessitate that you first determine the reactions at supports and inter- nal forces and couples. This will require the drawing of one or several {free-body diagrams, as was done in Sec. 1.2, from which you will write equilibrium equations, These equations can be solved for the unknown forees,-from which the required stresses and deformations will be computed. ‘After the answer has been obtained, it should be carefully checked, Mistakes in reasoning can often be detected by carrying the units through your computations and checking the units obtained for the an- swer, For example, in the design of the rod discussed in See. 1.4, we found, after carrying the units through our computations, that the re= quired diameter of the rod was expressed in millimeters, which is the Correct unit for a dimension; if another unit had been found, we would have known that some mistake had been made, Errors in computation will usually be found by substituting the nu- merical values obtzined into an equation which hes not yet been used and vetifying that the equation is satisfied, The importance of correct ‘computations in engineering cannot be overemphasized. 4.10, NUMERICAL ACCURACY ‘The accuracy of the solution of a problem depends upon two items (21) the accuracy of the given data and (2) the accuracy of the compu- tations performed. ‘The solution cannot be more accurate than the less accurate ofthese ‘vo items. For example, if the loading of a beam is known to be 300 KN with a possible ersor of 400 N either way, the relative error which ‘measures the degree of accuracy of the data is 400N 300k In computing the reaction at one of the beam suppor, it would then bbe meaningless to recoed it as 57288 N. The accuracy of the solution cannot be greater than 0.13%, no matter how aecurete the computations are, and the possible error in the answer may be as large as (0.13/100) (51288 N) = 74 N. The answer shauald be properly recorded 28 57280 + T4N, In engineering problems, the data are seldom known with an ae curacy greater than 0.2%, Itis therefore seldom justified to write the answers to such problems with an accuracy greater than 0.2 percent. A practical rule is to use 4 figures to record numbers beginning with 2 “1” and 3 figures in all other cases. Unless otherwise indicated, the data aaiven in a problem should be assumed known with a comparable degree of accuracy. A force of 160 N, for example, should be read 160.0 N, and a force of 60 N should be read 60.00 N. Pocket calculators and computers are widely used by practicing en- sineers and engineering students. The speed and accuracy of these de- vices facilitate the numerical computations inthe solution of many prob- lems, However, students should not record more significant figures than can be justified merely because they are easily obtained. As noted above, an aceuracy greater than 0.2% is seldom necessary or meaningful in the solution of practical engineering problems, = 0.0013 = 0.13% 15 SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.1 Jn the hanger shown, the upper portion of link ABC is 10 mm thick andthe Tower portions ace each 6 mm thick. Epoxy resin is used t bond the upper and lowver portions togeer at B. The pin at A is of 10 mum diameter while & 6 madiameter pin is used at C. Determine (a) the shearing stess in pin A, () the shearing tress in pin C, (¢) the largest normal stress in link ABC, (2) the average shearing stest on the bonded surfaces at B, (2) the bearing sess in the link at C SOLUTION Free Body: Entire Hanger. Since the link ABC is a two-foree member, the reaction at A is vertical; the reaction at Dis represented by its components D, sad D,, We write AEMp = 0: (2000 N75 mun) ~ Fye(250 mm) = 0 Fyc= +3000N Pye = 3000N tension 4. Shearing Stress in Pin A. Since this 10 nm-diaaeter pin i i single shear, we write 38.2 MPa 4 5, Shearing tress in Pl C, Since his 6 mm-iameter pin in double MOR} pp asow_ryeamon Swe Hac, 15008 reo Ee ON age < ea Fam? Sins eed ‘Sam dander $Fy+ ION c Largest Normal Stress in Link ABC. The largest stess is found bb ‘where the area is smallest; this occurs at the cross section at A where the toa Fy D000 o-ma hole is located. We bave Dae ante —_00N___,_000N. 5 MPa 4 om EE meee aS F110 mm diameter mm sides of the upper portion of the link and that the shear force on each side is i fiom peritectic a Fi Fre pags BOON PAGE, cy a, LL MPa 4 A> BO aam)(45 min) «Bearing Stress in Link at C. reach pation ofthe link, F, = 1500'N ‘and the nominal bearing area is (6 mm)(6 mm) = 36 mr’ Fy _ 1500 A” 36mm! oy = 47 MPa FELT) pions ofthe ba Recalling ht the thickness ofthe so pint is SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.2 ‘The steel te bar shown is to be designed to caty a tension force of magnitude P = 120 kNwhen bolted between double brackets at A and B. The bar will be faa Hom 20am pte doy ortega ease he Basin. allowable desis “are [g)= 175 MP9Le = 100MPa/o4 = 10 MPa, Design the tic bar by determining the required vatues-of (a) the “Giasier d of the bot, (6). dimension B at each end of the bat () the ‘Gimension h ofthe ba. SOLUTION 4. Diameter of the Bolt. Since the bolt ie in double sheer, Fy ~ PR ON) sos) | coun Pa Tg) tome SE sam 60m at o a Wevwilluse d= 28.0 fs —— At this point we check the bearing suess between the 20-mm-thick plate and the 28-mm-diameter bolt ete 1201 Woweayorm ay "2MMPA<350MPa, OK nae wd D. Dimension b at Each. Pd of the Bar: We consider one ofthe end 20mm ‘and thatthe average tensile stress must not exceed 175 MPs, we waite ee gp Tag }7S MP a o> 17.14 mm @ Loe sates eae aioe dea Dimension h ofthe Bar. Recalling tat the thickness of the steel pate 20mm, we have 1205N Pe one SMP eae b= 343 mm We will use = 35mm < 7 0 ma 4141 Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together 2B and loaded as shown. Knowing that d= $0 mm and d = 30 mm, find average owe stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) fod BC. 1.2 Two sold cylindrical ods AB and BC are weed together a 8 and loaded sx shown, Knowing thatthe average nocmal tess must at exceed 189 MPa in ether rd, datemine the smallest allowabie vals f d, and 4.3 Two sold eylindscel de AB and BC ace welded together a Band leaded as shown. Determine the average normal sires a the midsection of {) rod AB, (6) cod BC. 250m m0 ue mae dl Tarn aca es spi Peso SE Fi. Ps and P12 Ta Fig Pe 18 |main| nia 1A In Prob. 13, determine the magnitude ofthe force for which the tensile sess in rod AB has the same magitude as the compressive stress in rd BC. 4.5 “Two see! plates ar o be eld togeter by mune of 16-me-ianeter high-strength ste! bots fing saugly inside cylindial bras pacers. Know ing tha the average normal eres mist not exceed 200 MPa in the bolts an 30 MPa in the spacers, determin te ote diameter ofthe spacer that ies the most economical and safe design Fie. Pus 1.6. Asin gage located at Con the surface of bone AB indicates tat ‘he average normal ses in she hone it 3.80 MPa when the Bone is subjected to two 1200N forces a5 shawe. Assuming the cross section of the bone at (C10 de annular and knowing that its outer ameter is 25 mm, determine the mer diameter of the bou's czas section 3 C: 19 a Fig. Pu 1.7 Koowing thatthe cereal portion ofthe lik BD has uniform exoss- sectional area of 800 mn determine the magntade of the Toad P for which ‘he nocma sues in that pston of BD is $0 MP, 1.8 Link AC basa uniform rectangular cross section 3 mm thick and 25 mm wide. Determine the normal sess in the ental portion of the ink; Bach of the four verical links has an 8 26-mm uniform rectan gular section and each ofthe four pins has a 16am diameter, Determine the mazimom valie of the average parma sess inthe links, connecting (@ points B and D, (6) points Cand F. Fig P19 4.40 Two horizontal 20 UN forces are appiod to pin B ofthe sssembly showo, Knossng tha gin of 20 ram diameter is used at each connection, de termine the maximum value ofthe average neewal tess (a) in ink AB, (8) line aC. 4.44 The rigié bar EFG Is supported by the uss system shown. Know- Ing thatthe member CG sa soli cvalr tod of 18 mum diameter, determine the normal sess in CO. 1.12 The gid bar EFG is supported bythe tse system shown. Deter. rine the eesssectional area of member A for which the noma stress in he member is 105 MP Proms 49 Fig. P10 08m ig = oes Fig. P11 and P12 20 octen-Cacep of tess Fig Pe ar sie Fi. Pas 1.13 Two hydraulic cylinders are used to control the poston of the o- boc arm ABC. Knowing tbat the coal rods stached at aud D each have 4220. diameter and happen tobe parallel io the position shown, determine the average nocmal sess in (@) membes AE, (b) member DC, 100 atten Fig. PL 1.14 A.couple M of mageitde 1500 N - m i applied to the crank of an tngine. For the postion show, decermine (2) the force P required to bold the engine system in equilibrium, @) the average normal eres in the con- rscting red BC, which has $50-men! uniform oss sation 1.15. Whenthe free P reached BN, the wooden specimen shown felled in shear along te surface indicated by te dashed lin, Determive the average Shearing sess along that surface athe tne of fllre. 1.16 The wooden members and fare oe joined by plywoad splice plates that willbe fll glued on the surfaces in conact. As pat ofthe design Ofte join and knowing that he clearance betwee the ends ofthe members Js to be 6 me, determine the smallest allowable length Li the average shes ing sess in he glue i nt 0 exceed B40 KPa 4.47 A lod P is applied toa see rod supported as shown ty ah alu- nina plat nto which a 1S-mundiameter bole his been dled. Knowing that the shearing sess mast not exceed 126 MPa inthe steel rod and 70 Ma in ‘he luninam pte, detecmive the ages lod P that may be apie the od 418. Two wooden planks, each 12 sim thick and 225 mm wide, ae Joined bythe dry mortise jon shown, Knowing thatthe wood used cheats off long is grain when the average shearing tress reaches 8 MPa, dete the Imagnitde P oft axial los that wl ease the joint to fal. ig. Pia 41.49 The axial force inthe column supporting te saber beam shown iP = 15 EN. Detsne the smallest allowable length L ofthe bearing plate ifthe beating stress inthe timber is not exceed 3.0 MPa, 41.20 A 404 axial fad is applied to 4 short wooden pos tha is sup- poted by a concrete Footing resting on undstrbed soil Determine (2) the ‘maximum bearing sess onthe concrete footing, (2) the sie of the footing for ‘which the average bearing sizes inthe sil is (45 KPa 4.21 An exial load P is supported by 4 short W200 x 59 column of cross-sectional area A = 7550 mm’ and is dstibuted to @ concrete foundation by # square plate as shown. Knowing tat he average normal tres in thecal uma must not exceed 200 MPa and thatthe bearing stesso the concete foundation must wot exceed 20 MPa, dotermine the side ofthe plate thet will provide the most economical and safe design reine 24 heey 7 ee soni Fig, P1.17, a Fig. is Fig. Pt.2t Ea Fig, P1.25 nd 1.25 1.22 Tinos wooden planks are fastened togotee by a serie of bolls to orm a colura. The diameter ofeach bolt is 12 mem and the inner darter of cach washer ie 16 mam, whic i sigh larger than the diameter ofthe holes in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer diameter dof the wah er, towing thatthe everage roma stress in the bolt is 35 MPa ard that de bearing stress between the washers snd tb planks musi aot exceed § MPa 1.23 A0.12-nm- jis, eo dies aA 1.18) wml ty A a to A Ta TAA ‘We note thatthe first subscript in, 7, and 7 is used ta indicate thet the stresses under consideration afe exerted on a surface perpendicu= lar to the x axis, The second subscript in and t identifies the dic rection of the component. The normal stesso, is positive ifthe corre- sponding arrow points in the positive x direction, ie, if the body is in tension, and negative otherwise. Similarly, the shearing stress compo- ‘ents ry and 7,, are positive if the corresponding arrows point, f= spectively, in the positive y and z directions. The above analysis may