0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 17148 стр.Stress Strain from Book

Jul 29, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Stress Strain from Book

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 17

Stress Strain from Book

© All Rights Reserved

- Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch
- The Law of Intuition: Lesson 8 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Right Stuff
- The Dream Daughter: A Novel
- Ball Lightning
- I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life
- Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships
- Anathem
- Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment
- Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions
- Michael Vey 2: Rise of the Elgen
- The Comet Seekers: A Novel
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths Go to Work
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- O Estudante Eficiente: Métodos para Aumentar a Concentração e Manter a Persistência no Estudo por um Longo Período de Tempo
- The Book of M: A Novel

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 148

lntroduction—Concept
of Stress
‘This chapter is devoted to the study of the stresses occurring in many of the elements contained in this excavator,
‘such as two-orce members, axles, bolts; and pins.2
Inyodustn—Cancop of SHo56
1.4, INTRODUCTION
‘The main objective ofthe study ofthe mechanics of materials is to pro=
vide the future engineer with the means of analyzing and designing var-
fous machines and load-bearing structures,
Both the analysis and the design of a given structure involve the de-
termination of stresses and deformations. This frat chapter is devoted to
the concept of sires.
Section 1.2 is devoted to a short review ofthe basic methods of statics
1nd to theit application to the determination of the forces in the members
ofa simple siacture consisting of pin-connected members, Section 1.3 will
introduce you to the concept of stress ia a member of a structure, and you
‘ll be shovva how that stress can be determined from the fore in the mem-
ber. After a short discussion of engineering analysis and design (Sec. 14),
you will consider suecessively the normal stresses in a member under 2x=
ial loading (See. 1.5), the shearing stresses caused by the application of
‘equal and opposite transverse forces (See. 1.6), andthe beaving stresses cre~
ated by bolts and pins in the remabers they connect (Sec. 1.7). These varie
‘ous concepts willbe applied in Sec. 1.8 tothe determination ofthe suesses
in the members of the simple structure considered earlier in Sec. 1.2
‘The frst part of the chapter ends with a description ofthe method you
should us inthe solution of an assigned problem (Sec. 1.9) and with a dis-
cussion of the mumerical accuracy appropriate in engineering calculations
(Sec. 1.10)
Tn Sec. 1.11, where a two-force member under axial loading is con=
sidered again, i willbe observed that the steesses on an oblique plane in-
clude both normal and shearing stresses, while in Sec, 1.12 you will note
that siz components ace required ta describe the state of stress at point in
& body under the most general loading conditions.
Finally, Sec. 1.13 will be devoted tothe determination froma test spec-
itmens of the ultimate strength of a given material and to the use of s fac
tor of safey in te computation of the allowable load fora structural com-
‘ponent mae of that material
1.2. A SHORT REVIEW OF THE METHODS OF STATICS
In this section you will review the basic methods of statics while de-
termining the forces in the members of a simple structure.
Consider the structure shown in Fig. 1.1, which was designed t0
support a 30-KN load. It consists of a boom AB with a 30 X 50-mm
rectangular cross section and of a rod BC with a 20-mma-diameter cir-
colar cross section. The boom and the rod are connected by a pin at B
and are supported by pins and brackets at A and C, respeotively. Our
first step should be to draw a free-body diagram of the structure by de-
‘aching it from its supports at A and C, and showing the reactions thst
these supports exert on the structure (Fig. 1.2). Note that the sketch of
the structure has been simplified by omitting all unnecessary detzils,
Many of you may have recognized at this point that AB and BC are nwo.
Jorce members. For those of you who have net, we will pursue our
analysis, ignoring that fact and assuming that the directions of the re-
actions at A and C are unknown. Each of these reactions, therefore, willbe represented by two components, A, and A, at A, snd C, and C, st
CC. We write the following three equilibrium equations:
+5EMe=0: 406m) ~ GOKNYOS m) = 0
KN ay
SER =O:
C.= ~40KN a2)
Ay + G,~30KN=0
A, +6, = $30kN rr)
‘We have found two of the four unknowns, but cannot determine the
‘other two from these equations, and no additional independent equation
can be obtained from the free-body diagram ofthe structure. We must
now dismember the structure. Considering the fre-body diagram ofthe
‘boom AB (Fig 13), we wait the following equilibrium equation:
HEM, -Af08m)=0 4,=0 i)
Sabsttuing for 4, from (1.4) ino (1.3), we obtain C, = +30 KN. Ex
pressing the results obtained forthe eactons at A and Cin vector form,
wwe have
Am 4OKN> —C, = AORN, C, = 30KNT
We note that the reaction a 4 is directed along the axis of the boom
AB and causes compression in that member. Observing thatthe com-
ponents C, and C, ofthe reaction at Car, respectively, proportional to
the horizntal and vertical components ofthe distance from B 6 C, we
conclude that the reaction at Cis equal to 50 KN, is directed along the
axis of the od BC, and causes tension in thet member.
+E,
Fig. 12
Fig. 1.3
sow
34 voducton—Concapt of Stress ‘These results could have been anticipated by recognizing that AB
and BC are two-force members, ie., members that are subjected to
forces at only two points, these points being A and # for member AB,
‘and # and C for member BC. Indeed, for a two-force member the lines
of action ofthe resultants of the forces acting at each of the two points
are equal and opposite and pass through both points. Using this prop-
erty, we could have obtained a simpler solution by considering the free-
body diagram of pin B. The forces on pin B are the forces Rag and Rye
exerted, respectively, by members AB and BC, and the 30-KN load
(Fig. 1:4a). We can express thet pin B is in equilibrium by drawing
the corresponding force triangle (Fig. 1.49)
Since:the force Fyo is directed along member BC, its slope is
o w the same as that of BC, namely, 3/4. We can, therefore, write the
Fig. 14 proportion
aw
Pua Fac _ 30KN
PORTS
trom which we obtain
Fig = 40KN Fe = S0KN
‘The forces Rip and Pe exerted by pin B, respectively, on boom AB
and rod BC ate equal and opposite 10 Kye and Fc (Fig. 1:5),
Fig. 15 Fig. 15
Knowing the forces at the ends of each of the members, we can
‘now determine the intemal forces in these members. Passing a section
at some arbitrary point D of rod BC, we obtain two portions BD and
CD (Fig. 1.6). Since 50-KN forces must be applied at D to both por
tions of the rod to keep them in equilibrium, we conclude that an in-
temal force of 50 KN is produced in roel BC when a 30-KN load is ap-
plied at B. We further check from the directions of the forces Fyo and
Pic in Fig. 1.6 that the rod is in tension, similar procedure would
enable us to determine thatthe internal force in boom AB is 40 kN and
that the boom is in compression1.3, STRESSES IN THE MEMBERS OF A STRUCTURE
‘While the results obtained in the preceding section represent a frst and
necessary step in the analysis of the given structut, they do not tell
us whether the given load can be safely supported. Whether rod BC,
for example, will break or not under this loading depends not only
upon the value found fr the internal force Fyo, but also upon the crass
sectional area of the rod and the material of which the rod is made.
Indeed, the internal force Fc actually represents the resultant of efe~
‘mentary forces distributed Ovet the entire area A of the cross section
(Fig. 1.7) and the average intensity ofthese distributed fores is equal
to the force per unit atea,\Fyc/A, in the section. Whether or not the
rod will break under the given loading clearly depends upon the abil-
ity of the material to withstand the corresponding value(Fyc/4 of the
1A.sienesnteNenbe ota Smee §
Fc
intensity of the distributed internal forces. It thus depends upon the"! "7
force Fa the coss-sectional area A, and the materia of the rod
‘The force por unit area, oF intensity ofthe forces dstibuted over
2 given section, is called the stress on that section and is dencted by
the Greek lter¢ (Sigma), The stress in a member of cross sectional
axce A subjected to an axial lad P ig. 18) i therefore obsinel by
‘viding tie magaitude P of the Toad by the arca A:
as)
A positive sign will be used to indicate tensile stress (member in ten
sion) and a negative sign to indicate a compressive stress (member in
compression}
With P expressed in newtons (N) and A in square meters (m), the
stress will be expressed in Nin’. This unit is called a pascal (Pa).
‘However, one finds that the pascal is an exceedingly smell quantity
and that, in practice, multiples of this unit must be used, namely, the
ilopascal (kPa), the megapascal (MPa), andthe gigapascal (GPa). We Fi
have
“1 kPa = 10 Pa = 10° N/m?
1 MPa
10 Pa = 10° Nim?
1.GPa = 10° Pa = 10° Nima?
186
Irduton—Consyp of Stress
1.4, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Considering again the structure of Fig. 1-1, let us assume that rod BC
is made of a steel with 2 maximum allowable stress ory = 165 MPa,
Can rod BC safely support the load to which it will be Subjected? The
magnitude of the force Fe in the rod was found easier to be 50 KN.
Recalling that the diameter of the rod is 20 ram, we use Eg. (1.5) to
determine the stress created in the rod by the given loading. We have
Since the value obtained for o is smaller than the value oy of the sl
lowable stress in the steel used, we conclude that rod BC can safely
suppor the load to which it will be subjected, To be complete, our analy-
sis of the given structure should also include the determination of the
compressive stress in boom AB, as well as an investigation of the stresses
produced in the pins and their bearings. This will be discussed later in
this chapter. We should also determine whether the deformations pro-
duced by the given loading are acceptable. The study of deformations
lunder axial loads will be the subject of Chap. 2. An additional con-
sideration, required for members in compression involves the suabiliry
of the member, ie. its ability to suppor a given load without expe-
riencing a sudden change in configuration. This will be discussed in
Chap. 10.
‘The engineer’s role is not limited to the analysis of existing struc-
tures and machines subjected to given loading conditions. Of even greater
importance to the engineet isthe design of new structures and machines,
that is, the selection of appropriste components to perform a given talc
As an example of design, let us return to the structure of Fig. 1.1, and
‘assume that aluminum with an allowable stress ry, = 100 MPa is to be
used. Since the force in rod BC will still be P 10 KN under the
‘given loading, we must have, from Eq. (1.5),
2 B_ 0xI0N ron
A 4 au Too x 10 Pa 500% 10% a
and, since A= a,
a ag
«fh REE «nex 0% m= 12020
d= 2r= 252mm
‘We conclude that an aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter will be
adequate4.5. AXIAL LOADING; NORMAL STRESS
‘As we have already indicated, rod BC of the example considered in the
preceding section is a two-force member and, therefore, the forces Fye
and Fig: acting on its ends B and C)(Fig. 1.5) are directed along the
axis of the rod. We say that the Tod is under axial loading. An actual
‘example of structural members under axial loading is provided by the
‘members ofthe bridge truss shown in Fig. 1.9.
Fig. 1.9 Tis bridge tue consis of to-orea member that maybe bn tenon
oth comprastion,
Returning to rod BC of Fig, 1.5, we recall thatthe section we passed
tuough the rod to determine the internal force inthe rod and the cor-
responding stress was perpendicular tothe axis of the rod; the internal
force was therefore normal tothe plane of the section (Fig. 1.7) and the
‘corresponding stress is described as 2 normal stress. Tous, formals (1.5)
‘ives us the normal siress in a member under axial loading:
P
ont as)
‘We should also note that, in formula (1.5), o is obtained by divid-
ing the magnitude P of the resultant of the internal forces distibuted
‘over the cross section by the atea A of the cross section; it represents,
therefore, the average value of the stress over the eros section, rathor
than the stress at a specific point ofthe cross section,
To define the stress at a given point Q of the cross seetion, we
should consider a stall arca AA (Fig. 1.10). Dividing the magnitude
of AF by AA, we obtain the average value of the stress over AA. Let-
ting 4A approach zero, we obtain the-srest at point Q:
AF
© dim ag) a6)
Fig. 1.10
1.8 As Leno: Normal Suess
7w
Fig tat
o
{In general, the value obtained forthe stress o ata given point Q of
the section is different from the value of the average stress given by
formula (1.5), and o is found to vary across the section. In a slender
rod subjected to equal and opposite concentrated loads P and P’ (Fig,
4.114), this variation is small in a section away from the points of ap-
plication of the concentrated loads (Fig, 1.11), but it is quite notice-
able in the neighborhood of these points (Fig. 1.11b and d
It follows from Eq, (1.6) that the magnitude of the resultant of the
listibuted internal forces is
But the conditions of equilibrium of each of the portions of rod shown
in Fig. 1.1] require that this magnitude be equal to the magnitude P of
‘the concentrated loads. We have, therefore,
Which meens that the volume under each of the stress surfaces in Fig,
1.11 must be equal to the magnitude P of the Toads. This, however, is
the only information that we can derive from our knowledge of statics,
regarding the distribution of normal stresses in the various sections of|
the rod. The actual distribution of stresses in any given section is seat-
leaily indeterminate. To learn more about this disteibution, itis neces-
sary to consider the deformations resulting from the particular mode of
application of the Joadls at the ends of the rod. This will be discussed
further in Chap. 2.
‘In practice, it willbe assumed thatthe distribution of normal stresses
in an axially loaded member is uniform, except in the immediate vicin-
ity of the points of application of the loads. The value o ofthe stress
is then equal f0 oi and can be obtained from formula (1.5). However,
we should realize that, when we assume a uniform distribution of
stresses in the section, ie., when we assume thatthe intemal forces are
‘uniformly distributed across the section, i follows from elementary stat-
jest that the resultant P of the internal forces must be applied at the
‘centroid C of the section Fig. 1.12). Tk itr
bution of stress is possible only ifthe line of action of the concentrated
loads P and P passes tireugh the centroid af the section considered
“Gig. 1.13). This type of loailg Ws Called centric" Toading aad Will Be
assumed to take place in all straight two-force members found in trusses
‘and pin-connected structures, such as the one considered in Fig. 1.1
See Fesinand P. Bes and E, Ruse Jebasto, Je, Mechanic for Expire, the,
[MGeaw Hill New Yor, 1987, or Vector Mecho for Engineer, Sh , Meee i,
Now Yok, 1996, ses, $2 and 83,e
Fig 1.13
However, if two-force member is loaded axially, but eccenrically as
stown in ig. 1.149) ve find from the conditions of equim ofthe
portion of meniber shown in Fig. 1.145 that the internal forces in @
given section must be equivalent toa force applied a! the centroid of
the section and a couple M of moment Of = Pa) The distbution of
forces—and, thus, the corresponding distribuliGn Of stresses—cannot be
norm. Nor can the distibation of stresses be syrmetic ae shown in ig
LLL This point wil be dicused in deta in Chap. 4
1.6. SHEARING STRESS
‘The internal forces and the corresponding stresses discussed in Secs.