also be carried out by consideting the por- tion of body located to the right ofthe vertical plane throush Q 1.35)."The same magnitudes, but opposite directions, are obtained for th normal and shearing forces AF", AVs, and AVS. Therefore, the same values are also obtained for the corresponding stess components, bat since the section in Fig. 1.35 now faces the negative x axis, a positive sign for will indicate that the corresponding w10% points én the nee ative x direction. Similany, positive signs for t,, andr Will indicate ‘that the corresponding arrows point, respectively, in the negative y and 2 dizections, a8 shown in Fig. 135, 12 Sa Unde Gr Lecing Contre 955 26 Inveauetn-Caeep! of Sess Fig 198 Passing a section through Q parallel to the 2x plane, we define in the same manner the stress components, Oy: Ty, a0d ty Finally, a sec- tion through Q parallel tothe ay plane yields the components tay and 75. ‘ facilitate the visualization of the stress condition at point Q, we shall consider a small cube of side a centered at Q and the stresses ex- certed ou each of the six faces of the cube (Fig. 136). The stress com [ponents shown in the figure are 0, and 0, which represent the noe tal stress on faces respectively perpendicular to the x y, and z axes, ‘and the six shearing stress components 7,7, ete. We recall thet, ac- cording to the definition of the shearing stress components, 7 repre sents the y component of the shearing stress exerted on the face per pendicular to the x axis, while 7, represents the x component of the shearing stress exerted onthe face perpendicular tothe y axis, Note that only three faces ofthe cube are actually visible in Fig. 1.36, and that equal and opposite stess components act on the hidden faces, While the stresses acting on the faces of the cube difier slightly from the stresses at Q, the error involved is small end vanishes as side a ofthe cube approaches zero, [Important relations among the shearing stress components will now bbe derived. Let us consider the free-body diagram of the small cube centered at point Q (Fig, 1.37). The normal and shearing forces acting ‘om the various faces ofthe cube are cbtained by multiplying the come- sponding stess components by the area AA of each face, We frst write the following three equilibrium equations: BE=0 BF 0 BRO «19) Since forces equal and opposite to the forces actully shown in Fig, 1.37 are acting on the hidden faces of the cube, itis clear that Eqs. 1.19) are satisfied. Considering now the moments of the forces about ‘axes Ox, Qy’, and Qe’ drawn from Q in directions respectively paral lel to the x y, and z axes, we write the thres additional equations BM,=0 EMy=0 —-EM=0 (1.20) Using a projection on the x'y' plane (Fig. 1.38), we note that the only forces with moments about the z axis different from zero are the sheat- ing forces. These forces form two couples, one of counterclockwise (positive) moment (7. AA)a, the other of clockwise (negative) moment “(y_ Bla. The last ofthe three Eqs, (1.20) yields, herefore, +hEM, = 08 (ry Ala ~ fy MAYO = 0 from which we conclude that oy he a2 ‘The relation cbtained shows tht the y component ofthe shearing stress ‘exerted on a face perpendicular to the x aus is equal to the x compo- ‘nent ofthe shearing stress exerted ona face perpendicular to they axis, 118. bealn Censdetere 37 From the remaining two equations (1.20), we derive in a similar man ner the relations ey os co a2) 4a ; We concide trom Eos (21) and (1.22) that only si ess com: ponents a requ to define the condition of stess a given polar Q, instead of nine as originally “assumed. These six components arc Fig. ou = GO p Oe Tay Ty 84 Tee We al80 note tbat, at @ given point, shear ‘canner take place in one plone only; an equal shearing stress must be exerted oa another plane perpendicular tothe first one. For example considering again the bolt of Fig. 1.29 and a small cube atthe center Q ofthe bolt (Fig. 139), we find that shearing stresses of equal mag nitude must be exerted on the two horizontal faces ofthe cube and on the two faces that are perpendicular tothe forces P and P' (Fig, 1.398). Before concluding our discussion of stress components, let us con- sider again the ease of @ member under axial loading. If we consider & small cube with faces respectively parallel to the faces of the member snd reall the results obtained in Sec. 1-11, we find thatthe conditions @ of stress in the member may be described as shown in Fig. 140a; the only sireses are normal stresses ¢, exerted on the faces of the eube which ate perpendicular tothe x axis, However, if the small. cube is ro: tated by 45° about the z axis so that its new orientation matches the or ‘entation of the sections considered in Fig. 1.31c and d, we conclude that ‘normal and shearing stresses of equal magnitude are exerted on four faces of te cube (Fig. 140b). We thus observe thatthe same loading condition may lead to different interpretations ofthe stress situation a 4 given point, depending upon the orientation ofthe element considered. ‘More willbe said about this in Chap 7 Fig, 1.40 1.18, DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Inthe preceding sections you leaned to determine the stresses in ros. bolts, and pins under simple loading conditions. In later chapters you “Wall fear to determine stisoes in more cGfplex sitations. In engi- neecing applications, however, the determination of stresses is seldom ‘an end in self, Rather, the knowledge of stresses is used by engineers to assist in their most important task, namely, the design of structures ‘and machines that will sefely and economically perform 2 specified function. Determination of the Ultimate Strength of a Material. An ‘important element to be considered by a designer is how the material that has been selected will behave under a load. For @ given matedal, this is determined by performing specific tests on prepared sarapes of the material, For example, a test specimen of steel may be prepared and placed in a laboratory testing machine to be subjected to @ known eet- trie axial tensile force, as described in See. 2.3. As the magnitude of the force is increased, various changes in the specimen are measured, for example, anges in its length and is diameter Eventually the largest 28 rosuctonconent Stee force which may be applied to the specimen is reached, and the spect- men either breaks or begins to cary fess load. This largest forces called the ultimate ied for te tst specimen and is denoted by Py. Siace the applied load is centric, we may divide tho ultimate load by the orignal cross-sectional area ofthe rod to obtain the ultimate normal stress of the material used. This stress, also known a8 the ultimate sirength in tension of the materia, is = fe 1.23) y= (123) Several test procedures are available to devermine the ultimate shearing stress, or ultimate strength in shear, of & material, The one ‘most comumoaly used involves the twisting of a circular tube (See. 3.5). A more direct, if less accurate, procedure consists in clamping. 4 rec: ‘angular or round bar in a shear too! (Fig. 1.41) and applying an in- ‘reasing load P unl the ukimate load P, for single shear is obtained. If the free end of the specimen rests on both of the hardened dies (Fig. 1.42), the vkimate load for dovble shear is obtained. In either cas, the ukimate shearing stess ry is obtained by dividing the ultimate load by the total area over which shear has taken place. We recall that, in the case of single shear, this erea isthe cross-sectional area A of the spec- mea, while in double shear itis equal to twice the cross-sectional area. b, Allowable Load and Allowable Stress; Factor of Safety. The ‘maximorn load that a structural member or 2 mochine component will be allowed to carry under normal conditions of utilization is consider- ably smaller than the ultimate load. This smaller load is referred to as the allowable iaad and, sometimes, as the working load or design load. ‘Tis, onl 2 fraction ofthe ulimate-load capacity ofthe members i= lized when the allowable load is applied. The remsining portion ofthe load-carrying capacity of the member is kept in reserve to assure its safe performance, The ratio ofthe ultimate load 10 the allowable load Js used to define the actor of sofery+ We have {Factor of safery = rs, = timate load lowabietoad 1") ‘An altemalive defiition of the factor of safety is ase on the use of suesex imate stress ctor of eafety = Fs, = timate sess ieee allowable stress (12s) ‘The two expressions given for the factor of safety in Eqs, (1.24) and (25) are identical when a linear relationship exists benveen the fond ‘and the stress. Ia most engineering applications, however, this rela- tionship ceases to be linear the load approaches its ultimate value, ‘and the factor of safety obtained from Eg. (1.25) does not provide @ Hn ome fs of exposing scubty rooataleagicarng, he agin fee i edn plc of he So fey. Te in of se ied othe eo ety min one mt magn of eae = FS 100 true assessment of the safety of a given design, Nevertheless, the allowable-stress method of design, based on the use of Bq. (1.25), is ‘widely used ©. Selection of an Appropriate Factor of Safety. The selection of the factor of safety to be used For vavious applications is one of the ‘most important engineering tasks. On the one hand, if a factor of safety Js chosen too small the possibility of failure becomes unacceptably large; on the other Rand, if a factor of safety is chosen unnecessarily large, th result is an uneconomical or nonfunctional design. The choice of tb Toro pty hat is appro fr given dig apieaton requires engineefing judgment based on many considerations, such as the following: 1. Variations that may occur inthe properties ofthe member w= der consideration. The composition, strength, anid dimensions of the member are all subject to small vations during man facture. In addition, material properties may be sltered end residual stresses introduced through heating or deformation that may occur during manfactore, storage, transportation, oF 2 The nunber of loadings thas nay be expected during the life of the socture or machine. For most matesals the ulate sess decreases as the numberof cad applications is ineeased. Tis phenomenon is known as fatigue and, i ignored, nay seat in sudden failure (se See. 27. 3. The ype of loadings that are planned for inthe design or tat ‘may occur inthe ate. Vey fe loadings ae Known with com plete acouracy—most design loadings are exgneaing estimates. In edition, fare secations or changes in usage may intoduce changes inthe aca Toading Larger factors of sty trea r- quite for dynamic, cele, or impsive losing. 4. The ope of fallre shat may oceur, Brite materials fail sud deny, usualy with vo prior indication that eollaps is immi- rent Oa the other hand, ductile materials, such as structural steel, nowmally undergo a substantial deformation calle yeld- ing before failing, this providing & waraing that ovedoading exists, However, most buckling or sttiity failures are sen, whether the maierial i belie or not. When the possibilty of Sudden flue exists, «larger factor of safety should be wed than when flue is preceded by obvious waming signs 5. Uncertaity due to methods of analysis. Al design methods are based on certain simplifying assumptions ‘hich result in cal calated suestes being approximations of actual stresses. 6 Deterioration that may occur in the future because of poor maintenance or because of unpreventable natural causes, A Tamper factor of safety is necessary in locations where condi tions suchas corosion and decay are dificult to contol or ever to discover 7, The inportance ofa given member to the integrity ofthe whole suructue. Bracing and secondary members may in many eases be designed with a factor of safety lower than that used fr pie mary members, 29 30 + In addition tothe above considerations, there isthe additional con- sideration conceming the risk to life and propecty that a failure would produce. Where a failure would produce no risk to life end only mii nal risk to propery, the use of a smaller factor of safety can be con sidered, Finally, there isthe practical consideration that, unless a care: ful design with'a nonexcessve factor of safety is sed, @ structure ot ‘machine might not perform its design function. For example, high fac- tors of safety may have an unacceptable effect on the weight of an aircraft For the majority of stuctural and machine applications, factors of safety are specified by design specifications or building codes writen by committees of experienced engineers working with professional so cieties, with industries, or with federal, state, or city agencies. Exam- ples of such design specifications and building codes are 1, Steel: American Institute of Steel Construction, Spesifiestian for Structural Stee! Buildings 2. Concrete: American Concrete Institute, Building Code Re- quirement for Structural Concrete 3. Timber: American Forest and Paper Association, National Desiga Specification for Wood Construction 4. Highway bridges: American Association of State Highway Officials, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges "d._ Load and Resistance Factor Design. As we sav above, the allowable-stess method requires that all the uncectaimies associated ‘with the desiga of a structure or machine element be grouped into & single factor of safery. An alternative method of design, whichis gain. ing acceptance chiefly among structural engineers, makes it possible through the use of thre diferent factors to distinguish between the un- cettantes associated with the structure itself and those associated with the load itis designed to support. This method, referred to as Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), futher allows the designer 0 dis Linguish between uncertainties associated withthe live load, P, that is, with the loud to be supported by the structure, and the dead load, Py, that is, with the weight of the portion of structure contributing 1 the total load, ‘When this method of design is used, the ultimate load, Py, of the structute, hat is, the load at which the stracture ceases to be useful, should first be determined. The proposed design is then acceptable if the following inequality i satistied: Po WPL= Pe 26) The coefficient ¢ is referred to asthe resistance factor; it accounts for the uncertainties associated with the stuctuceitelf and will normally be Jess than J. The coefficients yp and 7, are ceferted to as the load factors; bey account for the uncertainties associated, respectively, with the dead and five load and will normally be greater than 1, with yy gen- cally larger than yp. While a few examples or assigned problems using LRFD are included in this chapter and in Chaps. 5 and 10, the allowable-suess method of design will be used in this tex. SAMPLE PROBLEM 4.3 ‘Two fares ae applied to the backet BCD as shown, (0) Knowing thatthe contol ro AB i tobe made of a tel having an ultimate normal sess of 600 Mra, determine the diameter ofthe rod for which the factor of safety with re ‘yee alla wil be 3.3.0) The in at Cis tobe made of a set having an ste shearing stess of 330 MP3. Determine the diameter ofthe pn C for which the factor of safety with respect to shear will alo be 3.3. (c) Determine the required thickness ofthe beackar supports at C Knowing tha he ellowable ‘earng sues ofthe steel used is 300 MP, tire Bracket. The ection at Cis represented by is com- ponents C; and ¢, 4+ 5 EMe= 0: POG) ~ (SOENKOS ma} =USINAOHm) = 0 P= AORN 2F, =o CAR CL Vera wee GlBin 08 VET =r0si8 ‘2. Control Rod AB. “Since the factor of safety i to be 3.3, the alow ble sess 6 re _ 0s re Be = SOME gs nre For P= 4018 he costco! ae ree Pain i fae seg” LBS” 220% 10" boo aly 20% 10%? dy = 16 € steria Pin C. Fos tro ey of, we are ry _ 350 MPa vam f= SOME ios ee Sie pa nd se wee ns.3aN cp SC OP 360mm? ewe 1051 MPa} 4 = 30mm? dee 24mm Usedee 2mm < ne GE “The next larger size pin available i of 2-tm diameter and should be wed . Bearing at C. Using d = 22 mm, the nominal bearing area of ech bracket is 21 Since te force carried by aach brackets C/? and the allowable bearing ses is 300 MP, we write G2 _ Qsaemyn ‘ hag 8 = ORF " Ge___ 300 MPa pena 788, set= 6mm < 31 SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.4 ‘The tgid beam BCD i enached by bolts to control rod at B, to hydraulic cylinder at C, and to 2 fixed support a D. The diameters ofthe bois wed ae: y= do = 10 mm, d, = 12 mm. Fach bolt acs In double shee and is made ‘Homa steel for which te ultimate searing sues sy = 280 MPA. The con lwo rod AB has a diameter dy = 11 mm and js made ofa steel for which the timate tensile sues is oy = 420 MPa. Ifthe raiimaz factor of safety 61 be 3.0 for the entie unt, determin the ages upward force which my be a plied by th hydralic cylinder a C. SOLUTION “The factor of safety with respect to fellae must be 10 or mor a each ofthe thee bolt nd in the contol rod. These for independeat criteria wil be cot- Sided separately, Free Body: Beam BCD. We fst determine the foroe at C in terms of ‘he force at Band in terms ofthe fore at D. +4EMp =O: BGS0mm) ~ CQOImm =0 C= 17503 (1) H1Ea,= 0: -DA50 mm) + CASDmn) =O CH2330 a) Control Rod. Foe a factor of safety of 3.0 Sy _ #20MPa 49 sgpn fe = SP omen ‘The allowable force inthe contol rd is B= oy(A) = (140 MPa) iw(HL x 107m)" = 13.3 KN Using Bq (1) we find the largest peemived value of C: L7S0B = 175K133EN) “C= 23284N Bolt at B. y= ny/ FS. = (280 MPs)/3 ~ 93.33 MPa, Sine the bolts in double shear, the allowable magnitude of the fore B exerted onthe bol is (rau) = 2698.33 MPa (10 X 107m) = 14.654 LIS0B = LISKL465 1B) C= 25.664 B= 2F, From Ba. (0): Bolt at D. Since this bolt i the same a5 bolt B, the allowable force is D = B= 1466 KN. From Eq, Q): 233D = 2341466 WN) C= IGEN Balt at We again have ry = 93.33 MPa and write C= BF, = 2A) = 2093.33 MPIKLA}(I2 x Um)? C= BAL EN ‘Summary. We have found separately four maximam allowable values of te free C. fo order to sat all these extra we must choose the salle ex value, namely Cm DLN 1.29 Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section ate Joined by the simple gle scar splice shown. Knowing that P= U1 KN, etermine the normal and sheng suesss in the glued splice. sii Fig. P1.29 and PI.30 1.30 Two wooden members of urifor reciengular eroes section are joined by the simple glued scat splice show. Knowing tht the rim al- fowableshesring stress in the glued eplie ix 620 KPa, determine (a) te lngeet load P that can be safely applied, (2) the comesponding tensile stress in the splice. 1.91 The 56 10 Jad P is supported by two wooden members of wri form cross seston that are joined by Ue simple glued scat splice show, De- termine the normal and shearing swesses inthe goed splice 1.92 Two wooden members of ulform cross setion ate jolted bythe simple start slice show. Knowing thatthe maximam allowable tensile sess inthe glued splice is 525 XPs, determine (=) the largest load P that can be safely supported, (b) the corresponding shearing sess in the spies, 1,38 _A ste pipe of 300-nm outer diameters fabricated fom 6-mm hick plate By welding along a hex that forms an angle of 25° witha plane pet- Dendiewlar to the anis ofthe pipe. Knowing that 2 250N axis focce P is {applied tothe pipe, determine the normal and shearing stresies in dizeetons respectively normal and tangential to the weld. 1.94 Asta pipe of300-mm outs diameters fbcted fom 6-mmthick plate by welding along o helix that forms an angle of 25° witha plane per- pendicalar othe axis of the pipe. Knowing thatthe maximum allowable nor- ‘mal and shearing stresses in the directions respectively nomal aed tangential to the weld ae = 50 MPa and r = 30 MPa, determine the magaltude P of the argest aia frce tat can be apie to the pipe ass Tei Fig. Prat and P12 Fig. ss and Pas 34 Invector Cones of Sear Fig. P15 and Pi Fo. P40 o7sm Fig. PLA and Pz 26 sky 11.35 _A 960K load P is applied to the rant Bock chow, Determine the resulng marioum vale of) the normal strc, (he shearing ses, Spo: ify the egentation of te place on which each ofthese maximam values cceus. 1.96 A cent load P is applied t the granite block shown, Knowing that therestting maximum value ofthe shearing stress in the block i 17 MPa, S6-mm uniferm rstangulr cross section. Each of te four piné at A,B, C, and D has the same diametr d end iste double shea (c) Write a computer program to calcsate for vale of rom 10 t 30 mm, usingI-mm inerements (1) te maxim value ofthe a erage normal sess the links connecting pins B and D, (2) the average noe ‘mal stress inthe links connecting pine Cand E, 3) the everage shearing sess {npin, (4 the average shearing srs in pn C, (5) the average beating sess at B io member ABC, (6) the average bearing tress at C in membxe ABC. (@) Check your program by comparing the values obtsined ford = 16 mma wih the answers given for Probs. 1.9 an 1.27 (c) Use this program wo find the pes- rissible values ofthe dlameter ofthe pias, knowing thatthe allowable val tes ofthe normal, shearing, and bouring sesses for the steel used ae, re spectively, 150 MP, 90 MPa, and 230 MPa, (d) Solve pat c, assuming that the thicksess of members ABC has been rediced fram 10 8 en 1.63. Two horizontal 20 4 forces ae applied opin B of the assembly shown. Each ofthe thee pins at A B, and Cat the sane diameter ans doable shear (a) Wate a compete program 0 calcalae for values of d fom 125 037-5 mm, using 125 mim incremens, (|) the rua value ofthe 30 erage normal stress in member AB, (2) the average note sess in member BC, (@) the average shearing sess in pn A, (4) th average shearing stews n pin C, (5) the average bearing sues at Ain member AB, (6) the average besrng test 41 Cinmember BC, (7) tho average bearing es at Bin ember BC. (8) Chek your program by comparing te values obtained for d = 20 mn with the an ‘swe given for robs. 1.10 and 1.28, (6) Use this program ta Gnd the permis sible values ofthe dlametr df the ps, knowing tat te allowsble values cf ‘he norma, shearing, and bea stresses for the eel used ace, espectvely, 150 MPa, $0 MPa and 250 MPa (2) Solve pac, assuming that «new design is being investigated in which the hekness snd with of the two membees are changed, respectively from 12 ram & 8 mm an from 49 rim to €0 mm nm 00 nal fo Pies 1.04 A 16 LN fece P forming an angle «wit the veteal is applied as shown fo member ABC, which is supported by 8 pin and bracket at C and by a cable BD fomming an angle with the horizontal, (a) Keowing that the ultimate lad of the cable 160 EN, wre a cornpater program to consi & table ofthe valuos ofthe factoe of safety of the cable for values of and 2 from O co 45%, sing increments in sn 8 corresponding to 0.1 increments in tan and tan. (8) Check tha for any given value of athe maximum value Of the factor of safety is obtained for = 38.66" and explain why. (e) De- ‘ermine the males possible value ofthe factr of sley fr = 38.66%, as well asthe cocespendiag value of, and explain the cesltcbtained, 1.05 A load P is suppoced as shown by to wooden members of wai forma rectangular ross section tht are joined by a simple glued seat epic, (@) Denoting by ov and ry, respectively the oltinate strength ofthe joint in tension and in shou, wot a computer program Which, forgiven values of 1b, P, Oy 303 ty al fox valus ofa fom 5 to 85" a 5 intervals, ean be edt calculate (1) the normal sess in the fin, 2) the shearing steds in he Joi, (3) the factor of safery relive to fll in tension, () he factor of safety ‘elave to fall in shear, (5) the overall factor of safety for the glued joie. (©) Apply this program, using the dimensions and loading of the members of Probs. 