1.2.and 1.3 were normal to the section considered. A very different type
Of stress is obtained when transverse forces P and P’ are applied to a
member AB (Fig. 1.15). Passing a section at C between the points of
application of the two forces (Fig. 1.16a), we obtain the diagram of por-
tion AC shown in Fig. 1.166, We conclude that internal forces must ex-
istin the plane ofthe section, and that their resultant is equal to B. These
‘elementary intemal forces are called shearing forces, and the magni=
tude P of their resultant isthe shear in the section, Dividing the shear
Fig. 14
1.8 Sear Stes
o
Fig. 16
840
Invodtan Concept of Srace
P by the area A of the cross section, we obtain the average shearing
st7ess in the section. Denoting the shearing sttess by the Greek leter 7
(ai), we vite
eee.
imag ay
It should be emphasized that the value obtained is an average value
of the shearing stress over the entire section. Contrary to what we said
earlier for normal stresses, the distribution of shearing stresses across.
the section cannot be assumed uniform. As you will see in Chap. 6, the
actual value 7 of the shearing stress varies from zero at the surface of
the member to a maximum value Tay that may be much larger than the
average Value Tang
Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins, and rivets
used to connect various structural members and machine components
(Fig. 1.17), Consider the two plates A and B, which are connected by a
bolt CD (Fig. 1.18), Ifthe plates are subjected to tension forces of mag-
nitade F, stresses will develop in the section of bolt,corresponding (0
the plane EZ". Drasving the diagrams of the bolt and of the portion lo-
cated above the plane EE" (Fig, 1.19), we conclude that the shear P in
the section is equal to F. The average shearing stress in the section is
obtained, according to formula (1.8), by dividing the shear P = F by
the area A of the cross section:
as)
ta ®
Fig. 119Fig, 1.20
‘The bolt we have just considered is said to be in single shear. Dif-
ferent loading situations may arise, however. For example, if splice
plates C and D ate used to connect plates A and B (Fig. 1.20), shear
will tke place in bolt HJ in each of the two planes RK" and ZL’ (and
similarly in bolt EG). The bolts are said to be in double shear. To de-
termine the average shearing stress in each plane, we draw free-bodly
diagrams of bolt H and ofthe portion of bolt located between the two
planes (Fig. 1.21). Observing that the shear P in each of the sections is
P = F/2, we conclude that the average shearing stess is
P_ Fp
Fr
i (1.10)
1.7. BEARING STRESS IN CONNECTIONS
Bolts, pins, and rivets create stresses in the members they connect, long
the bearing surface, or surface of contact. For example, consider again
the two plates A and B connected by a bolt CD that we have discussed
in the preceding section (Fig. 1.18), The bolt exerts on plate A a force
P equal and opposite to the force F exerted by the plate on the bolt
Fig. 1.22). The force P represents the resultant of elementary forces
Gistibuted on the inside surface of a hal-cylinder of diameter d and of
length ¢ equal to the thickness of the plate. Since the distribution of
these forces—and of the corresponding stresses—is quite complicated,
one uses in practice an average nominal value a7 of the sires, called the
Dearing stress, obtained by dividing the load P by the area ofthe rectan-
ale representing the projection ofthe bolt on the plate section (Fig. 1.23).
Since this area is equal to td, where 1 i the plate thickness and d the di-
ameter ofthe bolt, we have
P
wa aay
17, Ber Shessm Comestine 44
4
et —
kK ¥
Se
an ae
@ , o
Fig 121 :
Fig, 1.2212
Inroduction—Concep of Sea
Lay
Fig. 124
1.8, APPLICATION TO THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
OF SIMPLE STRUCTURES.
‘We are now in a position to determine the stresses in the members and
connections of various simple two-dimensional structures and, thus, 10
design such structures.
‘As an example, let us return to the structure of Fig. 1-1 that we
have already considered in Sec, 1.2 and let us specify the supports and
‘connections at A, B, and C. As shown in Fig, 1.24, the 20-mm-diameter
rod BC has flat ends of 29. 40.mm rectangular cross section, while
Doom AB has a 30 X 50-mia reslangular cross seetion and is fitted With
actevis at end B. Both members are connected at B by a pin from which
the 30-KN Toad is suspended by means of a U-shaped bracket. Boom
AB is supported at A by a pin fitted into a double bracket, while
rod BC is comnecied at C to a single bracket, All pins are 25 mmm in
diameter,
‘a, Determination of the Normal Stress in Boom AB and Rod
BC. As we found in Secs. 1.2 and 14, the fore in rod BC is
Foe = S0KN (tension) and the area of its circular cross section is
10-6; the comesponding average normal stress is
ea = +157, However, the flat pars of the rod are also undertension and at the narrowest section, where a hole is located, we have
A= (20 mm)(40 mm ~25'mm) = 300 x 1076 mé
‘The corresponding average value of the stress, therefore, is
P__S0xX10'N
(aches = 5 ~ 300 x 10°?
167 MPa
[Note tht this is an average value; close tothe ole, the stress will a&-
tually reach a much larger value, a6 you will seein Sec. 2.18, Itis clear
that, under an increasing load, the rod will fail near one of the holes
rather then ints cylindical portion; its design, therefore, could be im-
proved by increasing the width or the thickness ofthe flat ends of the
ro.
‘Tuming nov our attention to boom AB, we recall from Sec. 1.2 that,
the force in the boom is F4p=40KN (compression). Since
the area of the boom's rectangular cross section is A = 30 mm
X 50mm = 1.5 X 10™ mt, the average value ofthe normal sess in
te main pare of the rod, beiieen pins A and B, 8
40 x 10°N
15 x 107
26.7 x 10°Pa = ~26.7 MPa
[Note thatthe sections of minimum area at A and B are not under stress,
since the boom is in compression, and} therefore, pushes on the pins
(instead of pulling on the pins as rod BC does).
b. Determination of the Shearing Stress in Various Connec-
tions. To determine the shearing stress in a connection such as a bol,
Pin, or rivet, we first clearly show the forces exerted by the various
members it connects. Thus, in the case of pin C of our example (Fig.
1.25), we draw Fig. 1.256, showing the 50-kNV force exerted by mem-
ber BC on the pin, and the equal and opposite force exerted by the
bracket. Drawing now the diagram of the portion of the pin located
below the plane: DD' where shearing stresses occur (Fig. 1.25c), we
conclude that the shear in that plane is P= SOKN, Since the cross-
sectional area of the pin is N 7
We find that the average value of the shearing stress in the pin at Cis
P_50X10'N
ee 4 Bx 10% me OP MPA
Considering now the pin at A (Fig, 1.26), we note that it is in dou-
bie shear. Drawing the free-body diagrams of the pin and of the por-
tion of pin located between the planes DD’ and EE’ where shearing
stresses occur, we conclude that P = 20KN and that
20 kN
1 pe = 407 MPa
tee = iat 10-e me” 407
14. Avis nd Ordon of Se Shustees 4g
@
Ags
ly
Fig. 1.26
o
©
ial
won
®14
InvoouctarCencopt of Sess
Feya= S010
Fig. 1.27
3]
Q- ise
e
Considering the pin at B (Fig. 1.27a), we note that the pin may be
divided into five portions which are acted upon by forces exerted by
the boom, rod, and bracket. Considering successively the portions DE
(Fig. 1.276) and DG Fig. 1.276), we conclude that the shear in section
Eis Pz = ISKN, while the shear in section G is Pg = 25 KN. Since
the loading of the pin is symmetric, we conclude that the maximum
value of the shear in pin B is Pe = 25 N, and that the largest shear-
ing stresses occur in sections G and HY, where
ee ee
toe SA BX 10 mt
= 509 MPa
. Determination of the Bearing Stresses. To determine the
nominal bearing stress at A in member AB, we use formula (1.11) of
Sec. 1.7. From Fig. 1.24, we have = 30mm and d= 25 mm, Re
calling that P= Fyy = 40 KN, we have
P_ 401
%~ id GOmm\25 mm)
= 53.3 MP
‘To obtain the bearing stress in the bracket at A, we use ¢ = 2(25 mm}
50 mum art d= 25 mm:
a 40KN
“1d” Gommy2smm) ~ 22° MPa
‘The bearing stresses at B in memiber AB, at B and C in member
BC, and in the bracket at C are found in a similar way.
1.8. METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLUTION
You should approach a problem in mechanics of materials as you would
approach an actual engineering situation. By drawing on your own ex-
pperience and intuition, you will find it easier to understand and formu-
Tate the problem. Once the problem has been clearly stated, however,
there is no place in its solution for your particular fancy. Your solution
must be based on the fundamental principles of statics and on the prin-
ciples you will learn in this course. Every step you take must be justi
fied on that basis, leaving no room for your “intuition.” After an an-
‘wer has been obtained, it should be checked, Here again, you may call
mn Your common sense and personal experience. If not completely
satisfied with the result obtained, you should carefully check your for
‘mulacion of the problem, the validity of the methods used in its solu-
tion, and the accuracy of your computations.
‘The statement ofthe problem should be clear and precise. It should
contain the given data and indicate what information is required. A sim
plified drawing showing all essential quantities involved should be in-
cluded. The solution of most of the problems you will eacounter will
necessitate that you first determine the reactions at supports and inter-nal forces and couples. This will require the drawing of one or several
{free-body diagrams, as was done in Sec. 1.2, from which you will write
equilibrium equations, These equations can be solved for the unknown
forees,-from which the required stresses and deformations will be
computed.
‘After the answer has been obtained, it should be carefully checked,
Mistakes in reasoning can often be detected by carrying the units
through your computations and checking the units obtained for the an-
swer, For example, in the design of the rod discussed in See. 1.4, we
found, after carrying the units through our computations, that the re=
quired diameter of the rod was expressed in millimeters, which is the
Correct unit for a dimension; if another unit had been found, we would
have known that some mistake had been made,
Errors in computation will usually be found by substituting the nu-
merical values obtzined into an equation which hes not yet been used
and vetifying that the equation is satisfied, The importance of correct
‘computations in engineering cannot be overemphasized.
4.10, NUMERICAL ACCURACY
‘The accuracy of the solution of a problem depends upon two items
(21) the accuracy of the given data and (2) the accuracy of the compu-
tations performed.
‘The solution cannot be more accurate than the less accurate ofthese
‘vo items. For example, if the loading of a beam is known to be 300
KN with a possible ersor of 400 N either way, the relative error which
‘measures the degree of accuracy of the data is
400N
300k
In computing the reaction at one of the beam suppor, it would then
bbe meaningless to recoed it as 57288 N. The accuracy of the solution
cannot be greater than 0.13%, no matter how aecurete the computations
are, and the possible error in the answer may be as large as
(0.13/100) (51288 N) = 74 N. The answer shauald be properly recorded
28 57280 + T4N,
In engineering problems, the data are seldom known with an ae
curacy greater than 0.2%, Itis therefore seldom justified to write the
answers to such problems with an accuracy greater than 0.2 percent. A
practical rule is to use 4 figures to record numbers beginning with 2
“1” and 3 figures in all other cases. Unless otherwise indicated, the data
aaiven in a problem should be assumed known with a comparable
degree of accuracy. A force of 160 N, for example, should be read
160.0 N, and a force of 60 N should be read 60.00 N.
Pocket calculators and computers are widely used by practicing en-
sineers and engineering students. The speed and accuracy of these de-
vices facilitate the numerical computations inthe solution of many prob-
lems, However, students should not record more significant figures than
can be justified merely because they are easily obtained. As noted above,
an aceuracy greater than 0.2% is seldom necessary or meaningful in the
solution of practical engineering problems,
= 0.0013 = 0.13%
15SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.1
Jn the hanger shown, the upper portion of link ABC is 10 mm thick andthe
Tower portions ace each 6 mm thick. Epoxy resin is used t bond the upper
and lowver portions togeer at B. The pin at A is of 10 mum diameter while &
6 madiameter pin is used at C. Determine (a) the shearing stess in pin A,
() the shearing tress in pin C, (¢) the largest normal stress in link ABC, (2)
the average shearing stest on the bonded surfaces at B, (2) the bearing sess
in the link at C
SOLUTION
Free Body: Entire Hanger. Since the link ABC is a two-foree member,
the reaction at A is vertical; the reaction at Dis represented by its components
D, sad D,, We write
AEMp = 0: (2000 N75 mun) ~ Fye(250 mm) = 0
Fyc= +3000N Pye = 3000N tension
4. Shearing Stress in Pin A. Since this 10 nm-diaaeter pin i i single
shear, we write
38.2 MPa 4
5, Shearing tress in Pl C, Since his 6 mm-iameter pin in double
MOR} pp asow_ryeamon Swe
Hac, 15008
reo Ee ON age <
ea Fam? Sins
eed
‘Sam dander $Fy+ ION c Largest Normal Stress in Link ABC. The largest stess is found
bb ‘where the area is smallest; this occurs at the cross section at A where the
toa Fy D000 o-ma hole is located. We bave
Dae
ante —_00N___,_000N. 5 MPa 4
om EE meee aS
F110 mm diameter mm sides of the upper portion of the link and that the shear force on each side is
i fiom peritectic a
Fi Fre pags BOON PAGE, cy a, LL MPa 4
A> BO aam)(45 min)
«Bearing Stress in Link at C. reach pation ofthe link, F, = 1500'N
‘and the nominal bearing area is (6 mm)(6 mm) = 36 mr’
Fy _ 1500
A” 36mm!
oy = 47 MPaFELT) pions ofthe ba Recalling ht the thickness ofthe so pint is
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.2
‘The steel te bar shown is to be designed to caty a tension force of magnitude
P = 120 kNwhen bolted between double brackets at A and B. The bar will be
faa Hom 20am pte doy ortega ease he
Basin. allowable desis “are [g)= 175 MP9Le = 100MPa/o4 =
10 MPa, Design the tic bar by determining the required vatues-of (a) the
“Giasier d of the bot, (6). dimension B at each end of the bat () the
‘Gimension h ofthe ba.
SOLUTION
4. Diameter of the Bolt. Since the bolt ie in double sheer, Fy ~
PR ON)
sos) | coun
Pa Tg) tome SE sam 60m
at o
a Wevwilluse d= 28.0 fs
——
At this point we check the bearing suess between the 20-mm-thick plate and
the 28-mm-diameter bolt ete
1201
Woweayorm ay "2MMPA<350MPa, OK
nae
wd
D. Dimension b at Each. Pd of the Bar: We consider one ofthe end
20mm
‘and thatthe average tensile stress must not exceed 175 MPs, we waite
ee
gp Tag }7S MP
a
o> 17.14 mm
@
Loe
sates eae aioe dea
Dimension h ofthe Bar. Recalling tat the thickness of the steel pate
20mm, we have
1205N
Pe
one SMP eae
b= 343 mm
We will use = 35mm <
70 ma
4141 Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together 2B and
loaded as shown. Knowing that d= $0 mm and d = 30 mm, find average
owe stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) fod BC.
1.2 Two sold cylindrical ods AB and BC are weed together a 8 and
loaded sx shown, Knowing thatthe average nocmal tess must at exceed 189
MPa in ether rd, datemine the smallest allowabie vals f d, and
4.3 Two sold eylindscel de AB and BC ace welded together a Band
leaded as shown. Determine the average normal sires a the midsection of
{) rod AB, (6) cod BC.
250m
m0
ue mae dl
Tarn aca es
spi Peso SE
Fi. Ps and P12 Ta
Fig Pe
18
|main|
nia
1A In Prob. 13, determine the magnitude ofthe force for which the
tensile sess in rod AB has the same magitude as the compressive stress in
rd BC.
4.5 “Two see! plates ar o be eld togeter by mune of 16-me-ianeter
high-strength ste! bots fing saugly inside cylindial bras pacers. Know
ing tha the average normal eres mist not exceed 200 MPa in the bolts an
30 MPa in the spacers, determin te ote diameter ofthe spacer that ies
the most economical and safe design
Fie. Pus
1.6. Asin gage located at Con the surface of bone AB indicates tat
‘he average normal ses in she hone it 3.80 MPa when the Bone is subjected
to two 1200N forces a5 shawe. Assuming the cross section of the bone at
(C10 de annular and knowing that its outer ameter is 25 mm, determine the
mer diameter of the bou's czas section 3 C:19 a
Fig. Pu
1.7 Koowing thatthe cereal portion ofthe lik BD has uniform exoss-
sectional area of 800 mn determine the magntade of the Toad P for which
‘he nocma sues in that pston of BD is $0 MP,
1.8 Link AC basa uniform rectangular cross section 3 mm thick and
25 mm wide. Determine the normal sess in the ental portion of the ink;
Bach of the four verical links has an 8 26-mm uniform rectan
gular section and each ofthe four pins has a 16am diameter, Determine
the mazimom valie of the average parma sess inthe links, connecting
(@ points B and D, (6) points Cand F.