129 and 131, knowing tht oy = 1.26 MPa and ny = 1.50 MP3 for the gue used in Pro. 179, and that 9y = 1.0 MPe and ry = 15 MPa for the slue used in Prob. 131, (¢) Verify in each ofthese two cases that the sheat- ing sone i manimom for = 45°, 1.6 Member ABC ie supported by a pin and bracket at and by two links, which er pin-connectd to the member at B and toa fixed support D. {@) Wate a computer program to clout te allowable load Py for any given Yalues of (1) the diameter dof the pin at A, (2) the common diameter dy of the pins a B and D, (3) theultimate normal sree cy in each ofthe tw links, () the alimate shearing stess 7g in each of te thre pins (3) the desied ‘overall factor of safety FS. Your program should also indicate which of the following te stresses criti: the normal ses in he links, the sbearing stress inthe pin aA othe searing sues in he pos at B ad D. (band) Check {your program by using the date of Probs. 1.33 and 154, respectively, andcom= pring the answers obisined for Py with those given inthe text. (d) Use yoot program to determine the allowable load Py. a8 well as which ofthe stesses Is extial, when d= c= 15mm, eg = 110 MP for the aluinum links, ‘ry = 100 MPa forse! pins, and FS. = 32. “Tp ew 0 yf sone a a some Pe oe San. ment Frei eer Fig. Pcs i. Phos Comput Petes 45 Stress and Strain—Axiail Loading ‘This chapter is devoted tothe etudy of deformations occurring in structural components subjected to axial loading. ‘The change in length of the dlagonal stays was carefully accounted for In the design ofthis cablo-stayed bridge Inthe Port of Houston. 24. INTRODUCTION JIn Chap. 1 we analyzed the stesses created in various members and connections by the loads applied to a structure or machine. We also teamed to design simple members and comnections so that they would not fail under specified loading conditions. Another important aspect of the analysis and design of structures relates to the deformations caused by the loads applied toa structure. Cleary, i is important to avoid de- formations so large that they may prevent the structre from {ufling the purpose for which it was intended. But the analysis of deformations ‘ey also help usin the determination of stresses. Indeed, itis not al- ‘ways possible to determine the forces in the raembers ofa structure by applying only the princips of statics. Tis is because static is based ‘a the assumption of undeformable, rigid structures. By considering en- gineering structures as deformable and analyzing the deformations in theis various members, it willbe possible for us to compute forces that are statically Indeterminate, indsterminate within the framework of statics. Also, es we indicated in Sec. 1.5, the distribution of stresses in ‘given member is statically indeterminate, even when the force in that ‘member isknown. To determine the actual distribution of stresses within 1 member, it is thus necessary to analyze the deformations that take place in that member. In this chapter, you will consider the deforma tions of a structural member such as a rod, bar, or plate under avial loading. Fist, the aormal strain ¢ in @ member will be defined as the defor- ‘mation of the member per ani length. Plotng te sess versus the sain «28 the load applied to the member is increased will yield a svess-srain dag for the materia used. Fom sucha diagram we can dower some important properties of the materi, such as ts modulus of elastic, and ether the material is duel or bride (Sees. 2.2 to 2.5). You wil also tee in See. 2.5 that, while the behavioe of most material is independent of the direction in which te load is agpied, the response of fiberreinforeed ‘composite materials depends upon the ditection of the load From the suess-sain diagram, we can also determine whetber the strains in the specimen will disappeae ales the load has beea removed — in which cae the matcial is exid to bshave elastically—or whether a per. ‘manent set of plastic deformation will result (Sec. 2.6) Section 2.7 is devoted tothe phenomenon of farigue, which causes structural or machine component to fil ater a very large number of re- ‘peated loadings, eventhough the suesses remain inthe elastic range ‘The first part of the chapter ends with Sec. 28, which is devoted to the determination of the deformation of various types of members under vatious conditions of axial loading. In Secs. 29 and 2.10, statically indeterminate problems willbe con- sidered, ie., problems in Which the reactions and the internal forces ca- ‘ot be detetmined from staes alone. The equilbxium equations derived from the free-body diagram of the member under consideration mast be complemented by relations involving deformation; these relations will be ‘obtained from the geometry of the problem, In Secs. 2.11 to 215, additional constants associaed with isotopic materals—i.e, materials with mechanical characteristics independent of Aieetion—will be inroduced. They include Poiscons ratio, which relates 7 4G Stes ad Seal Leng rain, the bulk modulus, which characterizes the change fn volume of a material under hydrostatic pressure, and the modulus of * rigidity, eich relates the components of the shearing sess and sheating ‘seain. Suess-strain clatonships for an isoopic material under &rnult anal loading will also be derive, In See. 216, suess-stai relationships involving severl distinct val tues of the modal of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, and the modulus of rig. bbe developed for fber-einforoed composite materials under a moltiaxal loading. While these materials are not isotropic, they usually dis- play special properties, Known as ovthatmople peoperties, which facilitate their std, In the text material described so far, stresses are assumed uniformly istibuted in any given cross section; they are also assumed to remain ‘within the elastic range. The validity of the fist assumption is discussed in ‘See, 2.17, while stress concentrations near circular holes and filets in fst bars are considered in Sec. 28. Sections 2.19 and 220 are devoted tthe tions. This indicates that the excessive plastic deformations to which the specimen was subjected have caused a radical change inthe char acteristics of the material. Reverse oadings ito the plastic ange, there fore, are seldom allowed, and only under carefully controlled condi- tions. Such situations eccur in the straightening of damaged materia and in the final alignment ofa strcture or mechine 2.7. REPEATED LOADINGS; FATIGUE Inthe preceding sections we have considered the behavior of «test spec- {men subjected to an axial loading. We recall that, ifthe maximum stress in the specimen does not exceed the elastic limit of the materia, the specimen returns (0 its inital condition when the Toad is removed. You ‘might conclude thet a given loading may’ be repeated many dimes, pro- vided that the stresses remsin inthe elestic range. Such a conclusion is Correct for loadings repeated afew dozen or even a few hundred times. However, as you will se, it fs not correct when loadings sre repeated thousands or millions of times. In such cases, rapture will occar at 2 sess much lower than the static breaking strength; this phenomenon is known as fatigue. A fatigne failure is ofa bitle nature, even for ma~ terials that aze normally ductile 27. Repeats Leadrae Fats BQ 60 2 Zz Steel tom) § ato Alain (2050 Pei eee we we Ie uber ef compeely evel et Fig. 221 Fatigue must be considered in the design ofall structural and ma- chine components tat aze subjected to repeated orto fluctuating loads ‘The number of loading cycles that may be expected during the useful life of a component varies greatly. For exarmple, a beam supporting an {industrial erane may be loaded as many as two million times in 28 years (about 200 loadings per working day), an automobile crankshaft will be loaded bout half a billion times ifthe automobile is driven 200,000 miles, and an individual turbine blade may be loaded several hundred billion times during its titetime Some loadings are of # fluctuating nature. For example, the pas- sage of traffic over a bridge will cause stress levels that will actuate about the stress level duc to the weight of the bridge, A more severe condition occurs when a complete reversal of the load occurs during the loading cycle. The stresses in the axle of a railroad car, for exam< ple, are completely reversed after each half-revolution of the wheel The number of loading cycles required to cause the failure of a specimen through repeated successive loadings and reverse loadings snuy be determined expetimentaly for any given maximum sess level Ifa series of tests is conducted, using different maximum stress levels, the resulting data may be plots asa ¢-n curve. For each test, the max- {mum stress ois plowed as an ordinate and the number of cycles m as an abscissa; because of the lange number of eyeles required for rupture, the cycles are ploted on a logarithmic scale ‘Atypical a-n curve for stel is shown in Fig, 2.21. We note that, if the applied maximum stess is high, relatively ew cycles are required to cause rupture. As the magnitude of the maximum stress is reduced, the number of eycles required to cause rupture increases, until a stress, known as the endurance limit, is reached. The endurance limit is the sess for which filure does not accu, even for an indefinitely large ‘umber of loading cycles. For a low-carbon steel, such as steactural steel, the endurance limit is about one-half of the wkimate strength of the sel or nonferrous metals, such as aluminum and copper, atypical ¢-2 ceorve (Fig. 2.21) shows that the stress at failure continues to decrease as the number of loading cycles is increased. For such metals, one de- fines the fargue limit asthe stress corresponding to failure after a spec- iffed number of loading cycles, such as 500 milion. ‘Examination of test specimens, of shafs, of springs, and of other ‘components that have failed in fatigue shows that the fallare was initi- ated at a microscopic erack of at some similar imperfection, At each Toading, te crack was very slightly enlarged. During successive foad= ing eyeles, the crack propagated through the material until the amount ‘of undemaged material was insufficient to carry the maximum load, and ‘an abrupt, brite failure occurred. Because fatigue failure may be ini- tiated at any crack or imperfection, the surface condition ofa specimen has an important effect on the value of the endurance limit obtained in testing. The endurance limit for machined and polished specimens is higher than for roiled or forged components, or for components thet are ‘corroded. In applications in or near seawater, or in ether applications ‘where corrosion is expected, a reduction of up t0 50% in the endurance limit can be expected, . DEFORMATIONS OF MEMBERS UNDER AXIAL LOADING ‘Considers homogeneous rod BC of length Z and uniform cross section of erea A subjected to a centric axial load P (Fig. 2.22). Ifthe result- ing axial stress & = P/A does not exceed the proportional limit ofthe material, we may epply Hooke’s law and waite Ee @4y {rom Which it follows that P eno" aE es) Recalling thatthe strain € was defined in Sec. 2.2 as € = 6/L, we have 7 bmek 26) and, substituting for € from (2.5) into (2.6) PL a= en Equation (2.7) may be used only if the rod is homogeneous (con- stant ), as a uniform cross section of area A, and is loaded at its ends If the rod is loaded at other points, o if it consists of several portions ‘of various cross sections and possibly of different materials, we must 10 NYO.3 m) AE ~ [500 X 10% m)T0 x 10°F) ‘The negative sign indiots a contraction of member AB, and, ths, an up- van defection of cod ste 107m pace = 05t4mmt 4 y= 9088 b, Deflection of D. Since in od CD, P = SOK, we writs (0.x 10 Ny 8) = 030000m4 Deflection of B. We denote by B' and D' the displaced positions of ft eee points B and D. Since the bar BDE is rigid, points B,D, and E lis ina straight eRe ee steam corm 7 bo" aD Oomm TI EE HE _be__ 00am) +137 mo) omen "HD Olan” 78am seen mm i,= 192mm) 4 63 SAMPLE PROBLEM 2.2 “The sigid castings A and B are connected by two 18 mn-iameter steel bolts (CD soit GH aod are in contact wih to ends of 38 men-dameter slum ‘od EF. Each bolt is singl-treaded