Fig P19
4.40 Two horizontal 20 UN forces are appiod to pin B ofthe sssembly
showo, Knossng tha gin of 20 ram diameter is used at each connection, de
termine the maximum value ofthe average neewal tess (a) in ink AB, (8)
line aC.
4.44 The rigié bar EFG Is supported by the uss system shown. Know-
Ing thatthe member CG sa soli cvalr tod of 18 mum diameter, determine
the normal sess in CO.
1.12 The gid bar EFG is supported bythe tse system shown. Deter.
rine the eesssectional area of member A for which the noma stress in he
member is 105 MP
Proms 49
Fig. P10
08m
ig =
oes
Fig. P11 and P1220 octen-Cacep of tess
Fig Pe
ar
sie
Fi. Pas
1.13 Two hydraulic cylinders are used to control the poston of the o-
boc arm ABC. Knowing tbat the coal rods stached at aud D each have
4220. diameter and happen tobe parallel io the position shown, determine
the average nocmal sess in (@) membes AE, (b) member DC,
100 atten
Fig. PL
1.14 A.couple M of mageitde 1500 N - m i applied to the crank of an
tngine. For the postion show, decermine (2) the force P required to bold
the engine system in equilibrium, @) the average normal eres in the con-
rscting red BC, which has $50-men! uniform oss sation
1.15. Whenthe free P reached BN, the wooden specimen shown felled
in shear along te surface indicated by te dashed lin, Determive the average
Shearing sess along that surface athe tne of fllre.
1.16 The wooden members and fare oe joined by plywoad splice
plates that willbe fll glued on the surfaces in conact. As pat ofthe design
Ofte join and knowing that he clearance betwee the ends ofthe members
Js to be 6 me, determine the smallest allowable length Li the average shes
ing sess in he glue i nt 0 exceed B40 KPa4.47 A lod P is applied toa see rod supported as shown ty ah alu-
nina plat nto which a 1S-mundiameter bole his been dled. Knowing that
the shearing sess mast not exceed 126 MPa inthe steel rod and 70 Ma in
‘he luninam pte, detecmive the ages lod P that may be apie the od
418. Two wooden planks, each 12 sim thick and 225 mm wide, ae
Joined bythe dry mortise jon shown, Knowing thatthe wood used cheats off
long is grain when the average shearing tress reaches 8 MPa, dete the
Imagnitde P oft axial los that wl ease the joint to fal.
ig. Pia
41.49 The axial force inthe column supporting te saber beam shown
iP = 15 EN. Detsne the smallest allowable length L ofthe bearing plate
ifthe beating stress inthe timber is not exceed 3.0 MPa,
41.20 A 404 axial fad is applied to 4 short wooden pos tha is sup-
poted by a concrete Footing resting on undstrbed soil Determine (2) the
‘maximum bearing sess onthe concrete footing, (2) the sie of the footing for
‘which the average bearing sizes inthe sil is (45 KPa
4.21 An exial load P is supported by 4 short W200 x 59 column of
cross-sectional area A = 7550 mm’ and is dstibuted to @ concrete foundation
by # square plate as shown. Knowing tat he average normal tres in thecal
uma must not exceed 200 MPa and thatthe bearing stesso the concete
foundation must wot exceed 20 MPa, dotermine the side ofthe plate thet
will provide the most economical and safe design
reine 24
heey
7 ee
soni
Fig, P1.17, a
Fig. is
Fig. Pt.2tEa
Fig, P1.25 nd 1.25
1.22 Tinos wooden planks are fastened togotee by a serie of bolls to
orm a colura. The diameter ofeach bolt is 12 mem and the inner darter of
cach washer ie 16 mam, whic i sigh larger than the diameter ofthe holes
in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer diameter dof the wah
er, towing thatthe everage roma stress in the bolt is 35 MPa ard that de
bearing stress between the washers snd tb planks musi aot exceed § MPa
1.23 A0.12-nm- jis,
eo dies aA
1.18)
wml ty A a
to A Ta TAA
‘We note thatthe first subscript in, 7, and 7 is used ta indicate thet
the stresses under consideration afe exerted on a surface perpendicu=
lar to the x axis, The second subscript in and t identifies the dic
rection of the component. The normal stesso, is positive ifthe corre-
sponding arrow points in the positive x direction, ie, if the body is in
tension, and negative otherwise. Similarly, the shearing stress compo-
‘ents ry and 7,, are positive if the corresponding arrows point, f=
spectively, in the positive y and z directions.
The above analysis may also be carried out by consideting the por-
tion of body located to the right ofthe vertical plane throush Q
1.35)."The same magnitudes, but opposite directions, are obtained for
th normal and shearing forces AF", AVs, and AVS. Therefore, the same
values are also obtained for the corresponding stess components, bat
since the section in Fig. 1.35 now faces the negative x axis, a positive
sign for will indicate that the corresponding w10% points én the nee
ative x direction. Similany, positive signs for t,, andr Will indicate
‘that the corresponding arrows point, respectively, in the negative y and
2 dizections, a8 shown in Fig. 135,
12 Sa Unde Gr Lecing Contre 95526
Inveauetn-Caeep! of Sess
Fig 198
Passing a section through Q parallel to the 2x plane, we define in
the same manner the stress components, Oy: Ty, a0d ty Finally, a sec-
tion through Q parallel tothe ay plane yields the components tay
and 75.
‘ facilitate the visualization of the stress condition at point Q, we
shall consider a small cube of side a centered at Q and the stresses ex-
certed ou each of the six faces of the cube (Fig. 136). The stress com
[ponents shown in the figure are 0, and 0, which represent the noe
tal stress on faces respectively perpendicular to the x y, and z axes,
‘and the six shearing stress components 7,7, ete. We recall thet, ac-
cording to the definition of the shearing stress components, 7 repre
sents the y component of the shearing stress exerted on the face per
pendicular to the x axis, while 7, represents the x component of the
shearing stress exerted onthe face perpendicular tothe y axis, Note that
only three faces ofthe cube are actually visible in Fig. 1.36, and that
equal and opposite stess components act on the hidden faces, While
the stresses acting on the faces of the cube difier slightly from the
stresses at Q, the error involved is small end vanishes as side a ofthe
cube approaches zero,
[Important relations among the shearing stress components will now
bbe derived. Let us consider the free-body diagram of the small cube
centered at point Q (Fig, 1.37). The normal and shearing forces acting
‘om the various faces ofthe cube are cbtained by multiplying the come-
sponding stess components by the area AA of each face, We frst write
the following three equilibrium equations:
BE=0 BF
0 BRO «19)
Since forces equal and opposite to the forces actully shown in Fig,
1.37 are acting on the hidden faces of the cube, itis clear that Eqs.
1.19) are satisfied. Considering now the moments of the forces about
‘axes Ox, Qy’, and Qe’ drawn from Q in directions respectively paral
lel to the x y, and z axes, we write the thres additional equations
BM,=0 EMy=0 —-EM=0 (1.20)
Using a projection on the x'y' plane (Fig. 1.38), we note that the only
forces with moments about the z axis different from zero are the sheat-
ing forces. These forces form two couples, one of counterclockwise
(positive) moment (7. AA)a, the other of clockwise (negative) moment
“(y_ Bla. The last ofthe three Eqs, (1.20) yields, herefore,
+hEM, = 08 (ry Ala ~ fy MAYO = 0
from which we conclude that
oy he a2
‘The relation cbtained shows tht the y component ofthe shearing stress
‘exerted on a face perpendicular to the x aus is equal to the x compo-‘nent ofthe shearing stress exerted ona face perpendicular to they axis, 118. bealn Censdetere 37
From the remaining two equations (1.20), we derive in a similar man
ner the relations
ey os
co a2) 4a
;
We concide trom Eos (21) and (1.22) that only si ess com:
ponents a requ to define the condition of stess a given polar
Q, instead of nine as originally “assumed. These six components arc Fig. ou =
GO p Oe Tay Ty 84 Tee We al80 note tbat, at @ given point, shear
‘canner take place in one plone only; an equal shearing stress must be
exerted oa another plane perpendicular tothe first one. For example
considering again the bolt of Fig. 1.29 and a small cube atthe center
Q ofthe bolt (Fig. 139), we find that shearing stresses of equal mag
nitude must be exerted on the two horizontal faces ofthe cube and on
the two faces that are perpendicular tothe forces P and P' (Fig, 1.398).
Before concluding our discussion of stress components, let us con-
sider again the ease of @ member under axial loading. If we consider &
small cube with faces respectively parallel to the faces of the member
snd reall the results obtained in Sec. 1-11, we find thatthe conditions @
of stress in the member may be described as shown in Fig. 140a; the
only sireses are normal stresses ¢, exerted on the faces of the eube
which ate perpendicular tothe x axis, However, if the small. cube is ro:
tated by 45° about the z axis so that its new orientation matches the or
‘entation of the sections considered in Fig. 1.31c and d, we conclude that
‘normal and shearing stresses of equal magnitude are exerted on four
faces of te cube (Fig. 140b). We thus observe thatthe same loading
condition may lead to different interpretations ofthe stress situation a
4 given point, depending upon the orientation ofthe element considered.
‘More willbe said about this in Chap 7 Fig, 1.40
1.18, DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Inthe preceding sections you leaned to determine the stresses in ros.
bolts, and pins under simple loading conditions. In later chapters you
“Wall fear to determine stisoes in more cGfplex sitations. In engi-
neecing applications, however, the determination of stresses is seldom
‘an end in self, Rather, the knowledge of stresses is used by engineers
to assist in their most important task, namely, the design of structures
‘and machines that will sefely and economically perform 2 specified
function.
Determination of the Ultimate Strength of a Material. An
‘important element to be considered by a designer is how the material
that has been selected will behave under a load. For @ given matedal,
this is determined by performing specific tests on prepared sarapes of
the material, For example, a test specimen of steel may be prepared and
placed in a laboratory testing machine to be subjected to @ known eet-
trie axial tensile force, as described in See. 2.3. As the magnitude of
the force is increased, various changes in the specimen are measured,
for example, anges in its length and is diameter Eventually the largest28 rosuctonconent Stee
force which may be applied to the specimen is reached, and the spect-
men either breaks or begins to cary fess load. This largest forces called
the ultimate ied for te tst specimen and is denoted by Py. Siace the
applied load is centric, we may divide tho ultimate load by the orignal
cross-sectional area ofthe rod to obtain the ultimate normal stress of
the material used. This stress, also known a8 the ultimate sirength in
tension of the materia, is
= fe 1.23)
y= (123)
Several test procedures are available to devermine the ultimate
shearing stress, or ultimate strength in shear, of & material, The one
‘most comumoaly used involves the twisting of a circular tube (See. 3.5).
A more direct, if less accurate, procedure consists in clamping. 4 rec:
‘angular or round bar in a shear too! (Fig. 1.41) and applying an in-
‘reasing load P unl the ukimate load P, for single shear is obtained.
If the free end of the specimen rests on both of the hardened dies (Fig.
1.42), the vkimate load for dovble shear is obtained. In either cas, the
ukimate shearing stess ry is obtained by dividing the ultimate load by
the total area over which shear has taken place. We recall that, in the
case of single shear, this erea isthe cross-sectional area A of the spec-
mea, while in double shear itis equal to twice the cross-sectional area.
b, Allowable Load and Allowable Stress; Factor of Safety. The
‘maximorn load that a structural member or 2 mochine component will
be allowed to carry under normal conditions of utilization is consider-
ably smaller than the ultimate load. This smaller load is referred to as
the allowable iaad and, sometimes, as the working load or design load.
‘Tis, onl 2 fraction ofthe ulimate-load capacity ofthe members i=
lized when the allowable load is applied. The remsining portion ofthe
load-carrying capacity of the member is kept in reserve to assure its
safe performance, The ratio ofthe ultimate load 10 the allowable load
Js used to define the actor of sofery+ We have
{Factor of safery = rs, = timate load
lowabietoad 1")
‘An altemalive defiition of the factor of safety is ase on the use of
suesex
imate stress
ctor of eafety = Fs, = timate sess
ieee allowable stress
(12s)
‘The two expressions given for the factor of safety in Eqs, (1.24) and
(25) are identical when a linear relationship exists benveen the fond
‘and the stress. Ia most engineering applications, however, this rela-
tionship ceases to be linear the load approaches its ultimate value,
‘and the factor of safety obtained from Eg. (1.25) does not provide @
Hn ome fs of exposing scubty rooataleagicarng, he agin fee i
edn plc of he So fey. Te in of se ied othe eo ety
min one mt magn of eae = FS 100true assessment of the safety of a given design, Nevertheless, the
allowable-stress method of design, based on the use of Bq. (1.25), is
‘widely used
©. Selection of an Appropriate Factor of Safety. The selection
of the factor of safety to be used For vavious applications is one of the
‘most important engineering tasks. On the one hand, if a factor of safety
Js chosen too small the possibility of failure becomes unacceptably
large; on the other Rand, if a factor of safety is chosen unnecessarily
large, th result is an uneconomical or nonfunctional design. The choice
of tb Toro pty hat is appro fr given dig apieaton
requires engineefing judgment based on many considerations, such as
the following:
1. Variations that may occur inthe properties ofthe member w=
der consideration. The composition, strength, anid dimensions
of the member are all subject to small vations during man
facture. In addition, material properties may be sltered end
residual stresses introduced through heating or deformation
that may occur during manfactore, storage, transportation, oF
2 The nunber of loadings thas nay be expected during the life of
the socture or machine. For most matesals the ulate sess
decreases as the numberof cad applications is ineeased. Tis
phenomenon is known as fatigue and, i ignored, nay seat in
sudden failure (se See. 27.
3. The ype of loadings that are planned for inthe design or tat
‘may occur inthe ate. Vey fe loadings ae Known with com
plete acouracy—most design loadings are exgneaing estimates.
In edition, fare secations or changes in usage may intoduce
changes inthe aca Toading Larger factors of sty trea r-
quite for dynamic, cele, or impsive losing.
4. The ope of fallre shat may oceur, Brite materials fail sud
deny, usualy with vo prior indication that eollaps is immi-
rent Oa the other hand, ductile materials, such as structural
steel, nowmally undergo a substantial deformation calle yeld-
ing before failing, this providing & waraing that ovedoading
exists, However, most buckling or sttiity failures are sen,
whether the maierial i belie or not. When the possibilty of
Sudden flue exists, «larger factor of safety should be wed
than when flue is preceded by obvious waming signs
5. Uncertaity due to methods of analysis. Al design methods are
based on certain simplifying assumptions ‘hich result in cal
calated suestes being approximations of actual stresses.
6 Deterioration that may occur in the future because of poor
maintenance or because of unpreventable natural causes, A
Tamper factor of safety is necessary in locations where condi
tions suchas corosion and decay are dificult to contol or ever
to discover
7, The inportance ofa given member to the integrity ofthe whole
suructue. Bracing and secondary members may in many eases
be designed with a factor of safety lower than that used fr pie
mary members,
2930
+
In addition tothe above considerations, there isthe additional con-
sideration conceming the risk to life and propecty that a failure would
produce. Where a failure would produce no risk to life end only mii
nal risk to propery, the use of a smaller factor of safety can be con
sidered, Finally, there isthe practical consideration that, unless a care:
ful design with'a nonexcessve factor of safety is sed, @ structure ot
‘machine might not perform its design function. For example, high fac-
tors of safety may have an unacceptable effect on the weight of an
aircraft
For the majority of stuctural and machine applications, factors of
safety are specified by design specifications or building codes writen
by committees of experienced engineers working with professional so
cieties, with industries, or with federal, state, or city agencies. Exam-
ples of such design specifications and building codes are
1, Steel: American Institute of Steel Construction, Spesifiestian
for Structural Stee! Buildings
2. Concrete: American Concrete Institute, Building Code Re-
quirement for Structural Concrete
3. Timber: American Forest and Paper Association, National
Desiga Specification for Wood Construction
4. Highway bridges: American Association of State Highway
Officials, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges
"d._ Load and Resistance Factor Design. As we sav above, the
allowable-stess method requires that all the uncectaimies associated
‘with the desiga of a structure or machine element be grouped into &
single factor of safery. An alternative method of design, whichis gain.
ing acceptance chiefly among structural engineers, makes it possible
through the use of thre diferent factors to distinguish between the un-
cettantes associated with the structure itself and those associated with
the load itis designed to support. This method, referred to as Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), futher allows the designer 0 dis
Linguish between uncertainties associated withthe live load, P, that is,
with the loud to be supported by the structure, and the dead load, Py,
that is, with the weight of the portion of structure contributing 1 the
total load,
‘When this method of design is used, the ultimate load, Py, of the
structute, hat is, the load at which the stracture ceases to be useful,
should first be determined. The proposed design is then acceptable if
the following inequality i satistied:
Po WPL= Pe 26)
The coefficient ¢ is referred to asthe resistance factor; it accounts for
the uncertainties associated with the stuctuceitelf and will normally
be Jess than J. The coefficients yp and 7, are ceferted to as the load
factors; bey account for the uncertainties associated, respectively, with
the dead and five load and will normally be greater than 1, with yy gen-
cally larger than yp. While a few examples or assigned problems
using LRFD are included in this chapter and in Chaps. 5 and 10, the
allowable-suess method of design will be used in this tex.SAMPLE PROBLEM 4.3
‘Two fares ae applied to the backet BCD as shown, (0) Knowing thatthe
contol ro AB i tobe made of a tel having an ultimate normal sess of 600
Mra, determine the diameter ofthe rod for which the factor of safety with re
‘yee alla wil be 3.3.0) The in at Cis tobe made of a set having an
ste shearing stess of 330 MP3. Determine the diameter ofthe pn C for
which the factor of safety with respect to shear will alo be 3.3. (c) Determine
the required thickness ofthe beackar supports at C Knowing tha he ellowable
‘earng sues ofthe steel used is 300 MP,
tire Bracket. The ection at Cis represented by is com-
ponents C; and ¢,
4+ 5 EMe= 0: POG) ~ (SOENKOS ma} =USINAOHm) = 0 P= AORN
2F, =o CAR CL Vera
wee GlBin 08 VET =r0si8
‘2. Control Rod AB. “Since the factor of safety i to be 3.3, the alow
ble sess 6
re _ 0s
re Be = SOME gs nre
For P= 4018 he costco! ae ree
Pain i
fae seg” LBS” 220% 10"
boo aly 20% 10%? dy = 16 €
steria Pin C. Fos tro ey of, we are
ry _ 350 MPa
vam f= SOME ios ee
Sie pa nd se wee
ns.3aN
cp SC OP 360mm?
ewe 1051 MPa}
4 = 30mm? dee 24mm Usedee 2mm <
ne GE
“The next larger size pin available i of 2-tm diameter and should be wed
. Bearing at C. Using d = 22 mm, the nominal bearing area of ech
bracket is 21 Since te force carried by aach brackets C/? and the allowable
bearing ses is 300 MP, we write
G2 _ Qsaemyn ‘
hag 8 = ORF
" Ge___ 300 MPa pena
788, set= 6mm <
31SAMPLE PROBLEM 1.4
‘The tgid beam BCD i enached by bolts to control rod at B, to hydraulic
cylinder at C, and to 2 fixed support a D. The diameters ofthe bois wed ae:
y= do = 10 mm, d, = 12 mm. Fach bolt acs In double shee and is made
‘Homa steel for which te ultimate searing sues sy = 280 MPA. The con
lwo rod AB has a diameter dy = 11 mm and js made ofa steel for which the
timate tensile sues is oy = 420 MPa. Ifthe raiimaz factor of safety 61
be 3.0 for the entie unt, determin the ages upward force which my be a
plied by th hydralic cylinder a C.
SOLUTION
“The factor of safety with respect to fellae must be 10 or mor a each ofthe
thee bolt nd in the contol rod. These for independeat criteria wil be cot-
Sided separately,
Free Body: Beam BCD. We fst determine the foroe at C in terms of
‘he force at Band in terms ofthe fore at D.
+4EMp =O: BGS0mm) ~ CQOImm =0 C= 17503 (1)
H1Ea,= 0: -DA50 mm) + CASDmn) =O CH2330 a)
Control Rod. Foe a factor of safety of 3.0
Sy _ #20MPa 49 sgpn
fe = SP omen
‘The allowable force inthe contol rd is
B= oy(A) = (140 MPa) iw(HL x 107m)" = 13.3 KN
Using Bq (1) we find the largest peemived value of C:
L7S0B = 175K133EN) “C= 23284N
Bolt at B. y= ny/ FS. = (280 MPs)/3 ~ 93.33 MPa, Sine the bolts
in double shear, the allowable magnitude of the fore B exerted onthe bol is
(rau) = 2698.33 MPa (10 X 107m) = 14.654
LIS0B = LISKL465 1B) C= 25.664
B= 2F,
From Ba. (0):
Bolt at D. Since this bolt i the same a5 bolt B, the allowable force is
D = B= 1466 KN. From Eq, Q):
233D = 2341466 WN) C= IGEN
Balt at We again have ry = 93.33 MPa and write
C= BF, = 2A) = 2093.33 MPIKLA}(I2 x Um)? C= BAL EN
‘Summary. We have found separately four maximam allowable values
of te free C. fo order to sat all these extra we must choose the salle
ex value, namely Cm DLN1.29 Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section ate
Joined by the simple gle scar splice shown. Knowing that P= U1 KN,
etermine the normal and sheng suesss in the glued splice.
sii
Fig. P1.29 and PI.30
1.30 Two wooden members of urifor reciengular eroes section are
joined by the simple glued scat splice show. Knowing tht the rim al-
fowableshesring stress in the glued eplie ix 620 KPa, determine (a) te lngeet
load P that can be safely applied, (2) the comesponding tensile stress in the
splice.
1.91 The 56 10 Jad P is supported by two wooden members of wri
form cross seston that are joined by Ue simple glued scat splice show, De-
termine the normal and shearing swesses inthe goed splice
1.92 Two wooden members of ulform cross setion ate jolted bythe
simple start slice show. Knowing thatthe maximam allowable tensile sess
inthe glued splice is 525 XPs, determine (=) the largest load P that can be
safely supported, (b) the corresponding shearing sess in the spies,
1,38 _A ste pipe of 300-nm outer diameters fabricated fom 6-mm hick
plate By welding along a hex that forms an angle of 25° witha plane pet-
Dendiewlar to the anis ofthe pipe. Knowing that 2 250N axis focce P is
{applied tothe pipe, determine the normal and shearing stresies in dizeetons
respectively normal and tangential to the weld.
1.94 Asta pipe of300-mm outs diameters fbcted fom 6-mmthick
plate by welding along o helix that forms an angle of 25° witha plane per-
pendicalar othe axis of the pipe. Knowing thatthe maximum allowable nor-
‘mal and shearing stresses in the directions respectively nomal aed tangential
to the weld ae = 50 MPa and r = 30 MPa, determine the magaltude P of
the argest aia frce tat can be apie to the pipe
ass
Tei
Fig. Prat and P12
Fig. ss and Pas34
Invector Cones of Sear
Fig. P15 and Pi
Fo. P40
o7sm
Fig. PLA and Pz
26
sky
11.35 _A 960K load P is applied to the rant Bock chow, Determine
the resulng marioum vale of) the normal strc, (he shearing ses, Spo:
ify the egentation of te place on which each ofthese maximam values cceus.
1.96 A cent load P is applied t the granite block shown, Knowing
that therestting maximum value ofthe shearing stress in the block i 17 MPa,
S6-mm uniferm rstangulr cross
section. Each of te four piné at A,B, C, and D has the same diametr d end
iste double shea (c) Write a computer program to calcsate for vale of
rom 10 t 30 mm, usingI-mm inerements (1) te maxim value ofthe a
erage normal sess the links connecting pins B and D, (2) the average noe
‘mal stress inthe links connecting pine Cand E, 3) the everage shearing sess
{npin, (4 the average shearing srs in pn C, (5) the average beating sess
at B io member ABC, (6) the average bearing tress at C in membxe ABC.
(@) Check your program by comparing the values obtsined ford = 16 mma wih
the answers given for Probs. 1.9 an 1.27 (c) Use this program wo find the pes-
rissible values ofthe dlameter ofthe pias, knowing thatthe allowable val
tes ofthe normal, shearing, and bouring sesses for the steel used ae, re
spectively, 150 MP, 90 MPa, and 230 MPa, (d) Solve pat c, assuming that
the thicksess of members ABC has been rediced fram 10 8 en
1.63. Two horizontal 20 4 forces ae applied opin B of the assembly
shown. Each ofthe thee pins at A B, and Cat the sane diameter ans
doable shear (a) Wate a compete program 0 calcalae for values of d fom
125 037-5 mm, using 125 mim incremens, (|) the rua value ofthe 30
erage normal stress in member AB, (2) the average note sess in member BC,
(@) the average shearing sess in pn A, (4) th average shearing stews n pin C,
(5) the average bearing sues at Ain member AB, (6) the average besrng test
41 Cinmember BC, (7) tho average bearing es at Bin ember BC. (8) Chek
your program by comparing te values obtained for d = 20 mn with the an
‘swe given for robs. 1.10 and 1.28, (6) Use this program ta Gnd the permis
sible values ofthe dlametr df the ps, knowing tat te allowsble values cf
‘he norma, shearing, and bea stresses for the eel used ace, espectvely,
150 MPa, $0 MPa and 250 MPa (2) Solve pac, assuming that «new design
is being investigated in which the hekness snd with of the two membees are
changed, respectively from 12 ram & 8 mm an from 49 rim to €0 mm
nm 00 nal
fo Pies
1.04 A 16 LN fece P forming an angle «wit the veteal is applied
as shown fo member ABC, which is supported by 8 pin and bracket at C and
by a cable BD fomming an angle with the horizontal, (a) Keowing that the
ultimate lad of the cable 160 EN, wre a cornpater program to consi &
table ofthe valuos ofthe factoe of safety of the cable for values of and 2
from O co 45%, sing increments in sn 8 corresponding to 0.1 increments in
tan and tan. (8) Check tha for any given value of athe maximum value
Of the factor of safety is obtained for = 38.66" and explain why. (e) De-
‘ermine the males possible value ofthe factr of sley fr = 38.66%, as
well asthe cocespendiag value of, and explain the cesltcbtained,1.05 A load P is suppoced as shown by to wooden members of wai
forma rectangular ross section tht are joined by a simple glued seat epic,
(@) Denoting by ov and ry, respectively the oltinate strength ofthe joint in
tension and in shou, wot a computer program Which, forgiven values of
1b, P, Oy 303 ty al fox valus ofa fom 5 to 85" a 5 intervals, ean be
edt calculate (1) the normal sess in the fin, 2) the shearing steds in he
Joi, (3) the factor of safery relive to fll in tension, () he factor of safety
‘elave to fall in shear, (5) the overall factor of safety for the glued joie.
(©) Apply this program, using the dimensions and loading of the members of
Probs. 129 and 131, knowing tht oy = 1.26 MPa and ny = 1.50 MP3 for
the gue used in Pro. 179, and that 9y = 1.0 MPe and ry = 15 MPa for the
slue used in Prob. 131, (¢) Verify in each ofthese two cases that the sheat-
ing sone i manimom for = 45°,
1.6 Member ABC ie supported by a pin and bracket at and by two
links, which er pin-connectd to the member at B and toa fixed support D.
{@) Wate a computer program to clout te allowable load Py for any given
Yalues of (1) the diameter dof the pin at A, (2) the common diameter dy of
the pins a B and D, (3) theultimate normal sree cy in each ofthe tw links,
() the alimate shearing stess 7g in each of te thre pins (3) the desied
‘overall factor of safety FS. Your program should also indicate which of the
following te stresses criti: the normal ses in he links, the sbearing
stress inthe pin aA othe searing sues in he pos at B ad D. (band) Check
{your program by using the date of Probs. 1.33 and 154, respectively, andcom=
pring the answers obisined for Py with those given inthe text. (d) Use yoot
program to determine the allowable load Py. a8 well as which ofthe stesses
Is extial, when d= c= 15mm, eg = 110 MP for the aluinum links,
‘ry = 100 MPa forse! pins, and FS. = 32.
“Tp ew
0 yf
sone a
a
some Pe oe
San.
ment
Frei eer
Fig. Pcs
i. Phos
Comput Petes 45Stress and
Strain—Axiail Loading
‘This chapter is devoted tothe etudy of deformations occurring in structural components subjected to axial loading.
‘The change in length of the dlagonal stays was carefully accounted for In the design ofthis cablo-stayed bridge
Inthe Port of Houston.24. INTRODUCTION
JIn Chap. 1 we analyzed the stesses created in various members and
connections by the loads applied to a structure or machine. We also
teamed to design simple members and comnections so that they would
not fail under specified loading conditions. Another important aspect of
the analysis and design of structures relates to the deformations caused
by the loads applied toa structure. Cleary, i is important to avoid de-
formations so large that they may prevent the structre from {ufling
the purpose for which it was intended. But the analysis of deformations
‘ey also help usin the determination of stresses. Indeed, itis not al-
‘ways possible to determine the forces in the raembers ofa structure by
applying only the princips of statics. Tis is because static is based
‘a the assumption of undeformable, rigid structures. By considering en-
gineering structures as deformable and analyzing the deformations in
theis various members, it willbe possible for us to compute forces that
are statically Indeterminate, indsterminate within the framework of
statics. Also, es we indicated in Sec. 1.5, the distribution of stresses in
‘given member is statically indeterminate, even when the force in that
‘member isknown. To determine the actual distribution of stresses within
1 member, it is thus necessary to analyze the deformations that take
place in that member. In this chapter, you will consider the deforma
tions of a structural member such as a rod, bar, or plate under avial
loading.
Fist, the aormal strain ¢ in @ member will be defined as the defor-
‘mation of the member per ani length. Plotng te sess versus the sain
«28 the load applied to the member is increased will yield a svess-srain
dag for the materia used. Fom sucha diagram we can dower some
important properties of the materi, such as ts modulus of elastic, and
ether the material is duel or bride (Sees. 2.2 to 2.5). You wil also
tee in See. 2.5 that, while the behavioe of most material is independent of
the direction in which te load is agpied, the response of fiberreinforeed
‘composite materials depends upon the ditection of the load
From the suess-sain diagram, we can also determine whetber the
strains in the specimen will disappeae ales the load has beea removed —
in which cae the matcial is exid to bshave elastically—or whether a per.
‘manent set of plastic deformation will result (Sec. 2.6)
Section 2.7 is devoted tothe phenomenon of farigue, which causes
structural or machine component to fil ater a very large number of re-
‘peated loadings, eventhough the suesses remain inthe elastic range
‘The first part of the chapter ends with Sec. 28, which is devoted to
the determination of the deformation of various types of members under
vatious conditions of axial loading.