with aptch of 25 rim, and fer being snugly fie, the nuts at D and # are both tightened one-quarter of & tra owing that B i 200 GPa for stel and 70 GPa fr aluminur, determine the ‘orm ses i the rod soLUTION Deformations Bots CD end GH Tivesng beats asses eso te bts Bo= case of symmetry, bo ae siete to the same intra ce Fa ‘kg the se dtonmaton 6, We ave Ala, Plas0um AB,” * Trin) {Q00% 19 Nam) fod BF ‘The rot isin compesion, Denoting by F, th masitte of the fein he oan by 6 the Stora of th oe wie Ph, 74500 mt) UE,” Tetra 1 Ni) Diplacenet of D Reare to B. Tigheing he ots one of ‘urea nb D and Hf te bls over sapien of 123 mn) relive te costs B. Considering en D, we ite Byy = 425 9) = 0625 mam 3 8.842 x 10" (1) 8 379 x10P, @ But boy = Bp ~ by. where By and By represent he displacements of D and B. ve assume that casting Ai held ina fied postion sil the nats at D and Have being tightened, these displacements are equal othe deformations of tae bos and of the rod, respectively, We have, therefor, Bom = 8, — 8, a Subst rm (1 (2), a8 eto (we tin 0625 m= $862 x 10-7, 3.791042, ree Bay: Casing burn P=2R=0 2%, © Forces in Bolts and Rod Sebstatng for P, from (6) into (5), we have 0.525 mm = 8842 x 10°47, +3:779 x 10-*RR,) Pym 381% 10 N = 31k P, = 2B, = 2038.4) = 7621N ‘Stress in Rod Pe, TROKN 4, Te8ma 2, = 61.19 Me < 2.1. Astet ro thats 6 mm long stretches I mm when a 8-EN tensile load is applied tos Knowing that E = 200 GPa, determin (a) the smlist diameter rod that should be wed, (b) the coresponding normal stress enssed by the load 22 A Damlong sel wise is subjected to 6 WN tensile force. Knowing hat £ = 200 GPa and thatthe lng ofthe rod increases by 48 mm, determine (@) the smalest diameter tat may be selected forthe wit, (b the comespan ding nora) sess 2.3. A contol rod made of yellow brass must not stuech ere than 5 mum when the tension in the wie is 3.2 RN. Knowing that E= 105 GPa and thatthe meximum sllowable nosmal ies 220 MPs, determine (e) the small- ‘et diameter that can be selected forthe ro, (6) the coresponding maxima length ofthe ro, 2.4 ‘Two gage marks are placed exacly 250 mm apart on a 12-mm- diameter sluminim rod with B = 73 GPa and an otimate strength of 140 MPa. Knowing thatthe distance between the gaze marks is 250.26 mm ater a load 's applied, deermine a) tbe sess in te 0d, (6) he factor of safe 2.5 A nylon thread is subjected to 2 8-N tension force. Knowing tat B= 5 GPa and that he lengt of the thread increases by 1.1%, determine (2) te diameter of the thread (b) the sess i the head 2.6 _Acusticon tube i used to support a compressive load. Kaowiog that £ = 69 GPa and that the maximm llowablc change in length is 0.025%, 0, ory < }, On the other hand, we recall from Sec. 2.11 that v is positive forall engineecing materials. We thus conclude that, for any engineering material, o0.0,=2,~0), vill result in an increase of its volume vor Determine te change in volume A ofthe ste lock sbown in Sloe te volume ¥ ofthe Block int unstressed state is Fig 244, whee i is subjected to the hyerosale presse iD MPa Use B= 200 GPa and » ¥ = (80 m0 man)(60 mm) = 192% 10m rom Bg. (2.3), ve determine the bulk medals of see, sd since represents the change in vole pet anit vlan, = AVIV, we hive nd 00 By (2.36, the dstation, wo Mra x b> “as87 Gry = <1 sy aipe OV = eV = (1.158 > 0 XI92 % 10° mm) 2.14, SHEARING STRAIN ‘When we derived in Sec. 2.12 the relations (2.28) between normal stresses and norm strains in a homogeneous isouropic material, we as- ‘sumed that no shearing stresses were involved, Inthe more general stress situation represented in Fig. 245, shearing stresses 7p and twill be present (as well, of course, a& the corresponding shearing stresses “ye Tay and 7). These stresses have no direct effect on the normal stains and, as long 2s all the deformations involved remain small, they will not afect the derivation noe the validity of the relations (2.28). The bearing stresses, however, will tend to deform a cubic element of ma ‘eral into an obligue parallelepiped. Fig. 245 ‘Hover nh psi ag, he lune ofthe sel oman ney cot 90 Stress and Sian nara Fig. 248 NX ¥ = Fig 27 Consider frst a cubic element of side one (Fig. 2,46) subjected 10 no other stresses than the shearing stresses 1, and 1». applied to faces of the element respectively perpendicular tothe x and y axes. (We re- call from Sec, 1.12 that r= 1.) The element is observed to deform ino a thomboid of sides equal to one (Fig. 2.47). Two of the angles formed by the four faces under siess are reduced froma ¥t0 ¥~ Ym While the other to ate increased from J t0 F + Yq, The sill angle Ym (expressed in radians) defines the shearing strain corresponding °0 the x and y ditections. When the deformation involves a reduction of the angle formed by the two faces oriented respectively rawacd the pos- itive x and y axes (as shown in Fig. 2.47, the shearing stain, i said to be postive; osherwise, i is said to be negative. ‘We should note that, 26a result of the deformations ofthe other €l- ‘ements of the material, the element under consideration can also un: ‘ergo an overall rotation. However, as was the ease in our study of nor smal strains, we are concerned here only with the actual deformation of the element, and not with any possible superimposed rigid-body sisplacement. Plotting successive values of 7. against the corresponding valves of 7,» We obtain the shearing tress-srain diagram forthe material un- er consideration. This can be accomplished by carrying out a torsion test, a6 you will see in Chap. 3. The diagram obtained is similar to the normal stressstrain diagram obtained for the same material from the tensile test described earlier in this chepter. However, the values ob- tained for the yield strength, ultimate strength et, of « given material ste only about half as large in shear as they are in tension. As was the ‘ase for normal stresses and strains, the intial portion of the shearing suess strain diagram isa straight line. For values ofthe shearing stress ‘a deting Be est yo Some stor erayesune le tel efrmain of te leat is ccnp ty ago) Foaton sh at he taal es fe at d not oan Te sain hen repeated yea ough which es te fi hve sited (Fi 2.48. Ore sae igi oon sch it te be ont ces rte tough fy ecetctocriz andthe rere fase hough fy ack ‘ie (Fg. 2), Ste bom actos ae near nay I sisi ee fern is ttt asc th sai a, hh change eagle fay ws, re un Wi errno a er cee ste cance, ig. 248 that do not exceed the proportional limit in shear, we can therefore write for any homogeneous isotropic material, t= Gy 236) ‘This relation is known as Hooke's law for shearing stress and strain, and the constant G is called the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus ofthe material. Since the strain y,, was defined a5 an angle in radians, itis dimensionless, and the modulus G is expressed in the same units 185 Ts that i, in pascals. The modulus of rigidity G of eny given ma- terial i less than one-half, but more than one-third of the modulus of clasticity E ofthat material} Considering now a small element of material subjected to shearing suesses 73 and 7 (Fig. 250), we define the shearing strain. a8 the change in the engie formed by the faces under stress. The shearing strain "jut defined in a similar way by considering an element subjected to Shearing stresses 7, and 14, Fig, .50b). For values of the stress that Go aot exceed the proportional limi, we can wate the two addtional relations = Oy, ean Gy, ‘hero the constant G isthe same as in Ea, (2.36. For the general stress condition represented in Fig. 245, and as, long as none of the stresses involved exceeds the corresponding pro- portional limit, we can apply the principle of superposition end com- bine the results obtained in this section and in Sec. 7.12. We obtain the following group of equations representing the generalized Hooke's law for # homogeneous isouopic material under the most general stress condition. 38) G ‘An examination of Eqs. (2.38) might lead us to believe that three distinct constants, B, », and G, must frst be determined experimentally, if we are to predict the deformations caused in given material by an arbitrary combination of stresses. Actually, only two of these constants need be determined experimentally for any given material. As you will see in the next section, the third constant can then be obtained through 1 very simple computation {ee Pod. 291, Fig, 260 4) ot ‘A rectangular block of a material with a modulus of rigiiy Gm 630 MPa is bonded to two rig horzontal plates. The lover plate is fixe, while the pper plat is sbjeced to hor- Font fore P (ig 2.51) Knoting that te vper plate moves ‘rough um under the ation ofthe force, determine (a he fverageshesring strain inthe material, (b the force B exerted fn the upper plate. (2) Shearing Strain. We select coordinate axes centered at the migpeit Cof edge AB and directed as shown (Pig. 2.52, ‘According eo its dfintcn he shearing stain yy i equal 0 the angle formed by the vertical and the line Gi joining the mldpoints of edges AB and DE. Noting that tis is very sual, angle and recalling that it should be expressed in radians, we yy = 00000 (2) Force Exerted on Upper Plate. We frst determine the shearing stress in the material Using Hooke’s lw for shearing ues and stain, we have Yn (630 MPaN0.020 rad) = 12.6 MP The fore exerted on the upper plate is tus (0126 MPoy200 meny2 mm) = 156.2 kN Pete Fig. 254 2.18. FURTHER DISCUSSION OF DEFORMATIONS UNDER. AXIAL LOADING; RELATION AMONG &, v, AND G ‘We saw in Sec. 2.11 theta slender bar subjected to an axial tensile load P dizected along the x exis will elongate in the x direction and contract in both ofthe transverse y and z directions. Ife, denotes the axial strain, the lateral strain is expressed as €, = ratio. Thus, an element in the shape of & cube of side equal to one and oriented as shown in Fig. 2.534 will deform into a rectangular paral- lelepiped of sides 1 + ey 1 face of the element is shown in the figure.) On the other hand, ifthe clecnent is oriented at 45° to the axis ofthe load (Fig 2.530), the face show inthe figure is observed to deform into a shombus. We conclude ‘thatthe axial load P causes inthis element a shearing stain 7’ equal to the amount by which each ofthe angles shown in Fig. 2:53b incveases or decreases. » {Nae to Pa rues no sie nh len show Poh 234) 92 ey where » is Poisson's ~ ve, and 1 ~ vey (Note that only one Bp 2536600 “The fact hat shearing sans, a well as normal stains, eslt rom 1m axial loading should not come tous asa surpeis, since we already Gbserved atthe end of See. 112 that an axial load P causes normal and Shearing stresses of equal magnitude on four ofthe faces ofan element Gricned at 45° the acs of the member. Ths was illasated in Fig, {40 which, for convenience, has been repeated hee. Te wes also shown fn Soo LAT thatthe shearing sues s maximum on a plane forming an angle of 5° withthe axis ofthe lod, It follows from Hooke’s la for Sheoting sess and sisi that the shearing strain associate withthe element of Fig. 253 is also maximum: y' = yy ‘While a more detailed study of the transformations of suai will be postponed until Chap. 7, we will derive in this section a relation be tween the maximum shearing strain 7 = associated withthe ele- tnent of Fig. 2.53 and the normal stesin ¢ inthe direction ofthe load et us consider for ths purpose the prismatic element obtained by ine sersecting the cubic element of Fig. 2530 by a diagonal plane (ig 24a and D), Refersing t0 Fig. 23a, we conclude that this new ele- iment will deform ito the element shown ia Fig. 254e, which has hor. ‘zontal and vertical sides respectively equal 01 + ¢,and 1 — ve, But the angle formed by the oblique and horizontal faces ofthe element of Fig, 2S4b i precisely half of one of the right angles ofthe cubic ele- Lee ® @ Fig. 258 ‘meat considered in Fig. 2.536. The angle f into which this engle de- forms must therefore be equal to half of 3/2 ~ 7 We write Applying the formula for