In Secs. 29 and 2.10, statically indeterminate problems willbe con-
sidered, ie., problems in Which the reactions and the internal forces ca-
‘ot be detetmined from staes alone. The equilbxium equations derived
from the free-body diagram of the member under consideration mast be
complemented by relations involving deformation; these relations will be
‘obtained from the geometry of the problem,
In Secs. 2.11 to 215, additional constants associaed with isotopic
materals—i.e, materials with mechanical characteristics independent of
Aieetion—will be inroduced. They include Poiscons ratio, which relates
74G Stes ad Seal Leng
rain, the bulk modulus, which characterizes the change
fn volume of a material under hydrostatic pressure, and the modulus of *
rigidity, eich relates the components of the shearing sess and sheating
‘seain. Suess-strain clatonships for an isoopic material under &rnult
anal loading will also be derive,
In See. 216, suess-stai relationships involving severl distinct val
tues of the modal of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, and the modulus of rig.
bbe developed for fber-einforoed composite materials under a
moltiaxal loading. While these materials are not isotropic, they usually dis-
play special properties, Known as ovthatmople peoperties, which facilitate
their std,
In the text material described so far, stresses are assumed uniformly
istibuted in any given cross section; they are also assumed to remain
‘within the elastic range. The validity of the fist assumption is discussed in
‘See, 2.17, while stress concentrations near circular holes and filets in fst
bars are considered in Sec. 28. Sections 2.19 and 220 are devoted tthe
tions. This indicates that the excessive plastic deformations to which
the specimen was subjected have caused a radical change inthe char
acteristics of the material. Reverse oadings ito the plastic ange, there
fore, are seldom allowed, and only under carefully controlled condi-
tions. Such situations eccur in the straightening of damaged materia
and in the final alignment ofa strcture or mechine
2.7. REPEATED LOADINGS; FATIGUE
Inthe preceding sections we have considered the behavior of «test spec-
{men subjected to an axial loading. We recall that, ifthe maximum stress
in the specimen does not exceed the elastic limit of the materia, the
specimen returns (0 its inital condition when the Toad is removed. You
‘might conclude thet a given loading may’ be repeated many dimes, pro-
vided that the stresses remsin inthe elestic range. Such a conclusion is
Correct for loadings repeated afew dozen or even a few hundred times.
However, as you will se, it fs not correct when loadings sre repeated
thousands or millions of times. In such cases, rapture will occar at 2
sess much lower than the static breaking strength; this phenomenon
is known as fatigue. A fatigne failure is ofa bitle nature, even for ma~
terials that aze normally ductile
27. Repeats Leadrae Fats BQ60
2
Zz Steel tom)
§ ato
Alain (2050
Pei eee
we we Ie
uber ef compeely evel et
Fig. 221
Fatigue must be considered in the design ofall structural and ma-
chine components tat aze subjected to repeated orto fluctuating loads
‘The number of loading cycles that may be expected during the useful
life of a component varies greatly. For exarmple, a beam supporting an
{industrial erane may be loaded as many as two million times in 28 years
(about 200 loadings per working day), an automobile crankshaft will
be loaded bout half a billion times ifthe automobile is driven 200,000
miles, and an individual turbine blade may be loaded several hundred
billion times during its titetime
Some loadings are of # fluctuating nature. For example, the pas-
sage of traffic over a bridge will cause stress levels that will actuate
about the stress level duc to the weight of the bridge, A more severe
condition occurs when a complete reversal of the load occurs during
the loading cycle. The stresses in the axle of a railroad car, for exam<
ple, are completely reversed after each half-revolution of the wheel
The number of loading cycles required to cause the failure of a
specimen through repeated successive loadings and reverse loadings
snuy be determined expetimentaly for any given maximum sess level
Ifa series of tests is conducted, using different maximum stress levels,
the resulting data may be plots asa ¢-n curve. For each test, the max-
{mum stress ois plowed as an ordinate and the number of cycles m as
an abscissa; because of the lange number of eyeles required for rupture,
the cycles are ploted on a logarithmic scale
‘Atypical a-n curve for stel is shown in Fig, 2.21. We note that,
if the applied maximum stess is high, relatively ew cycles are required
to cause rupture. As the magnitude of the maximum stress is reduced,
the number of eycles required to cause rupture increases, until a stress,
known as the endurance limit, is reached. The endurance limit is the
sess for which filure does not accu, even for an indefinitely large
‘umber of loading cycles. For a low-carbon steel, such as steactural
steel, the endurance limit is about one-half of the wkimate strength of
the sel
or nonferrous metals, such as aluminum and copper, atypical ¢-2
ceorve (Fig. 2.21) shows that the stress at failure continues to decrease
as the number of loading cycles is increased. For such metals, one de-
fines the fargue limit asthe stress corresponding to failure after a spec-
iffed number of loading cycles, such as 500 milion.
‘Examination of test specimens, of shafs, of springs, and of other
‘components that have failed in fatigue shows that the fallare was initi-
ated at a microscopic erack of at some similar imperfection, At each
Toading, te crack was very slightly enlarged. During successive foad=
ing eyeles, the crack propagated through the material until the amount
‘of undemaged material was insufficient to carry the maximum load, and
‘an abrupt, brite failure occurred. Because fatigue failure may be ini-
tiated at any crack or imperfection, the surface condition ofa specimen
has an important effect on the value of the endurance limit obtained in
testing. The endurance limit for machined and polished specimens is
higher than for roiled or forged components, or for components thet are
‘corroded. In applications in or near seawater, or in ether applications
‘where corrosion is expected, a reduction of up t0 50% in the endurance
limit can be expected,. DEFORMATIONS OF MEMBERS UNDER AXIAL LOADING
‘Considers homogeneous rod BC of length Z and uniform cross section
of erea A subjected to a centric axial load P (Fig. 2.22). Ifthe result-
ing axial stress & = P/A does not exceed the proportional limit ofthe
material, we may epply Hooke’s law and waite
Ee @4y
{rom Which it follows that
P
eno" aE es)
Recalling thatthe strain € was defined in Sec. 2.2 as € = 6/L, we have
7 bmek 26)
and, substituting for € from (2.5) into (2.6)
PL
a= en
Equation (2.7) may be used only if the rod is homogeneous (con-
stant ), as a uniform cross section of area A, and is loaded at its ends
If the rod is loaded at other points, o if it consists of several portions
‘of various cross sections and possibly of different materials, we must
10 NYO.3 m)
AE ~ [500 X 10% m)T0 x 10°F)
‘The negative sign indiots a contraction of member AB, and, ths, an up-
van defection of cod
ste 107m
pace = 05t4mmt 4
y= 9088
b, Deflection of D. Since in od CD, P = SOK, we writs
(0.x 10 Ny
8) = 030000m4
Deflection of B. We denote by B' and D' the displaced positions of
ft eee points B and D. Since the bar BDE is rigid, points B,D, and E lis ina straight
eRe ee steam corm
7 bo" aD Oomm TI
EE HE _be__ 00am) +137 mo)
omen "HD Olan” 78am
seen mm i,= 192mm) 4
63SAMPLE PROBLEM 2.2
“The sigid castings A and B are connected by two 18 mn-iameter steel bolts
(CD soit GH aod are in contact wih to ends of 38 men-dameter slum
‘od EF. Each bolt is singl-treaded with aptch of 25 rim, and fer being
snugly fie, the nuts at D and # are both tightened one-quarter of & tra
owing that B i 200 GPa for stel and 70 GPa fr aluminur, determine the
‘orm ses i the rod
soLUTION
Deformations
Bots CD end GH Tivesng beats asses eso te bts Bo=
case of symmetry, bo ae siete to the same intra ce Fa
‘kg the se dtonmaton 6, We ave
Ala, Plas0um
AB,” * Trin) {Q00% 19 Nam)
fod BF ‘The rot isin compesion, Denoting by F, th masitte of
the fein he oan by 6 the Stora of th oe wie
Ph, 74500 mt)
UE,” Tetra 1 Ni)
Diplacenet of D Reare to B. Tigheing he ots one of
‘urea nb D and Hf te bls over sapien of 123 mn)
relive te costs B. Considering en D, we ite
Byy = 425 9) = 0625 mam 3
8.842 x 10" (1)
8 379 x10P, @
But boy = Bp ~ by. where By and By represent he displacements of D and B.
ve assume that casting Ai held ina fied postion sil the nats at D and
Have being tightened, these displacements are equal othe deformations of tae
bos and of the rod, respectively, We have, therefor,
Bom = 8, — 8, a
Subst rm (1 (2), a8 eto (we tin
0625 m= $862 x 10-7, 3.791042,
ree Bay: Casing
burn P=2R=0 2%, ©
Forces in Bolts and Rod
Sebstatng for P, from (6) into (5), we have
0.525 mm = 8842 x 10°47, +3:779 x 10-*RR,)
Pym 381% 10 N = 31k
P, = 2B, = 2038.4) = 7621N
‘Stress in Rod
Pe, TROKN
4, Te8ma
2, = 61.19 Me <2.1. Astet ro thats 6 mm long stretches I mm when a 8-EN tensile
load is applied tos Knowing that E = 200 GPa, determin (a) the smlist
diameter rod that should be wed, (b) the coresponding normal stress enssed
by the load
22 A Damlong sel wise is subjected to 6 WN tensile force. Knowing
hat £ = 200 GPa and thatthe lng ofthe rod increases by 48 mm, determine
(@) the smalest diameter tat may be selected forthe wit, (b the comespan
ding nora) sess
2.3. A contol rod made of yellow brass must not stuech ere than
5 mum when the tension in the wie is 3.2 RN. Knowing that E= 105 GPa and
thatthe meximum sllowable nosmal ies 220 MPs, determine (e) the small-
‘et diameter that can be selected forthe ro, (6) the coresponding maxima
length ofthe ro,
2.4 ‘Two gage marks are placed exacly 250 mm apart on a 12-mm-
diameter sluminim rod with B = 73 GPa and an otimate strength of 140 MPa.
Knowing thatthe distance between the gaze marks is 250.26 mm ater a load
's applied, deermine a) tbe sess in te 0d, (6) he factor of safe
2.5 A nylon thread is subjected to 2 8-N tension force. Knowing tat
B= 5 GPa and that he lengt of the thread increases by 1.1%, determine (2)
te diameter of the thread (b) the sess i the head
2.6 _Acusticon tube i used to support a compressive load. Kaowiog
that £ = 69 GPa and that the maximm llowablc change in length is 0.025%,
0, ory < }, On the other hand, we recall from Sec. 2.11
that v is positive forall engineecing materials. We thus conclude that,
for any engineering material,
o0.0,=2,~0), vill result in an increase of its volume
vor
Determine te change in volume A ofthe ste lock sbown in Sloe te volume ¥ ofthe Block int unstressed state is
Fig 244, whee i is subjected to the hyerosale presse
iD MPa Use B= 200 GPa and »
¥ = (80 m0 man)(60 mm) = 192% 10m
rom Bg. (2.3), ve determine the bulk medals of see,
sd since represents the change in vole pet anit vlan,
= AVIV, we hive
nd 00 By (2.36, the dstation,
wo Mra x
b> “as87 Gry = <1 sy aipe
OV = eV = (1.158 > 0 XI92 % 10° mm)
2.14, SHEARING STRAIN
‘When we derived in Sec. 2.12 the relations (2.28) between normal
stresses and norm strains in a homogeneous isouropic material, we as-
‘sumed that no shearing stresses were involved, Inthe more general stress
situation represented in Fig. 245, shearing stresses 7p and twill
be present (as well, of course, a& the corresponding shearing stresses
“ye Tay and 7). These stresses have no direct effect on the normal
stains and, as long 2s all the deformations involved remain small, they
will not afect the derivation noe the validity of the relations (2.28). The
bearing stresses, however, will tend to deform a cubic element of ma
‘eral into an obligue parallelepiped.
Fig. 245
‘Hover nh psi ag, he lune ofthe sel oman ney cot90 Stress and Sian nara
Fig. 248
NX
¥ =
Fig 27
Consider frst a cubic element of side one (Fig. 2,46) subjected 10
no other stresses than the shearing stresses 1, and 1». applied to faces
of the element respectively perpendicular tothe x and y axes. (We re-
call from Sec, 1.12 that r= 1.) The element is observed to deform
ino a thomboid of sides equal to one (Fig. 2.47). Two of the angles
formed by the four faces under siess are reduced froma ¥t0 ¥~ Ym
While the other to ate increased from J t0 F + Yq, The sill angle
Ym (expressed in radians) defines the shearing strain corresponding °0
the x and y ditections. When the deformation involves a reduction of
the angle formed by the two faces oriented respectively rawacd the pos-
itive x and y axes (as shown in Fig. 2.47, the shearing stain, i said
to be postive; osherwise, i is said to be negative.
‘We should note that, 26a result of the deformations ofthe other €l-
‘ements of the material, the element under consideration can also un:
‘ergo an overall rotation. However, as was the ease in our study of nor
smal strains, we are concerned here only with the actual deformation
of the element, and not with any possible superimposed rigid-body
sisplacement.
Plotting successive values of 7. against the corresponding valves
of 7,» We obtain the shearing tress-srain diagram forthe material un-
er consideration. This can be accomplished by carrying out a torsion
test, a6 you will see in Chap. 3. The diagram obtained is similar to the
normal stressstrain diagram obtained for the same material from the
tensile test described earlier in this chepter. However, the values ob-
tained for the yield strength, ultimate strength et, of « given material
ste only about half as large in shear as they are in tension. As was the
‘ase for normal stresses and strains, the intial portion of the shearing
suess strain diagram isa straight line. For values ofthe shearing stress
‘a deting Be est yo Some stor erayesune le tel efrmain of
te leat is ccnp ty ago) Foaton sh at he taal es fe
at d not oan Te sain hen repeated yea ough which es
te fi hve sited (Fi 2.48. Ore sae igi oon sch it te be
ont ces rte tough fy ecetctocriz andthe rere fase hough fy ack
‘ie (Fg. 2), Ste bom actos ae near nay I sisi ee
fern is ttt asc th sai a, hh change eagle fay
ws, re un Wi errno a er cee ste cance,
ig. 248that do not exceed the proportional limit in shear, we can therefore write
for any homogeneous isotropic material,
t= Gy 236)
‘This relation is known as Hooke's law for shearing stress and strain,
and the constant G is called the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus
ofthe material. Since the strain y,, was defined a5 an angle in radians,
itis dimensionless, and the modulus G is expressed in the same units
185 Ts that i, in pascals. The modulus of rigidity G of eny given ma-
terial i less than one-half, but more than one-third of the modulus of
clasticity E ofthat material}
Considering now a small element of material subjected to shearing
suesses 73 and 7 (Fig. 250), we define the shearing strain. a8 the
change in the engie formed by the faces under stress. The shearing strain
"jut defined in a similar way by considering an element subjected to
Shearing stresses 7, and 14, Fig, .50b). For values of the stress that
Go aot exceed the proportional limi, we can wate the two addtional
relations
= Oy, ean
Gy,
‘hero the constant G isthe same as in Ea, (2.36.
For the general stress condition represented in Fig. 245, and as,
long as none of the stresses involved exceeds the corresponding pro-
portional limit, we can apply the principle of superposition end com-
bine the results obtained in this section and in Sec. 7.12. We obtain the
following group of equations representing the generalized Hooke's law
for # homogeneous isouopic material under the most general stress
condition.
38)
G
‘An examination of Eqs. (2.38) might lead us to believe that three
distinct constants, B, », and G, must frst be determined experimentally,
if we are to predict the deformations caused in given material by an
arbitrary combination of stresses. Actually, only two of these constants
need be determined experimentally for any given material. As you will
see in the next section, the third constant can then be obtained through
1 very simple computation
{ee Pod. 291,
Fig, 260
4)
ot‘A rectangular block of a material with a modulus of rigiiy
Gm 630 MPa is bonded to two rig horzontal plates. The
lover plate is fixe, while the pper plat is sbjeced to hor-
Font fore P (ig 2.51) Knoting that te vper plate moves
‘rough um under the ation ofthe force, determine (a he
fverageshesring strain inthe material, (b the force B exerted
fn the upper plate.
(2) Shearing Strain. We select coordinate axes centered at
the migpeit Cof edge AB and directed as shown (Pig. 2.52,
‘According eo its dfintcn he shearing stain yy i equal 0
the angle formed by the vertical and the line Gi joining the
mldpoints of edges AB and DE. Noting that tis is very sual,
angle and recalling that it should be expressed in radians, we
yy = 00000
(2) Force Exerted on Upper Plate. We frst determine
the shearing stress in the material Using Hooke’s lw for
shearing ues and stain, we have
Yn (630 MPaN0.020 rad) = 12.6 MP
The fore exerted on the upper plate is tus
(0126 MPoy200 meny2 mm) = 156.2 kN
Pete
Fig. 254
2.18. FURTHER DISCUSSION OF DEFORMATIONS UNDER.
AXIAL LOADING; RELATION AMONG &, v, AND G
‘We saw in Sec. 2.11 theta slender bar subjected to an axial tensile load
P dizected along the x exis will elongate in the x direction and contract
in both ofthe transverse y and z directions. Ife, denotes the axial strain,
the lateral strain is expressed as €, =
ratio. Thus, an element in the shape of & cube of side equal to one and
oriented as shown in Fig. 2.534 will deform into a rectangular paral-
lelepiped of sides 1 + ey 1
face of the element is shown in the figure.) On the other hand, ifthe
clecnent is oriented at 45° to the axis ofthe load (Fig 2.530), the face
show inthe figure is observed to deform into a shombus. We conclude
‘thatthe axial load P causes inthis element a shearing stain 7’ equal
to the amount by which each ofthe angles shown in Fig. 2:53b incveases
or decreases.
» {Nae to Pa rues no sie nh len show
Poh 234)
92
ey where » is Poisson's
~ ve, and 1 ~ vey (Note that only one
Bp 2536600“The fact hat shearing sans, a well as normal stains, eslt rom
1m axial loading should not come tous asa surpeis, since we already
Gbserved atthe end of See. 112 that an axial load P causes normal and
Shearing stresses of equal magnitude on four ofthe faces ofan element
Gricned at 45° the acs of the member. Ths was illasated in Fig,
{40 which, for convenience, has been repeated hee. Te wes also shown
fn Soo LAT thatthe shearing sues s maximum on a plane forming an
angle of 5° withthe axis ofthe lod, It follows from Hooke’s la for
Sheoting sess and sisi that the shearing strain associate withthe
element of Fig. 253 is also maximum: y' = yy
‘While a more detailed study of the transformations of suai will
be postponed until Chap. 7, we will derive in this section a relation be
tween the maximum shearing strain 7 = associated withthe ele-
tnent of Fig. 2.53 and the normal stesin ¢ inthe direction ofthe load
et us consider for ths purpose the prismatic element obtained by ine
sersecting the cubic element of Fig. 2530 by a diagonal plane (ig
24a and D), Refersing t0 Fig. 23a, we conclude that this new ele-
iment will deform ito the element shown ia Fig. 254e, which has hor.
‘zontal and vertical sides respectively equal 01 + ¢,and 1 — ve, But
the angle formed by the oblique and horizontal faces ofthe element of
Fig, 2S4b i precisely half of one of the right angles ofthe cubic ele-
Lee
® @
Fig. 258
‘meat considered in Fig. 2.536. The angle f into which this engle de-
forms must therefore be equal to half of 3/2 ~ 7 We write
Applying the formula for he tangent of the difference of two angles,
we obtain
7 tay Bs Ye
tanta 1 ~ an UE
a7 2
tan P —,
2 itt Z tn 1+ ant
14 tin Zan 22 1+ tan
215. arte Ducton et Onermston
Fig, 1.40 repeated)
93194 Sree nd Brahmi! esas
of, since 7/2 is a very small angle,
m
“Fe
aap = a)
ee
5
Bu tom Fig, 2.5, we observe tat
tang = ea)
Tre,
‘Bquating the right-hand members of (2.39) and (2.40), and solving for
Ym We ite
(Lt me
1+
2
Since ¢, <€ 1, the denominator i. the expression obtained can be as-
sumed equal to one; we bave, hefefore,
Ye = (Lt ve aan
‘which isthe desired relation between the maximum shearing strain Yq
and the axial stain €,
‘To obtain aration among the constants £,v, and G, we recall that,
by Hooke’s In, 7 = 9/G, and that, for an axial loading, ¢, = o/E.
Equation (2.41) can therefore be written as
Lent
aint aa)
‘We now recall from Fig. 140 that o = P/A and rq = P/2A, where A
isthe cross-sectional area ofthe member. [thus Follows that @,/ = 2,
Substituting this value into (2.42) and dividing both remabers by 2, we
‘obtain the relation
Zeiss ex
which can be used to determine one of the constants &, ¥, oF G fron,
the other two, For example, solving Bq. (2.43) for G, we vite
E
+
c 24312.46, STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS FOR FIBER-
REINFORCED CONPOSITE MATERIALS
Fiber-einforced composite materials were briefly discussed in Seo. 2.5.
Ti was shown at that time that these materials are obtained by embed-
fing fibers of a strong, stiff material into @ weaker, softer material re
ferred to 2s a rairi, Kt was also shown thatthe relationship between
the normal stress and the corresponding normal stain created in a Tam
jn, or lier, of a composite material depends upon the direction in
tehich the load is applied. Different moduli of elasticity, EF, and Ey,
te therefore required to describe the relationship between normal stress
fand normal strain, accarding to whether the load is epplied in a direc-
tion parallel to the fibers, ip s direction perpendicular to the layer, or
ina transverse direction,
Let us consider again the layer of composite material discussed in,
‘see. 25 and let us subject it to a uniaxial tensile load parallel to its
fibers, ie, in the x direction (Fig. 2.55a). To simplify our snalysis, it
‘will be assumed that the properties ofthe fibers and of the matrix have
been combined, or “smeared,” into a fictitious equivalent bomogeneots
Fo25
material possessing these combined properties, We now consider a small
flement of thet layer of smeared material (Fig. 2.556). We denote by
©, the corresponding normal stress and observe that @, =o, = 0. AS
indicated earlier in Sec. 2.5, the corresponding normal strain in the
dltection is e, = o,/E,, where E, is the modulus of elasticity of the
‘composite material inthe x direction, As we saw for isotropic materi-
tls, the elongation of the material in the x direction is accompanied by
contractions in the y and z directions. These contractions depend upon
the placement of the Sbers in the matrix and will generally be differ-
et Iefollows that the lateral strains , and e wil also be diferent, and
50 will the corresponding Poisson's ratios:
and Ym easy
[Note thatthe fist subscript in cach of the Poisson's ratios vy and Yq
in Eqs. (2.48) refers tothe direction ofthe load, and the second tothe
lection ofthe contraction
follows from the above that, inthe case of the multiasal ioad-
ing ofa layer of a composite material, equations similar to Eas. (2.28)
(of Sec, 2.12 can be used to describe the suess-strin relationship. Inthe
216, Ferree Composter
95hi
9G Stace as Saint Lada
present case, however, tree differen values ofthe modulus of elastic-
ity and six differeat values of Poisson's ratio will be involved. We
Pies _ Yas
as)
Equations (245) may be considered as defining the transformation
stress into strain for the given layer: I follows from a general propgéty
of such transformations that the coeficients ofthe stress comportnts
are symmettic, i, that
Bee et eee eee
‘These equations show tha, while diferent, the Poisson's ratios vy and
5, are ot independent; either of them can be obtained from the other
if the coesponting values of the modalus of elasticity are known. The
same i tue OF Me ANd py 0d OF My Ad
Consider now te effect ofthe presence of shearing stresses on the
faces of a small element of smeared layer. As pointed out in Sec. 2.14
in the case of isotropic materials, these stresses come in paits of equal
nd opposite vectors applied to opposite ses of he given element and
have no effect on the normal strains. Thus, Eqs. (2.45) remain valid.
‘The shearing stresses, however, will create shearing strains which are
defined by equations similar to the ast tuee of the equations (2.38) of
See. 2.14, except that thee different values of the modulus of rigidity,
Gry Gye and Gry, rst now be used. We have
YG mG Tet G aan
‘The face tha the three components of strain. €,, and €, can be
expressed in terms ofthe normal stresses only and do not depend upon
any shearing stresses characterizes orthotropic materials and distin-
guises them from other anisotropic materials,
‘AS we saw in Sec. 2.5, a flat laminate is obtained by superpos-
Ing a number of layers or laminas, If the fibers in all layers are given
the same orientation to better withstand aa axial tensile load, the lem-
inate itself will be orthotropic. Ifthe lateral stability of the laminate is
increased by postoiing some ofits layers so that ther fibers are ata
right angle tothe fibers of the other layers, the resulting laminate will
algo be orthotzopic. On the other hand, if any ofthe layers of 2 lai
nate are positioned so that thir fibers are nether parallel nor perpen
dicular to the fibers of other layers, the lamina, generally, will not be
“orthotropic.F
For more lfrain on Bbc autre cepa meri, 8 Hye, M. W Seas
Analysis of FB Beforced Conpse Meter, tran Hil New Yo, 1998‘An cube made from ayers of grapite epory wit ters
Signe! In the erection. The exe i subjoced wo a compres
five lod of 14D HN inthe x direeon. The poperies of te
Composite material ae: E, = 155.0GPa, £, = 12.10GPa,
Eo= 1210 GPa, »,, = 0.285, vy. = 0.248, ly, 0458,
Dternine the changes in the cae dimensions, ktawing that
(ehthe cobs fret expand inte y and nections (Fig 256),
{a} he cube feo to expand in hex irseton, but eteained
fiom expending in the y direction by (wo fixed fiedonless
pines ig. 2.59).
(o) Free in y and z Directions. We first determine the
stats, ia the direction of loading. We have
P= 140 x10N
A” 060 my(0.050.m}
Sine the cube i not loaded or rsraned in the $ and i=
rections, we have , = 7, = 0, Thus, the sghvshond mem
bets of Ege. (245) reduce to thei irs ers. Substtng the
Given da into these equations, we write
3889 MPs
3839 MPa i
oo B - RRRE » - 2509 « 10
es (OBBK~3889MPO) a sans
See 1550 GPa at
ents, SOUSK 38. MP) an ges
aa. 1350GP eee:
‘The changes in the cube dimensions are obtained by mule
plying the comesponding strains by the length = 0.060 m
ofthe ide ofthe cube
Bom eb = (-2809 % 10°90.060en) = ~15.05 wn
8, eg ™ (462.2 X 10°%0.060 m) = 43:73 um
Bom gL = (462.2% 10° {0060 m) = $373 pom
(8) Free in z Direction, Restrained in y Direction. Ths
fret in the x dietion isthe same 25 in part a, namely,
17, = 38.89 MPa, Sioc the cube is fee to expand inthe ¢
ireton a8 in part a, we again bave 2, = 0. But since the
tube ie now retained inthe y direction, we should expect @
stress diferent from 2ec0, On the oes band, since the cube
canoot expand in the y direction, we must have 8, = 0 and,
ths, «, = 0y/L = 0. Making 7, = O and c= Oia the sec”
ond 0f Eqs. (2.45), solving that equation foro, and substi-
tung the given dai we have
21a 8880)
= 75296
Now thatthe three components of stress have been determined,
wean use the fis and last of Eps, (245) to compute the stain
components ¢, and ¢, But the fst ofthese equations contains
Fin. 256
Fig 257
Poisson's ratio, and 5 we saw ec, this rato or equa
to the rao, which Was among the given dita, To find.
we use the first of Eg, (2.46) and write
v= (n= (BE oat = aoe
vino,» Once ts ho 9,0)
EE es ge abe oe
‘bel cee tees icon sai ooine
ets, 8
2-3 Seton
sel-7204n)
isto
(0266, ~38.59™Ps)
1SS0GPa
(0.456752.
0G
“The changes in the cube dimensions are obtained by mle
plying the corresponding sin by the length L = 0,060 m
Of the sige of the cube
Bm ee = (24827 10°Y0060 m) = 1498 gn
3 = 42 = (KO0%m)=0
8, = k= (49072 % 10°46.060
‘Comping the rosako of pars end b, we nce tat the df
Terence between the values sed fr he deformation 8 it
the det of the Bers is negligible. Hower, the ifr
ence betwen the alas obtained forte later! deformation
cis noc neigh. This deformation i clearly larger when
‘he cube is testalned from deforming i hey det,
= 197 x10
+ 9072 10°
45h un
7SAMPLE PROBLEM 2.5
Acre of diamaterd = 225 mm ie seibed on an unstressed aluminum plate
‘of thickness = 18 mm Fores acting inthe plane of tho plate str eause noe
ral stesies v, = 84 MPa and g, = 140 MPa. For E = 70 GPa end » = 4,
determine the change in (@) the length of diameter AB, @®) the length of
iameter CD, (e) the thickoess of the plate, (4 the vlumné ofthe pate
soLUTION
i Hlooke's Law. We note that ¢, * 0, Using Ens. (2.28) we find the een in
i ‘each of the conedinate directions.