he tangent of the difference of two angles, we obtain 7 tay Bs Ye tanta 1 ~ an UE a7 2 tan P —, 2 itt Z tn 1+ ant 14 tin Zan 22 1+ tan 215. arte Ducton et Onermston Fig, 1.40 repeated) 93 194 Sree nd Brahmi! esas of, since 7/2 is a very small angle, m “Fe aap = a) ee 5 Bu tom Fig, 2.5, we observe tat tang = ea) Tre, ‘Bquating the right-hand members of (2.39) and (2.40), and solving for Ym We ite (Lt me 1+ 2 Since ¢, <€ 1, the denominator i. the expression obtained can be as- sumed equal to one; we bave, hefefore, Ye = (Lt ve aan ‘which isthe desired relation between the maximum shearing strain Yq and the axial stain €, ‘To obtain aration among the constants £,v, and G, we recall that, by Hooke’s In, 7 = 9/G, and that, for an axial loading, ¢, = o/E. Equation (2.41) can therefore be written as Lent aint aa) ‘We now recall from Fig. 140 that o = P/A and rq = P/2A, where A isthe cross-sectional area ofthe member. [thus Follows that @,/ = 2, Substituting this value into (2.42) and dividing both remabers by 2, we ‘obtain the relation Zeiss ex which can be used to determine one of the constants &, ¥, oF G fron, the other two, For example, solving Bq. (2.43) for G, we vite E + c 243 12.46, STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS FOR FIBER- REINFORCED CONPOSITE MATERIALS Fiber-einforced composite materials were briefly discussed in Seo. 2.5. Ti was shown at that time that these materials are obtained by embed- fing fibers of a strong, stiff material into @ weaker, softer material re ferred to 2s a rairi, Kt was also shown thatthe relationship between the normal stress and the corresponding normal stain created in a Tam jn, or lier, of a composite material depends upon the direction in tehich the load is applied. Different moduli of elasticity, EF, and Ey, te therefore required to describe the relationship between normal stress fand normal strain, accarding to whether the load is epplied in a direc- tion parallel to the fibers, ip s direction perpendicular to the layer, or ina transverse direction, Let us consider again the layer of composite material discussed in, ‘see. 25 and let us subject it to a uniaxial tensile load parallel to its fibers, ie, in the x direction (Fig. 2.55a). To simplify our snalysis, it ‘will be assumed that the properties ofthe fibers and of the matrix have been combined, or “smeared,” into a fictitious equivalent bomogeneots Fo25 material possessing these combined properties, We now consider a small flement of thet layer of smeared material (Fig. 2.556). We denote by ©, the corresponding normal stress and observe that @, =o, = 0. AS indicated earlier in Sec. 2.5, the corresponding normal strain in the dltection is e, = o,/E,, where E, is the modulus of elasticity of the ‘composite material inthe x direction, As we saw for isotropic materi- tls, the elongation of the material in the x direction is accompanied by contractions in the y and z directions. These contractions depend upon the placement of the Sbers in the matrix and will generally be differ- et Iefollows that the lateral strains , and e wil also be diferent, and 50 will the corresponding Poisson's ratios: and Ym easy [Note thatthe fist subscript in cach of the Poisson's ratios vy and Yq in Eqs. (2.48) refers tothe direction ofthe load, and the second tothe lection ofthe contraction follows from the above that, inthe case of the multiasal ioad- ing ofa layer of a composite material, equations similar to Eas. (2.28) (of Sec, 2.12 can be used to describe the suess-strin relationship. Inthe 216, Ferree Composter 95 hi 9G Stace as Saint Lada present case, however, tree differen values ofthe modulus of elastic- ity and six differeat values of Poisson's ratio will be involved. We Pies _ Yas as) Equations (245) may be considered as defining the transformation stress into strain for the given layer: I follows from a general propgéty of such transformations that the coeficients ofthe stress comportnts are symmettic, i, that Bee et eee eee ‘These equations show tha, while diferent, the Poisson's ratios vy and 5, are ot independent; either of them can be obtained from the other if the coesponting values of the modalus of elasticity are known. The same i tue OF Me ANd py 0d OF My Ad Consider now te effect ofthe presence of shearing stresses on the faces of a small element of smeared layer. As pointed out in Sec. 2.14 in the case of isotropic materials, these stresses come in paits of equal nd opposite vectors applied to opposite ses of he given element and have no effect on the normal strains. Thus, Eqs. (2.45) remain valid. ‘The shearing stresses, however, will create shearing strains which are defined by equations similar to the ast tuee of the equations (2.38) of See. 2.14, except that thee different values of the modulus of rigidity, Gry Gye and Gry, rst now be used. We have YG mG Tet G aan ‘The face tha the three components of strain. €,, and €, can be expressed in terms ofthe normal stresses only and do not depend upon any shearing stresses characterizes orthotropic materials and distin- guises them from other anisotropic materials, ‘AS we saw in Sec. 2.5, a flat laminate is obtained by superpos- Ing a number of layers or laminas, If the fibers in all layers are given the same orientation to better withstand aa axial tensile load, the lem- inate itself will be orthotropic. Ifthe lateral stability of the laminate is increased by postoiing some ofits layers so that ther fibers are ata right angle tothe fibers of the other layers, the resulting laminate will algo be orthotzopic. On the other hand, if any ofthe layers of 2 lai nate are positioned so that thir fibers are nether parallel nor perpen dicular to the fibers of other layers, the lamina, generally, will not be “orthotropic.F For more lfrain on Bbc autre cepa meri, 8 Hye, M. W Seas Analysis of FB Beforced Conpse Meter, tran Hil New Yo, 1998 ‘An cube made from ayers of grapite epory wit ters Signe! In the erection. The exe i subjoced wo a compres five lod of 14D HN inthe x direeon. The poperies of te Composite material ae: E, = 155.0GPa, £, = 12.10GPa, Eo= 1210 GPa, »,, = 0.285, vy. = 0.248, ly, 0458, Dternine the changes in the cae dimensions, ktawing that (ehthe cobs fret expand inte y and nections (Fig 256), {a} he cube feo to expand in hex irseton, but eteained fiom expending in the y direction by (wo fixed fiedonless pines ig. 2.59). (o) Free in y and z Directions. We first determine the stats, ia the direction of loading. We have P= 140 x10N A” 060 my(0.050.m} Sine the cube i not loaded or rsraned in the $ and i= rections, we have , = 7, = 0, Thus, the sghvshond mem bets of Ege. (245) reduce to thei irs ers. Substtng the Given da into these equations, we write 3889 MPs 3839 MPa i oo B - RRRE » - 2509 « 10 es (OBBK~3889MPO) a sans See 1550 GPa at ents, SOUSK 38. MP) an ges aa. 1350GP eee: ‘The changes in the cube dimensions are obtained by mule plying the comesponding strains by the length = 0.060 m ofthe ide ofthe cube Bom eb = (-2809 % 10°90.060en) = ~15.05 wn 8, eg ™ (462.2 X 10°%0.060 m) = 43:73 um Bom gL = (462.2% 10° {0060 m) = $373 pom (8) Free in z Direction, Restrained in y Direction. Ths fret in the x dietion isthe same 25 in part a, namely, 17, = 38.89 MPa, Sioc the cube is fee to expand inthe ¢ ireton a8 in part a, we again bave 2, = 0. But since the tube ie now retained inthe y direction, we should expect @ stress diferent from 2ec0, On the oes band, since the cube canoot expand in the y direction, we must have 8, = 0 and, ths, «, = 0y/L = 0. Making 7, = O and c= Oia the sec” ond 0f Eqs. (2.45), solving that equation foro, and substi- tung the given dai we have 21a 8880) = 75296 Now thatthe three components of stress have been determined, wean use the fis and last of Eps, (245) to compute the stain components ¢, and ¢, But the fst ofthese equations contains Fin. 256 Fig 257 Poisson's ratio, and 5 we saw ec, this rato or equa to the rao, which Was among the given dita, To find. we use the first of Eg, (2.46) and write v= (n= (BE oat = aoe vino,» Once ts ho 9,0) EE es ge abe oe ‘bel cee tees icon sai ooine ets, 8 2-3 Seton sel-7204n) isto (0266, ~38.59™Ps) 1SS0GPa (0.456752. 0G “The changes in the cube dimensions are obtained by mle plying the corresponding sin by the length L = 0,060 m Of the sige of the cube Bm ee = (24827 10°Y0060 m) = 1498 gn 3 = 42 = (KO0%m)=0 8, = k= (49072 % 10°46.060 ‘Comping the rosako of pars end b, we nce tat the df Terence between the values sed fr he deformation 8 it the det of the Bers is negligible. Hower, the ifr ence betwen the alas obtained forte later! deformation cis noc neigh. This deformation i clearly larger when ‘he cube is testalned from deforming i hey det, = 197 x10 + 9072 10° 45h un 7 SAMPLE PROBLEM 2.5 Acre of diamaterd = 225 mm ie seibed on an unstressed aluminum plate ‘of thickness = 18 mm Fores acting inthe plane of tho plate str eause noe ral stesies v, = 84 MPa and g, = 140 MPa. For E = 70 GPa end » = 4, determine the change in (@) the length of diameter AB, @®) the length of iameter CD, (e) the thickoess of the plate, (4 the vlumné ofthe pate soLUTION i Hlooke's Law. We note that ¢, * 0, Using Ens. (2.28) we find the een in i ‘each of the conedinate directions. Sanne + 0- Soave] 106 0mm ate [hota 0 Garr = 000% 0m sor AB Tein by = Bqu = eed = (40.533 X 10°? mm/nm)(225 mm) Bea = F012 mm < 4, Diameter CD, Bo = ead = (1.600 % 10°? mam/in}25 me) ' Bey = +0:36 mim ¢ Thichiess. Recalling that ¢= 18 num, we have Bom eg (1.067 % 10°? mea 18 en) 5= 00102 a Volume of the Plate. Using Ea. 2.30), we write rh a # m= (40883 ~ 1.067 + 1.600)10 = +1057 x 10 AVS eV'= $1,067 x 10°(380 m(380 ma en}] AV= 42738 0m 2.61 In standard tensile et, an aluminum rod of 20-mm diameter is a subjected toa tension force of P = 30KN, Keowing that = 0.35 end E = 70 (GPs, determine (a) he elongation of the rod in an 150-mun gage length (8) the change in ameter ofthe rod. pea 2.62. A.2.75N tensile load is applied to a test coupon made from | 6.mm at stel pat (F = 200GPa,y = 0.30) Determine theresutingekange 150 mm (opin the 50-mam gage length, (6) inthe with of portion AB of the test oapon, (ein the tices of portion AB, (din the cosssectonal area of poston AL se diameter asia ssi ig, P82 " 2.63 A standard teasion esis used to determine the properties ofan ex- perimental plate. The es specimen ig a 16-mm-diametr od and ti sub jected to 8 32:RN tensile fee. Knowing that an elongation of 11 mm and a feaudeaea ‘eeresse in ameter of 0.625 mim are observed ina 125mm gage length, de- 50 Termine the modulus of elasiciy, the modulus of igi, and Poisson's rio ofthe material 2.64. The change in diameter ofa large steal boli carefully measured sy the net is Sighueeod. Knowing thet E ~ 200 GPs and » = 0.29, determine the inernal force inthe bol, ifthe diameter is observed to decease by 13 um. f 150m 2.65. A line of slope 4:10 has been sribed oa acok-oedyellow-bass pla, 150-mam wide and 6mm thick Using the data avaliable in Appendix B, Aetermine the slope ofthe line when the plate is subjected ab shown toa 1T8O-KN cence ail load 100 Ste and Sot Laatng 2.66 A2-m leagih of ax aluminum pige of 240m outer diameter snd. 10mm wal thickness is used as shoe column and caries centric axial load ‘of 640 KN, Knowing that & = 73 GPa and » ~ 0.33, determine () the change in length ofthe pips, 8 the change in ts outer diameter, c) the change in wal teh, Fig P2066 2.67 A20-nun squac hasbeen seribed on the side ofa large tel pres sure vesel. After pressurization, the blanal sess condition ofthe equate ss a8 shown, Using the data availabe io Appendix B, fr sitar see, detersine ‘he percent change in tha slope of chagonal DB de to the pressurization ofthe vessel, 2.68 A avic und: air nfatedsrctares i eubjested oa bsnl Load tng thar resuls in noematsuesss o, = 120 MPa and a, = 160 MPa. Know ing thar the properties ofthe fai can be approximated as E = $7 GPa end = O34, detemine tho change i longth of (a) side AB, (2) side BC, (2) die agonal AC: 