Sanne + 0- Soave] 106 0mm
ate [hota 0 Garr = 000% 0m
sor AB Tein by =
Bqu = eed = (40.533 X 10°? mm/nm)(225 mm)
Bea = F012 mm <
4, Diameter CD,
Bo = ead = (1.600 % 10°? mam/in}25 me)
' Bey = +0:36 mim
¢ Thichiess. Recalling that ¢= 18 num, we have
Bom eg (1.067 % 10°? mea 18 en)
5= 00102 a
Volume of the Plate. Using Ea. 2.30), we write
rh a # m= (40883 ~ 1.067 + 1.600)10 = +1057 x 10
AVS eV'= $1,067 x 10°(380 m(380 ma en}]
AV= 42738 0m2.61 In standard tensile et, an aluminum rod of 20-mm diameter is a
subjected toa tension force of P = 30KN, Keowing that = 0.35 end E = 70
(GPs, determine (a) he elongation of the rod in an 150-mun gage length (8) the
change in ameter ofthe rod. pea
2.62. A.2.75N tensile load is applied to a test coupon made from
| 6.mm at stel pat (F = 200GPa,y = 0.30) Determine theresutingekange 150 mm
(opin the 50-mam gage length, (6) inthe with of portion AB of the test oapon,
(ein the tices of portion AB, (din the cosssectonal area of poston AL
se diameter
asia
ssi
ig, P82 "
2.63 A standard teasion esis used to determine the properties ofan ex-
perimental plate. The es specimen ig a 16-mm-diametr od and ti sub
jected to 8 32:RN tensile fee. Knowing that an elongation of 11 mm and a feaudeaea
‘eeresse in ameter of 0.625 mim are observed ina 125mm gage length, de- 50
Termine the modulus of elasiciy, the modulus of igi, and Poisson's rio
ofthe material
2.64. The change in diameter ofa large steal boli carefully measured
sy the net is Sighueeod. Knowing thet E ~ 200 GPs and » = 0.29, determine
the inernal force inthe bol, ifthe diameter is observed to decease by 13 um. f
150m
2.65. A line of slope 4:10 has been sribed oa acok-oedyellow-bass
pla, 150-mam wide and 6mm thick Using the data avaliable in Appendix B,
Aetermine the slope ofthe line when the plate is subjected ab shown toa
1T8O-KN cence ail load100 Ste and Sot Laatng
2.66 A2-m leagih of ax aluminum pige of 240m outer diameter snd.
10mm wal thickness is used as shoe column and caries centric axial load
‘of 640 KN, Knowing that & = 73 GPa and » ~ 0.33, determine () the change
in length ofthe pips, 8 the change in ts outer diameter, c) the change in
wal teh,
Fig P2066
2.67 A20-nun squac hasbeen seribed on the side ofa large tel pres
sure vesel. After pressurization, the blanal sess condition ofthe equate ss a8
shown, Using the data availabe io Appendix B, fr sitar see, detersine
‘he percent change in tha slope of chagonal DB de to the pressurization ofthe
vessel,
2.68 A avic und: air nfatedsrctares i eubjested oa bsnl Load
tng thar resuls in noematsuesss o, = 120 MPa and a, = 160 MPa. Know
ing thar the properties ofthe fai can be approximated as E = $7 GPa end
= O34, detemine tho change i longth of (a) side AB, (2) side BC, (2) die
agonal AC:
2.69 The shunisum rod AD is Fited with a jacket that is used 0 apply
‘a bydrosuric pressure of &2 MPa othe 300-mam portion BC of the rod. Kab
ing that £= 70 GPs aad v = 0.3, deteomive () the change inthe teal Teng
AD, (b the change in diameter at he idle ofthe ro
2.70. For the rod of Prob. 269, determine the forces tat shouldbe ap-
plied to the ends A and D ofthe tod (a) fhe axial strain in portion BC ofthe
fod sto remain zero a5 the hydrostatic pressure applied (o) if the teal length
[AD of the rod isto remain voenanged,
i2.71 Fors member under axil loading, express the normal sain in
«2 diection forming an angle of 43° wit th axis of the load in tems of the
Exish sain ¢, by (a) comparing te hypothenuses of the tangles shown in
Fig. 25, which epreseat respectively an element before and after deforms
tion @ ising the values ofthe coresponding sreeses o and g, shown in
Fig 140, and te generalized Hook's law.
2.72. The homogencous plats ABCD is subjected to abaxial loading as
shown Its known thao, = 09 and thatthe change in length of te pat in
the x dirction mast be 2270, that i,¢, = 0. Denoting by E the modalus of
lascity nd by v Poisson's vaio, deeemine (a the required magnitude of
175 (0 te tao vse
2.73 In many stations physical consists prevent stain from cccut-
ring ina given diesion, for example ¢, = 0 inthe case shown, where loo
toliaal movement ofthe long prism is prevented at every point Plone sections
pependicalar othe longitudinal axis remain plane andthe sume distance apar.
Show tht fo his siastion, whichis Knows as plane stab, we can express
(7 and 6,95 fliows
a2 ve, +o)
= HU Ae, = + oof
(Ue, oY)
© tititett
2.74 In many situations it is known thatthe normal ates in a given
iecton i zero, for example, ¢, = 0 in the ease of the thin plate stow.
For this cas, whichis known as plane stress, show that ifthe strains, and
«have been determined experimentally, Wo can express, cand, a8
follow:
Fig. Pa74
Potions 404102. Sve and Stott Losing
Fig. 2.75
2.78 The plastic lock shown is bonded oa rgd support and toa vor
oa plate to which 240-KN Toad Pie applied. Knowing tat fr the plastic
used G = 1050 MPa, detsrmine the deflection of the plat,
2.76 What lond P should be applied to the plate of Prob. 275 to pro-
vce 4 1.5mm deflection?
2.77 A vibration isolaon unit consists of two blocks of and rubber
Donde toa plate AB and > egid supports as shown, Knowing tat afore of
‘magnitude P = 24 KN causes a deflecion = 1.5 ram of plate AB, determine
‘he modulus of sgidity ofthe rubber used
2.78 A vibestionsotaon unit consis oftvo blocks of hard uber with
a medals of digidity C = 19 MPa bonded a plate AB and 0 gid supports
ts shown. Denoting by P the magnitude ofthe force applied to the pate and
by 8 the conesponding deflection, determine the effective spring constant,
Pi, of the sytem.
279 An elastomeric bearing (G = 0.9 MPa) is used to suppor a bridge
sider as shown to provide flexibility during earthquakes. The beam must rot
displace more than 10 mim when a 22-KN lea) load Ss applied as show,
Knowing tar the maximum allowable searing sess i 420 kPa, determine
(a) the smallest llowaole dimension b,(b) the smallest requee thickness2.80, For the elastomeric bearing in Prob, 2.79 with b = 220 mm and
44 30 mim, determine the shearing modulus G and the shear sess 7 for a
tnasmam neal load P= 19 KN and s maximom displacement 8 = 12mm
2.81 Tao blocks of mibber with a modulus of rigidity G ~ 12 MPa
axe bonded to rigid supports and toa plate AB. Keowing that ¢ = 100 mm
tod P= 40 KN, determine the smallest allowable dimensions ¢ and b ofthe
‘locks if the shearing sess in the rebber isnot to exceed 1 MPa and the de
ection of the plate i o be a least Sn
2.82. Two blocks of rubber with & modulus of rigidity @ = 10 MPa
se bonded to rid supposts and co pate AB, Knowing the & = 200 mim
ande = 125 mm, determine de largest allowable loud P and the smallest al-
Towable thickness @of the bles ithe shearing stress inthe ruber is 200%
exceed 1.3 MDa andthe deflection ofthe plate fo beat Jas 6 mm,
"2.83. Determie the change in volume of the SOsmm gage length sep
ment AB in Prob. 252 (a) by computing the dilation of the master (8) By
tubsrcting the orignal volame of pation AB from is final volume.
"284° Determine the dilatation ¢ and she change in volume of she
200-mam length of th rod shown if () the rod i made of steel with E = 200
{GPs sd » = 030, (5) the 10d is made of shuminum with £ = 73 GPa and
v= 038.
om Leet
[290 mm—}
Fig, Past
“2.85. (0) Foc the axial loading show, determin the change in height
snd the change in volume of the bass cylinder show. (2) Solve pata, a5-
‘suming hat he losdlog is hydrostatic Wid o, = 6, = o, = ~70 MPa.
2.86 A 150.mm diameter soi scl sphere is lowered into the ocean
‘to point where the pressure is 30 MP (eboat 3 km below te surface). Know
Ing that F = 200 GPa and» ~ 030, determine (a) the decrease in diameter of
the sphere, (8) te decease in volume ofthe sphere, () the percent increase
inthe nsity ofthe sphere
°2.87 _A.vibration itolation support consists ofa cod A of sadn Ryan
4 tobe B of iner ratios 2, bonded toa 80-mn-long hollow rubber cylinder
With a modulus of rigidity = 1093 MPa. Decerine the roquied vale of
‘he ratio RJR; if 2 IO-EN force P isto cause a2-mm deflection of rod A.
"2.88 A vibration isolation support consists of a rod A of radius
2 = JO mm and abe B of ner adias y= 25 mm bonded oan 80-mn-long
tollow subber cylinder with « modalus of igidity G = 12 MPa Determine the
Ibagest allowable free that may be applied to rod A if its defection is not
to exceed 2.50 mm
Fig. 2.87 and F208404) Sees and Stl oxng
By> 1526», ~ 0254
152.0% 91~ 0425
Fig 253,
"2.80 The material constants EG, hand» are related by Bgs. 2.33)
and (2.43). Show that anyone of hee constant may be exprested in terms of
‘any ether tvo constants, Foe example, show tat (@) k= GE/(9G ~ 32) and
(v= Bk 20/6 +26).
"2.90 Snow tat fr any given mate the aio G/E ofthe models of
Figity over the modulus of elastity is always Tes than § but more than
(Hine: Refer to Bg, (2.43) and w See. 2.13.)
"2.91 A composite cube wit 4D-mm sides andthe properties shown Is
‘made wit elas golymer bers aligned inthe x direction The cube Is con
‘strained against deformations in the and 2 directions ands subjected wate
sile Joa of 65 kN inthe x direcden. Detrnine (a) the chang? Inthe Length
ofthe cube inthe x crecton, (the suesses 0,0, and 2
"282 ‘he composite cube of Prob 21 is conseined aginst defor
ration inthe zdeection and elongated in the x dzeson by 0.035 rm das to
4 tensile load in the + direction, Determine (a) the sveses 2,04, ad 0 (te
‘change inthe dimension inthe y diection,
2.17. STRESS AND STRAIN DISTRIBUTION UNDER AXIAL
LOADING; SAINT-VENANT'S PRINCIPLE
‘We have assumed so far tha, in an axially loaded member, the normal
stresses are uniformly distributed in any section perpendicalar to the
sxis of the member. As we saw in Sec. 1.5, such an assumption may
bbe quite in exror inthe immediate vicinity ofthe points of application
‘of the loads. However, the determination ofthe ctual stresses in a given
section of the member requires the solution of a statically indetermi
nate problem,
In Sec. 2.9, you saw that statically indeterminate problems involv-
ing the determination of forces can be solved by considering the de.
formations caused by these forces. ts thus reasonable to conclude that,
the determination of the stresses in @ member requires the analysis of
the strains produced by the stresses in dhe member. This is essentially
the approach found in advanced textbooks, wheze the mathematical the-
‘ory of elasticity is used to determine the distribution of stresses corre:
sponding to various modes of application ofthe loads atthe ends of the
member. Given the more limited mathematical means at our disposal,
‘our analysis of stresses will be restricted to the particular case when
‘00 rigid plates are used to transmit the loads to a member made of a
homogeneous isotropic materia (Fig. 2.58).
the loads are applied at che center of each plate, the plates wil
move toward each other without rotating, causing the member to get
shore, while increasing in width and thickness. Its reasonable to a5-
‘sume thatthe member will remain straight, that plane sections will re
$Me pein common Heaton of eas pts eh te cenit
ote ces ect. See 3lp
Oy ®
Fig 259
‘main plane, and that all elements ofthe member wil deform in te same
‘way, since such an assumption is clearly compatible with he given end
conditions. This is illustrated in Fig. 2.59, which shows a rubber model
before and afer loading. Now, ial elements deform in the same way,
the distnbution of stsins throughout the member must be uniform. In
other words, the anil strain ¢, andthe lateral strain ¢, ~ ~ve, are con-
stant. Bu, ifthe stresses do not exceed the proportional limit, Hooke’s
Jaw applies and we may write o, = Be, from which i follows thatthe
normal siess 0, is also constait. Thus, the distribution of stresses is
sm throughout the member and, a any point,
0,7 (de E
On the other han, ifthe loads are concentrated, as illustrated in Fig.
2.60, the elements in the immediate vicinity of the points of applica:
tion of the loads are subjected to very large stresses, while other ele-
‘ents nesr the ends of the member ae unaffected by the loading. This
ray be verified by observing that strong deformations, and thus large
strains and large stesses, occur near the points of application of the
loads, while no deformation takes place at the comers. As we consider
Clements farther and farther from the ends, however, We note a pro:
‘gressive equalization of the deformations involved, and thus a more
‘early uniform distribution of the strains and stresses across a section
of the member. This is further illustrated in Fig. 2.61, which shows
the result ofthe calculation by advanced mathematical methods ofthe
{Now ta fr og, ener mater, arent is poss ined
real fe diesel age. th oe bute vd tone ved sage Tas
‘be diced Cp 10
Fig. 260
405106 Svs Stara Leasing
Fia.281
distibution of stresses across vatious sections ofa thin reotangulae plate
subjected to concentrated loads. We uote that at a distance b from ei-
ther end, where b is the width of the plate, the sess distribution is
nearly uniform across the section, and the value ofthe stress , at any
point ofthat section ean bs assumed equal to the average value P/A
‘Thus, ata distance equal to, or greater then, the width of the member,
the distribution of stresses across given section isthe same, whether
the member is loaded as shown in Fig. 28 or Fig, 2.60. In other words,
except in the immediate vicinity of the points of application ofthe loads,
the stress distribution may be assumed independent ofthe actusl mode
of application of the loads. This statement, which applies not only to
axial loadings, but to practically any type of load, is known as Saint
Venant’s principle, after the French mathematician and engineer Adhé
ar Barté de Saint-Venant (1797~1886).
While Saint-Venant’s principle makes it possible to replace &
given [oading by asimpler one forthe purpose of computing the stresses
jn a stuctural member, you should keep in mind two important points
wien applying this principle
1, The actual loading and the loading used to compate the stresses
must be statically equivalent
2, Stresses cannot be computed in this manner in the immediate
vicinity of the points of application ofthe loads. Advanced the-
retical or experimental methods must be used to determine the
dlisteibatiog of stresses in these aress.
‘You should also observe thatthe plates used 9 obtain @ uniform
stress distribution inthe member of Fig. 2.59 must allow the member
to freely expand laterally. Tus, the plates cannot be rigidly attached to
the member; you must assume them to be justin contact with the mem-
ber, and smooth enough not to impede the lateral expansion of the
‘member. While such end conditions ean actually be achieved for @
‘member in compression, they cannot be physically realized in the case
‘of a member in tension. It does not matter, however, whetber oF not an
actual fsture can be realized and used to load a meriber so that the is-
‘wibution of stresses in the member is uniform. The important thing is
to imagine a model that will allow such a distribution of stresses, and
to keep this model in mind so that you may later compare it with the
‘actual loading conditions.2.18. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS.
‘As you saw in the preceding section, the stresses near the points of ap-
jlcation of concentrated loads can teach values much lager than the
Prerage value of the sess in the member. When 2 stricural member
Contains « discontinuity, euch asa hole or @eudden change in cross sao-
tion, igh localized stresses can also occur near the discontinuity. Fig:
tres 2.62 and 2.63 show the distibution of stresses in critical sections
toresponding to two such situations. Figure 2.62 refers 10a fla bat
with a circular hole ané shows the stress dstibution in a section pass
sng through the center ofthe hole. igure 2.63 refers toa flat bar con
‘isting of to portions of different widths connected by filets, it shows
the stress Gistibution inthe narrowest part ofthe connection, where the
highest stresses cocur,
ets
_— {
are
Fig. 262. suess distbuton ne rut
Fie fat bar under aval lox
‘These results were obtained experimentally through the use of @
photoelastic method. Fortunately for the engineer who has to design a
jgiven member and cannot afford to carry out sach an analysis, the r=
sults obtained are independent ofthe size of the member and of the ma-
terial used; they depend only upon the ratios of the geomettic parame-
ters involved, ie, upon the ratio r/d in the case of circular hole, and
upon the ratios r/d and D/d in the case of fillets. Furthermore, the de
signer is more interested in the maximum value of the stress in a given
section, than in the actual distibution of stesses in that section, since
main concern isto determine whether the allowable sess willbe
exceeded under a given loading, and not where this value will be ex-
ceeded. For this reason, one defines the ratio
(as)
of the maximum stess over the average sitess computed inthe critical
narrowest) section of the discontinuity, This ratio is referred to a6 the
sess concentration factor of the given discontinuity. Stress-concentration
factors can be computed once and for all in terms of the ratios of
the geometric parameters involved, and the results obtained can be
‘298 See Contnintons 4197
» | mn
a ES ne
Los
Fig, 268. sues astbuton near Hilo
bala bar under aa fog.108 st ano Stata owas ‘expressed inthe form of tables or of graphs, a shown in Fig. 2.64. To
determine the maximum siress occuring neat a discontinuity in a given
‘member subjected to a given axial load P, the designer needs only to
‘compute the average stress 7. ™ P/A in the critica section, and malt
ly the eeu obtained by the appropriate value of the siress-concentraton
factor K. You should note, however, that this procedure is valid only as
ongas aq doesnot exces the proportional limit ofthe material, since
the values of K plotted in Fig. 2.64 were obtained by assuring a lin:
‘ear relation between stress and strain,
2a
as
Kae]
20)
1
10
2
a a a So Tar ana OnT ATTN TOS TTETTATS
vit a
(ey tba wih holes (Plat tars wit lets
Fig. 284 Sues concenvasen for fat bis under av! ag?
Note tat he ayerage sross must ba computa soos the naronest
S500 oye Bh hare athe usc the oa
Determine the largest aia load P that canbe safely supported Carrying this valu into Ba, (248) ead solving for oye We
by a fla stel bar consisting of two portions oth (0mm thick fave
and, spectively, 40 and mu wie, connected by tiles of a
fads r= 81mm. Assume an alowsbie nora sess of T65 Te
ret But gu, samot eee the allowable tse oy ~ 165 MPa
ee Shstting is vale fo a wo Eid ta th average ess
eee tote marover portion (d ="N0 min of br should na x
Dem yy 18mm oy ced th aloe
a om a7 Woe fe
= SSM:
Using te curve in Fig. 2.646 conespending to D/d = 150,
‘we find tat the value ofthe svessconcentation factor come: Recalling that Gy, © P/A, we have
bassnunbutigtetccites P= Ag = (40 {10 mn}90.7 MPa} = 363 x 10°
kei P= 36348
4.0 ey, Peers Sst Concentration Fut, Jn Wey Sons, New
Yous, 19972.19. PLASTIC DEFORMATIONS
‘The results obtained in the preceding sections were based on the a
sumption of a linear stress-strain relationship. In other words, we
assumed thatthe proportional limit ofthe material was never exceeded,
‘This isa reasonable assumption in the éase of britle material, which
ruptite without yielding. In the case of ductile materials, however, this
assumption implies that the yield strength of the mateial is aot ex.
‘ceeded. The deformations will then romain within the elastic renge and
the structral member under consideration will regia it original shape
afterall loads have been removed, fon the other hand, the stresses in
iy art of the member exceed the yield strength of the materia, plas.
ie deformations occur and most of the reslis obtained in ear sec-
tions cease to be valid. A more involved analysis, based on @ nonlinear
stess-stein relationship, must then be carried out
‘While an analysis taking into account the actual stress-strain rela
tionship is beyond the scope of this text, we gain considerable insight
{nto platic behavior by considering an idealized elastplastic materia!
for which te stress-strain diagram consists of the two straight-line seg:
ments shown in Fig. 2.65. We may note that the stress-strain diggram
for mild ste! inthe elastic and plastic ranges is similar to this ieal>
ization. As long as the stress ois less than the yield stength othe
‘material behaves elastically and obeys Hooke's law, @ = Ee. When
reaches the value o, the materi starts yielding and keeps deforming
plastically under a constant load. Ifthe loads removed, unloading takes =
Place along a straight-line segment CD parallel wo the initial portion AY Fig. 265,
of the loading curve, The segment AD of the horizontal axis represents
the strain contesponding to the permanent set or plastic deformation 1e-
salting from the loading and unloading of the specimen. While no ac
tual material behaves exactly as shown in Fig. 2.65, this suress-sraia
, Sold'Shatt of Equal Weight. For tho shaft as designed end ths solid
shaft to have the same weight and lagi, thie cross-sectional areas must be
cual
Aaa = Aap
{09S mm ~ 60ma)'] = xe} 6) = 559mm
Since = 84 MPs, we write
Wm 1155900)
£4859 mn!
Tou seMPa= T=n1kh m4
<¢-Hallow Shaft of 200mm Diameter For eg weight the cose
owl aes again must be equa, We dtr the side Game of he bat
by wating
Aa” Ao
{005 mm ~ (0 nm] = mf200 mm" ei]
For, = 929 mm and = 100 mm,
29mm
J = F100 away ~ (62.9 a] = 9289 x 10% ant
With yg 84 MPa and ey = 100 sam,
{100 mm)
F289 x 10" mat
T= 66m 4
|3.1. (@) For the Dollow shaft and loading shown, determine the maxi-
sum shearing stress (8) Determine the dismeter ofa solid shaft for which the
‘maximum shearing tess in th loading shown i the same a in pat a
3.2 (a) Determine ts tongue that cn be aplodto said shaft of 90-mma
cer dinmetec without excoding an aowable showing sess of 70 MPs
(Salve part, sami tat th solid eaft i replaced by «hollow shaft ofthe
‘are rua and of 90s inner cmett
‘93. Detrmine the torque T tat canses a maximum shearing sess of
‘80 MPa inthe sce eylindica shaft show,
Ban
Fig. P33 and Pa
94 For the cylindical hat shown, determine the maximum sheating
stress caused by a tongue of magnitude 7 = ISHN,
8.5 (a) For the 60-mm-diametr sold eylinder an loading shown, de-
‘ermine the maximum shearing stress. (6) Determine the inner dameer ofthe
hollow cylinder, of 80-mm outer diameter, for which the maeimam sess is
Ihe same a8 in pot
3.6 (q) Detecmine the torque that can be aplid to a sold shaft of 20mm
Aiameter without exceeding an allowable sheanng stress of 80 MPa (2) Solve
atta, asoming thatthe slid shaft has bon replaced bya ollow shat of the
‘Same crose-setional area and with an imer diameter equal io half of is ov
utr diameter
3.7. The solid spindle AB has a diameter d, = 38 ram and is made of &
steel with a allowable shearing suess of 84 MPa, while sleeve CD is made of
4 brass with an allowable shearing stess of 50 MPa. Determine the largest
torque T that can be applied a
98 ‘The slid spindle AB is made of 2 stel with an allowable shearing
stress of 84 MPa, and sleeve CD is made of a brass with an allowable shes-
ing sess of 50 MPa, Determine (a) the largest torque T that can be applied
HA ifthe allowable searing sess isnt to Be exceeded in sleeve CD, (2) the
comresponding required value of the diameter dof since AB
Fg. 35
Fig, P27 and 75.8
145145. Texon 3.9 Knowing that each of te satis AB, BC, and CD consist of solid
lecular rods, determine (a) che batt in which the maxiaum shearing sess
eeu, (6) the magnate of that tess,
Fig, P38 and P30
3410 _Koowing hata 10 mmdlameterhole has been dlledsroush each
‘ofthe shalls AB, BC, and CD, deesmine (a) the shat in which the maximum
shearing stessceous, (2) the magnitude OF that sess,
‘311 The torques show ae exeried on pulleys A,B, and C. Knowing
‘hat both shuts ae solid, deere the maim searing stress i (e) sate
AB, (8) shal BC,
Fig. Patt and P32
3.12 The shatts of the pulley assembly shows are to be reesigne.
Knowing tha the allowable shearing stess in each shai 60 MPa, determine
‘he smallest allowable diameter of (2) shaft AB, (9) shalt BC,8.18. Under normal operating condition, tho cle motor exerts &
torque of 2.8 KN m on shaft AB, Knowing that each shaft is old, determine
‘the maximum shearing stss in (a) heft AB, (B) shfe BC, c) shat CD.
9.44 In order to reduce the total mass of the assembly of Prob 3.13, 8
snow design is being considered ia which the diameter of shaft BC wil be
‘snller Determine te smallest diameter of sha BC for which the maximum
‘vale ofthe shearing ses in the assembly will not be increased.
‘3.45. The sli shaft shown is formed ofa brass for which the allowable
shearing sess 55 MPa. Neglecting the effect of sess concentations,dett-
‘mine smallest diameters dag a defor which the allowable shearing uss is
rot exceeded
‘3.16. Solve Prob. 315, assuming thatthe diection of Te is reverse,
3.17 Shaft AB is made ofa steel with an allowable shearing sess of
90 MPa and shaft BC is made of an aluminum with an allowable sheving
siress of 60 MPa, Knowing tht the diameter of shaft BC is 5D mm and
neglecting the effect of sess concentrations, determine (2 he largest torque
‘Tat can be applied at ifthe allowable sess is not to be exceeded io shaft
‘BC, (b) he coresponding required diameter of shaft AB.
8.19 Shaft AB has 2 30mm diameter and is made ofa sce with an
allowable searing stess of 90 MPs, while shaft BC has a $0-mun dlamcer
and is nade ofa aluminum alloy wih an allowable shearing sess of 60 MPa.
Neglecting the effect of sess concentations, determine the largest torque
That can be applied at A
3.19. The allowable shearing sess i 100 Pa in the 36-mm-dlametar
sea] rod AB and 60 MPa inthe 40-mom-diameter rod BC, Neglecting the
lft of sess concentrations, determine the largest torque that can be applied
mA
2.20 The allowable shearing stress is 100 MPe in the tel rod AB and
60 MPa in the brass rod BC. Knowing that a torque of magnitude
T= 900 Nm is applied ac A and neglecting the effet of sess concent
tions, determine the routed diameter of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.
Fi. Pass ane P26
lg. 3:19 ant P20
Potts 147148 een
3.21 Two solid steel satis are connocted bythe gears shown. A torque
of magnitade 7 = 900 N =m is applied to shat AB. Knowing thatthe alow
tle shearing size ip $ MPa and considering any stresses du to twisting,
Aetrmine the requir diameter of (2) shat AB, (b) shaft CD.
Fig P32 and P.za
322 Shaft CD is made ftom 2 66-mum-diameter rod an i connect 0
the AB-mm-diameter shaft AB as shown. Considering only stresses de 0 cvist-
ing ané Knowing thatthe allowable shearing stess is 60 MPa foreach shaft.
## Похожие интересы

## Документы, похожие на «Stress Strain»

## Другое от пользователя: Sumanth Kolli

## Популярные на тему «Physics»

- Coursera _ Online Courses From Top UniversitiesЗагружено:NIL
- Propan.pdfЗагружено:ARYAN_FATHONI_AMRI
- Tutorial 1 of 030Загружено:Tumi Dc Ziyon
- Weld CheckЗагружено:Upendra Walinjkar
- Introduction to MaterialsЗагружено:Manuel Tutacha ™
- WORK PLANЗагружено:Riaz H. Maitla
- CICLO 2018 CdLM Materials EngineeringЗагружено:Alexandros Goulas
- Peterson - Stress Concentration FactorsЗагружено:federico lamon
- Ley Hooke AdaptedЗагружено:Diego Galicia
- les-cfmЗагружено:ivanmatijevic
- ACI Method of Mix DesignЗагружено:A.K.M Shafiq Mondol
- Jurnal AluminiumЗагружено:TyaFattya
- p0711Загружено:ArturoJLoaiza
- Finite Element PresentationЗагружено:abdsalaama
- Metal and Non MetalЗагружено:phygo
- Ws01_flatplatePЗагружено:swiftthrills
- FSЗагружено:Nilesh Bhaltadak
- AbtЗагружено:Sowmi Sekar
- Week 9Загружено:nasser Khattab
- Zicks AnalysisЗагружено:prashanth
- Unit Virtual Load MethodЗагружено:yusronazharbasyir
- CH-1 Data Used in Well TestingЗагружено:Shen Yen
- Friction Tutorial SheetЗагружено:baruaole
- Cast IronЗагружено:bbaskaran
- Key Words_MM 207Загружено:Prem Chand
- ME2254_SOM_QB_2014Загружено:karthiksubramanian94
- T9_2Загружено:kannubura
- Base ShearЗагружено:mark ignacio
- Sample.pdfЗагружено:kevinyulive.com.sg
- Section 3 - Lessons Learnt From Historical Equipment FailureЗагружено:adammzjin

- Old Spice SolutionЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- 3151963Загружено:Sumanth Kolli
- NPD Important.pdfЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Nielsen Future of Grocery.pdfЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Guesstimate CompendiumЗагружено:Uday Uddanti
- 6. an Overview of Unorganized Retail Sector in IndiaЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Nielsen Global Snacking Report September 2014Загружено:Javier Ignacio Gonzalez
- SchemaЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- What Do Bankers Look for in a BusinessЗагружено:Kent White
- 2132finalformulapage_Spr08Загружено:kohitha
- value-proposition-design-book-preview-2014.pdfЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- NPD ImportantЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Journal of Medical Marketing- Device, Diagnostic and Pharmaceutical Marketing-2006-Appelt-195-202Загружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Sensory BrandingЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- About Dish TV IndiaЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- A Work in ProgressЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Mondelez Intl Fact SheetЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- PS01.MainЗагружено:Zulu Hulu
- Sonance AЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Michigan Case BookЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- Electronic CommerceЗагружено:Rajat Mahajan
- Personal WritingЗагружено:Sumanth Kolli
- India After GandhiЗагружено:Vijayaprakash Krishnan
- Chapter 2Загружено:najmul
- 2009_sol_z_tableЗагружено:Sani Abu Naufal

- Trans Pheno II Lecture 3 - Chapter 9.5-9.10Загружено:Puppala Pawan
- Voids in crystals.pdfЗагружено:venu
- Machine DesignЗагружено:Vikram Borkhediya
- GoodmanAC.pdfЗагружено:Grady Sanders
- Grade 11 Functions - EXAM REVIEWЗагружено:v222v2
- ch1-Beam-BendingЗагружено:Wei Quan
- 10Загружено:Srihari Kodimela
- Vibration Limits as Per Iso 10816 StandardsЗагружено:Jean-Baptiste Lebegue
- Ffmea Tool Box v1.2Загружено:NorozKhan
- material scienceЗагружено:ishika biswas
- PLAXIS 3D Tutorial Manual 2016Загружено:Waiyee Soo
- rasmuson_a_andersson_b_olsson_l_andersson_r_mathematical.pdfЗагружено:alfonso lopez alquisirez
- Standard Conditions for Temperature and Pressure - WikipediaЗагружено:georgedytras
- Lapse Rate - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaЗагружено:ambrofos
- Unit 2 Winter 2001bЗагружено:Songyo J Sk
- Choke Flow Modelling Gas CondensateЗагружено:Anonymous jqevOeP7
- AMIE MATERIAL SCIENCEЗагружено:Vimal Puthusseri
- Lines and Angles Maths Assignment Class 9 CBSEЗагружено:gurdeepsarora8738
- Ex 2Загружено:api-3708873
- Anti Friction Bearings for PumpsЗагружено:Jaime Berry
- MIT6_436JF08_lec18Загружено:Sarvraj Singh Rt
- Federal Standard 209e for Cleanroom - An Obsolete Document!Загружено:Daniel Carretero
- API 577 Closed Books Questions AnswersЗагружено:nikafiq
- lecture13-2-091220225639-phpapp02.pptЗагружено:Anonymous dkML2wzU
- Codal Provisions for Pile FoundationЗагружено:AshutoshWankhade
- density column lab reportЗагружено:api-257094940
- Hysol EA 9396Загружено:Nasos Masouras
- Tube-Mac Pyplok Catal. 3Загружено:Acid Hadi
- CKD-AP11-AP12 (1).pdfЗагружено:koprol_14
- Design of Concrete Ring Beam for Storage TankЗагружено:jiokoijiko

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.