2.69 The shunisum rod AD is Fited with a jacket that is used 0 apply ‘a bydrosuric pressure of &2 MPa othe 300-mam portion BC of the rod. Kab ing that £= 70 GPs aad v = 0.3, deteomive () the change inthe teal Teng AD, (b the change in diameter at he idle ofthe ro 2.70. For the rod of Prob. 269, determine the forces tat shouldbe ap- plied to the ends A and D ofthe tod (a) fhe axial strain in portion BC ofthe fod sto remain zero a5 the hydrostatic pressure applied (o) if the teal length [AD of the rod isto remain voenanged, i 2.71 Fors member under axil loading, express the normal sain in «2 diection forming an angle of 43° wit th axis of the load in tems of the Exish sain ¢, by (a) comparing te hypothenuses of the tangles shown in Fig. 25, which epreseat respectively an element before and after deforms tion @ ising the values ofthe coresponding sreeses o and g, shown in Fig 140, and te generalized Hook's law. 2.72. The homogencous plats ABCD is subjected to abaxial loading as shown Its known thao, = 09 and thatthe change in length of te pat in the x dirction mast be 2270, that i,¢, = 0. Denoting by E the modalus of lascity nd by v Poisson's vaio, deeemine (a the required magnitude of 175 (0 te tao vse 2.73 In many stations physical consists prevent stain from cccut- ring ina given diesion, for example ¢, = 0 inthe case shown, where loo toliaal movement ofthe long prism is prevented at every point Plone sections pependicalar othe longitudinal axis remain plane andthe sume distance apar. Show tht fo his siastion, whichis Knows as plane stab, we can express (7 and 6,95 fliows a2 ve, +o) = HU Ae, = + oof (Ue, oY) © tititett 2.74 In many situations it is known thatthe normal ates in a given iecton i zero, for example, ¢, = 0 in the ease of the thin plate stow. For this cas, whichis known as plane stress, show that ifthe strains, and «have been determined experimentally, Wo can express, cand, a8 follow: Fig. Pa74 Potions 404 102. Sve and Stott Losing Fig. 2.75 2.78 The plastic lock shown is bonded oa rgd support and toa vor oa plate to which 240-KN Toad Pie applied. Knowing tat fr the plastic used G = 1050 MPa, detsrmine the deflection of the plat, 2.76 What lond P should be applied to the plate of Prob. 275 to pro- vce 4 1.5mm deflection? 2.77 A vibration isolaon unit consists of two blocks of and rubber Donde toa plate AB and > egid supports as shown, Knowing tat afore of ‘magnitude P = 24 KN causes a deflecion = 1.5 ram of plate AB, determine ‘he modulus of sgidity ofthe rubber used 2.78 A vibestionsotaon unit consis oftvo blocks of hard uber with a medals of digidity C = 19 MPa bonded a plate AB and 0 gid supports ts shown. Denoting by P the magnitude ofthe force applied to the pate and by 8 the conesponding deflection, determine the effective spring constant, Pi, of the sytem. 279 An elastomeric bearing (G = 0.9 MPa) is used to suppor a bridge sider as shown to provide flexibility during earthquakes. The beam must rot displace more than 10 mim when a 22-KN lea) load Ss applied as show, Knowing tar the maximum allowable searing sess i 420 kPa, determine (a) the smallest llowaole dimension b,(b) the smallest requee thickness 2.80, For the elastomeric bearing in Prob, 2.79 with b = 220 mm and 44 30 mim, determine the shearing modulus G and the shear sess 7 for a tnasmam neal load P= 19 KN and s maximom displacement 8 = 12mm 2.81 Tao blocks of mibber with a modulus of rigidity G ~ 12 MPa axe bonded to rigid supports and toa plate AB. Keowing that ¢ = 100 mm tod P= 40 KN, determine the smallest allowable dimensions ¢ and b ofthe ‘locks if the shearing sess in the rebber isnot to exceed 1 MPa and the de ection of the plate i o be a least Sn 2.82. Two blocks of rubber with & modulus of rigidity @ = 10 MPa se bonded to rid supposts and co pate AB, Knowing the & = 200 mim ande = 125 mm, determine de largest allowable loud P and the smallest al- Towable thickness @of the bles ithe shearing stress inthe ruber is 200% exceed 1.3 MDa andthe deflection ofthe plate fo beat Jas 6 mm, "2.83. Determie the change in volume of the SOsmm gage length sep ment AB in Prob. 252 (a) by computing the dilation of the master (8) By tubsrcting the orignal volame of pation AB from is final volume. "284° Determine the dilatation ¢ and she change in volume of she 200-mam length of th rod shown if () the rod i made of steel with E = 200 {GPs sd » = 030, (5) the 10d is made of shuminum with £ = 73 GPa and v= 038. om Leet [290 mm—} Fig, Past “2.85. (0) Foc the axial loading show, determin the change in height snd the change in volume of the bass cylinder show. (2) Solve pata, a5- ‘suming hat he losdlog is hydrostatic Wid o, = 6, = o, = ~70 MPa. 2.86 A 150.mm diameter soi scl sphere is lowered into the ocean ‘to point where the pressure is 30 MP (eboat 3 km below te surface). Know Ing that F = 200 GPa and» ~ 030, determine (a) the decrease in diameter of the sphere, (8) te decease in volume ofthe sphere, () the percent increase inthe nsity ofthe sphere °2.87 _A.vibration itolation support consists ofa cod A of sadn Ryan 4 tobe B of iner ratios 2, bonded toa 80-mn-long hollow rubber cylinder With a modulus of rigidity = 1093 MPa. Decerine the roquied vale of ‘he ratio RJR; if 2 IO-EN force P isto cause a2-mm deflection of rod A. "2.88 A vibration isolation support consists of a rod A of radius 2 = JO mm and abe B of ner adias y= 25 mm bonded oan 80-mn-long tollow subber cylinder with « modalus of igidity G = 12 MPa Determine the Ibagest allowable free that may be applied to rod A if its defection is not to exceed 2.50 mm Fig. 2.87 and F208 404) Sees and Stl oxng By> 1526», ~ 0254 152.0% 91~ 0425 Fig 253, "2.80 The material constants EG, hand» are related by Bgs. 2.33) and (2.43). Show that anyone of hee constant may be exprested in terms of ‘any ether tvo constants, Foe example, show tat (@) k= GE/(9G ~ 32) and (v= Bk 20/6 +26). "2.90 Snow tat fr any given mate the aio G/E ofthe models of Figity over the modulus of elastity is always Tes than § but more than (Hine: Refer to Bg, (2.43) and w See. 2.13.) "2.91 A composite cube wit 4D-mm sides andthe properties shown Is ‘made wit elas golymer bers aligned inthe x direction The cube Is con ‘strained against deformations in the and 2 directions ands subjected wate sile Joa of 65 kN inthe x direcden. Detrnine (a) the chang? Inthe Length ofthe cube inthe x crecton, (the suesses 0,0, and 2 "282 ‘he composite cube of Prob 21 is conseined aginst defor ration inthe zdeection and elongated in the x dzeson by 0.035 rm das to 4 tensile load in the + direction, Determine (a) the sveses 2,04, ad 0 (te ‘change inthe dimension inthe y diection, 2.17. STRESS AND STRAIN DISTRIBUTION UNDER AXIAL LOADING; SAINT-VENANT'S PRINCIPLE ‘We have assumed so far tha, in an axially loaded member, the normal stresses are uniformly distributed in any section perpendicalar to the sxis of the member. As we saw in Sec. 1.5, such an assumption may bbe quite in exror inthe immediate vicinity ofthe points of application ‘of the loads. However, the determination ofthe ctual stresses in a given section of the member requires the solution of a statically indetermi nate problem, In Sec. 2.9, you saw that statically indeterminate problems involv- ing the determination of forces can be solved by considering the de. formations caused by these forces. ts thus reasonable to conclude that, the determination of the stresses in @ member requires the analysis of the strains produced by the stresses in dhe member. This is essentially the approach found in advanced textbooks, wheze the mathematical the- ‘ory of elasticity is used to determine the distribution of stresses corre: sponding to various modes of application ofthe loads atthe ends of the member. Given the more limited mathematical means at our disposal, ‘our analysis of stresses will be restricted to the particular case when ‘00 rigid plates are used to transmit the loads to a member made of a homogeneous isotropic materia (Fig. 2.58). the loads are applied at che center of each plate, the plates wil move toward each other without rotating, causing the member to get shore, while increasing in width and thickness. Its reasonable to a5- ‘sume thatthe member will remain straight, that plane sections will re $Me pein common Heaton of eas pts eh te cenit ote ces ect. See 3 lp Oy ® Fig 259 ‘main plane, and that all elements ofthe member wil deform in te same ‘way, since such an assumption is clearly compatible with he given end conditions. This is illustrated in Fig. 2.59, which shows a rubber model before and afer loading. Now, ial elements deform in the same way, the distnbution of stsins throughout the member must be uniform. In other words, the anil strain ¢, andthe lateral strain ¢, ~ ~ve, are con- stant. Bu, ifthe stresses do not exceed the proportional limit, Hooke’s Jaw applies and we may write o, = Be, from which i follows thatthe normal siess 0, is also constait. Thus, the distribution of stresses is sm throughout the member and, a any point, 0,7 (de E On the other han, ifthe loads are concentrated, as illustrated in Fig. 2.60, the elements in the immediate vicinity of the points of applica: tion of the loads are subjected to very large stresses, while other ele- ‘ents nesr the ends of the member ae unaffected by the loading. This ray be verified by observing that strong deformations, and thus large strains and large stesses, occur near the points of application of the loads, while no deformation takes place at the comers. As we consider Clements farther and farther from the ends, however, We note a pro: ‘gressive equalization of the deformations involved, and thus a more ‘early uniform distribution of the strains and stresses across a section of the member. This is further illustrated in Fig. 2.61, which shows the result ofthe calculation by advanced mathematical methods ofthe {Now ta fr og, ener mater, arent is poss ined real fe diesel age. th oe bute vd tone ved sage Tas ‘be diced Cp 10 Fig. 260 405 106 Svs Stara Leasing Fia.281 distibution of stresses across vatious sections ofa thin reotangulae plate subjected to concentrated loads. We uote that at a distance b from ei- ther end, where b is the width of the plate, the sess distribution is nearly uniform across the section, and the value ofthe stress , at any point ofthat section ean bs assumed equal to the average value P/A ‘Thus, ata distance equal to, or greater then, the width of the member, the distribution of stresses across given section isthe same, whether the member is loaded as shown in Fig. 28 or Fig, 2.60. In other words, except in the immediate vicinity of the points of application ofthe loads, the stress distribution may be assumed independent ofthe actusl mode of application of the loads. This statement, which applies not only to axial loadings, but to practically any type of load, is known as Saint Venant’s principle, after the French mathematician and engineer Adhé ar Barté de Saint-Venant (1797~1886). While Saint-Venant’s principle makes it possible to replace & given [oading by asimpler one forthe purpose of computing the stresses jn a stuctural member, you should keep in mind two important points wien applying this principle 1, The actual loading and the loading used to compate the stresses must be statically equivalent 2, Stresses cannot be computed in this manner in the immediate vicinity of the points of application ofthe loads. Advanced the- retical or experimental methods must be used to determine the dlisteibatiog of stresses in these aress. ‘You should also observe thatthe plates used 9 obtain @ uniform stress distribution inthe member of Fig. 2.59 must allow the member to freely expand laterally. Tus, the plates cannot be rigidly attached to the member; you must assume them to be justin contact with the mem- ber, and smooth enough not to impede the lateral expansion of the ‘member. While such end conditions ean actually be achieved for @ ‘member in compression, they cannot be physically realized in the case ‘of a member in tension. It does not matter, however, whetber oF not an actual fsture can be realized and used to load a meriber so that the is- ‘wibution of stresses in the member is uniform. The important thing is to imagine a model that will allow such a distribution of stresses, and to keep this model in mind so that you may later compare it with the ‘actual loading conditions. 2.18. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS. ‘As you saw in the preceding section, the stresses near the points of ap- jlcation of concentrated loads can teach values much lager than the Prerage value of the sess in the member. When 2 stricural member Contains « discontinuity, euch asa hole or @eudden change in cross sao- tion, igh localized stresses can also occur near the discontinuity. Fig: tres 2.62 and 2.63 show the distibution of stresses in critical sections toresponding to two such situations. Figure 2.62 refers 10a fla bat with a circular hole ané shows the stress dstibution in a section pass sng through the center ofthe hole. igure 2.63 refers toa flat bar con ‘isting of to portions of different widths connected by filets, it shows the stress Gistibution inthe narrowest part ofthe connection, where the highest stresses cocur, ets _— { are Fig. 262. suess distbuton ne rut Fie fat bar under aval lox ‘These results were obtained experimentally through the use of @ photoelastic method. Fortunately for the engineer who has to design a jgiven member and cannot afford to carry out sach an analysis, the r= sults obtained are independent ofthe size of the member and of the ma- terial used; they depend only upon the ratios of the geomettic parame- ters involved, ie, upon the ratio r/d in the case of circular hole, and upon the ratios r/d and D/d in the case of fillets. Furthermore, the de signer is more interested in the maximum value of the stress in a given section, than in the actual distibution of stesses in that section, since main concern isto determine whether the allowable sess willbe exceeded under a given loading, and not where this value will be ex- ceeded. For this reason, one defines the ratio (as) of the maximum stess over the average sitess computed inthe critical narrowest) section of the discontinuity, This ratio is referred to a6 the sess concentration factor of the given discontinuity. Stress-concentration factors can be computed once and for all in terms of the ratios of the geometric parameters involved, and the results obtained can be ‘298 See Contnintons 4197 » | mn a ES ne Los Fig, 268. sues astbuton near Hilo bala bar under aa fog. 108 st ano Stata owas ‘expressed inthe form of tables or of graphs, a shown in Fig. 2.64. To determine the maximum siress occuring neat a discontinuity in a given ‘member subjected to a given axial load P, the designer needs only to ‘compute the average stress 7. ™ P/A in the critica section, and malt ly the eeu obtained by the appropriate value of the siress-concentraton factor K. You should note, however, that this procedure is valid only as ongas aq doesnot exces the proportional limit ofthe material, since the values of K plotted in Fig. 2.64 were obtained by assuring a lin: ‘ear relation between stress and strain, 2a as Kae] 20) 1 10 2 a a a So Tar ana OnT ATTN TOS TTETTATS vit a (ey tba wih holes (Plat tars wit lets Fig. 284 Sues concenvasen for fat bis under av! ag? Note tat he ayerage sross must ba computa soos the naronest S500 oye Bh hare athe usc the oa Determine the largest aia load P that canbe safely supported Carrying this valu into Ba, (248) ead solving for oye We by a fla stel bar consisting of two portions oth (0mm thick fave and, spectively, 40 and mu wie, connected by tiles of a fads r= 81mm. Assume an alowsbie nora sess of T65 Te ret But gu, samot eee the allowable tse oy ~ 165 MPa ee Shstting is vale fo a wo Eid ta th average ess eee tote marover portion (d ="N0 min of br should na x Dem yy 18mm oy ced th aloe a om a7 Woe fe = SSM: Using te curve in Fig. 2.646 conespending to D/d = 150, ‘we find tat the value ofthe svessconcentation factor come: Recalling that Gy, © P/A, we have bassnunbutigtetccites P= Ag = (40 {10 mn}90.7 MPa} = 363 x 10° kei P= 36348 4.0 ey, Peers Sst Concentration Fut, Jn Wey Sons, New Yous, 1997 2.19. PLASTIC DEFORMATIONS ‘The results obtained in the preceding sections were based on the a sumption of a linear stress-strain relationship. In other words, we assumed thatthe proportional limit ofthe material was never exceeded, ‘This isa reasonable assumption in the éase of britle material, which ruptite without yielding. In the case of ductile materials, however, this assumption implies that the yield strength of the mateial is aot ex. ‘ceeded. The deformations will then romain within the elastic renge and the structral member under consideration will regia it original shape afterall loads have been removed, fon the other hand, the stresses in iy art of the member exceed the yield strength of the materia, plas. ie deformations occur and most of the reslis obtained in ear sec- tions cease to be valid. A more involved analysis, based on @ nonlinear stess-stein relationship, must then be carried out ‘While an analysis taking into account the actual stress-strain rela tionship is beyond the scope of this text, we gain considerable insight {nto platic behavior by considering an idealized elastplastic materia! for which te stress-strain diagram consists of the two straight-line seg: ments shown in Fig. 2.65. We may note that the stress-strain diggram for mild ste! inthe elastic and plastic ranges is similar to this ieal> ization. As long as the stress ois less than the yield stength othe ‘material behaves elastically and obeys Hooke's law, @ = Ee. When reaches the value o, the materi starts yielding and keeps deforming plastically under a constant load. Ifthe loads removed, unloading takes = Place along a straight-line segment CD parallel wo the initial portion AY Fig. 265, of the loading curve, The segment AD of the horizontal axis represents the strain contesponding to the permanent set or plastic deformation 1e- salting from the loading and unloading of the specimen. While no ac tual material behaves exactly as shown in Fig. 2.65, this suress-sraia , Sold'Shatt of Equal Weight. For tho shaft as designed end ths solid shaft to have the same weight and lagi, thie cross-sectional areas must be cual Aaa = Aap {09S mm ~ 60ma)'] = xe} 6) = 559mm Since = 84 MPs, we write Wm 1155900) £4859 mn! Tou seMPa= T=n1kh m4 <¢-Hallow Shaft of 200mm Diameter For eg weight the cose owl aes again must be equa, We dtr the side Game of he bat by wating Aa” Ao {005 mm ~ (0 nm] = mf200 mm" ei] For, = 929 mm and = 100 mm, 29mm J = F100 away ~ (62.9 a] = 9289 x 10% ant With yg 84 MPa and ey = 100 sam, {100 mm) F289 x 10" mat T= 66m 4 | 3.1. (@) For the Dollow shaft and loading shown, determine the maxi- sum shearing stress (8) Determine the dismeter ofa solid shaft for which the ‘maximum shearing tess in th loading shown i the same a in pat a 3.2 (a) Determine ts tongue that cn be aplodto said shaft of 90-mma cer dinmetec without excoding an aowable showing sess of 70 MPs (Salve part, sami tat th solid eaft i replaced by «hollow shaft ofthe ‘are rua and of 90s inner cmett ‘93. Detrmine the torque T tat canses a maximum shearing sess of ‘80 MPa inthe sce eylindica shaft show, Ban Fig. P33 and Pa 94 For the cylindical hat shown, determine the maximum sheating stress caused by a tongue of magnitude 7 = ISHN, 8.5 (a) For the 60-mm-diametr sold eylinder an loading shown, de- ‘ermine the maximum shearing stress. (6) Determine the inner dameer ofthe hollow cylinder, of 80-mm outer diameter, for which the maeimam sess is Ihe same a8 in pot 3.6 (q) Detecmine the torque that can be aplid to a sold shaft of 20mm Aiameter without exceeding an allowable sheanng stress of 80 MPa (2) Solve atta, asoming thatthe slid shaft has bon replaced bya ollow shat of the ‘Same crose-setional area and with an imer diameter equal io half of is ov utr diameter 3.7. The solid spindle AB has a diameter d, = 38 ram and is made of & steel with a allowable shearing suess of 84 MPa, while sleeve CD is made of 4 brass with an allowable shearing stess of 50 MPa. Determine the largest torque T that can be applied a 98 ‘The slid spindle AB is made of 2 stel with an allowable shearing stress of 84 MPa, and sleeve CD is made of a brass with an allowable shes- ing sess of 50 MPa, Determine (a) the largest torque T that can be applied HA ifthe allowable searing sess isnt to Be exceeded in sleeve CD, (2) the comresponding required value of the diameter dof since AB Fg. 35 Fig, P27 and 75.8 145 145. Texon 3.9 Knowing that each of te satis AB, BC, and CD consist of solid lecular rods, determine (a) che batt in which the maxiaum shearing sess eeu, (6) the magnate of that tess, Fig, P38 and P30 3410 _Koowing hata 10 mmdlameterhole has been dlledsroush each ‘ofthe shalls AB, BC, and CD, deesmine (a) the shat in which the maximum shearing stessceous, (2) the magnitude OF that sess, ‘311 The torques show ae exeried on pulleys A,B, and C. Knowing ‘hat both shuts ae solid, deere the maim searing stress i (e) sate AB, (8) shal BC, Fig. Patt and P32 3.12 The shatts of the pulley assembly shows are to be reesigne. Knowing tha the allowable shearing stess in each shai 60 MPa, determine ‘he smallest allowable diameter of (2) shaft AB, (9) shalt BC, 8.18. Under normal operating condition, tho cle motor exerts & torque of 2.8 KN m on shaft AB, Knowing that each shaft is old, determine ‘the maximum shearing stss in (a) heft AB, (B) shfe BC, c) shat CD. 9.44 In order to reduce the total mass of the assembly of Prob 3.13, 8 snow design is being considered ia which the diameter of shaft BC wil be ‘snller Determine te smallest diameter of sha BC for which the maximum ‘vale ofthe shearing ses in the assembly will not be increased. ‘3.45. The sli shaft shown is formed ofa brass for which the allowable shearing sess 55 MPa. Neglecting the effect of sess concentations,dett- ‘mine smallest diameters dag a defor which the allowable shearing uss is rot exceeded ‘3.16. Solve Prob. 315, assuming thatthe diection of Te is reverse, 3.17 Shaft AB is made ofa steel with an allowable shearing sess of 90 MPa and shaft BC is made of an aluminum with an allowable sheving siress of 60 MPa, Knowing tht the diameter of shaft BC is 5D mm and neglecting the effect of sess concentrations, determine (2 he largest torque ‘Tat can be applied at ifthe allowable sess is not to be exceeded io shaft ‘BC, (b) he coresponding required diameter of shaft AB. 8.19 Shaft AB has 2 30mm diameter and is made ofa sce with an allowable searing stess of 90 MPs, while shaft BC has a $0-mun dlamcer and is nade ofa aluminum alloy wih an allowable shearing sess of 60 MPa. Neglecting the effect of sess concentations, determine the largest torque That can be applied at A 3.19. The allowable shearing sess i 100 Pa in the 36-mm-dlametar sea] rod AB and 60 MPa inthe 40-mom-diameter rod BC, Neglecting the lft of sess concentrations, determine the largest torque that can be applied mA 2.20 The allowable shearing stress is 100 MPe in the tel rod AB and 60 MPa in the brass rod BC. Knowing that a torque of magnitude T= 900 Nm is applied ac A and neglecting the effet of sess concent tions, determine the routed diameter of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC. Fi. Pass ane P26 lg. 3:19 ant P20 Potts 147 148 een 3.21 Two solid steel satis are connocted bythe gears shown. A torque of magnitade 7 = 900 N =m is applied to shat AB. Knowing thatthe alow tle shearing size ip $ MPa and considering any stresses du to twisting, Aetrmine the requir diameter of (2) shat AB, (b) shaft CD. Fig P32 and P.za 322 Shaft CD is made ftom 2 66-mum-diameter rod an i connect 0 the AB-mm-diameter shaft AB as shown. Considering only stresses de 0 cvist- ing ané Knowing thatthe allowable shearing stess is 60 MPa foreach shaft.